Shrub or tree 4–10 m high, with a broadly ovate crown. Young shoots are thin, bare, green, later reddish-brown, perennial branches covered with dark brown bark. Numerous short shoots end with spines. Leaves elliptical or ovate, 5-10 cm long and 2-6 cm wide, dark green above, bare, paler below and pubescent along the veins, lemon yellow in autumn. In March - May, simultaneously with the blooming of leaves or white single (rarely 2) flowers appear a little earlier, like snow covering the entire plant. Fruits up to 3 cm in length, yellow, pink, cherry-red or almost black, with a slight waxy bloom, ripen from June to November.
It grows in the Caucasus, in the mountains of Tien Shan, Kopet-Dag, Pamir-Alay, in Iran, Asia Minor, on the Balkan Peninsula. In the Caucasus, it grows in the undergrowth of oak, chestnut, hornbeam, and beech forests, rising to a height of 2000 m. In Kopet-Dag, it is found in the undergrowth of walnut and apple forests, among maple trees and bushes. It grows best, blooms profusely and bears fruit on the fertile soils of river terraces. Well propagated by shoots. Lives up to 120 years. Fruits contain sugar, acids, pectin substances, vitamin C and provitamin A, are eaten raw, suitable for making compotes, jams, and jam. Solid, durable reddish-brown wood goes to small carpentry and turning products. Cherry plum can be used in landscaping. The red-leaved form of the cherry plum is very decorative, cultivated in Ukraine, in the Crimea, in the Caucasus, in Central Asia.
Close view - Sogdian plum (plum) growing in the Western Tien Shan and Pamir-Alai at an altitude of 800-2000 m, with smaller leaves and fruits. Fruits due to the greater number of pectic substances have a better gel-forming ability and are more nutritious than the fruits of plum plummere.
Collection and storage
If it is supposed to transport plum over a long distance, then it is collected 5-7 days before full maturity. Fruits should be collected very carefully, remove them from the stalk, trying not to damage the skin and flesh. It is necessary to keep wax wax.
The fruits ripen several times per season. Harvesting is necessary in dry weather, you should also make sure that the moisture does not fall on the already collected fruits, as in a wet form plum quickly rot.
Cherry plums should be stored and transported in boxes with openings. It is necessary to pack only whole fruits. They can be stored in a box for about 3 weeks, depending on the degree of their maturation at the time of collection. The air temperature in the room where the cherry plum is stored should be no more than 5 ° C.
Cherry plum in culture
- In addition to the above regions, plum in nature also grows over a large area from the foothills of the Alps to the northern foothills of the Himalayas. You can meet such a plum in the undergrowth and thickets near the river banks. Cherry plum has long been cultivated in gardens, it was used as food in the I-III centuries.
- Until the mid-twentieth century. due to insufficient frost resistance, plums were grown only in warm regions, but now, after breeding, there are new varieties that have taken root well in Central Russia, the Moscow Region, the Leningrad Region, and even in the Far East. Winter-hardy varieties were obtained mainly by crossing a cherry plum with a Chinese plum, whose wood can withstand frost down to -50 ° C.
- Plum is valued for its tasty healthy fruits, which are eaten fresh, made from compotes, jam, marmalade and marshmallow, seasonings and sauces. Dried - a good enough replacement for prunes.
- Decorative varieties of cherry plum have motley or red foliage, weeping or pyramidal crown, which is used in the design of alleys, hedges, borders.
- On an industrial scale, citric acid is extracted from green cherry plum, which is abundant in unripe fruits (up to 14% of dry weight). Removing it is easy and inexpensive.
- The culture is unpretentious to the quality of the soil, it is drought-resistant, it enters early in the fruiting period, it is distinguished annually by high yields (up to 300kg from an adult tree). Active fruiting occurs for 20-25 years.
- The main disadvantage of plums is low winter hardiness. Frost can damage the wood, a short period of rest leads to vegetation with long warming, which leads to damage to the awakened buds with the return of cold weather. Most varieties of cherry plums are self-fruitful, so for pollinating in their gardens there should be two or three.
Systematic scholars use the name plum for wild-growing varieties, for cultural forms of a plant in their environment it is customary to use the term “plum-like plum”.
There are three significantly different plant subspecies:
- Typical or Caucasian wild.
- Eastern or Central Asian wild.
The first two subspecies include wild cherry plum growing in Asia Minor, the Balkans, the Caucasus (typical / Caucasian plum), or in Afghanistan and Iran (Eastern plum).
Cultivars grown in orchards are a large-fruited variety. This subspecies is divided into a number of varieties characteristic of such and such a region. There is a plum Crimean, Georgian, Armenian, Iranian, Tavricheskaya and pissarda (red leaf). Recently, a number of specialists have also proposed to highlight the Indian and Balkan species.
The division is due to differences caused by different cultivation objectives in different areas. For example, the Georgian subspecies (a group of tkemalei) is mainly a red tart-sour cherry plum, from which spicy sauces are made. When growing cherry plum Crimean focus is on the size of the fruit and dessert taste.
Pissard with red and pink leaves, fruits and flowers is used as an ornamental plant, although it has a form with large tasty fruits.
Most of the domestic large-fruited varieties are based on the Crimean plum. These include trees with red, yellow, purple, orange, even black fruits. By the way, the color greatly affects the chemical composition of the fruit.
Yellow cherry plum is rich in carotenoids, citric acid, and sugars. There are practically no pectins in it. But the black variety, on the contrary, is rich in pectins and anthocyanins, which prevent the development of atherosclerosis and oncological diseases.
Note the colony cherry plum, bred by the breeder G. B. Eremin. This compact tree grows fruits along the trunk, and there are practically no branches. The tree does not require a lot of space, pruning, is easily processed with chemicals, there are no difficulties in harvesting either. Fruits are large, up to 40g, burgundy, with yellow tasty flesh. Frost-resistant.
Russian plum. New stone fruit culture, which was created in Russia in the 20th century, by crossing cherry plum and Chinese plum. Highly productive and durable. It is registered under the generic name of Alycha.
Some varieties: Cleopatra, Golds of the Scythians, Kuban Comet, Traveler, Gift to St. Petersburg.
Plumcots The result of crossing Russian plum with apricot. Winter-hardy, productive variety, fruit weight about 20g.
Plumcoat "Hummingbird." Winter-hardy, dwarf tree, not growing above 3m. Well grafted, has a high quality fruit.
Plumot Kuban. The seedling of free pollination of the Kuban comet with black apricot has a high winter hardiness, the tree is weak-growing, the ripening period is early, it is well graded. Winter hardiness allows you to grow a tree in central Russia.
Black apricot. Hybrid cherry plum present (Prunus cerasifera) and apricot.
Plum interbreed with closely related plants, giving fertile offspring. Nectarine is a natural intergeneric hybrid of cherry plum and peach, and Fergana plum, which grows in the Pamirs and Tien Shan, is a natural hybrid of almond and cherry plum. This property gives breeders great opportunities to create a variety of hybrids.
For cultivation plum suitable southern or southwestern part of the site. It is desirable to shelter from the prevailing winds in the winter in the form of a wall of a house or other building.
For quality care, plum will thank you a good harvest. In the absence of such a plant becomes less winter-hardy, sick and, as a result, brings a meager harvest of fruits of low quality. In the first years after planting, most care consists of weeding, watering and pest control.
In the remaining years, the plants actively respond to the use of fertilizers and respond with excellent growth and increased yields. During the growing season the plants are fed three times. Early in the spring - “over the snow”, during the period of growth of the ovaries (June) and during the period of budding for the next year’s crop (July). In the case of a strong increase in annual shoots use summer nip. In June - early July, actively growing shoots pinch.
Most varieties of cherry plum self-propelled. In other words, at least two different varieties are needed for normal pollination and harvest. Plum or thorns are not suitable for pollination.
- ‘Ruby’ - early ripening. Winter hardiness is high. Fruits are dark red. The flesh is orange, juicy, aromatic.
- ‘Granit’ - medium maturity. Winter hardiness is above average. Fruits with a waxy coating, the flesh is yellow, juicy.
- ‘Found’ - early ripening. Winter hardiness is above average. Maroon fruits, yellow flesh, colorless juice, sweet-sour taste.
- ‘Tent’ - early ripening. Winter hardiness is above average. Fruits are round, yellowish-green with a red blush, when ripe fully burgundy, dense.
- ‘Heck’ - medium term maturity. Winter hardiness is average. Fruits are bright yellow, with a blush. The flesh is yellow, dense.
Cherry plum can also be grown from seeds, but it mostly breeds by cuttings. Vaccination is also a great way. It is made in the spring by cuttings on which the buds have not yet blossomed.
Excellent results are obtained by grafting alycha on a plum crown. In this case, you will not immediately get one plus. First, several varieties of cherry plum can be grafted onto one tree at once. It is good for pollination and to save space. There is no need to look at the site for two landing sites. Having planted a sprig of cherry plum in the crown of a plum in the spring, you can already get the first fruits next year. This is manifested by the rapidity of the cherry plum. Secondly, the undoubted decorative effect: on one branch - the fruit is yellow, on the other - maroon, on the third - red. Thirdly, the cultivation of cherry plum on the plum (the plum acts as a skeleton generator) is promising for increasing the winter hardiness of the plant.
Cherry plum, or Spread plum, or Cherry plum (lat. Prunus cerasifera). © 4028mdk09
Alycha loves fertilizer.
Feed it three times a year (in early spring, in June - during the growth of the ovaries and in July), and it will bring an excellent harvest.
In the spring, apply complex mineral fertilizer and ammonium sulphate, and if the soil is acidic, lime-ammonium nitrate (30 g per 1 m²). Under the young trees, pour a layer of rotted manure or compost 2.5–5 cm thick, but so that the trunk remains clean.
In the summer, feed cherry plums with phosphate-potash fertilizers.
Rosaceae Juss. - pink
Cherry plum is a type of plum, which has become an independent fruit crop. Sometimes it is called plum splayed.
Cherry plum or plum splayed
Cherry plum or plum splayed - Prunus divaricata Ledeb. Tree up to 10 m tall, with a low, often curved trunk or large shrub up to 4 m tall. Crohn thick
Flowers white, small, fruit yellow or dark red, small, edible, sour.
Blooms cherry plum in early May, fruits in July - August.
Cherry plum is very fast-growing and, moreover, it is distinguished by high, fairly regular harvests. Flower buds are laid at the annual seedlings still in the nursery. The first fruits are formed a year after planting in the garden. On the 3rd - 4th year, yields from a tree increase to 30 - 40 kilograms, and by the age of 10 they reach 300 kilograms or more. It is characterized by an extremely large amplitude of ripening varieties: from particularly advantageous, unusually early (along with apricots) - June to late autumn, October. Not a peeled stone seed culture has such a length of ripening period.
Cherry plums are extremely diverse: with a weight of 6 grams in wild forms up to 30 - 60 in modern varieties. They can be spherical or oval, with hues ranging from violet to red, yellow and green. But, unfortunately, even at the best varieties of cherry plum fruit are still inferior in quality to plum. As a rule, they are too sour.
Breeds cherry plum seed.
As a seed stock for cherry plum, only plum is recommended, as well as its hybrids with a Ussuri or Chinese plum. Seeds stratify 4-5 months before sowing. Before stratification, they are soaked for 3-5 days in fresh water. At the beginning of the stratification, the temperature is maintained at 18–20 ° C, but further reduced to O – 10 ° C. The optimum stratification temperature is 3-7 ° C. By the end of this process, when the bones begin to germinate, the temperature is reduced to 3–1 ° C. In the south, in the fall, sowing is possible with unstratified seeds, to the north, it is better to stratify the seeds. When seedlings emerge, to ensure good growth, thin out at a distance of 7-10 centimeters.
Cherry plum or plum spread History of selection and variety
By means of centuries-old selection and successive reseeding, varieties of folk breeding have been created. For a long time, plum was grown only by small plantations in home gardens. Studying it as a fruit crop began only from the end of the 20s. Scientists engaged in the study of its wild forms and home plantings with simultaneous relocation of the best forms in the collection gardens and detailed study of them in culture. Soon they began to systematically breed new varieties by hybridization. On the basis of varieties created in the Nikitsky Botanical Garden, at the end of the 1940s-1950s, the first industrial plantations of cherry plum appeared in the southern zone of fruit growing.
Depending on the quality of the fruit varieties of cherry plum divided into dessert, canning and universal.
For fresh consumption The most valuable large-fruited varieties of hybrid cherry plum are Purple Dessert, Dessert, Abundant, Kuban comet. They are distinguished by aroma, pleasant sweet-sour taste, beautiful appearance. However, cherry plum is used to a greater extent for processing: compotes, jams, juices, jams, marmalades, jelly, dried fruits, and sour pita (tklapi) - sun-dried thin sheets of fruit pulp. In the Caucasus, cherry plum fruits are widely used to make spicy seasonings - kvatsarahi, cross-stones, and tkemali. At the same time, not only the fruits of the cherry plum are cultivated, but also wild.
Varieties with sour and intensely colored fruits go to blending, which allows to limit the use of chemical components during processing. Especially appreciated varieties with a universal type of fruit that can be used both for processing and in fresh form. The best among them are Vasilyevskaya 41, Purple, Dessert, Lykhny, Pearl, Kuban comet.
It is valuable for breeding an unusual property of cherry plum to interbreed with other types of plums and even representatives of other genera: cherry, sand cherry, apricot, peach. This opens up the possibility of obtaining a greater variety of both its varieties and other cultures. I. V. Michurin, for example, crossed cherry plum with thorns. The plum itself, apparently, originated from the natural hybridization of cherry plum and thorns.
Cherry plum is a single or multiple tree. In the culture after death due to the adverse conditions of the grafted variety, it is formed from shoots in the form of a bush. Wild-growing trees reach a height of 12-15 meters, planted in culture - from 4 - 5 to 10 meters. The life span of a tree in Armenian and Georgian varieties is 35–45 years, and in a hybrid cherry plum tree, 20–25 years. With the advance to the north due to winter damage, life expectancy is reduced.
Cherry plum is characterized as southern culture of high winter hardiness. It is believed that in frost resistance of trees during the winter dormancy, it surpasses the peach and is not inferior to the southern varieties of plums, and when leaving the dormitory it surpasses the apricot. And indeed, some of its forms, especially from the highlands, are able to survive winters even in the middle belt.
But two negative properties limit the possibilities of moving it to these areas, and sometimes make it difficult to cultivate even in the southern zone. The first is a very short period of winter dormancy, from the second half of winter, plants begin to lose frost resistance. Temperature changes at this time and in the initial period of spring can turn out to be fatal for them, even in the southern zone.
The second negative property, which, by the way, follows from the first, is the earlier, simultaneously with peach, almond and apricot, the beginning of the growing season and, accordingly, very early flowering. Plum blossoms when temperatures accumulate at only 460-560 ° C. The return of the cold at this time can destroy the flowers or already ovaries. True, flowers of cherry plum can withstand frosts better than flowers of other stone fruit crops, tolerating temperatures up to -2 ° C. Завязи же оказываются более уязвимыми, заметно подмерзая при этой температуре. Алыча опыляется насекомыми, поэтому раннее цветение, нередко совпадающее с неблагоприятными для их лета условиями, — также серьезная угроза урожаю.The way out of this situation: the breeding of samoplodnyh varieties and varieties with a later flowering period. Self-fertile varieties obtained by crossing cherry plum with alpine plum. For breeding of late-flowering varieties, plum is crossed with American, Alpine, Sino-American plum varieties. Among late-flowering varieties - Abundant, Comet, Traveler, Granite.
Most winter hardy varieties with a long period of winter dormancy or longer preserving frost resistance after leaving it due to slow development: varieties of hybrid cherry plum Kuban comet, Traveler, Granite, Sarmatian, A gift to friends, Found, Chuk, Avalanche.
Cherry plum leaves
Cherry plum is a new, intensive type, industrial southern fruit crop. There is no doubt that she will acquire citizenship in amateur gardening, including the north of her industrial breeding zone. It is recommended in the creative and limited in the consumer garden of the fourth and fifth regions. The main direction of the experimental work is the selection of the best forms and their fixation for further cultivation in new areas, the study of cherry plum in order to improve the stocks for both itself and other stone fruit. Particularly fascinating is the hybridization of cherry plum with representatives of the stone fruit of other species and genera.
Cherry plum is also valued as an ornamental plant, which is primarily due to its early and abundant flowering. There are very spectacular decorative forms - krasnolistnye, variegated, weeping, pyramidal. The most common are red-leaved varieties of cherry plum pissarda, in which not only leaves, but flowers and even fruit pulp are painted pink or red. Unlike many garden forms, this cherry plum is well propagated by seeds, while maintaining decorative properties. The value of cherry plum for ornamental horticulture increases due to the fact that it tolerates urban conditions and pruning. In connection with the formation of a large number of offspring and a powerful root system, plum is used to strengthen all kinds of slopes. It is also good for hedges.
Very decorative plum splayed in the spring at the time of flowering and during the fruiting period. Decorative durability 25-30 years.
Recommended for the formation of edges in the park, landscaping of industrial areas, forest reclamation plantings.
As a decorative, the cultivated form of cherry plum with dark purple leaves has long been interesting (Prunus divaricataf. atropurpurea). Differs also dark cherry shoots, raspberry-cherry flowers and dark red fruits.
Cherry plum is beautiful and also very early honey plant. Flowers emit a lot of aromatic substances, nectar, and therefore are visited by insect pollinators more readily than other fruit plants that are flowering at the same time.
Planting rules plum splayed
It is recommended when planting to use seedlings obtained by cuttings or young shoots. They are able to recover quite quickly after freezing in the winter season.
For planting cherry plums are recommended to determine the lighted places that have protection from winds and frosts. The plant can develop in any area, but it needs normal drainage. Over-moistening plum is not acceptable.
The interval between seedlings must be kept at least two and a half meters, between the rows - three and a half. So that at first the seedlings feel more confident, you need to install fixing pegs for tying near them.
It is better to plant plum in spring, when the frosts are over. Planting pits are prepared in advance (60 to 60 to 60), filled with soil mixture from equal parts of humus and sod land.
Planting is completed by watering (up to four buckets on a tree). While the growing season lasts, in dry weather the plant needs watering once a week and a half. Summer residents advise to add garden lime under each plum tree.
Winter-hardy and medium-winter-hardy hybrid varieties
Hybrid varieties differ in grain size of 60-100 grams and yield, compared to ordinary cherry plum. These hybrids belong to a separate species and are called Russian plum. The taste of the fruit is sweet and sour, some almost without sourness.
- Huck-average winter hardiness. Yellow bright fruit with a blush. Ripening fruits - srednepozdnoe.
- Found - good winter hardiness, above average. Burgundy fruit yellow flesh. Early ripening.
- Ruby - high winter hardiness. Fruits are red, dark, orange pulp is fragrant. Maturation early.
- Tent - good winter hardiness, above average. Yellow - green fruit with a blush, rounded, with maroon when ripe. Maturing term - early.
- Granite - good winter hardiness, above average. Fruits have a waxy coating and juicy yellow flesh. Ripening is more late.
Description of care and cultivation
To maintain the required level of acidity in the soil, it is recommended to add lime to it every five years, sealing it to a depth of about twenty centimeters. On average, you need per square meter to three hundred grams of a component.
The growth of seedlings is very active, so they need to form crowns. The abundance of crops can harm a tree, breaking branches with its weight and even trunks. Therefore, during the period of ripening plums under the most fruiting branches should be installed props.
To form the crown should be in the form of a bowl, leaving the basis of three or four branches, located near the main trunk. The shoots on the trunk must be completely removed, leaving it smooth from the surface of the earth to the first branch.
After three years of growth, plum is re-trimmed, removing the central part above the third skeletal branch. This measure helps to form a cup-shaped crown.
In the future, each spring shoots are shortened in excess of half a meter. This measure helps to awaken the lateral buds, forming new shoots. The most intense of them in the summer pinch.
Orycha treats such procedures well. For the development it constantly needs nitrogen and potassium. Autumn feeding is carried out in the amount of five kilos per square plot.
Urea is used three times - in the spring (the beginning of the growing season), during the formation of the ovary, in the middle of summer.
Cherry plum - a plant useful. It is recommended for people with a weakened immune system and disorders of material metabolism. Jam, jelly and juice are made from it.