Lemon is a heat-loving perennial tree that can be grown at home. Such a citrus crop, planted at room temperature from a stone, will always delight the eye with its evergreen leaves.
But in order to get fragrant yellow fruits, it is necessary to plant the plant correctly.
Features and conditions of vaccination
Growing lemon at home is an easy process. This requires high-quality material for planting, a container with the ground and good care for the culture. Compliance with all the conditions necessary for growth will provide an opportunity to grow a beautiful citrus tree with strong fleshy leaves. It may begin to bear fruit in no less than seven years.
Get useful fruit can be much faster if you plant a culture, choosing the appropriate option. This procedure will allow you to get the first harvest in three years. Some lemon varieties can produce fruit in the first year after grafting.
Vaccination is the movement of shoots or buds from one selected plant to another for full fusion. This action must be performed one year after planting, when a strong green stem will sprout from a bone.
The best period for transplanting buds or shoots is the middle of spring. At this time, the plant comes the moment of increasing the activity of all the processes necessary for life. If necessary, you can graft lemon at home in August.
How to plant a lemon tree
How to pick a stock?
For the effectiveness of the vaccination result, a high-quality stock should be selected - the culture to be planted. A good mother plant will be a sprout grown from a seed with a diameter of half a centimeter.
Strong seedlings of such citrus crops as grapefruit, orange and lemon are often used as rootstocks. When choosing a plant for vaccination, one should take into account the distinctive characteristics of the plant - growth, taste, and propensity for diseases.
Before the engraftment process, several small lemon branches are harvested. Such a graft - the material that is grafted on the mother's seedling, should be taken only fruiting plants. The processes are cleared of thorns and leaves. Only embryonic shoots and scapes should remain on the branches.
Home Lemon Grafting Techniques
Several grafts are used for grafting citrus crops:
- Cuttings. This method can be applied in the spring and summer. It is carried out with the help of branches with a certain number of leaves. You can perform two cuttings - "behind the bark" and "in the split"
- Copulation. In the process of grafting, the stock is used and the part grafted onto it with the same thickness. Such a connection with cuttings is simple and advanced.
- Budding. This method of vaccination is the most common. The deadline is April and May. For budding, a single kidney with a thin woody coating is used, which is selected from the stalk of a cultivated plant. Such a peephole is inserted into the bark of the stock.
A month before vaccination, it is necessary to check the condition of the roots of the crop and, if necessary, replace the soil.
Grafted lemon that began to grow
How to graft cutting?
In early spring, the plant comes the revival of all life processes. A tree actively grows branches and leaves, which are good material for cuttings.
Grafting a lemon with the help of a young graft is done in several stages:
- the stock cleared of dust is cut horizontally at a height of five centimeters from the ground,
- vertical splitting is performed to a depth of two centimeters of the main stem,
- at the bottom of the cutting, an oblique cut is made equal to the cut on the stem,
- the stem at the end with the bud is inserted into the incision,
- the graft, which entered the incision, gently pressed down to the stalk,
- junction carefully wrapped with plastic tape,
- The cut on the stem is coated with a special garden pitch.
Such a grafting by grafting is called “behind the bark”.
The engraftment of the cutting "in cleft" is performed a little differently:
- the whole bark is cut from the stem at a distance of seven centimeters,
- the remaining stock is divided in half with a sharp knife to a depth of two to four centimeters,
- the base of the cutting slanting is cut from opposite sides,
- a graft is inserted into the incision, on which there must be at least three kidneys,
- The grafting area is wound with a film material.
For effective grafting, it is necessary that the bark of the scion and rootstock be pressed during the winding.
A container with a grafted citrus tree is placed in a warm place where regular airing should be carried out. When the yellowed petioles begin to fall off, the dressing should be slightly dispersed, and with the active development of the kidneys, it is completely removed.
Lemon tree cutting
This method of vaccination should be carried out during the serenity of the plant, which occurs in the winter. It is also possible to carry out copulation in early spring until the buds begin to appear.
This vaccination is one of the common variants of grafting. Making it pretty simple:
- stock and graft are selected with the same thickness,
- identical oblique cuts are made on the stem of the mother plant and the handle,
- cut surfaces are aligned with each other,
- place docking neatly rewind tape.
The winding should be done very carefully, the matched pressed sections are not shifted. With the right combination, sticking stalk will come to life after a while, sprouting. If such signs appear, remove the dressing.
Lemon copulation scheme
How to instill lemon at home so that it fructifies by budding?
Budding or grafting of the eye is the easiest method of grafting using cuttings. This process can be performed from mid-spring to late August. During this period, the plant begins active sap flow. In spring, a germinated eye is selected for grafting, and at the end of summer, the material is used in a dormant state.
For a scion, you need to cut off the shoot with a kidney with a clean, sharp knife and make two cuts horizontally. The first is one centimeter above the bud, the second one is one and a half centimeter lower than the embryonic shoot.
For engraftment cuttings by budding it is necessary:
- on the bark of a well-cleaned stock, make an incision in the shape of the letter “T”,
- the angle in the crust, formed as a result of the incision, slightly bend,
- put the prepared graft into the formed gap,
- the vaccination site is wrapped with tape so that the kidney itself remains open,
- the surface where the vaccination was carried out, is covered with garden pitch.
The grafted plant is covered with a plastic bottle or plastic bag to create a greenhouse effect. In the process of accretion of the scion and rootstock perform regular airing and carry out the removal of unwanted shoots.
Lemon budding scheme
The connecting bandage and greenhouse cover is removed in a month. If the budding is successful, then the cutting should fall off, leaving only an eye on the stem. The stock is cut at a distance of ten centimeters from the grafted bud.
To achieve the best result, you should follow some recommendations from practicing gardeners:
- absolute sterility of the whole process
- all cuts should be made with a sharp, well-ground knife,
- for stock to use healthy strong plants,
- to remove extra shoots on the stem after vaccination,
- water a large amount of stock
- after grafting use a greenhouse, which should be regularly aired,
- to moisten the soil in a mini-greenhouse, using a cotton swab moistened with water.
After a successful accretion, the young grafted branch is tied to the stem in a horizontal position. A grafted citrus plant should be constantly watered to prevent drying out of the soil.
Plant a lemon at home and get over the first harvest under the force of each. For a fruitful result, it is necessary to choose a method of vaccination, and to correctly produce the process.
What is a lemon inoculated for?
Garden plants are grafted to obtain the beneficial properties of one and the other tree. For example, a more delicate variety can be grafted onto a frost-resistant apple variety. The resulting hybrid will be resistant to cold, but the fruit will be more delicious thermophilic fruits.
Citrus fruits can be grafted to each other without any problems. With a certain luck and the choice of the method of budding, you can get a small tree, on which grow mandarins, grapefruits and lemons. It all depends on your luck as a garden surgeon and fantasy.
There are 3 main methods of vaccination:
- Budding - insertion of the "eye", the buds of the cultivated plant and its implantation in the bark. This is the most gentle and most common citrus graft method. Oculus means an eye in Latin.
- Vaccination by cutting. In this case, it is not the bud from the cultivated plant that is planted, but a whole branch with leaves. The gentle method allows for implantation behind the cortex, there is a method of implantation "in the split". In this case, the stem splits and grafted cutting is inserted into it.
- Copulation - association, lat. copulare The copulation method involves trying to graft the stalk on a trunk that is similar in thickness.
After vaccination, the lemon begins to bear fruit almost immediately. It makes sense to plant a sapling about 3 years old with a formed trunk. Thus, the vaccine saves about 6 years of waiting for ripe lemon. After cultivation, you can expect better fruit than from wild lemon, which sprouted from the stone.
What is particularly curious, you can graft a lemon on a seedling of another citrus plant. This is one of the features of cultural grafting. Out of curiosity, they say, young Michurinians once raised a “tree of peace” in Artek, where on one trunk they successfully grew and bred a variety of garden crops at the same time.
- a scalpel or similar knife of razor sharpness and subtlety,
- adhesive tape, insulating tape or adhesive tape,
- garden knife
- pruner for cutting branches,
- natural linseed or garden var.
Inoculation is a traumatic procedure for a plant. Perhaps not everything will go as it should, there is a risk of ruining the plant. The risks to the plant are due to the possible introduction of infection or damage.
Pay attention to the hygiene of the process, do not touch the cuts with your fingers, take care of the sharpness of the tools and immediately after the process is completed, cut the cuts with a garden cook. The sapling on which the stock is performed must be sufficiently developed and have some significant trunk thickness.
Grafting is best done in late spring, when the sun appears, and the plant prepares for active growth. You can plant plants in the flowering period. Experienced gardeners successfully plant plants in the fall, but less likely to succeed.
Technological features and sequence of actions
As a graft, choose an adult fruiting plant, the fruits of which you are satisfied in quality, size and taste.
- The branch from which we take a live kidney or a branch for a graft, you need to wipe thoroughly with a wet rag. Wash the places of future cuts as carefully as possible.
- Using a scalpel on the branch of the donor, carefully cut off a fresh kidney or a young branch with a flap of bark about a centimeter above and below. It would be nice if you cut some wood. This is better than not getting to the deep layers of the bark that provide nourishment for the plant sap.
- The cutting surface is forbidden to touch with your fingers, otherwise the engraftment will not occur. Immediately move the graft to a wet, clean rag and quickly treat the damaged branch of the donor with a garden pore to prevent infection.
- On the trunk of a lemon tree, to which you are inoculating a new shoot or bud, make a thin vertical incision. The cut must be done strictly under the green leaf. In this incision, gently prying the bark, you need to put a bud or a branch that you cut from a fruit tree.
- If you doubt your surgeon's skill and dexterity of your fingers, make an incision in the shape of the letter “T” - so it is easier to bend the flaps of the cortex.
- Carefully place the grafting material in the incision with the cuffs. Place the flaps over the grafted material, wind the result to the barrel, securing it with tape or adhesive tape. After a couple of hours, process the garden cook.
- Forget to leave room for further growth of the grafted material.
- After a couple of days, it will be clear whether the material has taken root or not. Let me remind you that you are not obliged to graft a lemon on a lemon. You can plant a tangerine or another citrus you like.
- After the grafted bud or branch has gone into growth, all the branches located above are cut so that the nutrition and further growth of the tree takes place through the grafted material.
Cutting a plant is not a requirement. You can leave, for example, a lemon with one mandarin branch or grow different varieties of lemon on one tree.
Be sure to watch the video, how to plant a lemon:
How to grow a lemon from the stone without effort
Many people are interested in the process of sprouting a lemon from a stone. Everything is very simple. Lemon in hot tea is subjected to special temperature effects, coincidentally coinciding with the ideal for germination.
Because the bones, just spit out of the tea in a well-prepared wet ground, have excellent chances of success. It is better to weed out the sprouts right away, do not touch the bone on the top of the sprout, do not tear it off and in no way try to help the new plant. Just provide good watering, lighting and fertilizing.
Vaccination requires certain skills, and you should not be upset if the increase does not happen the first time, because no method gives a 100% guarantee of survival. In case of failure, an attempt can be made again.
The work will require the following tools:
- grafting knife and pruner,
- graft from the maternal fruiting tree at home,
- inoculation tape
- garden var for processing,
- wet cloth
The stock usually serves as a small tree grown from a bone of lemon, grapefruit or orange. The thickness of the trunk should be about 5-6 cm. But it should be remembered that such a plant will grow strongly over time, so it is better to use the bones of dwarf trees.
Grafted lemon tree at home
For vaccinations, it is best to use varieties of lemons such as Meyer and Dioscuria. They begin to bloom in the same year, and bear fruit next year and take root well. Privoem is a sprig, cut from an adult tree. It is recommended to cut the cutting before the procedure itself, and if this is not possible, it should be wrapped in a damp cloth and stored in the refrigerator.
So, if you already have a grown tree, prepared graft and all the tools, you can proceed to the vaccination. It should be remembered that the best time for this procedure is from April to August, when the juice is actively moving in the barrel. It is recommended to perform this work on a cloudy, rainy day, when the humidity is highest. This has a positive effect on the graft.
Before starting work, you need to wash your hands and wipe the secateurs and knife with alcohol. It should be remembered that you can not touch with your hands fresh slices, otherwise you can bring the infection.
Grafting a lemon by budding
If a seedling lemon has reached 6mm in diameter, it can be grafted:
- the trunk is wiped with a damp cloth, at a height of 5-6 cm from the ground, the bark is carefully cut in the shape of the letter “T” (first a horizontal incision is made 1 cm long and then from the middle downward the second - by 2.5 cm, trying not to touch core), the edges of the vertical section are gently bent with a knife,
- With a sharp blade of a fruiting lemon tree, a peephole is cut off so that on the back side there is a small plate of thin bark of the branch,
- In the incision with turned edges insert a twig so that it fits snugly to the wood,
- The vaccination site must be tightly wrapped with a special tape from top to bottom, while leaving the peephole open.
For greater confidence in success, two buds can be vaccinated simultaneously. When it becomes clear that the twig has taken root, it is necessary to cut the seedling crown 5-6 mm above the grafting site. It is also important to regularly remove the shoots on the trunk of the lemon seedling so that it does not pull on the juices.
How to instill lemon at home by copulating
For grafting to these methods, it is necessary to select a stock and a graft of approximately the same diameter. Sections are made equal to the length (3-4 cm) and without tubercles. In each of them in the middle it is necessary to make a vertical incision, up to 1 cm deep.
Lemon grafting scheme by copulating
Then both cuts are joined so that the vertical cuts fit tightly into one another. Место прививки туго обматывают специальной лентой (если найти её не удалось, то можно использовать медицинскую перчатку, разрезанную на полоски). Полученный материал очень эластичный, не рвется и плотно обжимает прививку.
Прививка лимона в расщеп
Процедура прививания лимона в расщеп проводится следующим образом:
- We process with a wet napkin a stock and a seedling,
- With a pruner we do horizontal pruning of a tree at a height of 5-10 cm from the ground,
- Use a sharp knife to cut the trunk in the middle to a depth of 2-3 cm,
- Screw we make two oblique cuts in the form of a sharp wedge 2.5-3 cm long,
- Insert the prepared lemon branch in the split (you can use two grafts at the same time),
- Place the vaccination tightly wrapped, and gloss over the stump with a garden warp.
How to instill lemon with a special pruner
Currently, the easiest and most reliable way to grow lemon at home is to use the grafting pruner Professional Grafting Tool. The advantage of this tool is that with it, the slices are obtained as even and equal as possible, which significantly increases the likelihood of quality accretion and eliminates infection.
Cuts on the cuttings of lemon, made grafting secateurs
The pruner has several nozzles of different configurations for different methods of grafting. With it, the stock roots are cut and the scion is cut, the cuts are combined and wrapped with insulating tape. In this case, the tree and the lemon branch should be about the same diameter.
Plant care after vaccination
Properly performed procedure and care for a young plant is the key to success. Therefore, it is necessary to start taking care of the future home-made lemon from the very first day:
- On the need to remove all the leaves,
- Grafted lemon should be covered with a glass jar, plastic bottle or plastic bag, tightly fixed on the pot braid,
- This greenhouse must be ventilated twice a day for 2-3 minutes,
- To create high humidity, a wet cotton swab can be placed under the plastic.
- After 14-15 days, it’s time to check how the stalks of leaves stick on the rooted branch: if they are easily separated, then the graft went well and the bandage should be loosened.
- In the case when the cutting is darkened, it means that the grafting was unsuccessful and the whole procedure will have to be repeated on the new material.
For complete growth of the lemon branch it will take 3 weeks. Gradually increase the ventilation time. A month later, the stock is cut at a height of 10 cm from the vaccination site (if budding was done).
Over time, the shoot must grow and will need to be removed. It is advisable to fix the vertical position of a young lemon sprig by placing a support in a pot or tying it to the trunk of a tree. Water the plant should be moderately and regularly, not allowing the soil to dry.
Lemon grown in indoor conditions, not whimsical to care. If the grafting procedure was successful, then in 2-3 years it will be possible to enjoy the first juicy fruits.
Before grafting a lemon at home, you need to choose the desired method and examine in detail the step-by-step recommendations of experienced gardeners. Grafting pruner is the best option for the procedure. If the branch has taken root, then soon you will receive not only a beautiful tree, but also environmentally friendly and healthy fruits.
Why plant a lemon tree?
The main agrotechnical task is the stimulation of fruit formation. The first ovaries on unvaccinated lemons appear on the 7-9 year, on the vaccinated - 2 years after the procedure.
This technology consists in combining parts of 2 plants:
- a stock - a sapling on which inoculation is made,
- graft is a part of a fruiting shrub / tree grafted by a stock to give it certain properties.
As a scion can be used buds, cuttings of a fruit tree. The method of vaccination will depend on the selected material. There are several:
- Budding - the tree of a home fertile tree is used as a parent material.
- Copulation is the rooting method on the handle, in which the size of the maternal shoot and the rootstock branch are the same.
- In the split - the graft of the graft is inserted into the split, made on the shoot of the stock.
When choosing a graft, experienced gardeners recommend targeting mother plants that produce fruits in indoor conditions. The best material for vaccination are Pavlovsky, Maikop, Kursk varieties. The shoots of other citrus fruits (grapefruit, orange, lime) are also used as cuttings on the stock.
It is possible to plant seedlings from the age of one and a half. The optimal period is the period from 1.5 to 2.5 years.
Over time, the vegetative processes in the plant slow down, foreign materials on the trunk of a four-year citrus are less likely to survive. In this case, young shoots with tender bark are chosen for work. It is possible to inoculate not only fruit plants, but also hibiscus, home care for which is not so difficult. If the work was crowned with success, then flowers of different shades will appear on the same plant.
Which way to choose?
At the preparatory stage, the seedling is examined for the presence of diseases and developmental defects. Weak root system, underdeveloped crown, soil diseases affect the quality of vaccination. When any disease is detected, the plant is isolated from others, and measures are taken to eliminate them.
During the inspection, determine the most appropriate method. Copulation is a universal technique, budding is used when the crown is formed on a young shoot, splits are not installed on a thin trunk. The best stock will be a shoot with a trunk diameter of 5-6 cm.
At the request of the owner at the same time 2 vaccinations can be made on 1 sapling. Upon reaching the age of four 2 scions on one stock - a mandatory procedure. The lower the mother material is grafted, the less will be the height of the adult bush. This technique is often used by connoisseurs of stunted crops. Despite the fact that, for example, home boxwood grow easier, but the experiment is worth it.
For work, you will need a set of tools:
- grafting knife (if available),
- small tape
- garden pitch,
- wet natural fabric (possibly cotton),
Before work, disinfect the instruments, wash their hands thoroughly. These measures help prevent infection in the incision site.
There are more than 10 methods of grafting plants. For indoor shrubs suitable are:
- splitting method
Each of these techniques has its own advantages and disadvantages; it is distinguished by its methodical originality.
Budding lemon tree
Often improper budding (kidney inoculation) leads to stem deformity and delayed development of the seedling. In connection with this, more experienced gardeners are practicing graft bark.
- The barrel at a height of 5-6 cm from the base is wiped with an alcohol or antiseptic solution.
- In the selected area make a T-shaped incision of 1: 2.5 cm. The first is carried out a horizontal incision, the second is conducted down from its center. The edges of the cortex are bent off with a knife.
- A bud is cut from the mother tree with the area of bark under it.
On the engraftment of the eye will take at least 3 weeks. After the expiration of the prescribed period, the bandage is removed, and the cut is treated with garden pitch as necessary. A seed crown, located 6 mm above the grafted bud, is cut.
An analogue of budding is grafting over the bark. The difference in methods is that in the second case not a bud is inserted into the incision, but a shoot of a fruiting citrus.
Budding is carried out during active sap flow.
In this case, the bark can be easily separated from the wood. For better sap flow, the seedling is watered abundantly a few days before work.
Vaccination by cutting (split)
Successfully graft cutting can be almost any tree. For the procedure suitable maternal escape diameter less than the thickness of the rootstock. In most cases, the method is in demand among flower growers who grow a lemon tree from a stone.
To inoculate a lemon at home, growers follow the instructions:
- Seedling and graft are disinfected.
- The stock is pruned to 5 cm above the soil level. An incision of 2 cm in depth is made on the trunk.
How to determine whether a lemon is vaccinated?
The first signs that the operation was successful, appear after 7 days. If the foliage on the stalk is easily separated from the stem, gardeners weaken the harness. Darkened stalks are a sign of a failed operation. A dried dark kidney is also a signal that the tree needs to be re-grafted.
Some connoisseurs of home greens prefer to purchase a ready seedling, rather than growing a seedling from pits. Bushes offered in specialized stores may be grafted in advance. In this case, the repeated operation may adversely affect the condition of the plant. To determine grafting, the barrel is inspected for strain. The pineal seals on the bark indicate that citrus will bear fruit. If the barrel is smooth without growths, the owner chooses the appropriate period when it is necessary to inoculate a lemon.
The timing of vaccinations and the subsequent care of the plant
Favorable time for the procedure are the periods of beginning (April) and completion (August) of the growing season. Kidney or stalk take root on the trunk no more than 3 weeks. The first signs of a successful operation are noticeable after a week.
Vaccination of lemon at home requires later special care of the plant:
- On the graft graft remove all shoots. The treated lemon is covered with a glass or plastic dome, a transparent plastic bag. It is important to create greenhouse conditions.
Why doesn't a lemon bloom?
After healing, citrus should bloom next season. Buds are formed in the spring at a temperature of + 15 ° C. Flowering plants are cross-pollinated. To do this, use a small brush. With its help, pollen from one flower is shaken off to another.
Lack of ovaries is not always a sign of poor vaccination. In this case, the owners begin to torment doubts, why refuses to bloom lemon. There are several environmental factors that adversely affect the formation of buds. These include:
- low room temperature
- insufficient lighting,
- low acid soil
- traumatic pruning,
- unbalanced dressing.
Experienced growers recommend mulching the soil in a flower pot with rotted manure or humus to additionally feed the tree and reduce moisture evaporation. With a strong growth of shoots and poor flowering, it is required to temporarily increase the introduction of phosphorus and reduce the amount of nitrogen. Then lemon will appear soon.
If you give the tree enough light, heat and nutrients, it will surely bloom. Ovary and ripening fruits last for 9 months, i.e. from May to November. After the specified period, the fruit can be eaten.
Benefits of the procedure
It is necessary to wait when the ovaries arise from the seeds of a lemon, it takes a long time, and the fruitful crops that are sold place high demands on cultivation and adapt problematically to new conditions.
Not every gardener decides to plant a lemon tree. Beginners believe that carrying out such a procedure is prohibited without certain skills. Indeed, one should not begin vaccination if one does not know the basic processes, and also if the material for the vaccination or the tools are not prepared. If all the rules have been met, then a properly conducted grafting of a plant will give the grower many advantages:
- grafting helps speed up the fruiting homemade lemon,
- on branches, plants are tied up and mature high-quality varietal fruits, the properties of which are predetermined, which is especially appreciated because of the many hybrids that do not transfer their individual characteristics to new plants grown from seeds,
- lemon is allowed to graft on home-grown orange or any other citrus fruit.
Before grafting a lemon so that it will bear fruit the next year of cultivation, you need to prepare all the necessary tools. In this case, use:
- a sharp knife or a small scalpel,
- garden pitch,
- garden bandage or insulating tape.
So that the vaccination was carried out without unnecessary problems, and the alien branch or the lemon bud managed to adapt, the procedure is carried out in April or May, when the plant begins active activity. At this time, the bark quickly lags behind the wood, which at times facilitates the work of the grower. The second term, when it is allowed to carry out plant grafting, is the end of the summer season.
It is important to remember that all instruments must be sterilized without fail. Before grafting lemon shoots at the site of future cuts, it is important to wipe them well with a damp cloth.
Selection of stock and scion
At home, lemon can be grafted in several effective and easy ways available even to inexperienced gardeners. But first you need to prepare the graft and stock.
Before picking, it is important to pre-prepare several small lemon branches. Such a graft is a material that survives on the mother culture, it is important to take only from a fruiting plant. From the shoots taken remove leaflets and spikes. On the branches it is important to keep only the scapes, as well as embryonic shoots.
For a scion, use a bud or stalk, which are cut from a two-year or one-year-old shoot of a fruit bearing culture. The material for vaccination is collected before the procedure itself, it requires a careful attitude. Before vaccination, it is important to place it on a damp cloth and cover it with a film.
In this case, strong mature trees of orange or lemon can serve as a stock (they should already be one year old). If the vaccination is carried out on an adult culture, it is important to remember that the stem and branch should not be thinner than 7 mm.
When selecting a maternal culture, it is important to remember without fail about its main features - growth, taste, tendency to be affected by harmful insects and diseases. The best option for grafting room culture would be stock of dwarf or low-growing plants.
To be effective, grafting can be done in several ways. Experts recommend using for this:
- Cuttings. This method is allowed to use in the summer and spring. It is carried out with branches that have a certain amount of foliage. Cutting is divided into two more ways - in the split or behind the bark.
- Copulation. When grafting a plant, a stock is applied and the material being grafted with the same thickness. This procedure is more simple and effective.
- Budding. Gardeners use this method most often. The best period for the procedure are the spring months - April and May. Budding involves the use of a single, wood-covered bud; it is selected from the stalk of a cultivated flower. The resulting eye is placed in the bark of the stock.
A month before the vaccination, it is imperative to check the condition of the plant and its rhizomes, if necessary, change the soil mixture to a new one.
At the beginning of the spring season, the plants leave the state of rest and begin their vigorous activity. The tree quickly grow branches and leaves, which become good material for grafting. Grafting a lemon by grafting is done according to the following instructions:
- the stock cleared of pollution is cut off in a horizontal direction at a height of 5 cm from the soil,
- further vertical splitting is carried out to a depth of 2 cm from the stem,
- in the lower part of the material taken is a cut, which is equal to a notch on the main stem,
- the stem with the bud is placed in the created incision,
- graft, which is set counter to, you need to gently press down to the stem,
- place the combination of material and scion need to wrap a special tape,
- an incision on the main stem is smeared with a special garden pitch.
This method of grafting grafting is called "for the bark." Young cultures have a negative attitude towards the direct rays of the sun. The best option for growing plants in the home will be the installation of lamps with daylight. Grafting the cutting with the help of splitting is carried out according to another principle:
- from the stem, the entire bark is cut at a distance of about 7 cm,
- then the stock is cut in half with a sharp knife to a depth of 2 to 4 cm,
- the beginning of the cutting is incised from two sides,
- the graft is placed in the resulting incision, on which it is important to leave only three kidneys,
- the place of combining the scion and the material is wrapped with plastic tape.
In order to achieve the greatest effect from the procedure, it is important that the bark of the scion and rootstock is tightly pressed in the process of wrapping with polyethylene. The container with a grafted handle is placed in a warm place.
The room in which the grafted material grows, it is important to regularly ventilate. After the stalks begin to fade, turn yellow and fall off over time, the dressing needs to be slightly dissolved, and with the active formation of the kidneys completely removed.
This method is important to carry out in the winter, when the culture flows into a state of rest. Also, copulation is allowed to be carried out in the spring, when the buds on the plant have not yet begun to form. This method of engraftment is considered more widely applicable. Колировать лимон не так сложно:
- выбирают подвой и привой, которые обладают одинаковой толщиной,
- на стебле материнской культуры и черенке создаются одинаковые срезы в косом направлении,
- срезанные участки совмещаются,
- The contact area of the scion and stock is wrapped with a special plastic tape.
It is important to carry out the winding carefully so that the pressed cuts do not accidentally change their position. With the right combination of cuttings, after some time will go out of dormancy and start new sprouts. When the first signs of sprout development appear, it is important to immediately remove the polyethylene.
Budding at home
Budding (in another way - grafting by the eye) is a simpler method of grafting by cuttings. The procedure is allowed to take place from mid-spring to the end of the summer season. At this time, cultures begin the process of sap flow. In spring, the already germinated eye is used for plant grafting, and at the end of summer, the material is applied in a dormant state.
For a scion, a shoot with a kidney is cut off with a sharpened knife. Next, it makes several cuts in the horizontal direction. The first is carried out 1 cm above the kidney, the second - 1.5 cm below the cut-off shoot. To carry out budding it is important to do the following manipulations:
- a cut in the shape of the letter T is made on the bark of the cleaned stock,
- after the incision, the bark needs to be slightly bent to the side
- the prepared inoculation material is placed in the resulting gap,
- the place where the scion and rootstock combine is wrapped in polyethylene, while it is important to take into account that the kidney itself remains on the surface,
- the place where the vaccination was carried out, is treated with a special pitch.
Graft culture is important to cover with a plastic bottle with a cut off top or plastic bag - this will help ensure the greenhouse effect. When two materials grow together, it is important for them to give airing and regularly remove excess shoots from them.
It is allowed to clean the joint dressing and the greenhouse shelter after one month. If the budding was carried out qualitatively, then the cutting will disappear on its own, and on the stem after it will remain an eye. The stock is cut at a distance of about 10 cm from the grafted bud.
Budding is important to conduct in cloudy weather. High air humidity will help protect the kidney from excessive dryness. The best effect can be achieved If you follow all the advice of experts:
- ensure sterility of the whole procedure,
- it is important to make all cuts with a well-sharpened knife,
- strong and healthy cultures are used for stocking,
- after vaccination, it is important to eliminate all excess shoots,
- It is important to irrigate the mother culture for several days before vaccination,
- after inoculation a polyethylene film is used, which is often ventilated,
- the soil in the installed greenhouse is moistened with a cotton swab moistened with water.
After high-quality accretion, the grafted branch is tied to the main stem. The resulting grafted lemon is important to regularly water, avoiding drying out of the soil.
Lemon can be grafted by your own efforts at home without spending too much time. To achieve the maximum effect, it is important to choose a more suitable method of vaccination, as well as properly carry out the entire procedure.
Why do you need a vaccination of lemon
Vaccination is the process of moving buds or shoots from one crop to another in order to grow. The optimal time to perform the procedure is spring.
To plant a homemade lemon tree is necessary in order for it to begin to bear fruit faster. More varieties will grow on the branches, which will be of high quality and not hybrid without transferring their properties to "descendants", as in the case of growing from seeds. There is an opportunity to plant a lemon on a cultured orange or other citrus plant.
The right choice of stock
There are also varieties of lemons like Dioskuria and Meyer, which take root well, flowering occurs in the year of grafting, and the fruit can be tasted the very next year.
The stock for any lemon variety can be strong shoots of oranges, grapefruits or lemons grown independently. They have detached, developed and strong roots, hardy and quickly get used to new conditions. The best option stocks are considered stunted and dwarf plants.
When choosing, one should pay attention not only to growth, but also taste, as well as the tendency of the culture to disease. A sprout from a seed that has a diameter of 0.5 cm will become a good mother plant. The graft is taken from a fruit bearing culture. The processes must be cleared of foliage and thorns, on the branches they leave scapes and embryonic shoots.
Benefits of grafting a lemon tree
All cultivars of citrus trees are selective hybrids. Seeds of lemon purchased in the store grow well in room conditions. A few years later a tree with a developed root system, branches and beautiful foliage towers in a pot.
At home, you can effortlessly grow a lemon tree.
The tree begins to bear fruit after 8-12 years. On it grow small lemon with low taste. Plants grown from seeds of hybrids do not retain the properties of the parent variety.
Twigs of varietal plants are grafted onto a lemon grown from a seed so that it will bear fruit 1 or 2 years after grafting. This method of reproduction is called vegetative. On one tree, you can make 2-3 vaccinations against different varieties.
Reference. Grafting allows you to get a harvest of fruit, preserving all the taste qualities of the mother variety.
Lemon grafting methods at home
It is easy to plant a lemon, you just need to follow the recommendations of experienced gardeners.
There are three effective methods of reproduction of fruiting citrus plants at home:
- budding - inoculation with a kidney (“eye”) in a T-shaped incision or in vryklad,
- copulation - graft cutting in split and priklad,
- growing cuttings in the ground.
Lemon grafting tools and dates
Conducting vaccinations require training.
For work you need to prepare electrical tape, bag or glass container, garden bar.
To work you need the following tool:
- inoculation and inoculation knives,
- garden pruner,
- graft pruner,
- special fixing tape or electrical tape,
- large glass container or plastic bag
- a piece of cotton fabric,
- garden pitch
Evaluation and inoculation knives should be sharp, sharpening the blade is done on both sides. If this special tool is not available, you can use a surgical scalpel, a penknife with a thin blade, and even a paper knife.
Garden shears allow you to get even cuts. It does not crush tender wood and causes minimal injuries. If this tool was previously used in the garden, the cutting plates should be sharpened in the workshop.
For the connection of the cutting and scion of the same diameter instead of the usual shears, it is better to use a special graft pruner. Three cutting nozzles (knives) are attached to the tool: U, V, and omega-shaped. They help to make the most even cuts of wood, which are ideally suited to each other in shape.
The cutting elements of the nozzles do not crush the wood, which is very important for the survival of the graft. Cut need perpendicular to the branch.
The timing of vaccinations determines the time of year. In winter, lemons do not inoculate. This can be done only in spring and summer (from April to August), when water circulates in the root system and the ground part of the trees.
For the grafting of lemon is better to use a special graft pruner.
Budding - how to plant a lemon kidney ("eye")
Budding is carried out by two methods - in-butt and in a T-shaped incision in the cortex. "Eye" or kidney is the place where the stem of the leaf joints joins the trunk, where a new kidney is formed. Before starting work, the stock shaft is cleaned of peels, dust, wiped with a clean, damp cloth.
Vaccination of the kidney in priklad is carried out as follows:
- On the stock rootstock, at a height of 6-7 cm from the ground surface, a cut is made (oval section hole). The cut is done by moving the knife from top to bottom.
- From the branch of the fruiting lemon cut out a plot with a leaf and a bud. The leaf is cut, leaving its stem.
- From this branch, a graft is cut out, in the form of copying the shape of the cut on the rootstock tree. The cut is made long (longer than necessary). Do not touch the cut points with your hands, but you can hold the graft for leaf stalks.
- Knife customize the shape of the cross section of the scion and rootstock, so that they are as compatible as possible. Inoculation length - 2.5 cm.
- The grafts are taped, leaving the kidney open. Fastening should be solid and tight.
- The tree is covered with a package and tied under a vaccination site. High humidity and optimum temperature are created inside the bag.
Reference. It is necessary to bare the cambium and achieve compatibility of these layers on the stock and the kidney.
After vaccination, the tree should be covered with a package.
The leaf stalk can be broken off immediately, but it is dangerous. A green kidney without a stalk is very vulnerable. This is best done after the vaccination has taken root.
Grafting in a T-shaped incision is done in a similar way, but the bark on top presses the "peephole", this makes the connection more dense:
- A horizontal incision (1 cm) is made with a sharp knife on the bark of the graft, and a vertical incision (2.5 cm) is made under it.
- In depth, the incision should cross the cortex, phloem and cambium.
- A branch with a kidney is cut from a fruiting lemon, a piece of the desired shape and size is cut out of it.
- The graft is inserted into the incision with the combination of cambium layers.
- Vaccination is tied with a ribbon, leaving the kidney open.
- The stock with the graft is covered with a bag and tied at the bottom.
Grafting lemon cuttings (copulation)
Grafting a cutting (a branch of a fruit tree) is considered to be a simpler method of vegetative propagation of plants. The cuttings are grafted into the cleft of the “wild” lemon or rooted to fertile soil.
The graft splitting is done in the following order:
Grafting a lemon sprig into cleft is the easiest way.
The stem of the stock is cut with shears and split with a sharp knife. The depth of the splitting is 1.5-2 cm. The knife is moved carefully, slightly shaking, in order to reduce pressure and not to break the branch.
The package is removed when the vaccination takes root and the first shoots appear. Remove the package immediately, but within a few days, leaving it unleashed for an increasingly long time.
Graft in the butt done with a conventional or special pruner. The stalk and stock are cut at the same angle with a tape. It is desirable that the joined branches have the same or similar diameter.
Grafting in the ground done in March and also gives good results. To do this, cut out lengths of up to 15-20 cm from the branches of a fruiting lemon. Cut off the lower leaves completely, leaving petioles. 3-4 upper sheets can be cut to half sheet plate. The end of the branch is cut obliquely with shears.
The cuttings are placed in water, a few drops of the drug Energen, intended for soaking the seeds, are added to it and left for several hours.
Lemon cuttings can be planted directly in the ground.
Planting cuttings in the ground is done in the following order:
- A mixture of sand, fertile garden soil and humus (1 part each) and 2 parts of crushed autumn leaves (or pine bark powder) are poured into a flower pot.
- The land is poured abundantly with boiling water until it acquires the consistency of thick porridge, and cooled.
- A stalk is planted vertically into the ground, deepening it by 5 cm.
- The soil is watered. In the future, the plant will only need spraying with warm water (plus 30 ° C) once a week. If the cuttings feel good, you can not do this.
- Sprig covered with a glass, transparent plastic can, plastic bag on the frame. Shelter should fit tightly to the pot.
- After the lemon grows, the greenhouse is gradually removed.
Tips agronomists on growing lemon home
You should choose low-growing, medium-tall and dwarf lemon varieties. Such trees do not take up much space and do not need constant pruning of the crown.
At home, the fruit is well fruited:
At home, you can grow lemon varieties Lisbon, Jubilee, etc.
To prevent bacteria and fungi from entering the wood, the entire cutting tool is washed with clean water and soap and sterilized. Disinfection can be done with a 1.5% chlorine bleach solution. Wash hands before work with soap and water.
Direct sunlight should not fall on the graft and the greenhouse. To create high humidity, a piece of wet cotton is placed under the bag. Airing the greenhouse daily, unleashing the package for two or three minutes. Some gardeners recommend doing this twice a day.
The vertical position of the new branches grown from the scion is fixed by tying to a vertical stick or to a trunk. Vaccination measures are done at high humidity, in rainy or cloudy weather, at dawn or after sunset.
In the video, an experienced agronomist tells and shows how to properly plant a lemon at home.