The Latin name of this flower is “Centaurea cyanus”, which translates as “blue flower of Centaur”. According to legend, the Centaur, wounded by Hercules, was healed with the help of a cornflower, putting it on the wound. Hence the name. Slavic mythology also has its explanation. He lived, allegedly, the boy Vasya and fell in love with him a mermaid. The mermaid's love turned out to be one-to-one, and in anger she turned it into a flower.
The story is rather sad, which cannot be said about the flower. Its bright colors will not only decorate your lawn, but also, definitely, will raise your spirits. Moreover, this flower is not demanding at all. It can grow without transplants for about 10 years in one place. Yes, and cornflower blooms long enough - all summer.
Description and types of cornflower
Cornflower - a beautiful, uncomplicated flower that does not require special care. It happens one-year, biennial and perennial. The colors are completely different: blue, purple, yellow, pink, white, depending on the variety.
White cornflower found in the Red European Book, as a rare endangered species.
Cornflower, on the contrary, refers to the weed. With him are actively struggling. This type of weed litters rye and is dangerous for horses.
In general, the cornflower grows to 1.2 m!
Planting and breeding
For planting cornflower should choose a sunny place. This flower is very fond of the sun, although it can transfer a bit of falling shadow from trees or fences. But it is better to plant a spacious place for planting so that the plants do not shade each other. Annual species breed directly by planting seeds in the soil in early spring. They quickly germinate, grow well and bloom. Perennial species are more often propagated by root separation or grafting after flowering, in August. Also, perennial cornflower can be grown from seeds. To do this, they are planted in the ground in late autumn. A few days later the seeds sprout.
Cornflowers do not like excess moisture, you can even say that they prefer a very moderate watering. Summer rains are enough for them. Unless, of course, the summer is not very dry. Over moistened cornflowers tolerate poorly.
Cornflowers prefer light loam. The soil should be neutral and fairly loose. Acidic soil needs to be treated with limestone: spread dolomite flour or limestone over an upper layer with a thickness of about 1 cm. This procedure is carried out in the fall. Clay soils facilitate by adding sand to them.
To prolong the flowering of the cornflower, you can and even need to feed it. This should be done 2 times a month. It is recommended to use 20-30 grams of complex fertilizer per 1 square meter of soil. With top dressing the main thing is not to overdo it, otherwise yellowing of the leaves cannot be avoided. Perennial cornflowers are fed in the fall to increase winter resistance.
In order for your cornflowers to look aesthetically and beautifully, it is necessary to cut off the flowering flowers. If you do not do this, then next year you will be unpleasantly surprised when you find bushes of cornflowers growing anywhere in your area. In total there are 2 ways to trim the stems: high and low. Using the high method, the stems are pruned under the inflorescences, low - the whole stem is cut, leaving about 10 cm. If you are not sure which one to choose, then it is better to stop on the second method, the so-called upper pruning. So the bush will look tidier and fluffier compared to low pruning, using which you can get a bald spot on the flower garden.
Diseases and pests
These flowers practically do not get sick. If this happens, the reason lies in the wrong care and excessive watering. If you still notice dark spots on annual cornflowers, then most likely it is fusarium. For the treatment of this disease, it is necessary to treat the plant with a foundation. You can also spray cornflowers 3-day infusion of cow manure in the ratio of 1: 1. Helps in the fight against pests and diseases of ash. She should sprinkle the leaves and shoots.
Perennial species do not cure at all. It is preferable to cut off the affected parts of the plant and burn so that next year the disease does not recur.
Cornflower Use: Medicinal Properties
Cornflower contains a wide range of minerals, vitamins, flavonoids and coumarins. It has a diuretic, anti-inflammatory, choleretic agents. It is also used in the treatment of the gastrointestinal tract, cough, nervous system. A decoction of flowers has a positive effect on amenorrhea, normalizing the cycle, and also enhances lactation.
Cornflower - a beautiful, easy to care bright flower. It will decorate your flower bed, will not require much time and effort to care, and its flowers can be used for medicinal purposes. If you are a novice gardener, then this is definitely the flower with which you will succeed. Although it is grown and experienced gardeners. Many people love you for unobtrusive beauty and unpretentious care.
Garden Cornflower Description
Cornflowers flowers in the photo
Currently, more than 700 varieties of this herbaceous plant of the Compositae family are described. Cornflower genus combines about 500 species of annual herbaceous or perennial plants. Primarily valued for simplicity, beautiful flowers and leaves. The stem is erect or supine, strongly branched up to 80 cm. The leaf plates are smooth or pubescent. Flowers of ultramarine shades in round or oblong inflorescences - baskets. Fruit - achene with a tuft - small and inedible.
Growing garden cornflower perennial
Cornflower garden perennial planting and care photo
- It prefers a place well lit by the sun, open spaces, spaciousness, but easily tolerates some shading.
- It requires almost no care. Good on alpine hills, like a curb plant, on flower beds.
- Unusually good surrounded by cereal. Used when planting in the meadow style, where it is especially good in combination with white and yellow flowers.
- Perfectly resists harsh winter. At one place without a transplant can live more than 10 years.
How to grow annual and perennial cornflower seedlings
Cornflower garden annual planting and care photos
Cornflower can become a luxurious, and at the same time, inexpensive garden decoration if it is grown from seeds. Despite the fact that the flowers are the most famous blue, these annuals are pink, white, red, lavender, and dark burgundy tones.
Cornflowers produce single or double flowers with a fringe of dissected petals and gray-green leaves. Dwarf varieties are suitable for edging and borders, while higher varieties are popular in cottage gardens. However, since higher varieties are difficult to obtain in local nurseries, planting cornflower seeds is the only way to grow them in the garden. Fortunately, they are easy to grow both indoors and outdoors.
- Seeds of annual species sown in spring in a permanent place in the fertilized soil, when the soil warms up sufficiently.
- Perennial species sown in an unheated greenhouse or grown for seedlings at home and transplanted in October to a permanent place.
Later they are propagated by dividing the bush or cuttings. It is best to divide perennial species after flowering, after having carried out a low pruning. They are planted at a distance of 45 cm - this gives the opportunity to independently form the plant a beautiful shape.
Planting cornflower seeds in open ground
How to plant cornflowers in the open ground photo
In areas with mild winters, cornflower seeds can be sown in open ground in September. They will germinate in the fall and take root to bloom in the spring. However, for colder climates, it is best to sow the cornflower seeds in the spring as the weather permits. Several successive plantings of cornflower seeds will lead to almost continuous flowering throughout the growing season. This is because annual cornflowers are not long-lived plants. A second planting in spring is recommended if cornflower seeds are first sown in autumn.
Sow the seeds in a slightly alkaline garden soil to a depth of 2-2.5 cm. You can stratify: moisten the seeds and keep in the fridge until germination, this is about seven to 10 days for annuals and two to three and a half weeks for perennial varieties. Sown in the garden for seedlings, the plants after transplant at a distance of 20-30 cm from each other.
Planting cornflower seeds for seedlings at home
Garden cornflowers planting seeds and care photos of seedlings
Cornflower seeds are sown on seedlings about a month before the last frost or a month before planting in open ground. If planted in late April, should be sown at the end of March.
Fill the prepared containers with a mixture of flowers or pick up peat pots. After the containers are full, moisten the mixture and allow to drain. Then, sow three or four cornflower seeds on the pot and cover with foil. Place them in a warm place so that the seeds germinate. Shelter will create a greenhouse effect, and high humidity and heat will contribute to rapid germination.
Cornflower seedling ready for planting photo
After seed germination, the shelter is removed and the containers are placed in a sunny place. When a pair of true leaves appear, the strongest plants are selected in order to preserve them for transplanting into open ground, and pinch off the remaining seedlings at ground level. It should be fed once complex water-soluble fertilizer. When a height of 8-10 cm is reached, the seedlings of the garden cornflower are ready for planting.
Garden Cornflower Care
- Top dressing. Moderately fed once every two weeks.
- Watering. Cornflower loves moisture, but does not tolerate waterlogging, tolerates drought well. Usually rare summer rains are enough for him.
- Crop. Mainly used to maintain appearance. In time it is necessary to cut dry inflorescences in order to avoid unwanted settlement of the cornflower throughout the garden area. Perennial specimens are cut off at a height of 10 cm after flowering.
American Cornflower Centaurea Americana
American cornflower centaurea americana aloha blanca photo
Originally from the prairies of North America, it can reach a height of 1 m. It has pale lilac flowers with a diameter of 8-10 cm. It is very cold-resistant, decorative, blooms in August.
Cornflower whitened Centaurea dealbata
Centaurea Deedbata ‘Steenbergii’ photo of cornflower
Originally from the Caucasus, a tall plant reaching a meter height with very beautiful, multicolored, fragrant flowers. Cultivated for cutting. The most exquisite of the perennial cornflowers. Loves fertilized garden soil.
Centaurea macrocephala photo
With its beauty and undemanding won the flower beds of Europe. In England, is one of the main plants mixborders. His bush perfectly keeps its shape, blooms from July to early October with large bright yellow baskets. Perfectly feels on any soils, prefers deep, well moistened, humus and clay.
In medicine, it is used as a light diuretic, for lotions for eye diseases, as an anti-inflammatory agent. Broth and liquid extract have a choleretic effect. Fresh juice is used as a wound healing, and the grass is applied to bruises and tumors. The decoction is used instead of lotion for the care of the face, as an anesthetic for toothaches.
Modest and graceful, he fell in love with many gardeners for their refined beauty. Ideal for beginner flower lovers - with a minimum of attention a positive result is always achieved. Long blooms and at the same time practically does not require care. Perennial species attract even the most sophisticated flower lovers with simplicity in cultivation, beauty and charm.
Brief description of the flower, growing from seed
Cornflower, the favorite of many gardeners, may have a white, blue, blue and even purple color. The inflorescences of this plant are terry, compact, the stems are branched, up to 50 cm high.
The average diameter of a flower is 5.5 cm. Ornamental culture is planted separately or combined with the same low-growing flowers. Cornflower not only decorates my garden, but also gives positive energy!
Cornflower perennial propagated by seed, and the seedlings are not grown. Before sowing seeds, you need to make sure that the soil is warmed. I planted a cornflower in early May. The flower prefers a clean lit area.
The soil should be:
As for the reaction (PH), the flower prefers slightly acidic. If you wish, you can plant it in sandy soil. Cornflower grows well in alkaline soil, in this case, a field plant forms brighter flowers.
Cornflower is not very fond of clay soil. If on your site, dilute it with sand. I advise to neutralize sour soil with lime. Such procedures are best done at the end of autumn.
I advise you to prepare the plot a week before sowing seeds. Take one and a half kg of organic matter - humus and peat, add wood ash in the amount of 80 g and 15 g of nitrophoska. This number is calculated per 1 square. After making the mixture, dig the bed to the depth of the spade's bayonet, then level and compact the soil.
Make a three-centimeter grooves, add water to each and perform sowing. Pour fertile soil over the seeds (layer size - 1.5 cm). After sowing the seeds, once again compact the bed. I advise you to keep seeds under plastic, it creates a greenhouse effect. Cornflowers should not pritenyat each other. The distance between the specimens should be 40 cm.
I recommend watering crops 1 time in 2 days, per 1 sq. M. m to consume 1.8 water. Shoots will appear in 7 - 10 days. You will need to remove the film and thin out the miniature plants. The distance between them should be 10 cm. If you wish, grow cornflowers in the pots or on the balcony. The advantage of seeds is that they remain viable for 2 years!
Field Plant Care
Friends ask me how I care for cornflowers. To field plants pleased variegated flowers, it is necessary to make fertilizer. I advise you to feed a cornflower before flowering. He well perceives urea and nitrophoska. I prepare the solution: I dissolve 15 g of one of the products in 5 liters of water.
Urea can be combined with nitrophoska, but you need to strictly adhere to dosages! Three and a half liters of this fertilizer is designed for 1 square. m
Cornflower should not receive nutrients in excess, it can lead to yellowing of the leaves. To the field plant more likely to bloom, it is necessary to treat it with the drug "Zircon". It is intended for foliar dressing. Cubic zirconia sprayed the plant before it forms the buds.
Water cornflower in a timely manner, carry out preventive treatments. Remember that any plant does not tolerate waterlogging. If you make a lot of water, the roots will rot. In order for the flower to breathe well, it is necessary to weed a bed. It is useful to loosen the soil, but carry out the procedure carefully, try not to affect the fragile roots.
If it is wrong to care for a flower, it will overtake fusarium. The disease manifests itself as dark spots on leaf blades. To cure cornflower, it is necessary to process it with a foundation. A manure based solution is also effective against the disease.
To prepare, take a mullein and dilute with the same amount of water. Fertilizer will be ready in 3 days. It provides prevention of fungal disease and promotes the growth of ornamental culture.
Cornflower does not impose high requirements on growing conditions, but it should be remembered that it takes root in sandy and alkaline soil. Annuals look great apart from other ornamental crops.
The plant has a rich composition, so it is used in traditional medicine. Cornflower contains coumarins, acids, antioxidants, such valuable substances as flavonoids.
This flower strengthens the immune system, as it contains ascorbic acid. Cornflower has an antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory effect. It comprehensively cleanses the body.
The fair sex use a flower for weight loss. They prepare infusions that remove not only fluid, but also poisons from the body. Cornflower improves gastrointestinal function, flower-based decoctions gently affect mucous membranes.
Tea is useful for those who have atherosclerosis. This tool tones blood vessels and increases their elasticity. Cornflower has a moderate choleretic effect. It is useful in pathologies of the liver, but before use should consult a doctor!
It is curious to note that flower-based decoctions are used in cosmetology. Cornflower is indicated for those who have oily skin. It improves the function of the sebaceous glands, removes shine from the face. Lotions help get rid of bags and dark circles under the eyes.
Cornflower based decoctions can be used by those with dry skin. Such means saturate the cells with moisture, as a result, the face becomes "refreshed", a light blush appears on the cheeks.
What are the types and what cornflower looks like?
There are about five hundred species of cornflowers in total.. They differ from each other both in external characteristics and in the duration of their existence (annual, biennial, perennial). One of the most common types of perennial cornflowers are:
- Cornflower white. Он достигает высоту до тридцати сантиметров.White color, to the touch petals terry, collected in baskets with a diameter of five centimeters. This species is very rare and is listed in the Red Book.
- Mountain cornflower. Perhaps the most popular of the representatives of the flowers. The stem can reach up to a meter in height, the roots are very powerful and can cover a large area. The color is blue, slightly darker than the sky-blue.
- Yellow cornflower. The bush keeps its shape very well. It grows up to a meter in height, which gives a great overview of its bright yellow flowers. Their circumference does not exceed five centimeters.
- Eastern cornflower. It is wild-growing and can reach heights from 1 meter to 1.20. Its leaves are whole and divided among themselves. The flowers are bright yellow in color and are collected in inflorescences.
- Meadow. The height of the stem reaches eighty centimeters. The leaves are located in two levels: upper and lower. At the lower level, the leaves are located on the cups, and at the upper closest to the flowers. Purple-pink flowers are located in baskets. This species is most popular in Eurasia, but little is known in Europe.
- Whitened cornflower. It has an upright stalk that reaches a height of one meter. The most popular because of its beauty. Bright pink flowers have a diameter of about five centimeters. Begins to bloom in the summer at the very end of July and until the end of August.
Planting perennial and annual garden cornflowers
It is recommended to start planting in spring. In the spring the soil warms, and when planting it will not allow the plant to freeze. The landing is better to start from mid-April to the end of May. The flower is not whimsical to the soil, so it can be planted in absolutely any soil, but not in clay. Before planting it, it is necessary to loosen the soil. Cornflower one-year plant only seeds in the soil. Seeds sprout well, grow and bloom.
Perennial cornflowers are propagated by dividing and grafting roots after flowering, in August. And if you want to grow perennial cornflower from seeds, then you just need to plant them in the soil in late autumn. In a few days the seeds will germinate.
It must also be remembered that cornflower loves freedomtherefore it is not recommended to grow it at home in flower pots. You also need to observe the distance when planting thirty centimeters between the plants so that the seedlings do not interfere with the effects of sunlight among themselves.
How to care for cornflowers?
Cornflower blue is very unpretentious in the care. It will be enough to loosen the soil around it twice a month and apply fertilizer when watering once every two weeks. In response to these simple actions, the flower will respond to you with a long flowering and fill its buds with a bright shade.
The flower is not susceptible to pests and rarely gets sick. There are cases when the spider mite attacks the leaves in this case, you just need to remove the damaged leaves. Fusarium happens in cornflowers extremely rarely, but if this attack happened just sprinkle the flower with ash and spray it with a 0.1% solution of the foundation.
Keep track of the soilDo not over-wet it. He prefers dry places. If you want it to bloom profusely, tear off the flower buds. Also, the advantage of a flower is that it does not need to be insulated for winter.
If you want your cornflowers to look aesthetically and beautifully, you need to cut them. If you do not do this, then the next year the cornflower will grow anywhere. In total there are two types of pruning stems: upper and lower. In the upper method, the stem is cut under the inflorescences, and in the lower mode, the stem is completely cut off, leaving about ten centimeters. If you doubt the choice of the method, it is better to choose a high method of trimming. Your bushes will look lush and tidy, and with low pruning you can get a bald spot on the flower.
Blue Cornflower: healing properties
The flower is used in two areas: medical and cosmetology. His stems containing medicinal properties were known to all the healers of the ancient world. The stems were used as antifebrile and wound healing agent. People living in the mountains make delicious cornflower blue tea. It is used as an antipyretic and sometimes even an anesthetic. Doctors also claim that a simple walk on the cornflower field helps to reduce stress and relieve irritability.
Today, the flower is widely used in folk and official medicine. Doctors advise using it for the following diseases:
- Urolithiasis, inflammation in the kidneys, prostatitis and urethritis. Takes three tablespoons of flowers, poured into a thermos and poured three cups of boiling water. Set two hours, take half a glass for half an hour before meals. Drain the solution before taking it.
- In gynecology cornflowers are used in case of inflammation in the appendages and ovaries. To remove acute inflammation, you will need to take seventy flower baskets with stems and pour boiling water in a half-liter jar. Wrap a can, and insist tea for about forty minutes, then just drink it hot before bed. Inflammation will pass quickly.
- Dropsy. Two teaspoons of cornflower flowers pour boiling water, insist an hour and drink ¼ cup for 10−15 minutes before each meal.
Before applying the cornflower for therapeutic and prophylactic purposes, it is recommended to consult your doctor for advice, since the components of cyan in the cornflower tend to accumulate in body tissues and may cause intoxication.
It is used in cosmetology. Its healing properties help in skin care, hair loss, and for the treatment and prevention of baldness. To solve problems with oily skin, cornflower flowers need to be poured with vodka and insisted a couple of days. Then strain and mix with water in a 1: 1 ratio. Wet a cotton pad in the resulting solution and just wipe your face. Your skin will find a natural color, and the pores will be cleansed.
Thus, we came to the conclusion that the cornflower not only decorates the garden, but also has healing properties. Any novice gardener will cope with it, because it is very simple and undemanding in care. And thanks to its varieties, your front garden will always look beautiful.
Batonic description of the garden cornflowers and the homeland of growth
Cornflower is home to all of Europe. Often found among sown crops. One type of cornflower, namely, cornflower (also called blue), is found on the expanses of Europe in the form of a weed. Especially often its location in winter bread. To get rid of it, the soil is covered with lime, and the beds are well weathered and the seeds of the desired crops are carefully cleaned. In some European countries, cornflower is almost the most harmful and difficult-to-remove weed. But besides the negative qualities of some species, cornflower has advantages and advantages, the most important of which is its beauty. Thanks to her, he is popular with flower sellers and gardeners around the world.
Types of garden perennial cornflowers
The genus of cornflowers has about five hundred species, which differ from each other primarily in external parameters, as well as life expectancy (annual, biennial, perennial).
The most common are the following types of perennial cornflowers:
- White cornflower. The plant is up to 30 centimeters tall, it feels terry to the touch, the color is white. They are collected in small baskets with diameters of about five centimeters. This species is listed in the Red Book because of its rarity.
A photo. White cornflower
- Mountain knapweed. The most popular perennial species of cornflower. The stem of the plant reaches a meter height, the rhizomes are very powerful, cover a large area.
A photo. Mountain cornflower
- Yellow cornflower. A bush that keeps its shape well. It grows up to a meter tall, which gives a good overview of its bright yellow flowers, the diameter of which does not exceed five centimeters.
- Cornflower Bush, reaching 120 centimeters in height. The flowers have a diameter of up to 8 centimeters, which makes them the largest among all representatives of the genus Cornflower.
A photo. Cornflower
- Eastern cornflower. Wild plant, whose height is from meter to meter twenty. The leaves are separated and whole, color - bright yellow. The flowers are collected in inflorescences.
A photo. Eastern Cornflower
- Cornflower Herb plant. The height of the stem - 80 centimeters. Leaves lanceolate or ovate, located on two levels: lower and upper. The lower leaves - on winged petioles, and the upper - closer to the flowers. Flowers are located in baskets, color - lilac-pink. This type of cornflower is more common in Eurasia. In Europe, he is poorly known.
A photo. Cornflower
- Whitened cornflower. It has an erect stem, reaching a height of half a meter. It is one of the most popular due to its beauty. Flowers are bright pink in color, up to five centimeters in diameter. It blooms in summer, from late July to late August.
A photo. Whitened cornflower
- Pink cornflower. Erect and strong stem reaches a height in the meter. Inflorescences strongly swollen. Inflorescences are single, with a diameter of up to five centimeters. The leaves are lanceolate, the color is dark green. It blooms in June and July.
When and how is the planting of garden perennial cornflowers carried out
Planting is recommended to engage in the spring. It is necessary to give the soil warm, so as not to freeze the plant. Most often planted in the period from mid-April to the end of May. Cornflower unpretentious to the quality of the soil, you can plant it in any soil, except clay, but before planting the soil must be loosened. Segments of roots are planted with a kidney, and scions of roots with rhizome and seedlings. Since the rhizomes of plants developed, then should be planted at a distance, so that plants could easily coexist, not trying to wage a "struggle" for the territory and mineral resources.
When planting, the roots should be spread in different directions, the kidney should be flush with the ground line. If you plant a species of cornflower with roots growing horizontally, then you should lower the bud a little under the ground, literally a few centimeters.
Growing Cornflowers Perennial
Grow cornflower where there is enough space
Plants are grown outside, on open ground, in a place that is well lit by sunlight. Vasilik loves freedom, so growing it in pots at home is strongly not recommended. The distance between the flowers should be at least 30 centimeters. Otherwise, the seedlings will simply interfere with the rays of the sun on each other, and there will also be an acute shortage of mineral substances.
The best soil for growing cornflowers is fertile. Any garden or garden soil will do. But the earth should be rich in humus and minerals. Some varieties of cornflowers (annual and biennial) are adapted to alkaline soils.
For most species of cornflowers need minimal care, which is reduced to watering, removal of weeds and digging the top layer of the earth. Flowers that have wilted, it is recommended to remove, if you, of course, want to keep a beautiful look of your plants. Cornflower, which is grown for cutting, should be fertilized every two weeks. Buy complex fertilizers in a specialized shop and feed them with plants. Pests almost do not spoil the cornflowers, only occasionally spider mite can spoil the leaves. In this case, they should be cut to prevent further infection of the plant.
Ways of breeding garden cornflowers
Vaselki multiply divisions of the bush, cuttings and seeds
Perennial cornflowers are propagated by root cuttings, dividing the bush and seeds. As many as three ways to breed. Seeds should be sown in spring. After grading beds must be strongly thinned. The distance between the bushes should not be less than 30 centimeters. After flowering, cornflower begins uncontrolled self-seeding.
Planting and transplanting must be done in late summer or early autumn. The shrub that you want to transplant should be dug out, cleaned of the ground, and lower its rhizomes into the water for a while. Shoots need to be shortened. For a transplant to be successful, the plot must have three or more buds. Delenka should be planted in the right place, while the upper part of the plant should not exceed a height of ten centimeters. Watering should be moderate, several times a week. The rooting of the plant will take a year, after which the plant will immediately begin to bloom profusely.
Diseases, plant pests and methods of dealing with them
Perennial cornflower is very resistant to parasites and infections. Affected only by the attack of ticks and fungi. Fusarium is the most common fungal disease of the cornflowers. Its symptoms are primarily foliage diseases: they instantly turn yellow and can even fall off. To eliminate the disease, the damaged leaves should be cut off, and the places on the trunk where these leaves were should be treated with a special agent. Suitable, for example, "Benomil", which can be purchased at a reasonable price in any specialized store for the care of plants.
We recommend to get acquainted with an interesting blossoming tree Chamelacium.
On hot summer days, cornflower can be infected by spider mites. You can determine this by looking at the leaves: they should appear specks of different size and color, and the leaves themselves should turn yellow. The affected leaves should be immediately cut and thrown away, and the bushes should be sprayed and carefully wiped with water mixed with soap. Repeat the procedure twice a day until the plant is cured.
Watch a video about the flowers of cornflowers, in it you will learn some more useful information, we wish you a pleasant viewing.
Where and in what areas are perennial cornflowers used
But not only gardeners loved this culture. Cornflowers are used in a number of other areas:
- Medicine: classical and folk. In classical medicine, cornflowers are used in the treatment of diseases of the eye, liver and biliary tract. Used as an antiseptic to disinfect wounds and fractures. In folk medicine, cornflowers make infusions that are used as a diuretic. Also, tinctures on certain types of cornflower help with coughing and other colds, as well as for the prevention of SARS.
- Gynecology. Cornflower decoction leads to the desired rate of the menstrual cycle.
- Cosmetology. The decoction can help solve some temporary skin problems, such as eye bags, enlarged skin pores and allergic reactions.
In ornamental gardening it is customary to classify cornflowers on several grounds. The first divides the representatives of the genus into annuals and perennials.
The one-year-old, in particular, includes the well-known blue cornflower (aka field cornflower, blue cornflower, and garden cornflower), which created an association of cornflower with blue in the masses. Among the cornflowers of this species are also found biennial plants.
Long since their blue flowers, lost in the crops of rye, have attracted the attention of flower growers, even taking into account the fact that they are, in fact, weeds. Their beauty is so pronounced that already in the distant 16th century the plant was cultivated. In the natural environment, the color of the funnel-shaped marginal flowers is bright blue, while among the varieties there are a variety of colors - pink, red and others.
In addition, terry and semi terry variety forms, which differ in the number of widely tubular flowers, are bred. Cornflower terry also has a wide color range - there are bright blue, purple, dark purple and other colors of the variety. Flowering blue cornflower continues from early summer until the arrival of frost. The plant is generally not demanding in courtship.
In British firms (and the British are ardent supporters of simplicity and natural closeness in all that relates to colors) you can choose almost any variety that meets personal requirements and preferences. Also blue cornflowers are an integral component of the seed mixture of Moorish lawn.
Cornflower musk - more often one-, sometimes two-year-old, growing in the eastern Mediterranean. Shoots branch, topped with single light yellow baskets. Flowering lasts from June to September.
Cornflower sprawling refers to biennial plants. Its shoots are strongly branched. The main interest in this species is chained flowers rather rare, as for cornflowers, color - white. They form small baskets at the ends of the twigs.
Perennial cornflowers are characterized by undemanding and almost complete immunity to disease. To understand how best to use them in your flower garden, you need to know that they are divided into 2 groups:
Cornflowers with a taproot or short rhizome. They tend to form dense bushes and grow slowly.
- These include Cornflower Russian (light yellow inflorescences with a diameter of up to 7 cm, flowering period - July-August, is in demand in mixed flower beds, as an element of the 2nd plan),
- Bleached cornflower (one of the most beautiful, with spectacular bright pink flowers and beautiful foliage, used in England to compose mixborders),
- Cornflower (inflorescences are bright purple, up to 4 cm in diameter, the shoots are straight branchy purple, flowering period - from mid-summer to cold weather),
- Phrygian Cornflower (blooms since July with purple-pink corymbose baskets for one and a half months),
- Шероховатый василек (со сферическими одиночными корзинками, пурпурно-лиловыми на краю, более светлыми в срединной зоне, цветущий с июля по август и являющийся вторым вслед за васильком голубым по медоносным свойствам),
- василек Талиева (the rarest species listed in the Red Book and found only on the territory of the European part of Russia, the shade of flowers is creamy yellowish, blooming occurs in the middle of summer).
And cornflowers that form root processes or horizontal rhizomes. Actively grow with the formation of clumps and thickets.
- These include mountain cornflower, characterized by a stable decorative effect throughout the season and special beauty at the time of flowering from June to August. In 6-cm inflorescences baskets are blue, more precisely - purple-blue with a deep shade. Like the blue cornflower, this species has long been used in culture (since the middle of the 16th century).
Cornflower planting and care
Cornflower in a natural environment prefers open fields. He is not afraid of the cold, and he loves the light very much, so for growing it is necessary to choose a place well lit. This applies to both the one-year blue cornflower and perennials; the more sun the site has, the better, and even strong heat in this case suits more than half shade.
A lot of light is needed above all the foliage, which should receive it evenly throughout the volume, and therefore in compositions of mixed type blue cornflower (and some others) should be placed in the foreground (even taking into account varietal differences in height), and thickened plantings for the most part do not fit.
In addition, for the comfortable development of these plants need a certain space equal to approximately half a meter between instances of medium and high varieties. With such a distance, mutual darkening is practically excluded.
For the most part, cornflowers are very resistant to drought, including, of course, the popular blue species, which can bear even long periods in dry ground.
But this is less true for rarer annual cornflowers (for example, for meadow cornflowers), which is important for light soil moisture.
Bodyac is also a representative of the Astro family and has healing properties. It is grown during planting and care in the open field without much hassle, but you should be careful because this is weed. Recommendations for growing and removing this plant can be found in this article.
Soil for cornflowers
Lush and long flowering period is ensured by planting cornflowers on high-quality ground, pre-treated and medium-nutrient.
Numerous and most dimensional flowers are obtained where the land is fertile, not oversaturated with humus, drained and neutral in performance. Calcareous or acidified soils are not favorable for cultivation, as well as compacted, too dry, dry, stony.
For this part of the care, it should be noted that the land should be systematically weeded and slightly loosened when the cornflower is young, and mulching makes it possible not to carry out even these minimal procedures.
Transplantation of perennial cornflowers is carried out from the 10th to the 30th of August. The selected specimen should be dug, cut to a height of 10 cm from the root, and the root system should be washed with water.
If it is necessary to divide, divide with a sharpened knife into a couple of delenok, including several daughter buds. Before planting, soil is compacted with soil, spreading fertilizer with a 5-cm layer.
Fertilizer for cornflower
Cornflowers are not needed for fertile soils; moreover, they can adversely affect development if there is an overabundance. Mineral nutritional mixtures make only at the initial stage of flowering, and only in a small volume equal to half of the dose indicated on the package.
Under no circumstances should these procedures be systematized, even when grown for cutting. Repeated non-concentrated dressing is allowed in case of problems with flowering, manifested in a sharp reduction in the number of flowers or a delay of the second wave.
Giving a cornflower aesthetics and sophistication is reduced to pruning of faded flowers. If you forget about it, the next year there may be a not very pleasant surprise in the form of overgrown everywhere where no cornflowers are. Pruning is carried out, following one of the 2 proven methods - high and low.
The first involves cutting the stems under the inflorescences, and the second - all entirely with a residue of about 10 cm. The upper trimming (high) is safer and allows you to get a neater and fluffy shrub, avoiding the danger of getting bald spots in the flower garden.
Cornflower seed growing
Cornflowers are propagated by sowing seeds or by grafting. If the cornflower is biennial or perennial, both methods will work, whereas the one-year can be propagated only by seed.
The sowing of seeds of annual cornflowers is produced in early spring, perennial - in the autumn, after which they will spend the winter well under the cover of snow. Roots / cuttings of perennial forms are divided from the last days of August to the first September.
Cornflower blue healing properties
The marginal flowers of cornflower contain glycosides, flavonoids, vitamins, mineral salts, coloring and other compounds. Drugs that include cornflower blue are used as diaphoretic, antipyretic, diuretic and antimicrobial agents.
Its choleretic, relaxing, wound healing and analgesic actions are also expressed. With it, relieve spasms of smooth muscles of internal organs, improve appetite and digestion in general.
Infusion made from flowers, effectively affects inflammation and microbes in the treatment of conjunctivitis, night blindness and blepharitis. To prepare it, you need to take 1 teaspoon of cornflower flowers and pour boiling water (200 ml).
Before you start to use it, you must let it brew for 1 hour and strain. Take in a volume of 50 ml 3-4 times a day for 20 minutes before meals.
Cornflower tincture on vodka
For hepatitis and diseases of the biliary ducts, infusion of flowers is used. For 30 grams of the upper parts of the cornflower, you will need 300 milliliters of high-quality vodka (diluted medical alcohol will do).
Tincture should stay in the dark for at least 15 days, while it must be shaken every day. In its finished form, take 30 drops before meals.
In cases of urination problems associated with inflammation in the kidneys, they are treated with a decoction of cornflower petals.
It is prepared as follows: two tablespoons of vegetable raw materials pour 250 ml of boiled water and boil for 10 minutes. You can take a tablespoon up to 6 times a day.