The content of the article:
- Growing up
- Vegetative reproduction and grafting
White Lupine in Latin is called Lupinus albus. This is a herbaceous plant of the legume family, of the genus Lupine. His homeland - the Mediterranean. This is an annual plant that grows up to 1 m. The stem is straight pubescent. Leaves pubescent pyatilistochkie divided. Flowers white, collected in thin straight inflorescences. Visually demonstrates how the lupine looks, photo.
Characteristics of white lupine
White lupine is a unique plant. This and:
- A very beautiful flower, which is decorative in spring, thanks to openwork leaves, and then, until October, it pleases the eyes with its beautiful white flowers, which are located on the stem vertically.
White lupine is an excellent pet food. Its cultivation is very profitable, as the costs are lower than when growing soybeans, and the yield is 2 times more!
Lupine enriches the soil with phosphorus, potassium, taking these elements from the deep soil layers. Nitrogen it produces in the literal sense of the word from the air. After the plot was sown with white lupine, it was collected at the end of the summer, special devices showed that he left 200 kg of nitrogen after 1 hectare of territory!
It is able to enrich the same territory with 250 kg of potassium and up to 100 phosphorus. Of course, after the lupine, other cultures will grow well here.
So that the effect was even greater, the lupine is cut in the phase of budding and flowering, before the formation of seeds and buried in the soil. This area must be periodically moistened to the decomposition process went faster. When the green mass pereperet, this area will be ideal for growing vegetables or other crops. Therefore, lupine is used as a siderat, that is, a soil improver. And he not only feeds her, but also loosens the earth with his powerful roots. Thanks to what it becomes air and moisture permeable. It makes hard for other plants elements easily digestible.
Lupine, including white, is one of the best green manure to improve light, slightly acidic soils. In addition, it heals the soil, attracts worms to this area, as it also serves as food for them. This helps to reduce the incidence and increase yields.
When growing it as a dacha flower, white lupine can be pre-planted on seedlings or - immediately in the ground. In the first method, the grower will receive earlier flowering. To do this, in the middle - end of March it is necessary to sow the seeds in boxes or bags from under the juices, dairy products.
Soil mixture - normal for flower crops. This is 2 parts of turf land, peat and one - sand.
To speed up seed germination, they should be mixed with nodules taken from the roots of old plants, ground to powder, which will trigger the development of nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Usually shoots appear after a different number of days (8-17). If you want them to be friendly - let the seeds hatch and sprout, putting them in wet gauze, and placing them in a warm place. And only then sow in prepared containers.
Almost a month after the emergence of shoots on them is formed by the fifth - sixth leaflet, then they can be planted in open ground in a flower garden. At the same time maintain the distance between seedlings of 30-50 cm. Lupine - resistant to spring frosts. Therefore, the seedlings can be planted in the spring, as soon as the snow melts, on the place previously prepared from autumn.
It is possible to grow white lupine from seeds, directly sowing it in the soil in spring - at the end of April - in May or in autumn - from the end of October to the beginning of November. If you want to grow it as an ornamental crop, then plant the seeds at a distance of 5 cm from each other. If you plan to use as siderata, then plant the seeds more often - after 5–15 cm, with a distance in the range of 20–30 cm. Close them to a depth of 2 cm. At the same time, they spend 1.5–2 kg of seeds per 1 hundred square meter of yellow lupine. , and white lupine take more - up to 2.5–3 kg. Sprinkled with soil on top of them, and when underwintering, is also covered with a small layer of peat.
If you grow lupine as siderat, then cut it at the budding stage, approximately 2 months after sowing. If it is decorative, then the faded parts of the plant will need to be removed so that it looks beautiful and does not allow seeds to ripen if you do not plan to propagate the lupine with them.
Reproduction of lupine vegetative and grafting
White lupine is an annual, but it is interesting to find out how its perennial counterparts breed. After all, with seed reproduction it is not always possible to obtain a plant of the same color as the mother. If you want to see flowers of just such shades, then it is advisable to propagate lupine vegetatively. For this, 3-4-year-old bushes are suitable, on which side sockets are formed. In the summer they need to be carefully separated from the main plant and transplanted to another place.
When grafting in the spring, it is necessary to cut the stem formed from the basal rosette, and in the summer - a side shoot grown in the axils of the leaves and put in a shaded place in the sandy ground. Almost a month later, roots will appear in the cuttings, then it is planted in a permanent place. Already this year may be blooming.
White Lupine Pests
White lupine can be affected by aphids, it appears during the period when the buds are laid and can glue them together with its sweet sticky mass and prevent them from blossoming. Then they dry up and die. If the lupine is planted late, then the larvae of the nodule weevils, the germ fly, can damage it. Insecticides that are bred in water and sprayed with flowers will get rid of these harmful insects.
Optimal planting dates, timely processing of the soil, and proper crop rotation will help reduce the likelihood of white lupine being affected by pests and diseases.
For more information about white lupine, see this video:
The varieties of lupine and its usefulness as a siderata
Sideratum narrow-leaved is easy to find in the wild - fields can be overgrown with this plant in a short time. It is secreted by a large protein (35-42%) in both seeds and greens.nevertheless, it did not acquire extensive distribution in the food and feed industries due to the high presence of alkaloids in it (1.2-1.7%).
Breeders bred alkaloid-free varieties and modifications of fodder annual lupine. Plant seeds are an excellent raw material in the manufacture of paint and varnish, plastic and soap industries. The green of the forage plant is used for ensiling with CND and other saturated plants.
The main purpose of the plant in agriculture is its use in the form of green manure culture.i.e. as a herbal fertilizer to increase the fertility of the earth (sandy, podzolic, etc.). Under suitable conditions, it accumulates in the roots and in green - 200-300 kg / ha of nitrogen. Different types of plants can be cultivated in the most severe weather conditions and in less fertile soil, where siderat is usually surpasses soybeans and other leguminous in yield and protein collection.
These advantages of the variety are combined with its bio-features, such as the ability to develop in infertile soils, a strong root system, to assimilate the phosphates of the earth and to fix the nitrogen of air in symbiosis with nodule bacteria in acidic soil in necessary quantities.
Of course, lupine is one of the first comes to mind, only the conversation runs over the sideratah. However, not everybody is ready to pick him up as an assistant. Most likely, the reason is hiding in the ability of the plant to root rooted in a selected area (roots go down to almost two meters deep) and its vitality. Nevertheless, if you carefully look at its advantages, then concerns and doubts can quickly disappear. And so, as a result:
- The roots really go very deep (1.5 - 2 meters), which allows the plant to absorb monohydrogen phosphates (mineral fertilizers) and raise them higher, bringing it to the upper layers of the earth. In this case, the reserves of nutrients in the soddy layer remain intact, that is, the soil lupine is not impoverished.
- Siderat perfectly loosening the soil, well supplies it with oxygen, and this is an excellent guarantee of strong growth and the formation of vegetable and fruit crops, planted after the plant.
- In particular, the result from feeding lupine in pro-acid and poor bases, as well as sandy loams, is perfectly noticeable. Most species of lupine include alkaloids, due to which, the acid earth becomes alkaline with time.
- It is growing very rapidly and demonstrates the highest yield (this applies to green). The greatest result can be purchased within one and a half months after sowing.
- The unpretentiousness of any lupine and its ability to survive in difficult circumstances, no worse than numerous weeds, allow the plant to be used according to the “planted and mowed” principle without heavy care.
And, you know, you, that the sided is not only loosening and in all meanings refreshes the soil, but also makes it healthier? This is due to the sown lupine, which does not give a quiet life to the harmful bacterial flora and usually does not suit the wireworm, which quickly leaves the growing places of any lupine. However, it is not contained in absolutely all varieties. For growing as siderata take certain types of plants:
Lupine blue narrow-leaved much simpler than the previous variety - easily withstands low temperatures, including cold, does not require care. Despite the name, inflorescences can be not only blue, but also pink, lilac and even white. It is not as big as the white variety, reaching a height of a maximum of one and a half meters. Known species of narrow-leaved lupine are known, such as Crystal, Nemchinovsky blue, lupine Aft narrow-leaved and numerous others.
In addition, they are suitable for feeding as a fodder crop, but they express themselves particularly well in the role of siderats. And there is a variety that is called Lupine 38. It is popular because it is an active fertilizer due to the special substances in the roots. It is blue that is primarily used as a fertilizer, because it grows very rapidly, does not fear frost, deeply releases the roots and saturates the upper layers of the soil with nitrogen, while loosening them. Blue lupine is one of the most unpretentious, it perfectly fulfills the designated function of the siderat.
The next species is yellow lupine. It is even lower in height (maximum one meter) and, unlike white and blue, is cross-pollinated. His inflorescence is yellow or slightly orange. It is not so resistant to frost, although it is able to endure simple frosts. It is best manifested in warm conditions. It should be planted on sandstones and sandy loams. Among the popular types of Torch, Grodno 3.
In addition, absolutely all of the mentioned types of this plant can be used perennial variety, in another way referred to as many-leaved. It is also rich in alkaloids and easily survives the cold winter. Therefore, if you want to give a break to any part of your own garden for a long time, a multi-leaf plant will be very useful.
How to plant a plant?
Lupine is quite undemanding to the composition of the earth, but still heavy loams and peatlands will not fit for him. Before planting this crop, do the following:
- loosen the soil
- remove plant residues.
Then proceed to disembark. Lupine does not require fertilization, which will negate its useful characteristics. Despite the excellent resistance to frost of most species, the landing is carried out in the second half of May, when the probability of strong temperature drops is not as great as at the beginning of this month.
At first, lupine increases at a slow pace, however, it makes a rapid leap and begins to push other weeds out of the plot. Planting plan quite simple. Seeds should be sown to a depth of 3–4 cm in narrow furrows, between which they are left 20 cm apart, and between other neighboring plants they maintain a distance of 10 cm. These characteristics are average and can increase or decrease depending on the size of the plants peculiar to or another kind.
Try not to plant the seeds as close as possible to the top - they have a very hard shell, which is much better removed during germination from a good depth. If the sprout tries to break from a depth of less than 2.5 - 3 cm in this case, it may not throw off the film, and then the seed leaves will not develop normally. To facilitate the life of the plant, cut the shells from the seeds - this is called scarification. It is not difficult to find lupine seeds, it is enough to contact the nursery where this plant is grown or to find information online. The cost per kilogram, as a rule, is not too high, so the sowing event will be cheap.
Care for green manure
Actually Caring for lupine means virtually no difficulty., because this plant easily masters any virgin areas, the land would be suitable. To ensure the maximum desired effect from the growing sideratov, lupine mowed 2 months after disembarkation. Usually at this time he already has time to grow old and acquires pods. Dig the beds do not need. Enough to mow the grass mass, chop up the roots and sprinkle it all with earth. If the problem occurs in dry weather, watering the beds is inevitable. Appropriate is the use of drugs with effective microorganisms that can be replaced by herbaceous infusions.
If, for some reason, you have delayed harvesting the lupine, then it is better to send the beveled trunks to the fertilizer, since they will no longer disintegrate so well in the ground. The narrow-leaved lupine is often planted before the onset of autumn, in the 2nd mid-August. He has time to rapidly increase, and in the end of October you can mow it and prikopat slightly. You can also leave cut plants on the surface of the beds before the next season. Siderat grows to the required state only for a couple of months, which allows you to plant it before the fall (blue).
Interaction with other cultures
Lupine in itself is high-grade as a siderata, and you should not grow it together with other plants of similar purpose. In another case, it is allowed to get a fight between landings for better conditions, and the outcome of your event, rather, will not be as excellent as expected. But planting a plant in between rows when growing vegetables is an excellent solution. In this case, all 3 types of plants are also used, however, the best of them is white. Do not forget to just water it at least once a week.
Planting plants after lupine in the field
If you plant rye after lupine, it will free the gardener from the difficulty of competing weeds. On the site where the green manure was grown, tomatoes, potatoes, pepper, different types of cabbage, radishes, turnips feel great. It also grows well strawberries, strawberries. You should not plant beans here, because belonging to the first genus causes the presence of common pests and diseases.
Possible difficulties in growing
It would seem that it can be easier than to grow a weed on its own plot, that in the wild it feels great and multiplies with high speed? Nevertheless, often in the garden, he suddenly can suspend growth and not meet the expectations. However, everything has its own reasons. First of all, be sure to grow sided in acidic or at least neutral soil.. In alkaline, it does not rise enough, so you will certainly measure the degree of acidity of the earth on your own plot, and then it will be clear whether it makes sense to use the plant in question as a siderat.
There are several systems that divide domesticated lupins into species.
First option. Growth division into shrubs, dwarf shrubs and shrubs.
The second option. Sort plants by two subgenera and their distribution:
- the American group, subdivided into North and South American,
- Mediterranean, including African species.
The third option. The most common is annual or perennial lupins.
White lupine (lupinus albus), yellow lupine (lupinus luteus) and narrow-leaved or blue lupine (lupinus angustifolius) - these are the plants that are used in our country as fodder and siderat. They are unpretentious, frost-resistant and can reach heights up to two meters.
Ornamental annuals include: hybrid lupine (lupinus hybridus), changeable lupine (lupinus mutabilis), dwarf lupine (lupinus nanus) and Hartweg's lupine (lupinus hartwegii). В целом более требовательны к условиям выращивания, так как не переносят холодов. Имеют большое количество садовых форм, сортов и гибридов.
Люпин многолистный (lupinus polyphyllus) и люпин древовидный (lupinus arboreu) – самые распространенные варианты на территории России. Вполне приспособились к климатическим условиям, хотя последний все же рекомендуется для южных областей. Благодаря Д. Russell bred a huge number of new varieties with bright juicy colors.
Of course, the plant is represented not only by the above listed species, but the rest, such as silver lupine (lupinus argenteus) or nutkan lupine (lupinus nootkatensis), are extremely rare in our country.
Seeds, how much they cost, how they look
Lupine seeds vary in shape, color and size, although in general they resemble the seeds of peas, beans and other legumes. It is an inexpensive plant, as most people continue to consider it a weed. The cost of pure seed starts from 10 rubles and depends on the number of beans in a pack. There are sites where you can buy lupine cheaper, but for this you should order a batch of 50 pieces.
How to grow from seed
Most often, seeds are used only in cases when it is interesting to engage in breeding work or you do not want to spend time on planting. Therefore, in the first case, seed is carefully collected and picked. But in the second - the lupine quickly becomes a weed, which they are trying to get rid of, without appreciating its beauty.
A cleaner way to preserve varieties already on the site is grafting. But in the absence of the mother liquor, it is necessary to use seed. It is best to select perennial species for this. Annual varieties are more demanding of conditions, and due to the not very good germination of lupine, this can be a problem.
Gather the fruits as soon as they turn yellow and start to dry out a bit. You should not allow them to ripen in the garden, because, having scattered across the flowerbeds, the lupine will quickly turn back into a weed, losing all the purity of its shades.
For seedlings, which is important for the northern regions, seed sowing is done at the very beginning of spring (in mid-March - early April). This allows for an earlier and more friendly flowering of lupine on a flower bed.
Prepare deep drainage drawers. Pour the prepared soil. Plant seeds. And expect shoots.
The depth of the boxes is not a matter of principle; smaller molds can also be used. A good option would be to use disposable cups (only drainage should be done). It should be noted that the root of the plant is quite powerful and goes deep. Accordingly, in case of late planting, it can be deformed, which will directly affect the quality of the cultivated plant.
Soil mixture is made from sand, turf land and peat. The recommended proportions are 1: 2: 2. Some growers recommend reducing the proportion of sand. In fact, the proportion is very conditional and largely depends on the quality of the used turf land. A prerequisite is the friability and crumbiness of the finished mixture. As a top dressing, you can add crushed old plant (lupine).
Seeds should be planted individually, at a distance 30-50 cm apart. Ideally, every bean in your box. You can pre-treat them with base stock 50% sec. Be sure to check the date on the package, even if lupine and maintains good germination for 5 years, it is not worth the risk.
After disembarking, it is recommended to pour and close the container with film, in order to ensure optimal conditions. After about 2-3 weeksThat depends on room temperature and the variety of plant, the first shoots appear. Planting in open ground should be carried out after the end of frost, approximately the end of April - the beginning of May. Try to podgadat time so that the plant had at least 2-4 of these leaves. Still weak shoots, it is necessary to protect from strong wind. Within a few days the lupine will quickly get comfortable in the new territory and you can no longer worry that way.
Landing in spring
In the southern regions, planting seeds immediately in open ground is practiced.
Despite its simplicity, there are still a number of requirements that must be observed:
- decide in advance on the landing site. Preference should be given to the area with diffused light - lupine can tolerate the direct rays of the sun, but in the penumbra shades of colors become much brighter. It is recommended to protect the plant from the wind, or during their tie,
- set the stage in autumn. It is imperative to dig up the ground, add mineral fertilizers (a couple of tablespoons of ash for one shrub is usually enough) and create a drainage system - in this case flowering will occur earlier
- observe the acid-base balance of the soil. With alkaline - more peat is added. At acid - lime or dolomite flour, at the rate of 5 kg per 1 sq. Km. m
Landing in the winter
This is one of the easiest options, which is very popular with both beginners and more experienced growers. The clear advantage is that it does not require subsequent planting of seedlings. And the place in the house is better to use for more thermophilic plants.
Planting seeds should be closer to the end of October. In this case, the lupine does not have time to germinate. Depth of landing is not more than 2-2.3 cm. Top must be mulched with peat, at the rate of 5 kg per square meter. As with growing at home, it is recommended to adhere to the optimal distance between the seeds - at least 30 cm.
Some sources recommend planting two beans in one well, but this is not a requirement. Since lupine is unpretentious, in the case of some seeds that have not risen, it will be easier to transplant.
How to care
Caring for lupine does not require any specialized knowledge - it is a good plant for beginners and those who cannot regularly look after flowers:
- gently regularly loosen the ground and make sure that the root system is not exposed. This is especially true for biennial plants, which begin active growth of lateral roots,
- in the first year, remove weeds; in the future, the lupine itself will perfectly silence them,
- high humidity is required only during the period of formation of buds, otherwise the volume and regularity of irrigation are individual and directly depend on climatic conditions, planting period and varieties of lupine,
- Be sure to cover the plant for the winter.
Despite the rather long lifespan of (perennial) lupins, it is recommended that they be completely removed after 4 years.
Review of the best varieties of perennial lupins
Despite the fact that not many species of lupine have been cultivated, the choice of varieties and hybrids, which means forms and colors, is quite large.
Opinions of flower growers and farmers are similar - the most popular annual species are white and yellow lupins. They are good sederta, unpretentious in care, not so susceptible to disease.
For example, Degas, which is a variety of white lupine, is very much appreciated for its good yield, resistance to fusarium. He is not afraid of standing and calmly transfers excess moisture. And thanks to a small height, about 90 cm, it is resistant to lodging.
In fact, many growers prefer low-growing lupins. Very popular varieties with a height of no more than 50 cm. For example, Minarethaving a huge selection of color forms. Or Pink Fairyhaving a very pleasant aroma.
If you are fascinated by the breeding of this beautiful plant, we advise you to turn to other varieties that are rare in our country. For example, small (up to 40 cm) Arctic lupinewhose flowers have different shades of blue. Or Changeable lupine, with a long flowering period (about two months) and a changeable color (lilac petals gradually change to dark red).
Lupine in joint plantings and its use in landscape design
Due to the fact that the plant gets on well with others, you can come up with a large number of color options. If the lupine is planted in a row, then chrysanthemums, asters and peonies will look good in the foreground.
By planting a pair of perennials alongside, such as a delphinium or a bell, you can achieve interesting transitions in a blue hue. And when using cosmey and lupine Schloss frau, all the neighbors will pay attention to the soft pink cloud.
The first varieties of garden lupins were bred by British gardeners, it is no wonder that lupins look great in English-style gardens. Its slightly casual look, giving the impression of a natural meadow, blends well with the rough brickwork and the heavy hues of a typical English landscape.
English style garden
Lupins in front of an English-style house
Very often used to decorate the backyard.
Pink lupins in the garden
It can also be good to create a garden in an abandoned romantic style.
Lupine in the garden in a romantic style
At the same time, its candle-like inflorescences may look solemn and noble, and are appropriate next to well-groomed paths, lawns, flower gardens, hedges, and stone borders. In this case, sparse plantings in one or two shades (white, yellow, wine, red lupine) are good, where the beauty of each individual flower is clearly visible.
White, pink and lilac lupins as an accent next to the stone path
Red lupine blends well with trimmed hedges and arches
White lupins in micborder, where the main accent that sets the mood and softens the aggressive beauty of lupins are delicate pale pink poppies.
Very handy for creating borders.
Crimson Lupine Border
A lilac-lilac border with lupins, roses, clematis, and winter-hardy geraniums in Sissinghurst Castle Garden, near Cranbrook, Kent.
A lupine border enlivens the monotonous line of the hedge.
Powerful lupins successfully replace the curb of shrubs.
Red lupins create a series of vertical bright lines, beautifully interrupting a solid wall of greenery or buildings. Very convenient to revive the landscape near the walls of fences, houses.
Red lupins as the only source of bright colors along the old wall. Without them, the landscape would be dull.
Red saturated color harmonizes with the ripe green of leaves and grass.
Red lupins look great in coniferous compositions.
Another option is the use of red lupins.
Well can look in single landings. A lush bush of dense foliage topped with candelabra will successfully replace the spherical thuja or any other shrub.
Burgundy lupine in single landings
Mix lupins planted as the only bright spot against the backdrop of greenery
Successfully used in mixborders and here the imagination is not limited. The only rule - lupins require space. They are bright, visible, they must be balanced with other powerful plants.
Composite composition, a bit fragmented, but lupins give the dynamics.
Due to the beauty of lupins, you can create bright and sometimes unusual color accents.
White-yellow lupine shades dark deep green needles.
White and light yellow lupins slightly dilute the contrasting combination of bright yellow and bright blue colors.
Spring combination of colors: lilac-pink-lilac lupins.
Autumn landscape: rich yellow, burgundy, red, orange shades of lupins.
The vertical lines of multi-colored lupins combine flash of bright poppy heads.
Lupine is wonderfully combined with wisteria, it’s a pity that wisteria does not grow in central Russia (although there is evidence that winter-hardy varieties of glycine have begun to grow). Pictured below is the famous Kawachi Fuji garden in Japan.
Wisteria and Lupins in Kawachi Fuji Gardens, Japan
Biological features of lupine
On sandy, sandy and light loamy soils, fodder lupine is an important source of high-protein fodder and a reliable means of improving soil fertility. Deep (up to 3 meters or more) lupine root system uses water from deep-seated layers of the soil and difficult nutrients for other crops grown.
Lupine plants in symbiosis with nodule bacteria have a nitrogen-fixing property. In the seeds of lupine 30-40% protein, in green mass 15-22% protein, 13-15% sugar, 3-4% fat.
The high feed value of lupine is caused not only by the protein content, but also by its biological usefulness due to the increased content of essential amino acids.
When the yield of green mass is four hundred centners per hectare, lupine accumulates per hectare up to 85 centners of crop and fodder residues containing up to one and a half centners of nitrogen, 32 kg of potassium, 8 kg of phosphorus per hectare, which determines its importance in crop rotation.
In the photo are lupine flowers
Placement of lupine in the rotation
The precursors for the successful cultivation of lupine are winter and spring crops. In order to prevent the development of diseases (Fusarium, viral), lupins can be planted in one field in five to six years, it should not be placed near the root crops, legumes, cruciferous, which are reservants of aphids that carry viruses.
In crop rotations for growing green fodder or silage, lupins occupy steam fields.
Seed crops for rapid ripening are placed on open ground or southern slopes, on early and evenly drying, non-littered fields. When growing different varieties of yellow lupine, insulation between varieties of 500 meters is necessary.
On the photo are the sprouts of yellow lupine
The use of fertilizers when growing lupine
Lupine is better than other legumes, it tolerates acidic soils. However, when liming, it gives higher yields, if at the same time increased doses of potash fertilizers (up to 180 kg / ha) and magnesium (20 kg / ha) are introduced.
When P2O5 and K2O content in the soil exceeds 10 mg per 100 g, mineral fertilizers are ineffective. If P2O5 and K2O in the soil are less than 5 mg per 100 g, P60K120 is applied, and from 5 to 10 mg per 100 g - P45K91).
Nitrogen fertilizers inhibit nodule bacteria, so they are used only in small doses in cool spring weather simultaneously with sowing as part of complex fertilizers (ammophos - 50 kg / ha). Of micronutrients on lupine molybdenum is effective.
Preparation of lupine seeds for sowing
The sowing qualities of lupine seeds can be improved by air-heat heating, early treatment of TMTD at the rate of 3-4 kg / t, combining with seed treatment with molybdenum. Immediately before planting, lupine seeds are pickled with a foundation, which does not adversely affect nodule bacteria when treating seeds with nitragin (rizotorphin). Nitragenization is especially necessary when sowing in fields where lupine has never been cultivated.
Pictured pot-grown lupins
For seed purposes, lupins are sown in the early terms in a continuous or wide-row way, and when growing it for silage and green fodder, in a continuous way when steady warming occurs. In such conditions, plantings quickly appear shoots and accumulates a higher green mass of lupine.
With continuous ordinary sowing, the seeding rate is 1.2 million / ha of grains, with (wide-row or tape-shaped with a row spacing of 45-60 centimeters 0.6-0.7 million / ha). It is better to use CO-4,2 and CON-2,8 vegetable seeders for wide-row sowing of lupine, which have disc coulters with flanges. You can use grain planters SZ-3.6 and SDR-3.6.
Lupine planting schemes:
- belt - tractor MTZ-80 (1400 mm track), seeder SON-2,8 (working coulters 8, row spacing 50 and 20 cm between the lines),
- wide-row tractor MTZ-80 (gauge 1600 mm, rear wheels basic), seeder SZ-3.6 [working coulters 8 (1-4-11-11-14-17-21-24-24), row spacing 45 and 60 centimeters on a tractor track, butt aisle 45 centimeters].
- when sowing two-line (ribbon) way working coulters 1-2-5-6-10-11-14-15-19-20-23-24. In this case, the width of the grip will be three rows of 45 cm each, two 60 cm each, the distance between the rows of lupine in the tape is 15 centimeters.
On related soils, the depth of seeding is about 3 centimeters, and on the lungs, 3-4 centimeters. With a deficit of moisture after sowing, the soil is rolled.
Photo sowing lupine seed drill C-6PM
Lupine planting and seed cleaning
4 days after planting, the soil across the sowing is harrowed with light tooth harrows. On cohesive soils, if necessary, you can harrow on the shoots of lupine in the phase of four to five leaves at a speed of movement of the unit is not more than five km / h (harrows have a bevel of the tooth forward). Prometrin is used to control weeds in the care of lupine for harrowing (this operation is carried out before germination).
In wide-row crops, up to 3 inter-row treatments are carried out: the 1st - in the 4-5 leaf phase, the 2nd - at a plant height of 12-15 centimeters, the 3rd - 8-10 days after the second. Razors or chisels are set to a depth of six centimeters and placed at 20-30 centimeters one by one - to prevent clogging and falling asleep shoots of lupine.
The greatest yield of green mass cultivated lupine gives in the phase of shiny beans. For mowing grown lupine used forage harvesters KKS-100 and E-281.
To accelerate the ripening, desiccation is carried out - in the yellowing phase - the yellow root of the seed germ is used magnesium chlorate (at the rate of 10-13 kg / ha). For the passage of sprayers make swaths in 40-50 meters, removing the lupine on the green mass.
To reduce losses, they regulate the threshing reel of the threshing apparatus and threshing is carried out on soft modes (700-950 rpm). It is advisable to use the threshing tool PLZ-5 to combine SK-5.
After threshing, the heap of lupine has a high humidity, so an immediate pre-cleaning on OVP-20A, OVS-25 is necessary. When the moisture of lupine seeds is above 16%, they are dried, preferably on floor dryers.
Photo of lupine seeds
Семена люпина сушат в бункерах активного вентилирования, для чего снимают электрокалориферы и для подогрева воздуха применяют теплогенераторы.
Люпин на зеленое удобрение
На зеленое удобрение люпин однолетний в стране возделывают как кормовые, так и горькие (алкалоидные) сорта узколистного (синего) и желтотого люпинов. They accumulate the greatest vegetative mass during the period of seed loading in beans. Of the varieties of bitter narrow lupine in the Nonchernozem zone, Benyakovsky 484 and others are distributed. They are grown for green fertilizer in the same way as for seeds of fodder seeds for continuous row sowing.
Figure 1. Lupine one-year
Perennial lupine is grown on green fertilizer on poorly cultivated light, medium and heavy sod-podzolic soils. Due to its cold resistance, it is distributed to the northern borders of agriculture. In the first year of life, plants in pure and sub-cover sowing form only a rosette with leaves, and in the second and subsequent years of life they bear fruit, accumulating a large green mass.
It is sown under spring or winter crops, the seeding rate is 40-50 kg / ha. Seeds before spring sowing scarify, small seal. On one field, perennial lupine can grow 4-5 years or more. Possible culture in the output fields of crop rotations. In such cases, the cut crop is taken to fertilized fields. Ash mass contains relatively little crude fiber and quickly rot. For plowing, the above-ground vegetative mass is crushed up and down by disc harrows.
Figure 2. Perennial Lupine
The seeds of a perennial lupine ripen in July. Because of the uneven maturation of plants and individual fruits, desiccation or separate harvesting is used to dry the stalk. Directly cleaned on a high cut, the remaining mass is plowed to fertilizers.
This is an annual herbaceous plant, reaching up to 1.5 m in height. It has been cultivated in Russia since the beginning of the 19th century. It is not as common as multi-leaf lupine, it is grown mainly in non-black-earth zones of the country.
It is considered a feed crop, very rich in protein and oils. Resistant to cold, especially at the beginning of the growing season, can withstand up to -7 degrees. Found use in medicine as a medicine, vitamin, in the garden is used as an insecticide.
This is a perennial, cross-pollinated plant. It has a wide range of colors of flowers, is popular in the decorative application. Homeland is considered to be North America, it grows even in the harsh Siberian regions of Russia. It prefers loamy and sandy soils.
The most popular new varieties of multi-leaf lupine:
- Schloss Frau (pink lupine),
- Carmenius (red lupine)
- Castellan (purple-blue),
- Albus (white lupine),
- Aprikot (orange lupine),
- Princess Julianna
- Gavrish (different color of flowers),
It is necessary to highlight Russell's lupine - it is distinguished by larger, flashy flowers. The inflorescence is powerful, bright, reaching half a meter in length. It blooms not as long as a regular lupine - 3 weeks, starting in June. Normal seed ripening occurs in August. It grows on any garden land, prefers sunny places. In care is not picky.
Remarkable. Lake Tekapo in New Zealand, which is simply littered with Russell's lupins, is a place of unreal beauty.
Lupine Minaret is considered less attractive, but rather catchy - it is distinguished by openwork leaves and giant pyramidal ears of inflorescences. It blooms for 20-30 days in June, if you remove faded flowers in time, re-bloom in August. It is better to sow seeds before winter, after the first frost, 2 cm deep, dusted with peat. Undemanding to the composition of the soil, light-requiring.
White lupine is a self-pollinated annual with a long growing season. Representatives of this species are able to reach 2 meters in height. Leaves of the plant are obovoid or oblong, inflorescences in the form of a small brush, white or white and blue. The fruit is a bean containing 3-6 smooth seeds of a cubic form. Planted preferably in the southern, fairly humid areas. It is considered the most high-yielding legume culture.
Popular species of White lupine: Gamma, Desnyansky, Degas.
Lupine angustifolia (lupine blue)
Blue lupine is an annual, self-pollinating plant, reaching a height of up to 1.5 m. Despite its second name (blue), lupine is narrow-leaved, and has different color of inflorescences: purple, pink, white. Seeds are characterized by an unusual “marble” pattern on the surface, they have a rounded or reniform shape. Flowers of inflorescences are more often blue, less often white. The leaves consist of 5-9 narrow linear leaflets.
The narrow-leaved Lupine is distinguished by frost resistance, precociousness and unpretentiousness in care. Less thermophilic than yellow and white lupins, but more picky about moisture. The yield of green mass - up to 250 kg / ha.
The most common varieties of narrow-leaved lupine: Crystal, Rainbow, Snow, Hope, Change, Vityaz, Siderat 38.
Attention! Lupine Siderat 38 is not suitable for animal feed - there is a significant amount of ethyl alcohol in the plant root system.
Annual cross-pollinated plant, not exceeding 1 m. Lupine yellow has a strong root system, palmate, elongated, densely pubescent leaves. The inflorescence in the form of an ear has a yellow or light orange color, very fragrant. Light - and heat-loving (at -5 degrees the plant dies), demanding watering. It is rarely used as a decor site, because flowers are not remarkable enough, it is valued as a fodder crop (its cultivation takes 80% of the sown area).
Varieties are popular among livestock breeders: Prestige, Grodno 3, Nadezhny, Zhytomyr, Torch, Demidov.
The one-year white lupine is an unpretentious, medium-sized plant (30-50 cm), erect, indeterminant, with large green or dark green leaves and beautiful fragrant flowers. Apical leaf short, narrow. Inflorescences are bluish-white, the tip of the boat is yellow. Loves light, badly transfers the shaded places, is cold-resistant. Easily propagates by itself (self-seeding). Transplanting a plant is hard. Weakly affected by root rot and anthracnose.
It grows safely on poor sandy, loamy and clay soils, does not tolerate an acidic environment. It is moisture-loving and light-loving, in the shade the plant withers. The white-grained lupine does not need forming pruning; it is only necessary to remove leafless stems with faded tassels — a certain kind of stimulation of new flower buds. Breaking off, or mechanical coiling of lateral shoots, as a way of increasing the biological value of seeds in a crop, is used very rarely. Especially on an industrial scale, since it is impossible to process such a huge number of bushes without special equipment. When growing individual bushes, this manipulation is possible, but it has a huge minus - wounds on the stem become unobstructed gateways for the penetration of pathogenic organisms into the plant.
Important! Sowing seeds of Belozernaya lupine in open ground is produced in April-May, flowering begins in June-July.
Lupine blue (narrow-leaved)
This is an annual self-pollinating plant, the stem of which grows up to 1.5 m. The color of the inflorescences, despite the name of the species, can be different - purple, rich blue, pinkish, pale white. Seeds in fruits are round or reniform, with an unusual “marble” pattern on the surface.
Blue lupine - frost-resistant, precocious, unpretentious in care, characterized by high economic value.
Denote the most common in Russia varieties of narrow-leaved lupine:
Rainbow, Crystal, Snow, Belozerny 110, Hope, Smena, Siderat 38, Vityaz.
Most of the varieties presented are intended for universal use, i.e. they are suitable for both livestock feed and natural soil fertilizer. But as a decorative garden decoration is rarely used.
Therefore, before planting a plant, it is necessary to familiarize yourself with the characteristics of the selected variety, namely, to find out how much alkoloids the root system of lupine accumulates. For example, the Siderate 38 variety is suitable only as a “natural fertilizer”, since the content of ethyl alcohol derivatives in the root system can harm animals.
The homeland of yellow lupine is considered to be the Mediterranean. This is an annual cross-pollinated plant. In height, its stem reaches 1 m. Roots - rod type, quite powerful, with small nodules. Elongated leaves - palmate, densely pubescent on both sides. Yellow or light orange inflorescence - in the form of an ear. Fruits are flat shaped beans. Each contains up to 5 beige colors (rarely with specks of a different color) seeds.
Yellow lupine is thermophilic than its blue. The best temperature range for seed germination in the soil is 10-14 C. Yellow lupine grows rapidly and flourishes at a temperature of 20-25 ° C. The plant is able to withstand frost not lower than -5 C. This flower is light-requiring and quite demanding for watering. It grows well on sandy and sandy neutral soils. The vegetation period depends on the specific variety, is about 90-175 days.
You are unlikely to decorate your garden with yellow lupine, as it is mainly used as a feed additive for livestock. Its fruits contain a large amount of proteins, so necessary for the active growth of the animal. According to the content of fast-digestible protein in the foliage, yellow lupine surpasses many forage grains, the same oats, for example. But there are also alkaloid varieties of lupine, completely unsuitable for human consumption by animals.
Demanded by farmers varieties of yellow lupine:
Grodno 3, Reliable, Narochansky, Kastrychnik, Zhytomyr, Academic 1, Torch, Demidov, Peresvet, Fast-Growing 4, Prestige.
If you choose the right variety and care for the plantings, you can significantly reduce the cost of feeding livestock on the farm. Lupine yellow has long been used for these purposes.