Dill is a very unpretentious crop that can be quickly grown everywhere in the open field. The scope of its application is very wide. The plant can be used both in cooking and in medicine. But even for such non-capricious greens there are certain rules of planting, allowing you to enjoy the fragrant seasoning for a long time. Further in the article we will talk about how to plant, water and sprout dill.
Terms of planting dill in the open ground in spring and autumn
Dill is able to withstand light frost, because it can be planted as early as April. But how much time in this case to wait for the first shoots? The first shoots begin to appear when the air temperature reaches + 3 ° C. Low temperatures inhibit the plant and contribute to slower growth. It is best to wait until the air warms up.
Dill bunch on the table close up
For early harvest, seed sowing is done at the very beginning of April, when snow is just coming off. To be able to eat greens as long as possible, do not sow the whole bed at once. Seed planted with an interval of a couple of weeks.
According to the lunar calendar, the best days to land in 2018 will be:
What soil does dill love
Greens grow remarkably on fertile soils rich in organic fertilizers. Before planting, it is recommended to add a small amount of humus or fertilize the soil with a solution of mullein, bird droppings. From chemical fertilizers it is good to make the following:
Where better to grow greens? She likes sunny beds with lots of sunshine. However, a direct hit of the rays on it is undesirable, since the appetizing greens can spoil their appearance with burns.. It is also advisable to avoid drafts. But the plant is not demanding in relation to its neighbors: it can live very well alongside any cultures.
Proper preparation of the beds to plant seeds
The preparation of the beds should begin in the fall.. This will give the opportunity to start planting seeds in early spring, and accordingly - and get an early harvest. It is necessary to dig up the earth to a depth of 20 cm. At the same time, both humus and mineral fertilizers should be applied. After these procedures, it will only be necessary to level the ground thoroughly, make grooves in it and sow the seeds.
Do I need to soak the dill before planting
Seeds need preliminary preparation only if it is planned to sow them not under winter. Preparatory activities should begin one week before the intended sowing. The first step is to put the seeds in gauze and moisten well. Gauze should not dry out, it should be constantly moistened. Thus, seeds are kept for about a week.
Immediately before sowing you need to dry the seeds for half an hour. After that you can sow them on the garden bed. After a couple of weeks, shoots should appear.
If sowing is done before winter, then it is not necessary to soak the seeds. In the spring they will have enough moisture in the soil and they will sprout perfectly.
Schemes of quick sowing and good germination
Before sowing seeds need to prepare the groove depth of a couple of centimeters. The distance between them is left at 20 centimeters. Between seeds it is recommended to make the intervals equal to 5 centimeters.
You can use greens as a compaction culture and plant it among other vegetables in the garden beds. In this case, it is necessary to provide sufficient distance for the development of both the dill itself and the neighboring crops.
Planting dill seeds
Some summer residents use a zigzag method of sowing this plant on the beds and claim that it is much more convenient to care for it in this way. It is worth noting that this is a purely personal matter, everyone draws conclusions based only on personal experience and preferences.
Care does not cause much trouble. However, even this unpretentious culture has its pests. The main one is aphid. To combat it, it is good to use alcohol, with a solution of which the bed is sprayed. At 10 liters will need 2 tablespoons of crude ethyl alcohol. In addition, the pest does not tolerate the growth near the thyme bushes. It can be planted nearby and not worry about the fact that the greens rich in vitamins will amaze aphids.
After all, this fact testifies, first of all, to the lack of any trace element in the soil. Yellowing can be eliminated by making saltpetre at the root, and red leaves are eliminated by the introduction of phosphate fertilizers.
Dill is the most common and unpretentious spice grown everywhere. Harvest can be harvested almost all year round (as they grow). However, the leaves have the greatest flavor precisely at the time when the inflorescences begin to form.
Harvested dill in a basket
Now there are many varieties of dill on the market, which differ not only in appearance and taste, but also in agricultural technology: some varieties are easier to grow, some need to soak before planting, some will sprout for a very long time. These crops have different ripening periods.that makes it possible to plan in advance the timing of the harvest and adjust them to fit your needs.
It is not necessary to take a separate garden for dill: there is the possibility of growing it with other crops (for example, potatoes, tomatoes, carrots). This is very important for owners of small summer cottages who want to use their territory with maximum benefit.
When to sow the dill
The culture is unpretentious, it can be sown all year round, in winter - in the greenhouse or at home, putting the containers with the plant on the windowsill. Growing dill has several features, and to get a crop you need to know them.
When planting dill seeds depends on the season:
- In early spring - after the snow melts. Seeds germinate at a temperature of 3 ° C, the greens grow at 15-20 ° C. Shoots tolerate frosts down to -4 ° C. In different regions of Russia, this may be mid-March - early May.
- In summer, dill can be planted as many times as necessary to obtain greens or umbrellas, every 15-20 days. The problem may lie only in the lack of space, but is easily solved by plowing greens to other cultures. It is desirable to preliminarily prepare the seeds in order to quickly come up and manage to produce a harvest.
- In the fall, they sow winter dill in open ground from mid-October to the first decade of November, inclusive. It should stay about 2 weeks before frost, but not more so that the seeds do not have time to germinate.
- In winter, greens are grown in a greenhouse or on a windowsill. Practicing sowing on the ground cleared of snow. Top should be mulched with nutritional insulation, such as dry manure.
Preparation of beds
For landing you need an open place, in extreme cases, partial shade. Culture does not tolerate overmoistening; therefore, it should not be sown near groundwater or where water stagnates. Suitable precursors are potatoes, garlic, cucumbers, cabbage, onions. It is advisable not to plant after carrots, parsley, parsnip, cumin.
Neutral soils are necessary for acidity, on others the green becomes either red (acidic) or yellow (alkaline). In order to get a crop of greens, you need to know how to grow dill in the wrong soil for it. The soil can be deoxidized by making additives such as chalk, dolomite flour, lime, at least 2 weeks before sowing.
Before growing dill in the open field should be in the fall to remove the remnants of the previous plants. If the organic matter is not damaged by pests, apparently not infected with anything, it can be burned, and the ashes can be used as fertilizer or left on the compost.
Before winter, add urea, potassium chloride, superphosphate to the soil. Until spring, harmful substances are neutralized, the soil is enriched with nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus. Organic fertilizers (manure, humus, wood ash) are also applied to the beds in the fall.
Dill loves light, loose soil rich in nutrients. In heavy will grow slowly, get sick, the harvest will be small. To change the structure of heavy soil, you can use river sand (1 bucket per 1 m²). Together with him to bring compost into the soil, which will increase the looseness and increase fertility.
Before planting dill in the country, the soil must be dug up to 25-30 cm, previously scattered on the surface of future beds of fertilizer. Large lumps turn, break. For dill, which is planned to be planted in the spring in open ground with seeds, such preparation is carried out 2 weeks before winter sowing or as the beds are freed from the plants growing on them.
Choice of dill
How to grow a good dill - choose a variety suitable for given climatic conditions and time of year. Varieties differ in time of cultivation and planting, external characteristics, scope. There are 3 groups:
- Early - Gribovsky, Grenadier, Redoubt. Quickly emerge, fully developed in 35 days from the appearance of the first shoots. Used for processing umbrellas for seasoning, getting early greens. Bloom quickly, but you can use only 6-7 branches on the greens from the plant. In order to get quick shoots, it is better to sow dill seeds before winter or in early spring, as soon as the snow melts.
- Mid-season - Ambrella, Richelieu, Kibray. Mature 10-12 days later than early. These are universal varieties grown for greenery and umbrellas. New branches grow about 3 weeks, then the plant throws an umbrella.
- Late ripening varieties - Alligator, Frost, Amazon. Bush, give green for a long time, do not let out an umbrella for a long time. There is no need to seed the seeds because of the constantly growing new twigs. Demanding on climatic conditions and soil fertility. For high yields, it is better to first grow seedlings in a greenhouse, then transfer to the beds.
For the cultivation of dill from seeds in the open ground before winter use early varieties. They are very unpretentious, ascend quickly. The first harvest will be 2 weeks earlier than that sown in early spring, but the yield of dill is low, as it blooms quickly, ceases to produce new branches.
On a note! The shelf life of dill seeds for planting is only 2-3 years, it is better to store no more than one year. Good seeds have a strong smell, cool and moist to the touch.
Bush varieties are grown in greenhouses in winter. They can be used for cultivation of fennel from seeds on the windowsill. Late-season more demanding care, so at home give a good harvest. At the window grows a large branching bush, giving all the new leaves.
How to sow dill
To obtain a good crop of dill in the open field should follow the rules of cultivation and care. It is important to choose a suitable place (light, not flooded), to prepare the soil in advance (to dig, fertilize), to water it plentifully.
In some cases, first prepare the seeds for planting, for example, for growing in a greenhouse or on a windowsill, speeding up the ripening of plants planted in the summer, and getting an early harvest. But untreated seeds better tolerate weather changes.
For sowing dill in the spring in open ground seed preparation is optional.
With the formation of umbrellas and seed ripening, the plant can be scattered around the garden by self-sowing. It is undesirable to admit it, since it does not get along well with all plants, some may even be harmful. In addition, high yields from the spice itself will not be. To get a good harvest, you need to know how to plant dill.
Seed preparation for planting
Before planting dill, seed should be prepared. This will help accelerate the emergence of the first shoots, reduce the time to obtain the first green. This is especially important for bush varieties. They need more time for development, they are more demanding on growing conditions.
Seed preparation is also necessary in cases where it is necessary for dill to ascend faster. There are essential oils on the seed coat that prevent it from opening, protecting it from external influences. At preliminary preparation, the oils are washed away, the seeds germinate faster. Accelerated germination is not required when sowing dill before winter.
The easiest way to prepare the seeds for planting so that they can quickly emerge is soaking. They can be laid out on a plate and filled with water or folded in a bag of gauze, dipped in water. Water temperature is 20-25 ° C, change every 4 hours, sometimes mix. You can use water at a temperature of about 50 ° C for disinfection. The duration of soaking is 3 days, a guide can also serve as the beginning of the spitting of some seeds. Next, dry the seed for about 30 minutes. and sow. If you soak the seeds before planting, the seedlings will be earlier than when using dry seed.
Important! Seeding seeds suitable for sowing fall to the bottom when soaking. Splash should be immediately removed, they will not give the harvest.
To speed up germination and disinfect the seeds, another soaking method is used. Pour for 3-4 hours with water, periodically pouring and pouring new, then immerse for 2-3 hours in a strong solution of potassium permanganate. Rinse, dry before sowing.
For the same purpose, dill seed soaking in hydrogen peroxide is used. To do this, place the washed seeds in 3% peroxide for 6 minutes, then rinse and dry. You can use and infusion of wood ash. 2 tbsp. l dry matter pour warm water, leave for 2 days. Stir periodically. Infusion is drained, put a bag of seeds into it, hold in solution for 4-5 hours.
Before planting dill in open ground, seeds can be soaked, but it cannot be germinated, as this reduces the survival of the sprouts. The soil must also be prepared in advance. Many varieties do not require any preparatory measures, but preliminary fertilizer and digging the soil significantly increase the yield.
Pre-soil should be watered abundantly and left for 1-2 days. Make furrows 5 cm wide, pour water. Instead of water, you can use a hot solution of potassium permanganate to disinfect the soil. Fill the dill to a depth of 2 cm along the furrow in a zigzag manner. The distance between the future plants is 3-4 cm, and between rows 15-20 cm. Sprinkle with a thin layer of loose soil or humus from above. Do not water, otherwise the seeds will go deep into the ground.
After planting dill sprout in 2-2.5 weeks. Additional fertilizers are not needed at this stage, the culture is growing rapidly. If, in the process of development, the leaves change color to yellow-green, this may be a signal that there is not enough nitrogen in the soil. Applying suitable fertilizer will correct the situation.
Important! It is impossible to apply a large amount of nitrogen-containing fertilizers to the soil - the spice accumulates nitrates. Instead, sowed dill can be poured over the nettle for 5 days.
To dill quickly ascended in the spring, you need to sow before winter. It is also possible to prepare the soil in autumn, and in winter to free a small area from the snow, sow the seeds, cover it with compost or humus.
Sowing of winter dill
It can be planted in the fall or winter, grown in a greenhouse or on a windowsill. In the autumn should be planted with seeds in open ground. It is advisable to do this no earlier than 2 weeks before the frost, in order to not have time to climb. Seed consumption is 1.5-2 times more than during spring planting. Do not soak the seeds, embed them to a depth of 3 cm. From above, mulch the soil to preserve moisture and protect the crop from frost. For dill landing use early varieties.
To plant a spice in the winter, in the fall you need to prepare the ground. To do this, dig beds, fertilize. Remove remnants of previous cultures. In winter, clear the area of snow, the seeds scatter on the surface without burying. Top cover with a layer of humus or loose earth with manure, you can additionally cover the film. This method, as well as the previous one, is used to obtain an early harvest of greenery. The amount of seed material is 2 times the spring consumption. Seeds do not cook for planting, sow dry.
The secrets of growing dill in the open ground after seedling emergence are watering, fertilizer, weed removal. Shoots withstand temperatures up to -4 ° C, so periodic temperature drops are not terrible. It is advisable to cover the top of the film, if the frost was delayed or the temperature fell below the permissible.
How to sow dill in the greenhouse:
- landing in the fall or winter,
- additional lighting is required until the end of February, the coverage rate is 10-14 hours. If the light day is longer than this time, a seed umbrella forms early,
- the temperature in the greenhouse should be 15-17 ° C,
- to speed up the germination of dill, pre-soak the seeds,
- dig, pierce and fertilize the beds (preferably 2 weeks before planting),
- make grooves 15 cm apart,
- sow seeds not very thick to a depth of seal up to 2 cm,
- sprinkle with earth
- moderate but regularly watered.
To grow dill in the greenhouse all year round, you need to use bush varieties. Досеивать новые семена каждые 20 дней. Между рядами должно быть расстояние 15-30 см. По мере необходимости удобрять почву, в меру поливать. Проредить всходы укропа, удалить сорняки. Следить, чтобы не было вредителей и заболеваний на культуре.
Уход за укропом
В зависимости от сорта укроп растет от 30 до 65 дней. Green branches can be plucked before the umbrella grows out with seeds. This period also lasts different times depending on the variety. Plant care is watering, feeding, loosening the land, removing weeds.
Dill irrigation mode - as needed. Usually it is enough 1-2 times a week, but in hot, dry summers it may be necessary to water it daily in the evening. Prevent water stagnation and dryness of soil.
Dill fertilizers are applied 2 weeks before planting. If the place is chosen correctly, additional feeding is not required. During the growth of the plant, if necessary, you can add organic fertilizer. For example, the yellowing of the leaves indicates a lack of nitrogen, redness - an excess of potassium, waterlogging. Early flowering begins when nutrient deficiencies in the soil.
Than to feed the fennel in the garden: urea (1 tsp. Per 1 bucket of water), mullein (1:10), fermented nettle extract.
The infusion is prepared as follows: add nettle water in a ratio of 1: 8, add kvass or yeast. Put in the sun for 1 week, stir occasionally. The infusion is ready when there are no bubbles, the color of the liquid is dark. Dilute with water 1:10, can be used 1 time in 2 weeks.
Weeding and thinning
Caring for dill in the open field differs from greenhouse cultivation by the need to remove weeds more often, to protect sowing from diseases and pests. Weeding is of great importance at an early stage of growth, so that weeds do not interfere with the development and carry it out once a week.
When cutting off twigs, others do not grow back, but in the case of dill it’s possible to cut the leaves, new ones will grow further. For further growth of the plant need to leave a few leaves. If the peduncle is not needed for salting or other purposes, you can remove it, the plant will not die from this and will not spend forces on the development of an umbrella.
Pest and disease control
You can protect the greens from aphids by planting a few thyme bushes in the neighborhood. Spraying with ethyl alcohol with a perfume (2 tablespoons per 10 liters of water) is used. Fallen aphids should be sprinkled with earth.
The plant affected by powdery mildew (white fungal patches) should be destroyed, at the first signs of the disease can be sprayed with a suspension of sulfur. Phomosis (dark spots throughout the plant) is not treated, the diseased specimens are removed, sowing in this area can be resumed only after 4 years. From peronosporaz (oily spots from light to purple color on the leaves) help spraying with chlorine or copper sulphate.
Growing up on the windowsill
Dill in winter can be grown on the windowsill. The capacity for planting needs to be chosen in a suitable size in order to allow the root system to develop well. Lay a layer of expanded clay or pebbles on the bottom, put a little coarse sand on top. The main filling of the tank is garden soil mixed with neutral soil. You can use a special soil mixture for dill or mix the turf, humus and peat, also suitable hydroponics.
For planting, pre-prepared seeds should be used. Features in the preparation of dill for sowing on the windowsill there, you can use any of the above methods. Disinfecting seeds is necessary.
Sow the dill on the prepared soil in any desired order, you can make small holes or grooves and lay out the seeds in them. Sprinkle with a thin layer of soil (up to 2 cm). Moisten the surface slightly with a spray bottle, cover with a film to create a greenhouse effect, and leave it for 2 weeks at a temperature of 20 ° C.
After sowing, the first shoots will sprout in 7-10 days. Remove the film after the appearance of all shoots. Once a day, the container should be rotated so that the green did not grow sideways, but upwards. You need to arrange lighting for at least 10 hours. If there is not enough light, the sprouts will be drawn out instead of forming leaves. In winter and on cloudy days it is useful to light the boxes with phytolamps.
Growing dill on the windowsill is the best way to grow greens in the winter. It does not require a lot of work, complexity can occur only with lighting. Watering is sufficient once a week, more often if necessary. Fertilizing with mineral fertilizers twice a month is desirable. Every 15-20 days you can sow new seeds.
What are the necessary conditions for growing?
For dill does not really matter the type of soil. It feels equally well on sandy and loamy soils. However, the seeds are poorly fixed and difficult to germinate on infertile sandy soils. Light and medium loams are most suitable. The acidity of the soil also matters. Dill develops poorly at a pH below 6.3.
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To obtain good quality green plants need regular watering and fertilizing with mineral fertilizers. Seeds and young plants tolerate frosts down to -3 ... -5 o C. This feature of dill makes it possible to make subwinter crops.
Important! So that the plants do not hurt, they need a lot of sunlight and heat.
The optimum air temperature for the growth of green folded at an average daily temperature of 16-20 ° C.
Neighborhood with other cultures
Dill is generally compatible with a variety of vegetable crops. It is believed that only celery is not very suitable for him as a predecessor and neighbor. If you want to get seeds from the bushes, then the plant should not be planted next to fennel, since these two cultures are freely pollinated with each other.
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Dill feels good near cabbage, cucumbers, tomatoes. However, it is necessary to take into account the proportions of areas in the joint plantings of vegetable crops and not plant it in the zone of root nutrition of the main crop.
Important! In the joint planting of dill with other vegetables take into account the competition on the area of food!
When is it worth planting dill?
Young greens are ready for use in 25-30 days after sowing, so it can be sown throughout the growing season, starting with early spring and ending with the wintering season in October.
Planting in the spring begins in April, when the average daily temperature will be 14-16 ° C. On average, such conditions begin on April 20th. Dill sown during this period will produce well-made seeds already in July, when it comes time to pickle and preserve cucumbers and tomatoes. For an uninterrupted supply of fresh herbs to the table, it is recommended that the planting of dill in open ground be a conveyor with an interval of 10-14 days.
Soil for planting
The soil for planting dill should be prepared in advance. If you plan to spring planting, the beds should be prepared in the autumn. The complex of works on soil preparation includes:
- cleaning the beds from the remnants of the previous culture,
- the introduction of organic matter in the form of humus and mineral fertilizers, including potassium and phosphorus,
- deep digging of all components.
In winter, it is good to have a snow retention on the bed, this will help to save more soil in the soil, which is necessary for the fennel seeds during germination.
The complex of works on soil preparation in the spring includes:
- easy loosening and leveling the beds,
- cutting furrows 1.5-2 cm deep
If during the winter there was little moisture, then the bed should initially be well watered with a hose or a watering can.
Manure directly to the garden with dill do not contribute. Well, if the previous culture was cabbage, potatoes or peppers. In this case, manure was used for them and its action will be continued for the plants. If the soil in the area is clayey, heavy, then it is advisable to introduce river sand. This measure will promote better germination of seeds.
Important! Under dill fresh manure can not be made!
Choosing the best grade
When choosing a variety are important indicators of the timing of the formation of stems, as well as the length of the leaves, and hence the amount of the resulting greens. In terms of stalk formation, the following varieties and fennel hybrids are distinguished:
In early varieties, an umbrella is formed on the stem after the formation of leaves (twigs) in an amount of 4 to 6. In medium-sized, 6 to 10 branches should be formed, and in later varieties, the formation of an umbrella takes much longer if there are an equal number of leaves. Among the entire set of varieties, there is a variety with constant growth - Grenadier.
Early group of varieties: Gribovsky, Far, Umbrella, Redut. They are suitable for growing on a windowsill at home, especially the variety Gribovsky.
The group of mid-season varieties includes Cybray, Alligator, Max, Richelieu, Moravan.
Late group of varieties: Superdukat OE, Salut, Kutuzovskiy, Patterns. A distinctive feature of the varieties of this group is the formation of a spreading shrub with elongated leaves, which give axillary branches, because of which the bushes look very lush. These varieties and hybrid forms are called bush. They have some growing features:
- require more fertile soil,
- landing pattern for them is increased to 25 cm due to thinning.
Planting dill in the open ground
As soon as the soil is ready or prioritized in the planting line, they start planting seeds. Various types of beds are suitable for dill: simple, tall boxes, geometric, mobile.
A good way - the joint planting of dill and parsley alternating rows.
In order to accelerate the germination of seeds, they are soaked in warm water or wrapped in a damp cloth. A jar of soaked seeds can be left in the bathroom on a heated towel rail for 2-3 days. Water in a jar or cloth should be added, because the degree of evaporation is high.
Attention! Under no circumstances should seeds be dried with seedlings!
Sowing of seeds is carried out to a depth of 1.5-2 cm. The plantation of dill after thinning should be 10x20 cm, and for the sowing varieties 25x25 cm. When sowing, the seed consumption is 1-2 g / m 2.
Watch the video! How to grow fluffy dill
The timing of planting and seed preparation
Dill planting begins in late April. To ensure a stable yield, they are sown every two weeks throughout the summer. Before planting, it is necessary to properly prepare the seeds.
The procedure is as follows: seeds rub between palms in order to remove the film formed by the essential oils and preventing the penetration of moisture into the seed.
Seed material soaked for three days in cold water, the water should be changed daily to fresh.
In open ground lightly sown seeds are sown, because otherwise they will not have flowability, which will significantly complicate sowing. Drying is suitable for a dry newspaper or cloth, on which the swollen seeds are kept until light drying.
To get a good shoot, you need to know not only how to sow dill correctly, but also to follow some rules. Consider them in more detail:
- You should purchase seeds of several varieties at the same time. An important condition: the ripening period they should be different, and the requirements for care - the same. At least once a month should be sowed seeds again.
- The soil in the future garden beds must be prepared in advance: loose and enriched with nutrients. Sour soil is neutralized by liming.
- To accelerate the germination of seeds planted in open ground, may be pre-soaking for 2-3 days.
- After the first shoots appear, the plants need regular watering and weeding. At this time it is appropriate to fertilize the bed with potash fertilizers.
- Observance of the distance. The distance between rows must be at least 0.3 meters, and between plants - at least 0.1 meters.
- Compliance with the timing of planting seeds. The best period for sowing is early spring or deep autumn (before the onset of frost). The depth of planting in the spring is 0.5 cm, and in the autumn at least 4 cm.
Even if it is right to sow dill and observe all the rules of agricultural technology, but choosing the wrong place on the site, the result will be deplorable: the plants will be pale and useless in composition. Plenty of sunshine - The main condition for the successful cultivation of dill.
Choosing a place
Seeding is not recommended in areas where umbrella crops have already grown - parsley, carrots and celery. For their growth they use the same trace elements as dill, therefore they greatly impoverish the soil.
The best precursors of umbrella crops are cucumbers, cabbage and tomatoes. The main requirements for the site for growing dill are:
- good lighting,
- sufficient humidity
- normal soil type.
The optimum temperature for seed germination is 3 degrees above zero. Therefore, the best time for planting seeds - beginning of May or end of April. Some gardeners successfully use seed coating and claim that this allows them to increase the yield of dill.
Dill seed is planted in the ground in two ways: “in the furrow” or “in line”. The most common last option. The width of the line should be 1 cm, and the distance between the lines themselves - 10 cm.
Sowing "in the furrow»Shows the best results in seed germination. To carry out planting using this method, it is necessary to push a shallow furrow in the wet ground with the help of a board, where you can later sow the dill. The plants in the furrow are more protected from drought and wind, they root better and do not fade when weeding the beds.
The way you plant dill will determine the fate of future plants and the germination rate. After the shoots are pleased with their density and abundance, it is necessary provide the culture with proper care. Otherwise, yellowing and drying will not take long.
The reasons for the yellowing of greens are as follows:
- Insufficient or improper care.
- Excessive density of sowing seeds.
- Poor nutrient soil.
- Lack of moisture.
- The soil has an acid reaction (this disadvantage is eliminated by adding lime to the soil).
For good growth and abundance of green nitrogen fertilizers required. However, fertilizing with industrially produced fertilizers is undesirable because of the ability of the plant to accumulate nitrates. The best solution in this case is watering with fermented five-day infusion of nettle.
Care and Pest Control
Successful cultivation of dill is based on compliance with simple agricultural practices:
- Regular cultivation is an important condition for the successful cultivation of dill.
- Fertilizers are applied every 2 weeks.
- Watering is carried out with warm water every 14 days. Evening time is best for this.
- It is required to carry out regular loosening of the soil and prevent the weeds from suppressing the plants.
Often dill is affected by various pests, among which the aphid leads. You can fight her with nettle infusion. To make the infusion, the grass is finely chopped and infused for a week on the water. The resulting liquid plants watered three days in a row. In this case, plants receive, in addition to protection, excellent feeding.
There is another effective remedy for fighting with aphids - ash. Ash is put into the container, then hot water is poured in and insisted overnight. In the morning, it is necessary to strain the infusion and add a laundry soap. After dissolving the latter, you can start spraying the beds.
A great natural way to control pests is onion peel and rind of citrus fruits. Ingredients pour hot water and insist for several days, then spend spraying. This method is especially effective at the first appearance of aphids. Landing next door thyme will scare away aphids.
Often, the dill appears reddish leaves. This is a sign of insufficient nitrogen and other nutrients in the soil. To avoid this you need to regularly feed the plants with organic fertilizer. However, in this case it is important not to overdo it and not to harm.
The use of insecticides on dill is unacceptable, since the active ingredients remain on the green part of the plant and can cause severe poisoning.
When using fertilizers, the main thing do not exceed the measureotherwise, there is an increased likelihood of developing rot, which thrives on wet, nitrogen-rich soils. It is very important to loosen the ground after watering, as this will provide the root system with oxygen.
There are many varieties for cultivation in the open field. Consider the most popular and high-yielding varieties:
- Gribovsky - differs in early ripeness and frost resistance, has a pronounced aroma and resistance to the main diseases of dill. The grade is demanded among gardeners thanks to the productivity. Large leaves of dark green color differ in juiciness and tenderness. Getting the first harvest is possible on the 38th day after germination.
- Grenadier - is a bush early ripe variety, it is possible to reap a crop for 35 days after shoots. This fennel is disease resistant. One plant can contain no more than 10 leaves, the length of which does not exceed 15 cm.
- Redoubt - also applies to early ripening varieties and is suitable for both seasoning and young greens. The plant is short, its leaves have a wax coating in small quantities. The weight of one plant is 30-40 grams. Культура отличается отличным товарным видом и ароматом.
- Кибрай — очень урожайный сорт. Сбор урожая возможен через 1,5 месяца. Сорт очень ароматен. Растение раскидистое, поэтому расстояние между саженцами на грядке должно быть не менее 20 см. This variety of dill is resistant to diseases and has an excellent yield - up to 5 kg of green mass per 1 sq. M. m
- Lesnogorodsky grade. A distinctive feature of the variety is the ability to build up a green mass even during flowering. This is especially valuable when growing dill in small beds and allows you to get a large crop of good quality. The bushes are low and have dense foliage. Leaves rich green color with a bluish bloom. The variety has a persistent aroma and good keeping quality, which allows for a long time to keep the crop fresh.
- Richelieu. Tall (0.5-1.0 m) and very fragrant, having one stem and large leaves. Excellent aroma and pleasant taste determine the popularity of Diche Richelieu. Crop harvested on 43 days after germination. The continuation of the growth of green mass during flowering increases yield.
- Salute - a bush variety, with rich foliage, having in the outlet from 24 to 28 light green fragrant leaves. Harvesting takes place in 3-4 waves, thanks to stalk resistance.
- Alligator - this variety is suitable for cultivation both in closed and open ground. Harvesting takes place on the 40th day from germination. The leaves have a gray shade and wax coating.
- Borey This variety allows you to harvest a large quantity within 90 days in a row. Differs in fast growth, abundance of green mass and does not turn yellow with time. Planting seeds throughout the summer will not only provide the family with fresh greens, but also allow them to conserve or dry the dill during the cold season.
Healthy and developed plant - decoration garden. To achieve this result, you should use the knowledge of growing dill. Of particular importance is the timely and moderate watering, feeding, plowing the earth to great depths before planting.
Dill turns yellow on alkaline and blushes on acidic soil. A large humus layer avoids plant deficiency of nutrients. Regular feeding plants make it possible to obtain bountiful harvest of vitamin greens.
How to grow dill in the open field
Any plant is only an ornament of the garden, if it is healthy and well developed. It depends on the type of soil, the nature of watering and feeding dill. On the basis of knowledge about the culture, the place of sowing is selected.
So, for dill requires:
- neutral light soil
- sunny or slightly shaded planting place,
- deep topsoil
- moderate watering without stagnant water
- timely balanced feeding.
At the same time, dill develops poorly and turns red on acidic soil and turns yellow on alkaline. For dill health it is necessary to have a good humus layer of soil. Fertilizing with organic and mineral fertilizers when growing dill in the open field will help get a lot of vitamin greens.
Terms of sowing seeds and soil preparation
Sowing dill seeds to produce herbs and seeds can be podzimnym and early spring. For greenery and umbrellas for salting, you can sow the seeds during the whole season until mid-August. In the future, cold-resistant culture, falling under brief frosts, does not die, but loses its decorative foliage, it becomes red and dried.
Dill should not be placed on the soil after liming and making dolomite flour. It is impossible when sowing seeds and in the future to sprinkle with a bed of ashes against pests. Sour marshy soil is detrimental to dill.
Dill soil is prepared in a place open to the sun with a deep digging. At the same time for each square of the earth should be made a bucket of humus or compost, two tablespoons of superphosphate and a spoonful of potassium sulfate. No ash is added to the crop. With a high standing of groundwater, the bed is raised higher. The predecessors of dill can be any plant, except for celery.
Seeds germinate at a soil temperature of 5-7 degrees, while maintaining a brief decrease in temperature. Preliminary preparation of seeds for quick germination consists in the destruction of the covering layer. How to plant dill seeds in open ground depends on the season. So, podzimny sowing make seeds without pre-treatment. It is not necessary to accelerate the seedlings with early sowing. In this case, the optimum time for germination is suggested by the biological calendar of the plant set by nature.
If sowing is carried out later, when return frost is not possible, seedlings can be obtained earlier. To do this, pre-seed germinated within 4 days. In a warm place in a linen cloth, the seeds are naklonut, and shoots appear in a week. You can hold the seed in advance in growth stimulants, ash extract. Water when soaking seeds is replaced 2 times a day.
If you grow dill seedlings, the plant development will accelerate. Seedlings are planted in the evening and in a few days pritenyut. Plant survival is good.
Sowing should be carried out to a depth of 2 cm on the previously spilled hot solution of manganese grooves. The distance between the seeds is 5 cm, between the grooves is 20. You can plant dill seeds in open ground as a compaction culture among other vegetables, leaving enough space for its development. For receiving greens during the whole season, dill crops are made in two weeks. Another way would be the use of varieties of different ripening periods, sowing bush two-year hybrids.
Growing dill in the open field
In order for dill to develop well it needs nitrogen fertilizers. But spicy greens accumulate nitrate compounds, which makes it less healing. Therefore, the best will be to feed the plant fermented for five days with nettle infusion. This is a good nitrogen supplement and does not tolerate aphid. You can immediately perform the protection of the plant and its feeding. Use insecticides in dill can not.
To repel and remove aphid colonies on a vegetable bed, spraying with a solution of an alcohol liquid can be applied. If you use 2 tablespoons of Troy per 10 liters of water, spraying will drive the pest. Alcohol should be only crude ethyl, with fusel odor or fragrance. Aphids will fall, it needs to be covered with earth.
Another way to prevent the main pest of dill greens will be sowing a few thyme bushes, the smell of which will scare away aphids. In addition, you can use liquid fertilizer organic fertilizer, saltpeter. But it should be noted that fungal diseases, rot, develop on wet, nitrogen-rich soils. It is necessary to keep a balance, do not overfeed, do not flood the plant, after each watering loosen the soil, delivering oxygen to the lower layers.
How to grow dill in the open ground, if there are changes in the color of openwork foliage. If the twigs acquire yellowness, you need to feed the plant with saltpeter, watering at the root. Red bottom leaves signal phosphorus deficiency. Bush wilted, despite watering, you need to remove the diseased plant and determine the cause. Often this is due to root rot with improper care. To save such a plant is already impossible, you need to take measures so that the infection does not spread to neighboring bushes.
Useful properties of dill
Greens can be used as they grow. The grass gets the greatest aroma during the formation of the inflorescence, before its opening. At this time, and harvested fragrant greens for winter use. The substances contained in this spicy greens have a beneficial effect on the body in small quantities.
In addition to cooking, where dill is indispensable, it is used for medicinal purposes:
- reduces pressure in hypertensive patients,
- improves the digestive tract,
- has an analgesic effect
- improves the urogenital system,
- improves lactation.
Dill oil and seeds are used with special properties in the use of both drugs. However, you can not abuse the fresh herbs, you can bring your body to a reduced tone and drowsiness.
When should plant?
The season in which the seeds of dill are planted in open ground directly depends on what you want to receive.
So, planting dill in spring and autumn will allow to get as much greenery as possible for human consumption from a single plant, while planting in summer will focus on the development of a so-called umbrella in dill, which is convenient to use for getting seeds, pickling cucumbers, as well as apply in the manufacture of traditional medicine.
If you need to get as much greens as possible, plant dill in open ground in spring and autumn, following these points:
- In the spring, it is possible to plant dill seeds in the ground when the ambient temperature has fixed at + 2-5 ° C. Also, when planting, it is necessary to ensure that the soil is completely thawed. For reliability, the place where it is planned to plant dill seeds 5-7 days before planting should be shed with 1 bucket of hot water. In general, landing starts from mid-March to mid-May, depending on the region of your residence,
- Autumn planting in open ground takes place approximately in October-November, and the colder the climate and the early winter are characteristic of the region where you live, the earlier you need to plant the seeds. Autumn planting of dill is called the "podzimney", and is characterized by the fact that in this case, the leaves of dill ripen much faster. It is important to note the fact that it is possible to harvest the dill planted in the fall 2 weeks earlier than from its spring counterparts, which is extremely pleasing to many gardeners,
- Summer planting of dill in open ground is carried out at any time during the summer period. Many gardeners practice frequent planting of dill, up to 3–4 times, with an interval of 15–20 days to obtain as large a crop as possible.
Dill loves loose soil with an abundance of nutrients. Such soil can be purchased at a specialized gardening shop, or prepare their own.
To prepare the soil at home, adhere to strict adherence to the following points:
- Choose a suitable place on your site for the future planting of dill seeds, in accordance with the above requirements.
- The soil in the chosen place should be prepared in the autumn, so that during the winter period it has settled, and its composition is enriched with nutrients as fully as possible.
- In the autumn period, the chosen place is dug up to a depth of 15 cm, after which rotted manure or compost is applied, at the rate of 5-6 kg per 1 square meter. After applying manure or compost, the soil is carefully dug up and slightly tamped.
- If you do not have organic fertilizer at hand, or you are not a supporter of them, you can fertilize the excavated soil with Kemira Universal and Mortar blend, which can be purchased at any flower shop.
It is worth noting that it is also not recommended to plant dill in heavy soil, as it does not allow oxygen to pass through, against the background of which the seeds germinate longer, and the root system develops more slowly. As a result, the plant does not reach the maximum size.
How to plant?
Sowing dill seeds in the open ground is a fairly simple task that even a child can cope with.
Despite this, from the point of view of a professional gardener, sowing of seeds should be carried out in accordance with the following points:
- Take a narrow wooden peg, or an ordinary stick.
- Approach the planting site of dill harvested from last autumn.
- Depending on the size of the site and the amount of the crop, draw a peg or stick with a series of 2 cm in depth and 20 cm apart.
- Deepenes moderately watered, not turning into dirt.
- Put the seeds in the moistened beds, and covered with dry earth.
In addition, gardeners practice the so-called "carpet" planting of seeds.
This method is performed by randomly scattering dill seeds in a selected area (which may not have been prepared in advance), followed by rake treatment, and moderate watering with water.
This method is suitable for decorating a garden or vegetable garden, as dill does not harm other cultures at all. As for growing for food, we advise to focus on the traditional method of sowing.
It should be noted that when planting dill seeds in the fall, the beds should not be watered, even if they are dry.
Subsequent care for germinating seeds can be limited only to regular, but moderate watering, but this is the case if you grow more dill for beauty and to fill the empty space in the garden.
If you grow dill for food, try to meet the simple requirements listed below:
- Pay attention to watering. Despite the fact that dill does not tolerate excessive moisture, it requires regular but small irrigation, so that the top layer of the earth is always in a slightly damp state, but no more. In general, watering dill is carried out about 1-2 times a week, and in the case of extremely hot summer, the bushes are carefully sprayed in the evening. During the heat of the day it is not necessary to water the dill, as this may cause overheating of the roots.
- Now it's worth talking about fertilizing. So, if you have dill with a short ripening period, fertilizer is not required for it. In all other cases, and especially if you notice a lag in the growth and development of your dill bushes, as soon as they have 2-3 true leaves, add urea or nitrophoska to the soil, at a dosage of 10-15 grams per 1 square meter of bed. If you have a long-ripened variety, it makes sense to feed it twice. The second feeding is done in the same way, but after 20-25 days, and fertilizers are replaced with potassium salt (15 grams per 1 square meter), or urea (20 grams per 1 square meter).
- In order to avoid hardening of the soil after watering and rain, it should be loosened. Loosening takes place in close proximity to the dill bushes and in their aisles. The first loosening occurs at a depth of up to 7 cm, and subsequent loosening at a depth of up to 12 cm. Loosen extremely carefully so as not to damage the root system (do not loosen under the trunk of dill bushes).
- It is highly desirable in the hottest summer chesy to cover the fennel canopy. To do this, you can install a few pegs along the perimeter of the dill beds and tighten them with an awning. It is important to note that such a shelter should be used only during the hottest hours of the day; in other cases, the dill should receive the sunlight it needs,
- Take care of the health of your dill. If aphid is found on dill, treat it with ashes or powdered sugar. If the dill hit the flea, you will help "Fitosporin." If dill has been infected with a fungus, Fitosporin, Trichodermin and Mikosan-B will come to your aid. These funds are based on organic ingredients, so dill after their processing can be eaten after only 3-4 days. Remember, dill is forbidden to be treated with chemical fertilizers and pesticides, as they accumulate in its structure and are poorly developed, which is guaranteed to lead to your poisoning or other side effects!
Collection and storage
Touching on the topic of growing dill, we cannot but mention the rules for its collection and storage, which are described in detail below:
- Dill is harvested 30-40 days after sprouting.
- The most valuable part of dill is in its leaves. You can collect as separate its leaves without tearing the stem, or it is banal to tear the entire bush.
- Tightening with the assembly of dill should not be, if you overdo it on the garden and let it bloom, dill will lose its taste, become tough and tasteless.
- After the release of dill arrows, the plant is removed. It makes sense to save the dill that has thrown away the arrow only when you plan to use it as a seasoning for cooking canned vegetables and pickles.
- Dill should be harvested early in the morning, since it is in this case that it will have the most beautiful and fresh look.
- Next, the dill is put in plastic bags, and placed in the refrigerator. You can also put the dill in a glass of water, and also leave in the refrigerator. In these cases, the dill is stored for a week.
- For the long-term preservation of dill in a green form, it is frozen in a plastic bag.
- For drying, the dill bushes are washed and laid out in the sun before it dries, after which they are ground and put into dry cloth bags, hung in a dark and dry place, and stored this way all winter.
Today we talked in detail about how to grow dill from seeds in the open field, and found that growing this crop in this way is a simple and effective crane. Based on this, it should be stated that sowing dill in open ground is a great way to get fresh and high-quality greens for the whole year, in some cases to decorate your land, and for beginners to gain valuable experience, without any extra effort!
The method of planting dill seedlings allows you to get fresh greens in late April. The timing of planting seeds is the first and second decade of March. For sowing, cells with a size of 4x4 or 5x5 cm are used, plastic greenhouses with a transparent lid are suitable, but in this case the seedlings will be more difficult to take root because it is possible that the clod of earth at the root will be damaged during transplantation. Seedlings transferred into the open ground under temporary greenhouses April 15-20.
Болезни и вредители
Особенность растений укропа – сильная поражаемость мучнистой росой. Различные сорта в той или мере подвержены этой грибной болезни. Главная мера борьбы – профилактика. Комплекс профилактических мер включает:
- выбор солнечного места для посадки,
- регулярные поливы и рыхления,
- незагущенные посевы,
- соблюдение чередования культур.
It is possible to apply fungicides only on plants which are grown up on seeds. If cutting is carried out less often than once a week, the bed can be treated with 1% copper sulphate. From biological preparations, Alirin B. will be suitable. If blackening of the shoots is noticed, then the plants are affected by another fungal disease - fomoz.
Of pests on dill bugs can settle, some species of aphids. To combat them, you should apply mechanical removal and flush pests away with a strong water jet.
Greenhouse growing dill
In the greenhouse, dill can be grown throughout the year. The average daily air temperature is not lower than 16 ° C. From the end of September until the end of March, the dill needs lighting. When a large area of the greenhouse is better to choose sodium lamps for illumination. For small areas, the industry is now producing blue-red LED lamps.
Reference! For additional illumination, it is enough that the artificial light is switched on for 2-3 hours in the morning and 3-4 hours in the evening.
The potential yield of dill in the greenhouse is higher than in open ground. It is necessary to maintain a high fertility of the soil, to add a new land before each sowing. However, with high humidity in the greenhouse, powdery mildew may develop.
Watch the video! Growing dill in the greenhouse in the fall. Cleaning by thinning
Dill sowing in winter is carried out in mid-October, before a steady snow cover is laid. It is better that the seeds do not have time to germinate. In early spring, as soon as the snow melts, these seeds will quickly germinate and produce greenery faster than when sown in spring.
If the sprouts have grown, the bed should be covered with foliage or straw, the green will safely endure the winter, and in the spring it will quickly start growing. Young twigs will be especially fragrant!
How to plant dill on the windowsill?
When growing dill on a windowsill, plants are often oppressed due to lack of light and nutrients. Sprouts are thin and pale, grow very slowly and sluggishly.
Thus, the cultivation of dill on the windowsill has several features:
- In autumn, winter and spring, sprouts need additional light,
- The soil for growing greens should be highly fertile,
- For planting more convenient to use the container
- Greens on the windowsill should often be fertilized with compositions based on biohumus and trace elements.
For a more complete development of the technology of growing dill, it is recommended to get acquainted with the video.
Thus, planting and caring for dill is not too burdensome. It is important to choose the right place for the beds and regularly carry out all activities. The result is sure to be, and the plants will give a lot of delicious fragrant greens and valuable seeds. And if you wish, dill will grow on the windowsill!
Watch the video! Subtleties growing dill. How to sow dill in open ground