Many novice gardeners are wondering how to transplant a cactus in such a way as not to prick. Even those varieties of this plant, which are almost deprived of thorns, still cause inconvenience when changing the pot. Proper selection of tools, compliance with safety rules and slowness will help to carry out this procedure without serious consequences.
What you need to transplant
Transplanting a cactus requires some preparation. Selected tools that will protect the gardener from injections, the right pot, soil and dressing. The minimum set for transplantation is as follows:
- A pot of the correct size, twice as heavy as a plant, with a tray.
- The soil is loose and breathable, well conducting moisture.
- Special glove or pot holder so that you can hold the cactus by the needles.
- Special forceps for succulents, which can hold the neck of the plant.
- Top dressing and warm water for the first watering.
- Newspapers or oilcloth to cover the surface on which the transplant will take place.
How to transplant a cactus in another pot
Properly transplanted cactus at home is not as difficult as it seems at first glance. Spines scare many novice gardeners, but if you follow the safety rules and work with your bare hands, the risk of injury will be reduced to zero.
Preparing the tank and soil for transplanting
After buying a plant, the question of choosing a pot comes up sharply. Usually cacti are sold in plastic vessels that are not suitable for permanent maintenance. In total there are three requirements for the pot:
- At the bottom there should be holes through which excess moisture will flow into the pan.
- The pot should keep warm well.
- New capacity should be greater than the previous one approximately 3 centimeters deep.
It is possible to transplant a large cactus only into a vessel with thick walls, heavy enough so that it can hold the weight of the plant. Representatives of this family most often can not be leaned against a wall or a special support, so the stability of the pot is extremely important.
The correct substrate for cactus is quite complex, multicomponent. It can be purchased at specialty stores or collected by yourself. Soil should consist of:
- Sheet or turf soil.
- Wood coal (crushed).
- River sand.
- Small pebbles or brick chips.
All elements are introduced into the substrate in equal proportions.
Drainage in the pot
Before transplanting cacti at home, it is necessary to properly prepare not only the soil, but also the drainage layer. It allows the soil to not over-saturated with moisture, simplifies the release of excess fluid in the pan. As drainage use:
- Small gravel.
- Brick chips.
- Small pebbles.
Mixing different types of drainage material is not recommended. Layer must be at least 2-3 centimeters. For large pots - approximately 4-5.
When is it best to replant
After acquiring the cactus, you can and should repot immediately. Yes, the plant will receive an additional portion of stress, but in this case it will not be critical for him. If the reason for the transplant is the need to increase the “living space” of the cactus, then it is best to wait for spring. In March, before the beginning of the active growth phase, it will bring the least amount of stress to the plant.
How to transplant and transplant
Experienced gardeners have their own ways of how to transplant a cactus, so as not to prick. Someone works in special gloves, someone removes a plant from a pot by “tapping” on it in a horizontal position. There is also a step-by-step guide that will help even a beginner to transplant a cactus without shots:
- The pot holds with one hand.
- The second hand is wrapped with a cloth, a towel. You can also use special gloves or tack.
- While holding the barrel itself with the prickles, it is necessary to carefully turn the pot, separating the soil from the walls of the vessel.
- Now you should gently pull the cactus. To do this, gently lift it, pulling out of the pot with the ground, with one hand, and then grab the bottom of the second hand.
- Depending on the type, the roots are cleaned or not cleared from the old soil.
- Earth lump together with the plant is transferred to the new soil. The soil is loosened, the extra substrate is filled up.
There are some exceptions. For example, if the spines grow only on shoots, and they are not on the edge of the trunk, then you can pull the plant along with the soil behind the neck with the help of flat forceps.
Also, when transplanting need to take care of the size of the roots. If the system has become too large, it can be artificially rooted using special scissors.
Ways to plant a cactus without roots
Many babies are separated from the mother plant without roots. Some of them form the root system in a glass of water, but most of them land in the ground without them. In order for the plant to stick, you need to prepare the soil in advance, as well as create the right microclimate.
Soil for growing cactus without a root system should be perfectly sterile. Prepared soil can be purchased at a specialty store, or processed independently in an oven by frying for 2-3 hours at a temperature of 200 degrees.
The baby is placed in the soil for about 1-2 centimeters so that it does not fall on its side. Additionally, it is not necessary to reinforce it with props. It is impossible to tamp the ground around the cactus, because for proper growth and development the soil must be as loose as possible.
The formation of the root system takes about 2-3 weeks. All this time it is necessary to irrigate the soil abundantly. Indoors there should not be sharp temperature drops. The indicator on the mercury column of the thermometer can not fall below 20 degrees.
After the first roots have appeared at a cactus and it has become stronger in a pot (4-5 weeks after planting), the plant is transferred to the standard mode of leaving. It is necessary to do this, gradually reducing the intensity of irrigation and fertilizing every 5-7 days.
Care for cactus after transplanting
It is easy to care for cactus after transplantation, if earlier the gardener was already engaged in these exotic plants. The basic rules are virtually unchanged, as are the requirements for the microclimate, but there are a number of nuances:
- In the first 2 weeks after transplantation, cactus should be watered abundantly. If the usual irrigation frequency is 1 time in 5 days, then in this case it is necessary to reduce the gap to 1 time in 3 days.
- Additional feeding is needed only on the day of disembarkation.
- The first week you need to protect the plant from drafts and sudden changes in temperature.
Transplantation of cacti causes difficulties for gardeners only for the first time. In fact, changing the pot and the soil for this plant is no more difficult than for any other, if you approach the matter wisely and prepare well. The main thing - do not forget about the care after transplantation and observe safety precautions.
Cacti transplant conditions
How to replant cacti at home? Before starting a succulent transplant, one should be familiar with its cycles of growth and rest. Maximum chances of success are possible if transplantation is carried out by the end of the rest period of the plant or at the beginning of the growing season. In most cases, this means early spring and early summer. Sometimes it is worth waiting for the plant to fade so that it does not discard the buds. Three days before transplantation, the plant stops watering in order to avoid rotting of the roots.. Adults should be transplanted every 2-4 years., because over time, the cactus grows no longer so active. The young plant is transplanted once a year.
Transplanting cacti at home requires careful preparation. You should make sure that you have everything you need at hand:
- pot sizes required
- scissors or other cutting materials
- means for safely removing the cactus from the pot.
If you have the listed materials, you can proceed to transplant.
Causes of transplantation
Most succulents find small spaces very cozy and can remain in the container for many years. But in some cases, cacti should be transplanted. Buying a new plant in the store is one of the main reasons for transplanting, since the tank and the soil in which it is located are not intended for long-term use. Next reason Transplanting a cactus at home can be an excessive restriction of the plant root to the size of the pot. In such a case, the roots are visualized at the bottom of the container.
Similarly, the cactus body itself can grow out of a pot and a larger container will be required. And, finally, the reason for transplantation can serve as an unhealthy individual behavior when the cactus does not grow and does not bloom for a long time. Most likely, this may indicate the defeat of the roots.
Drainage in pots
Changing pots for cacti is painful. Their transplant is a real art that, if desired, is easy to master.
Cacti need drainage, especially if the florist does not know how to choose the right size of the pot. This question is relevant for those who want to plant a composition of cacti in one small pot. The drain hole is not able to prevent stagnant water in the root. Excess fluids often remain in the pan, from where they are difficult to drain. Drainage dimensions are relative: the minimum is 1/6 of the volume of the pot used, and the maximum is 1/3 of the volume.
Use as drainage: expanded clay, fine gravel or pieces of broken bricks. You can also add pieces of foam and cork, cut into pieces.
With the wine cork is the easiest - it can be cut into pieces of about five millimeters in size without much effort.
During transplantation, the old drainage can be thrown out, because salts accumulate in it.
Drainage will be better to move away from the roots, if you carefully water the cactus before transplanting. Shaking off the remnants of the old land, let the succulent lie in the shade for several hours. You can add a broken egg shell.
Learn to determine when the cactus needs to be replanted. If the roots go out through the drainage hole of the tank, it means that the plant needs a transplant.
Here are some more recommendations:
- The optimal time for work is the beginning of spring or the end of winter. In the process of transplanting the roots can break and rot under the influence of excess moisture.
- Wear leather gloves. They must be made of a thick material that provides protection against thorns.
- It is necessary to loosen the ground - to do this, immerse a knife with a round end into the soil near the edges of the pot and gently move it around the perimeter, carefully cutting the ground. Repeat the procedure until the soil separates from the walls of the pot.
If the cactus grows in plastic containers, squeeze the pot on both sides to separate the soil from the edges. Alternatively, try to carefully cut the soil around the perimeter of the pot.
The soil surrounding the roots must be completely separated from the walls before the plant is removed. Otherwise, the cactus will be damaged.
While holding the plant, flip the pot and tap the bottom to pull out the plant. Pull it impossible. After removing the roots from the old soil, remove the dead roots. If they are very long, trim them and treat with a solution of activated carbon. Next you need to do the following:
- Put the succulent in a container and leave it in a warm room for several days without land. It is necessary to heal the wounds on the roots.
- The best way to prevent possible diseases is a hot root bath. Cut a cardboard stand and make a hole in the center.
- Putting a cactus on such a supply, immerse the roots in warm water for fifteen minutes. Wait four days for the plant to dry.
After the preparatory work proceed to transplant. When choosing a container, consider the type of cactus, since for each type of plant different options are suitable.
Features home conditions for cacti
Experienced growers know that the cactus, though severe in appearance, is a rather tender plant that needs certain conditions for growth and health. The best option - an environment close to the natural. But under the name "cactus" we know two completely different, at first glance, species: desert and forest. Their representatives outwardly, with rare exceptions, are not at all similar to each other, in nature they have adapted to different environments. And home conditions for the inhabitants of the desert and the inhabitants of the tropics should be different.
A variety of cacti is amazing
You can easily recognize the inhabitants of the desert by fleshy stems, which can be of different sizes and of the most varied forms: ball-like, similar to a column or column, resembling pancakes or a prickly caterpillar. Most desert cacti have no leaves. The exception is the sprouting of the leaves and dispensing with a thick stem - pereskiya. All desert plants have thorns, hard or softer, long or short, sparse or thick.
Desert cacti develop very slowly
All come from the desert fans of the bright sun. They want to get a lot of light, especially in winter. In the summer heat, the sun is even heavy for a plant, it is better to priten the plant. Humidity prickles like moderate or low. The air temperature in winter should be 15-18 degrees cool. For most species, except the more capricious - pubescent, you can still lower to +5. In winter, cacti hibernate. This is a must for health. During the rest, your hedgehogs do not want to drink at all, they need to be watered occasionally and little by little. And since the beginning of spring, soil moisture increases, in the summer they are watered just like other plants. By mid-autumn again sharply limited. Water cacti should be given warm and soft.
Rain forest dwellers
Forest spines are mostly epiphytic plants, in nature they are able to live outside the soil, on trees, in tropical forests. They are distinguished by dense leafy stems, consisting of segments. And the main decoration of the forest cactus is flowers.
Forest cacti are grown to see wonderful flowering.
Epiphyllum, zygocactus, ripsalidopsis and ripsalis are grown at home. Aporocactus, which belongs to the forest, prefers a desert life. But the rest is needed for a healthy life other conditions. Light forest cacti love bright, but diffused, temperature is moderate, in the period of rest - cool, + 15-17 degrees. The hibernation time of each species is different. Zigokaktus rests from January to March. Ripsalidopsis - in September-February, the epiphyllum takes vacation from December to March. Watering mode depends on the life cycle. In hibernation - rare, during budding and flowering, during growth - abundant. But all forest cacti, regardless of the season, prefer tropical high humidity.
Planting or transplanting plants
These plants, unlike other indoor plants do not require an annual transplant. They grow much slower than leafy crops. Very slowly their root part increases, namely, it is endangered during transplantation. And the older the cactus, the more painful it will endure this procedure. For too large specimens, instead of transplanting, you can replace the topsoil.
At a venerable age, it is not recommended to replant astrophytum and melocactus. They are better suited to transshipment, which preserves the integrity of the root clod of the earth.
Some cacti, including astrophytum, do not like transplant
Competent and timely transplantation has a positive effect on the health and development of the green pet. In order for the procedure to benefit the cactus, the florist needs to properly select the size of the tank, the soil mix and ensure optimal care after relocation.
For better air penetration to the roots, regularly loosen the substrate in a pot with a cactus, this will help delay the transplantation time.
Proper clanting is a science.
The choice of capacity for landing
Capacity for the cactus, choose the type of root. For plants with a long rod-like (this is desert species) rhizome, pots will fit higher and deeper. Spines with a superficial root system (forest) and pincushion-like will grow well in low and wide containers.
When choosing a pot for cactus, consider the shape and size of the root system
Determining the size of the cactus pot, do not focus on the aboveground part, but look inside the ground. Even if the top is a large stem, and the roots are small, a large pot is not needed. The abundance of soil at best will slow down the development of the plant, it will increase the roots to the detriment of the top. In the worst case, excess land will lead to decay. The larger the pot, the higher the risk of waterlogging. And finally, from the prickly friend in a large container, you will not achieve flowering. Pot tightness is one of the guarantees of a stable and long bloom.
To transplant a healthy cactus, you need to take a container with a diameter of 1-2 cm more than the old one. And if the change is related to treatment, take the same size or even smaller. In a small volume of soil (it must be very poor), recovery is faster.
Cacti look great in group plantings.
Experienced cacti growers prefer plastic pots. У них, по сравнению с глиняными, есть ряд достоинств:
- нет испарения через стенки — реже и меньше полив,
- корни развиваются более равномерно, оплетая всю землю,
- лучше сохраняют тепло — это полезно для здоровья корней,
- low weight - plants are more convenient to move.
In addition, plastic pots are cheaper and more amenable to treatment when recycled. Natural ceramics also have advantages: it is more decorative, stable, porous material evaporates moisture well and absorbs harmful salts.
Large collection growers prefer plastic pots
It is better to choose one type of pots for the entire collection of cacti. If your spines are planted in containers made of different materials, you also need to care for them in different ways. For plants in ceramics you need three times more water than for those that grow in plastic.
The shape of the tank also matters. Many lovers have abandoned the traditional round pots in favor of the quadrangular. This form allows you to maximize the use of solar window sills.
Square pots help save square sills
For forest cacti and ampelous desert varieties suitable hanging baskets, pots or high supports.
Amplum forest cacti will need hanging pots or high stands
Whatever capacity for planting your cactus you choose, there is one general requirement. There must be large drainage holes, preferably not one, but several.
How to fasten a cactus in a pot
Massive prickly plants often have a poorly developed root system. A plant with a root neck can not be buried, so as not to provoke its rotting. When planting such giants with small "legs", a problem arises: the plant can bend or even fall, by itself or with the pot, under its weight. The solution is top drainage. The soil does not fall asleep in the pot to the top by 2–3 cm or more, but instead a layer of gravel, decorative stones or other material is laid. It will keep the cactus upright and will not let the water stagnate at the root collar.
The upper drainage layer performs two functions: it supports the cactus and protects the root collar from waterlogging
Other options for improving sustainability:
- add heavy pebbles to the drainage layer below,
- put the pot in a massive (with a wide bottom) pots, which will not allow it to fall,
- very elongated cacti have to be tied to a support, it is installed during transplantation.
How to choose a land for transplanting - soil, soil, etc.
It is not easy to make a high-quality soil for growing prickly friends. Its composition depends on the type of plant, its age and state of health. But there are characteristics common to all soils:
- high friability,
- good air and water flow,
- weakly acid reaction, at pH 4.5–6.
The composition of the soil for cacti necessarily include various loosening components: sand, expanded clay, brick and coal chips, pebbles
As a loosening component, sand, river, coarse-grained and necessarily washed is most often used. This clarification is very important. Fine sand, taken from a construction site or from a sandbox, is full of dirt and dust and is likely to harm the cactus. After watering, it does not work as a baking powder, but as cement, compacting the soil. A large will be easy to crumble.
Some growers use zeolite granules for soil looseness. They are used in non-tacky cat litter fillers. But before adding granules to the soil, preparation is necessary. They must be washed, dried and sieved. For the soil composition take only a large fraction.
Brick crumb also gives the substrate looseness, it absorbs well and gives up water. But you can only use red brick from natural clay.
Potted earth is sometimes mixed with a coconut substrate. It has a neutral acidity, it keeps friability and makes it easier for the roots to breathe. Adding a briquetted substrate of coconut fiber, it should be noted that the first watering increases its volume by about three times. Therefore, pre-wet the substrate, dry and only after combine with the soil.
You can buy ready-made soil for cacti
When composing the mixture, please note that leafy earth has a greater friability, compared with clay-sod or greenhouse. Love the cactus soft earth with mole piles. And do not use the soil from under the conifers.
To increase the acidity of the soil should be added peat, and to lower - lime.
Approximate soil composition:
- ready soil for cacti or succulent plants, you can add coarse sand,
- universal soil mixed with fine gravel and coarse sand, all equally,
- in equal shares, combine the rotted leaf and sod land with coarse sand, a small amount of crushed brick and charcoal,
- equally divided leafy soil, soil from mole heaps and peat, a little bit - coarse sand and charcoal.
- turfy and deciduous land, river sand in equal parts.
The soil mixture can be made independently, taking into account the needs of a particular plant.
When selecting the soil for cacti, consider the age and species characteristics of plants:
- For young cacti and seedlings that have been strewn, we need a more airy and nutritious soil. For them, you can increase the proportion of leafy land.
- Plants in years require a more dense soil. In the mixture for them, add the greenhouse and clay-sod land.
- Fast-growing spines will need more nutrition, so add humus to the soil mixture.
The drainage layer should take from 1/6 to 1/3 the volume of the pot. For cactus suitable expanded clay, finely crushed brick, crushed stone, crushed foam or chopped cork tree (for this, leave the cork from the wine). During transplantation, remove the old drainage, it has absorbed salt.
Any soil before transplanting must be sterilized. So you protect the thorny pet from disease and prolong its life. During sterilization, all spores of soil fungi and larvae of pests die. You can sterilize the soil in the oven, microwave or just on the stove.
- You will need a wide container with a tightly lapped lid, preferably a thermometer with a scale of up to 200 degrees.
- Pour some water to the bottom of the tank.
- Pour the soil mixture, cover and put on the fire or in the oven.
- Periodically mix the soil so that it warms up evenly.
- When the mixture warms to 95-100 degrees, reduce the heat.
- Steam the soil for about 20-30 minutes.
- If there is no thermometer, be guided by the characteristic unpleasant smell, it appears when the soil is fully prepared.
Be careful when firing in the microwave or oven, soil mixture with the addition of coal. It may ignite. Be sure to add water to this soil.
Sterilize soil and drainage before planting to eliminate pests and pathogens.
Time to replant cacti
All gardeners are well known recommendation: the plant needs to be transplanted, when the roots peeping out of the drainage hole. However, this rule does not work with cacti. Sometimes the roots have reached the drainage holes, and the growth of the plant gives a good and came to blossom. The plant shows that it is not crowded. Just the root system has finally grown, it's time to develop a thorny stem. If such a cactus is transplanted, it will again grow roots, mastering a new land, and will not grow and bloom. Before you decide on the relocation of the plant, observe it and, if there is no obvious stop of growth, do not touch it.
Safely growing cactus do not rush to transplant, if there is no compelling reason
Some species, for example, fast-growing mammillaria, are transplanted every year. But there are also thoughtless devices, including echinocactus, which in 10 years reaches a diameter of 22 cm, which do not require frequent changes of soil and pot. Adult and healthy plants roll over every 3-4 years or less, adding fresh ground and not touching the roots. But sometimes a transplant is needed to treat a cactus.
Fast growing cacti, such as Mammillaria, need frequent transplantation.
Transplanted, and even more transshipped, thorny plants throughout the year. However, many growers believe that the best time for this procedure is the beginning of spring, when the plant is just awakening after winter dormancy. By the way, the buds and flowers are not a hindrance.
Experienced cacti growers claim that when transplanting cactus saves buds and flowers
And other cacti growers prefer autumn-winter transplantation (November-December), when the plants have just gone to rest. This time is particularly suitable for astrophytum and brazilicactus. They, as they say on the forums, are able to fall into a state of "thoughtfulness" and stop growing. Therefore, hibernation is the best time for transplants. Autumn relocation has a peculiarity. The soil in the new pot should be completely dry. At first, the cuctus is kept warm, and 3-5 days after transplantation, the plant is provided with a cool content.
Transplant after purchase
Connoisseurs unanimously and strongly recommend to replant the cactus immediately after the acquisition in the flower shop and completely replace the soil with it. A lot of bad has been said about the substrate in which the plants are kept in retail outlets. It can be infected with fungi and parasites. But the worst - the transport soil consists of peat, which is watered with nutrient solutions. Roots grown in such conditions are unhealthy and unable to receive food from ordinary soil. Therefore, the plant needs to grow a new root system.
How to transplant a cactus from the store
- Remove from the pot cactus purchased in the store.
Bought cactus needs a complete replacement of the soil
Dry cleaning of roots - a more gentle way
The first time a cactus in a new soil is watered not earlier than in a week
The wet method of cleaning the roots is only suitable for absolutely healthy cacti. If there is rot on the stem or suspicion that roots are affected, washing can aggravate the disease. Moisture will accelerate the putrefactive process. Do not wash the roots if the room is high humidity or too cold.
Features transplants for different types of plants
When transplanting take into account the features of a particular plant. This concerns the choice of the pot and the composition of the soil. We will tell about some preferences of prickly and not so pets:
- Cacti without thorns do not like the soil with a high content of calcium. And the prickly ones will like it - add, making up the soil, crushed eggshell.
- The tall cereus will be grateful for the addition of crushed granite or marble.
- Mummillaria, which grow very quickly, can increase the content of leafy earth.
- Prickly pears, accustomed to desert soils, will appreciate if there is more sand in the ground.
- Plants with a structure that resembles a turnip, like a slightly clay soil.
Replanting plants, follow their small whims
Care after transplant
After transplanting a healthy cactus, the main rule is no watering. The plant is shocked by change and is not able to absorb moisture. This means that the water poured into the pot will not be absorbed, and the roots may rot from overwetting. If the cactus was transplanted in the warm season, the period of dryness is three to four days. For the first watering, take hot (+ 30–35) water, but pour a little. Even five days later - more abundantly. While the plant is undergoing adaptation, do not expose it to the scorching sun, let it stay for a week or a little longer in light penumbra.
These cacti need urgent treatment and transplantation.
If the plant was sick and when transplanting had to cut a lot of roots or signs of fungal infection were noticed, postpone watering for a week. To prevent the cactus from suffering, spray it with heated water. Cacti transplanted in winter do not water at all. They are kept in a warm place for up to 5 days, and then sent to cool, to rest.
It usually takes a couple of weeks to get used to a new pot. After this time, the cactus will show that it has settled down. He will begin to get fat, the greens will become brighter and new spikes will appear.
How to transplant a cactus (instruction)
Before transplanting a cactus, care must be taken to protect the hands from thorns. You can use gloves made of thick (leather or rubberized fabric) material, and cactus to hold with tweezers or special forceps, they are sold in flower shops.
Buy special forceps to get cacti, or use available tools
From improvised means fit pieces of thick foam, paper, folded in several layers.
You can make tools to extract cacti from plastic bottles. Pick the right bottle for the diameter (from 0.5 to 3 liters). Cut the neck and bottom so that a cylinder of the desired height (4–10 cm) remains, it depends on the growth of the cactus. Cut the plastic along. The edges will curl slightly inward. Unroll the cylinder and put it on the thorny stem. Plastic will spring slightly, it will protect your hands well and will carefully hold the cactus. Such a device is suitable for repeated use.
Step-by-step process description
- On the eve of the transplant, dry the cactus, do not water it or spray it for a week.
- Prepare everything you need: pot, drainage, soil.
Do not be lazy to sterilize everything you need for a transplant.
A healthy cactus sits tight in a pot, sometimes you have to push it from the bottom.
If the cactus is healthy, the old soil is not cleaned entirely
During the transplant, conduct an audit and rehabilitation of the roots
Sprinkle soil gradually to fill all voids.
Planted cacti keep in dry soil
Transplantation of adult cacti is convenient to combine with reproduction. Separate the side shoots (kids) and root in separate pots.
When transplanting plants with a weak or damaged root system, you can make a therapeutic hot bath. Note: this method is not suitable for forest species.
- Prepare hot (about 55 degrees) water, a container where the roots can easily fit, and material for a stand: cardboard or plastic.
- Cactus, taken out of the pot, clean from the old soil, remove it with a stick or gently rinse under running warm water.
- In the stand, make a hole slightly smaller than the size of the root collar.
- Pour hot water into the tank, cover it with a stand and place the plant on top. The stem and root neck should be above the water level, and the roots are completely immersed in it.
- Hold the thorn in the bath for 15–20 minutes.
- Do not let the water cool, pour hot or make an improvised thermos: wrap the container with several layers of fabric. Cover the cactus can not.
- After the bath, dry the roots, putting the plant in a warm place for 1-2 days.
- Make sure that all the roots are well dried, and then plant a cactus in the ground.
Hot bath is a good prevention and treatment of diseases, as well as an incentive for the development of the root system.
The problems associated with the transfer
Properly transplanted cactus 2-3 weeks wakes up, mastered in a new place. And then it lets know that everything is fine: the color improves, the stem straightens, the first growth appears. But sometimes, instead of positive manifestations, the grower sees negative ones. Cactus pales, loses elasticity, does not grow and lurch. So, we must look for and correct the error.
- When you transplanted a cactus store, you did not remove the entire peat soil from the roots, it hinders the development,
- the roots rotted because there is no baking powder in the soil (sand, brick chips, etc.), and it is too wet,
- the cactus was transplanted into an overly large pot, the roots began to grow, but they could not cope with the large volume of earth, it soured,
- during the transplant, you washed, but did not dry the roots, they may be affected by rot,
- cactus after transplanting watered too early
- transplanted cactus kept in a dark, cold or damp place.
To solve the problems that have arisen after transplantation, you will have to get the thorny plant out of the pot, carefully examine its roots. Correct mistakes and again, now observing all the rules, plant a cactus. Perhaps he would benefit from a therapeutic bath.
Healthy cactus after transplanting adapts 2-3 weeks
It happens that the cactus is sick after a transplant, because of the injury. Fleshy stems are easy to scratch. And if not healed wound will be under wet ground, rot will begin. To avoid this, inspect the cactus before moving to a new pot. Sprinkle damage with sulfur, coal or cinnamon and be sure to let it dry. Injured cactus hold in dryness longer than healthy.
Transplant of a broken cactus
Succulent stems are easily damaged, especially if planted wrong. A pot with a weighty specimen fell - and now the roots are separate, and the upper part - by itself. Beginners cacti growers panic, not knowing what to do. But experienced will easily cope with this problem. What to do if the plant is broken, two solutions:
- Make an even perpendicular cut of the stem just above the break point. Powder with coal or other antiseptic, dry. In a pot pour a mixture of coarse sand and soil for cacti (you can only sand or vermiculite). Place the stem on the ground, strengthen with pebbles. Keep in a warm place with ambient lighting. Once a week, spray the cactus and wet the soil. Do not water! When the roots appear, transplant. Water very moderately. The most important thing is not to overwet.
- Cut perpendicular to the stem, and then make a cone at the end, sharpen it like a pencil. Then - the second cut is parallel to the first. На нём должно быть заметно камбиальное кольцо, вокруг оставьте 1,5–2 мм. Приготовьте пустую стеклянную ёмкость, накройте её подставкой с отверстием по диаметру стебля. Поставьте кактус сверху, срез должен зависнуть в воздухе, ничего не касаясь. Корни появятся через 3–4 недели из камбиального кольца. Подождите, пока подрастут, и посадите в грунт.
In the center of the stem is the cambial ring, the root grows from there.
Video: an unconventional version of planting cacti
Cactus, like any plant, needs a pot change from time to time. It stimulates development, and sometimes treats. But illiterately performed transplantation can lead to major problems, and in some cases to death. If you do everything according to the rules, to choose the optimal size of the pot, the composition of the soil, and most importantly - to be patient and not to flood the plant, your green hedgehog will be grateful for your care.
How to choose a pot for cactus
The choice of a pot for a plant is determined by the size of its root system. For example, some individuals have fibrous roots that remain close to the soil surface. This plant is suitable for a small pot with a relatively large diameter. Other specimens may look outside it is modest, but to have an impressive turn-shaped root system and require a deep pot.
The succulent container can be made from plastic or unglazed clay, which successfully passes air and removes any excess moisture. A cactus pot should have a good drainage system. For some plants, the holes in the bottom of standard pots are not enough. Then you have to drill in the bottom of the pot additional slots. When choosing the shape of the pot should be guided by the availability of free space on the windowsill. Many experienced cacti growers have opted for square containers that take up little space.
Soil for transplanting
Succulents are slow-growing plants and are not adapted for growing in highly nutritious (nitrogen-rich) soil. Planting cacti requires a special soil mixture. It can be bought in a store or blended on its own. The soil for a spiny pet should be loose, permeable and low acid. The best combination of soil mixture includes:
- One part of leaf humus or sod land.
- One part washed river sand.
- One piece of crushed bricks.
Pumice, perlite, charcoal are also added to the mixture if desired. Before planting the soil mixture should be steamed in an oven or microwave. To avoid fire, a small amount of water should be added to the inside of the ground. Immediately before transplantation, the substrate must be dry..
How to properly transplant cactus at home
Plant transplantation is a scrupulous process. When transplanting cacti, watch out for your safety and plant safety. First of all, it is impossible to allow even small scratches to appear on the plant. Such micro-injuries can lead to unpleasant consequences - diseases or death of the plant.
A common mistake in transplanting a plant is that the roots of a cactus are damaged by planting it in wet ground. More likely, this procedure will lead to the fact that the plant will begin to rot rapidly and only immediate intervention can help save the cactus.
The transplanted plant needs rest, and for this it must rest and recover in dry land. Do not water the cactus immediately after transplanting.
What you need to prepare for transplant
As already mentioned, with cacti you need to be very careful in the process of transplanting. In rare cases, the plant will survive if something breaks during the transition, or there is at least a small scratch. If the root system is damaged, in no case should it be allowed to come in contact with moisture, otherwise the plant will quickly rot.
It will not be superfluous to first transplant the cactus in your life under the supervision of an experienced specialist in order to avoid possible consequences. But we have tried to collect for you all the necessary information about the transplant, so that only you can decide whether to ask for help from an experienced cactologist or not.
Choosing a pot and soil for transplanting
One of the first mistakes made by people unfamiliar with the cultivation of cacti - if you do not pay due attention to the choice of pot and soil for the plant, the plant will not be able to develop normally and will begin to wither.
First of all, what you need to take care of - pots for transplanting. The first thing to do with the acquired pot (as already mentioned in this article is to choose a pot based on the size of the root system), rinse and prodenze it. After manipulating the water, you need to dry the pot.
In advance, you need to prepare and soil mixture. Experienced cacti practitioners advise the use of moist soil.
For the cactus transplant procedure, you will need:
- Expanded clay. It can be replaced with crushed bricks.
- Sand - it must be washed and dried. Sand can be used river.
- Fine crushed stone.
- Ground mix.
It is not necessary to recruit all these components in large quantities, and a pinch of each of them will suffice.
Special attention should be paid to the soil mixture. It should be loose to easily pass air.
Cactus Transplant Instructions
- The first step is to choose the right pot, namely, to choose the size based on the size of the roots of the cactus.
- At the bottom of the pot you need to make a drainage of expanded clay, and on top of it pour a little sand.
- It is necessary to fill the soil on a layer of sand.
- A cactus installed in a pot should be dusted with a primer, this should be done carefully, it is important that the root neck is slightly open.
Important! Do not tamp the ground during this step.
- The last step - the creation of the upper drainage, namely: you need to pour on the ground crushed gravel.
And now more like we analyze all the subtleties of transplanting this prickly plant.
How to care for cactus
The first thing you need to understand is that you cannot water a newly transplanted cactus. No matter how carefully you transplant, the thread-like roots will still be traumatized. Because of these injuries, if the roots do not recover and come into contact with moisture, the process of decay will begin and the plant will be destroyed.
You need to water the cactus a week after the transplant, but this is if you did everything correctly, in cases where the root system was badly damaged, the first watering should be done only ten days after the transplant. Then the plant will rest and recover and the process of decay will not be exactly scary.
Watering plentifully cacti should not be, a small amount of water will be enough for a plant, the main thing is that it should be warm.
It is also recommended not to put just a transplanted cactus in the sun, it can get sunburn. An ideal place for it would be a penumbral zone.
As you can see, the transfer of the cactus process, though requiring caution, is very simple. And if you have any questions, we advise you to read this video:
How to understand that a transplant is necessary
Understand when it is time to replant cacti at home, you can look at the drainage holes in the bottom of the pot. If no roots come out of them, the plant does not need a transplant. If they stick out, you need to assess their condition. If they are covered with mold or bloom of white color, the cactus should be transplanted into another, more spacious pot.
Attention!The roots sticking out of the drain hole do not always indicate the need for transplantation. If the roots are fresh, without muddy plaque, and the body of the plant is healthy, then it only says that it has developed a powerful root system. Now the cactus is ready to grow stalks and thorns, to bloom and form fruits. Transplantation in this case may lead to a delay in flowering, as the green pet will have to grow new roots to develop a new space.
When is the best time to transplant
Opinion flower growers in the question when it is better to make a transplant of cacti, are divided. Some prefer spring and summer, others - autumn and winter. In fact, spiny pets can be transplanted at any time of the year, given some of the nuances.
Cacti have a growing season (summer) and hibernation (winter). During transplantation, the root system always suffers, but it is better for it to recover when the plant is active. Therefore, novice gardeners are recommended to transfer it to another pot in spring or summer, despite the presence of buds and flowers. Transplantation in the fall and winter is also possible, but then the roots may begin to rot.
Tip!So that the roots do not rot during the autumn-winter transplant, simply do not water the cactus: it doesn’t matter to it, it’s asleep.
How often need to transplant
Due to the slow development of cacti, they do not need annual transhipment into a larger pot. The frequency of transplantation depends on the health, age and type of the plant. We present the averaged data:
- good health cacti under 5 years old are replanted every 2-3 years,
- healthy plants over 5 years old need to be transplanted every 3-5 years.
Mammillaria - fast-growing cacti - transplanted annually. And unhurried types of plants like echinocactus can be transferred to a new pot every 3-4 years (or more often to change the impoverished soil).
Important!If your green hedgehog is sick, he may need an unplanned transfer to a new ground.
What is required for transplantation
For transplanting cacti, you will need:
- new pot,
- nutrient soil
- durable gloves
- wide tweezers (forceps),
- root disinfection tank,
- hot water,
- sharp scissors,
- shoe box
- newspaper or rags for drying.
Tip!To transplant a large cactus, you will also need a stick to release the plant from the old pot and thick foam rubber. You will be protected by them from sharp prickles. You can also grab a cactus with a thick bundle of old newspapers or plastic bags.
Preparing for a transplant
A few days before transplanting need to stop watering. It is necessary that the earthen room later easily climbed out of the old pot. Despite the fact that the cactus is not the most demanding plant, recommendations for choosing a pot and soil for it is still there. Find out what he will need for healthy and active growth.
What is needed primer
Requirements for soil for cacti:
- weak acid reaction (pH level from 4.5 to 6),
- good water and breathability.
Prickly pets can be transplanted into the soil purchased in the store. For this fit universal or special, cactus mixture. You can prepare the soil at home. To do this, mix in equal parts:
- loamy ground
- washed sand
- crushed charcoal,
- red brick crumb.
Attention!Sand must be river. The use of quarry sand leads to a strong compaction of the earthen coma. From this soil ceases to pass air, absorbs moisture poorly and contributes to the death of the roots.
Features of soil preparation for some types of cactus:
- If the plant has white fluff, the substrate for it must be rich in calcium. Add to the soil a little egg shell, pounded into a mortar.
- For Cereus crushed brick, replace marble chips.
- For mammillaria, instead of loamy earth, take a leaf.
- For fast-growing cactus species, it is important to have plenty of nitrogen in the soil. It is possible to increase its amount in the soil by adding humus to it.
Recommendations on the choice of soil, depending on the age of the plant:
- Young “hedgehogs” need a more loose and nutrient-rich soil. For them, you need to increase the proportion of leafy ground in the ground.
- Older plants prefer a denser substrate. You can condense it by adding clay, sod or greenhouse earth.
For drainage purposes, you can use:
- fine crushed stone
- expanded clay
- crushed brick
- torn foam
- wine corks cut into pieces.
Important!Do not transfer the old drainage to the new pot. He has already absorbed enough salt, so he can no longer protect plants from harmful substances.
Detailed step-by-step instructions on cactus transplantation:
- Wear gloves to avoid sharp spikes.
- Take the plant pot and lay it on its side.
- If the pot is clay, knock on it with a wand so that the earthen ball lags behind the walls. If plastic, then it can be compressed, and then the earth will easily go away by itself.
- Small plant hold with tweezers. If the cactus is large, wrap it with thick foam or grab it with a newspaper harness.
- With one hand, hold the stem, and with the other, rotate the pot slightly to one or the other side, and then pull it to release the earthen ball.
- Shake off the old soil without effort, so as not to damage the roots.
- Prepare a container of hot (50-55 o C) water and lower there cactus roots for the prevention of various diseases. The treatment time is 15-20 minutes. Ensure that the root of the plant is not lowered into the water.
- Remove the cactus and put it on a paper (rag), wait until the roots dry.
- Put the cactus in the shoe box and put it in a dark place for 4 days. The plant should be upright at this time.
- Get the plant. Prokalite scissors with fire and cut off his sick, rotten and damaged roots. Send him to rest in the box for another 1-2 days.
- At the bottom of the new pot, pour drainage. The recommended thickness of the drainage layer is 15-30% of the height of the selected container (for 10-centimeter pots 1.5-3 cm).
- Pour some prepared soil mixture over the drainage layer. Put a cactus on it and spread its roots.
- Carefully fill the remaining space with soil. Ensure that the root collar remains above the ground. Lightly tamp the substrate by tapping the pot and sealing the top layer with your hands. Watering is not necessary.
Tip!Tall plants need to fix. To do this, the stems are tied to wooden poles stuck into the ground. It is impossible to remove props until the cactus takes root in a new pot.
Care of the transplanted plant
The transplanted flower, not watering, is placed in a sheltered, but warm place. The first watering can be made in 14-17 days. It is advisable to add mineral fertilizers with it, designed specifically for succulents. After that, the plant is put on a well-lit place and continue to care for him in the usual way.
Despite the seeming difficulty of transplanting a cactus, it is easy to carry out at home, even for a beginner. Understand only the basic details of the process in order to prevent damage to the flower and provide it with enough space for growth and nutrition.
Removing a cactus from an old pot
How to transplant a cactus in another pot? The best strategy for moving a spiky pet is to use handy tools. You can wrap the plant in several layers of the newspaper and slightly secure with tape or twine. Such actions will greatly accelerate the transportation of the plant. You can also use a pair of leather gloves or mittens.
One of the safest ways Transplanting is the use of kitchen tongs or Chinese chopsticks. If a large copy is to be moved to a new pot using two sheets of foam rubber, holding it on both sides. At home, such means of transportation can serve as ordinary scouring sponges.
Do not pull the cactus, as this can damage the roots. If the roots of the individual do not slip out of the pot, it is necessary to lay the plant on its side on a hard surface and press the pot. Turn it a quarter turn and press again, repeating these actions until the cactus is free. If the roots are attached to the walls of the pot, you can try to separate the soil from the walls of the pot with a screwdriver or a wooden spatula. In the case when these actions do not make a difference, you can carefully cut or break the pot and remove the plant.
Root Cleaning Methods
After removing the cactus from the pot, it is necessary to remove the soil from the roots. There are two cleaning methods: dry and wet. Dry cleaning is done with a wooden stick or tweezers. The roots should be bare so that it becomes clear that they are not exposed to pests. Wet cleaning is carried out only for healthy roots, not prone to rot. You should not carry out this procedure in a cold or wet room. After removing the soil from the root ball, the damaged roots should be trimmed.
Cutting the roots can be done with a sharp thin knife or with the usual stationery scissors. To protect the plant, the instrument must be moistened in an alcohol solution. Cut thicker roots better, since thin roots are necessary for succulent nutrition. On the cut, the roots must be treated with activated carbon powder, sulfur or cinnamon. Then dry the treated roots in the air for a couple of days.. Drying allows the roots heal and tighten all the tiny damage that is inevitable when the cactus is pulled out of the soil.
Planting a home cactus in a new pot
Before transplanting the cactus, the pot should be thoroughly rinsed with hot water. Then it is necessary to put a sufficient amount of drainage material on the bottom of the pot and fill it with one third of the soil mixture. Drainage material can be expanded clay, crushed brick, crushed stone or crushed cork from wine. Place the plant in the center of the pot, unless it likes to travel in a horizontal direction. В этом случае его следует поставить на край.
Желательно убедиться, что растение не будет слишком глубоко в горшке или слишком высоко над верхушкой горшка. Все корни кактуса должны быть направлены вниз, это позволит избежать их отмирания и загнивания. Then, gently holding the plant, it is necessary to fill the entire space between the plant and the pot with soil mixture. For convenience, you can use a tablespoon or a baby spatula. It is necessary to shake the pot to the soil settled and add a little more soil.
What can harm the cactus?
The main ills of the home cactus are:
- rotten roots
- spider mite,
Succulents bring the greatest harm to the root worm. The plant affected by this diseasemay perish. When parasites are detected, the roots of the plant are cut and rinsed with insecticides, and the plant itself is transplanted. In order to avoid contamination of the collection, experienced cacti growers place a diseased or just purchased plant in quarantine in a separate room.
Plant protection from rotting
For the normal functioning of the plant is not enough knowledge about how to replant the cactus. It is important to be able to protect it from rotting. The stem of the newly planted succulent should not be in the ground. To protect the stem from rotting, a layer of fine gravel can be poured on top. One of the important reclamation councils is that Immediately after transplantation cactus should not be wateredas it adapts to the treatment and new soil conditions. It should give him a break from direct sunlight. And only after two weeks the plant can be irrigated. You can feed the cactus with a mixture of compost and biohumus.
The most active time for watering cacti is spring and the early part of summer. As winter approaches, one should start reducing the frequency of watering. In winter, most cacti do not need water, provided they are kept at low temperatures within 5-15 degrees. The lack of watering in the winter is the key to successful flowering of the cactus in the spring and summer period. Tap water is not suitable for cacti. If possible for watering cactus used collected rainwater or melting snow. It causes chemical reactions and provides the soil with nutrients. Do not water the cacti with cold water.
Most cultivated cacti are desert inhabitants, so they can be watered in a pan. Potted plants should be placed in a saucer with water so that they absorb moisture through the roots. Another method of watering cacti is to apply water to the soil surface. In this case, the amount of water will depend on a number of factors: heat, direct light and landing. Succulents need watering when the soil is completely dry. To find out if a cactus needs water, you can insert a pencil to the very bottom of the pot. If wet soil sticks to it, it is not time to water.
The procedure for transplanting cuttings of cactus is performed similarly, with the exception of some subtleties. After cutting, allow the cutting to dry in a slightly shaded place.. This makes the new plant less susceptible to rotting. Keep the cut better on a paper towel away from direct sunlight. The drying process can take from two to seven days. After this time, the stalk can be transplanted into the ground. If during this time the sheet is severely crushed, you may have to plant it earlier.
Planting cuttings in the ground
After transplantation into the ground, the cuttings begin to actively develop the root system. At this time they should be watered once every two or three days. Then reduce the frequency of watering. Thus, if all the above conditions are met, the home cactus will please its owner for a long time.