Garden flowers, plants and shrubs

Lilac planting and care in the open field for beginners

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Lilac is one of the most beloved shrubs, which bloom is associated with the present coming of spring. Divine fragrances that spread during this period fascinate, fall in love with themselves. Due to the thick lush crown, the plant is often used to form green walls that cover a certain area from prying eyes.

Lilac, belonging to the olive family, is one of the main inhabitants of gardens and home gardens. Externally, this luxurious shrub is characterized by large purple, pink or white flowers, collected in paniculate inflorescences, located at the ends of the branches. Fruit - bivalve dry box. The leaves are green, most often of solid form, rarely pinnately separate, fall in winter. Lilac, planting and caring for which in the household is practically minimized, it is characterized by high endurance, it grows well in the open air.

The most popular types of lilac

According to the varieties of lilac, planting and care for which are fairly easy, is divided into simple and terry. Most common is common lilac, a native of the Balkan Peninsula, in which it grows at high altitude and clings to the steep, rocky slopes. It blooms in May, purple and white flowers. Includes a plurality of varieties.

Persian lilac. Characterized by fragrant purple flowers. Some of its varieties have pinnate leaves. The flowers are white.

Chinese lilac. Is a hybrid of ordinary and Persian. Characterized by large red-lilac flowers.

Hungarian Lilac The flowers are purple, with a faint aroma. Flowering occurs in late May - June.

How to trim the lilac

Planting and care, pruning are important factors contributing to the quality growth of a given culture. The purpose of pruning is the formation of the crown and the maintenance of the shape of the bush, which causes abundant annual flowering.

In the first two years since planting, the growth of lilac is rather weak, so the character of pruning is sanitary and thinning. In the third year, when the growth of the bush is activated, it is required to carry out a cardinal pruning. Early in the spring it is necessary to choose about 10 strong shoots in the crown, giving the shrub a spreading shape and as far as possible from each other. Subsequently, these branches will become trunks, the rest of the shoots should be cut off. The small twigs directed inside the crown should be cut out completely, the stronger outward ones should be shortened. If the lilac cut in the fall, then the next spring it will not bloom. Also around the lilac bush is required to regularly remove basal shoots and rhizomes.

Lilac reproduction

Lilac is propagated by root shoots, cuttings and grafting, used mainly for garden forms. For cuttings, it is necessary to take well-leafy, semi-lignified shoots, while leaf blades should be reduced by half. Make the lower cut oblique, under the interstitial, upper - above the leaf node. To root the cuttings, it is necessary to plant in the coarse sand poured on the nutritive soil of the greenhouse with a 3-5 cm layer. After planting and spraying the planted branches with water, the greenhouses need to be covered with frames, providing the plants with diffused light and a temperature of + 25-30 degrees. As rooting proceeds, the cuttings are gradually accustomed to open air. The cuttings rooted in greenhouses are left for the winter, having previously covered them with foliage or spruce twigs. Also they can be stored in the basement in winter in the basement. In the spring to make a landing on the beds.

How to preserve the freshness of cut lilac: tips

How to keep a fresh-cut lilac in a vase for a long time, the landing and care of which at the exit determined a chic, beautifully shaped bouquet? To do this, you need to know a few subtleties of such a delicate operation.

It is necessary to cut off in the early morning, while removing most of the leaves from the branches, because they evaporate a lot of moisture. From young bushes, cut lilac costs longer than from old ones. In the inflorescence there should be at least 2/3 of the open flowers, because in cutting the buds will not bloom anymore. Before placing a bouquet in a vase, it is necessary to refresh oblique sections by making new ones under water. Cunning, but effective technique: crush the ends of the shoots with a hammer. It is recommended to add 2-3 grams of acetic or citric acid to water. A perfect bouquet can be refreshed by placing it in very hot water.

Plant Diseases and Pests

For those who want to get a chic, pleasantly smelling plant on their own plot, you should know everything about this culture: what kind of plant such as lilac, planting and care, his illness, the timing of pruning and watering. Pests and diseases affect lilac rarely enough. This is a lilac miner moth, whose object of action is the leaves of a shrub. After exposure to this insect, the lilac looks as if burnt and the next year practically does not bloom. It is necessary to fight such a pest by digging the soil under a bush in the fall and spring (in order to destroy the pupae that have settled in the soil), cutting and burning the affected shoots.

Also, lilac, planting and caring for which bring true joy to true lovers of the beautiful, is sometimes affected by bacterial necrosis, this happens in early August. The disease is transmitted by irrigation water, insects, planting material. To determine the presence of this disease is possible by graying the leaves and browning of the shoots. In this case, requires the use of drugs aimed at combating pests, removal and disposal of damaged parts of the plant, uprooting and burning severely damaged bushes.

In the form of a tree

  1. Immediately after planting, remove all side branches, if any.
  2. When the seedling begins to grow, all the side branches are removed, while they are green and weak, leaving the stem growing upwards.
  3. When the stem reaches the desired height - in the second year, they pinch the top. After that, it will cease to grow upwards and will become a trunk.
  4. After pinching the tops, dormant buds will wake up in the upper part of the trunk, from which several shoots will begin to grow upwards. Of these, you can leave as much as skeletal branches of the future of the tree.

Experience shows that the optimum height of a bob for a lilac is 80-100 cm, and the upper 30 cm of a boom should be occupied by side branches. With a lower stem - 50 cm, the tree does not look like a stam, and with a high stem, it is difficult to carry out sanitary pruning and cut flower brushes.

Making a lilac hedge

Amur lilac is suitable for use as a hedge, because after pruning the branches do not stretch much upwards, like in other species. Another suitable low-growing lilac Meier.

Saplings for hedge, which is supposed to be cut annually at a height below human growth, are planted a meter apart. Such a fence will not bloom, but it looks neat. For flowering hedges lilac bushes are planted 1.5 meters from each other.

In the second year, young, not yet lignified branches of neighboring bushes are intertwined like a fishing net, fixing them in this position with a rope or soft wire. When such a fence grows, neither a man nor a large animal can move through it.

Lilac is growing rapidly, and with regular watering in the third year forms a thick green "fence" that you can start to cut. High hedges are cut after flowering, low - at any time.

Lilac can be propagated by seeds and vegetatively. When the seed method does not preserve the parental signs, therefore, the only method of propagation of planting material is vegetative, and seed is used only for new varieties.

Methods of vegetative propagation of lilac:

  • inoculation
  • layering
  • green cutting.

Reproduction by grafting allows you to quickly get a large number of the same height of planting material. The method is available only to gardeners with skills.

Lilac graft cutting or budding. For rootstock take lilac Hungarian or privet.

"Hungarian" and privet - not too successful stocks for common lilac, as in this case two different species are merged into one whole. The resulting plant will not be durable. The lifespan depends on a lot of factors and is 2-20 years.

"Hungarian" and privet is often used in nurseries as a stock. The fact is that the seedlings grafted on them come into the middle lane from the southern regions. Privet is grafted and transported, but in reality it is an unreliable stock, valuable only for cheapness.

It is more convenient for the gardener to own-made seedlings obtained from cuttings in amateur conditions or cuttings in industrial conditions. Own-rooted plants are durable and do not give wild shoots. Not all varieties of lilac reproduce by layering in amateur conditions, this is especially true of modern - fashionable and sophisticated varieties.

Cuttings harvested during flowering or immediately after. For cuttings suitable sprigs from the middle part of the crown, except for the top. Cut the stalks of twigs, each should have 2 internodes.

Leaves are removed from the lower node. The upper pair of leaf blades is cut in half.

Cuttings are immersed for a few hours in a solution of heteroauxin and planted into a greenhouse in a mixture of sand and peat 1: 1, under plastic wrap or cut plastic bottles. The air under the film must be moist all the time, for which the cuttings are sprayed daily from a spray bottle and the soil watered. The roots on the cuttings appear no earlier than 1.5 months.

After the regrowth of the roots, the greenhouse is ventilated starting from several hours a day. Then the shelter is removed, leaving the cuttings to harden under the open sky and not forgetting to water and weed from the weeds. The cuttings are left to winter here, and the following year they are dug out in the fall and transplanted to a permanent place.

In early May, it is nice to sit in the garden under a flowering lilac bush, breathing in a fresh and recognizable scent. Planting and caring for her are simple, but a beautiful plant is worth it to give him some time and effort. It responds to any, the most modest care, responding lush and long flowering.

A shrub like lilac is a member of the olive family. According to information taken from various sources, this genus unites from 22 to 36 species. In nature, such species can be found in the mountainous regions of Eurasia. The genus lilac has a type species - common lilac (Syringa vulgaris). Under natural conditions, such a shrub can be found along the lower course of the Danube, in the Balkan Peninsula and in the Southern Carpathians. Lilac is cultivated as an ornamental plant, and it also strengthens and protects the slopes, which are subject to erosion. In the second half of the 16th century, the Roman ambassador brought lilac to European countries from Constantinople, from which time this plant appeared in the gardens of Europe. The Turks called this shrub "lilac", and the inhabitants of Germany, Flanders and Austria gave it the name "lilac" or "Turkish viburnum."

At first, the lilac was not in great demand among European gardeners, because it did not blossom for long, and the loose inflorescences with small flowers did not have a high decorative effect. But that all changed after the Frenchman V. Lemoine received several dozen varieties of this plant, which differed lush and prolonged flowering, as well as beautiful dense inflorescences that have the correct shape. And he managed to bring several varieties with double flowers of various colors. Emile Lemoine continued the activities of his father, like his son Henri. Thanks to the Lemoirs, 214 varieties of lilac appeared. From the French breeders lilac paid attention: Auguste Goucheau, Charles Balte and Francois Marell. At the same time in Germany over the breeding of new varieties of lilac worked: Wilhelm Pfitzer and Ludwig Shpet. In Holland, at the beginning of the 20th century, new varieties of this shrub were born, and Klaas Kessen, Dirk Evelens Maarse, Jan van Tol and Hugo Koster worked on this, and Polish breeder Karpov-Lipsky also worked in this direction.

At the beginning of the 20th century, lilac became quite popular in North America, while its new varieties were born thanks to such breeders like John Dunbar, Gulda Klager, Theodore Haveameyer and other fairly well-known specialists from Canada and the USA. Also, new varieties of lilac were displayed on the territory of Belarus, Russia, Ukraine and Kazakhstan. To date, there are more than 2300 varieties of this plant, which differ among themselves in color, size and shape of flowers, timing of flowering, habit and size of the bushes. 2/3 of all varieties were bred using common lilac.

Lilac features

Lilac is a deciduous multi-stemmed shrub whose height varies from 2 to 8 meters. The diameter of the trunks is about 0.2 meters. The color of the bark is brown-gray or gray. Young trunks covered with a smooth bark, and the old - fissured.

Foliage blooming occurs relatively early, while it rests on the branches until frost occurs. The length of the opposite leaf plates is about 12 centimeters, as a rule, they are solid, but there are also pinnately divided. In various species, the shape of the leaf may differ, so it can be heart-shaped, oval, ovate or elongated, sharpening in the upper part. The color of the foliage is dark or pale green. The length of the final drooping metelkovidnyh inflorescences of about 0.2 m, they are composed of flowers that can be painted in purple, blue, pink, white, purple or purple. The flowers have a short four-toothed calyx-shaped calyx, 2 stamens and a rim with a four-section flat bend and with a cylindrical long tube. Many are wondering when exactly the lilac flowers bloom. It depends on several factors, namely: the type, weather and climatic conditions. Such a shrub can bloom from the last days of April to the first - June. During the flowering of the lilac garden is filled with a unique, delicate and very pleasant aroma. The fruit is a bivalve box, inside it there are several winged seeds.

If the plant is provided with the most favorable conditions, then its life expectancy may be approximately 100 years. It is very easy to care for lilac, it is hardy and is among the most popular ornamental shrubs along with hydrangea and chubushnik (garden jasmine).

What time to plant

The best time for planting lilacs in open soil is the period from mid-July to the first days of September. It is not recommended to plant such a shrub in spring or autumn, as it does not take root well and almost does not grow over the course of 1 year. For planting choose a sunny place with a moderately moist soil saturated with humus, and its acidity should be 5.0–7.0.

When buying seedlings, be sure to carefully inspect their root system. Opt for a plant with a well-developed and extensive root system. Before planting a sapling, it should cut out all the injured roots that started to dry and damaged by the disease, the rest should be shortened to 0.3 m. The injured stems should be removed, and excessively long ones should be shortened.

Landing features

When planting several seedlings do not forget to leave between them from 2 to 3 meters (depending on the type and variety) of empty space. During the preparation of the pit for planting it should be noted that it must have steep walls. If the soil fertility is high or medium, then the size of the pit will be 0.5x0.5x0.5 meters. If the soil is poor or sandy, then the pit needs to be made 2 times more, because during planting the seedling it will be necessary to fill the nutrient soil mixture, which includes: humus or compost (from 15 to 20 kilograms), wood ash (from 200 up to 300 grams) and superphosphate (from 20 to 30 grams). Wood ash should be taken 2 times more if the soil in the area is acidic.

At the bottom of the pit you need to make a good drainage layer, for this you can use crushed stone, expanded clay or broken brick. Then a nutritious groundwater mixture is poured into the pit so that a mound is obtained. Next, the plant is set in the center of the pit directly on the mound. After his root system is laid out, the pit needs to be completely filled with soil mixture. For lilacs planted, the root neck should rise 30–40 mm above the surface of the site. Planted shrubs need to be watered properly. Когда жидкость полностью впитается в почву, ее поверхность надо будет засыпать слоем мульчи (торф либо перегной), толщина которого должна быть в пределах 5–7 сантиметров.

Уход за сиренью в саду

Вырастить сирень в своем саду очень просто, тем более что уход за ней не отнимет у садовода много времени. This shrub can grow without your participation, but it will be very good if from the beginning to the middle of the summer period you provide it with systematic watering as the soil dries out, while at a time under 1 bush you should pour out 2.5–3 buckets of water. During the season, you will need 3 or 4 times to loosen the surface of the wheel circle to a depth of 4 to 7 centimeters. Also do not forget to timely remove weeds. In August and September, it is necessary to water such a plant only when there is a prolonged drought. After 5 or 6 years, the lilac will become a very effective thick bush.

The first 2 or 3 years lilacs are fed with only a small amount of nitrogen. Starting from the second year, ammonium nitrate in the amount of 65 to 80 grams or urea from 50 to 60 grams is applied under each shrub. But experienced gardeners recommend feeding the lilac with organic matter. To do this, you need to pour 10-30 liters of slurry under the bush (you should dissolve cow manure in the water in the ratio 5: 1). For a start, make a not very deep groove around the shrub, departing from the trunks of at least 50 cm. And you need to pour nutrient into it.

1 time in 2 or 3 years the plant is fed with phosphorus and potassium, for this, for 1 adult bush should take from 35 to 40 grams of double superphosphate and from 30 to 35 grams of potassium nitrate. Pellets should be deepened in the near-stem circle by 6–8 centimeters, then the plant should be watered without fail. However, lilac responds best to fertilizing with complex fertilizer consisting of 8 liters of water and 0.2 kilogram of wood ash.

Gardeners with considerable experience, strongly recommend that after 1 or 2 years from the date of planting shrubs to transplant it. The fact is that such a plant very quickly consumes all the nutrients available in the soil, even despite systematic feeding. In this regard, after 2 years, the soil will no longer be able to provide the lilac with the necessary energy for lush and incredible spectacular flowering, and rapid growth.

Transplantation of three-year bushes is made not earlier than August. Young plants should be transplanted directly at the end of flowering at the end of the spring period, otherwise they will not be able to properly take root before the first frost. The pit for transplanting needs to be done in the same way as for landing. Then you should inspect the plant and cut out the injured, dried or unwanted stems and branches. Shrub digging in the projection of the perimeter of the crown and pull out of the ground along with a clod of earth. Next, it is placed on a thick cloth or oilcloth and moved to a new landing site. The size of the new pit should be such that not only a bush with a clod of earth can fit in it, but also a sufficiently large amount of fertile soil.

Before the bush is 2 years old, it is not necessary to cut it, since the skeletal branches at this time are still in the formative stage. In the third year of lilac life, the formation of its crown should begin, this process will take from 2 to 3 years. Pruning is done in the springtime, before sap flow begins and before the buds swell. To do this, choose from 5 to 7 beautiful equidistant from each other branches, and the remaining ones are removed. Do not forget to cut all the root growth. Next year, approximately ½ of the flowering stems will need to be removed. The main pruning principle is that there should be no more than eight healthy buds on one skeletal branch, and the extra part of the branch should be removed to avoid overloading the shrub during flowering. Simultaneously with the formation of the bush and produce sanitary pruning. To do this, remove all injured, drying out, damaged by frost or disease branches and shoots, as well as those that grow incorrectly.

Lilac, if desired, you can give the form of a tree. To do this, you need to choose a sapling with a powerful straight vertical branch. It is necessary to shorten it to the height of the trunk, and then from the shoots that will grow, it is necessary to form 5 or 6 skeletal branches, and do not forget to regularly release the stem and trunk circle from the seedlings. After you finish shaping the stag lilac, you only need to thin out the crown every year.

Lilac care during flowering

When warm weather sets in on the street in spring, the lilac begins to bloom, and its very delicate fragrance will attract a huge amount of crunches. It is necessary to clean the May beetles from the bush manually. During the active flowering period, approximately 60 percent of all flowering stems will have to be removed. This procedure is called pruning “on a bouquet”; it is necessary for young stems to form more intensively, as well as to increase the number of flower buds that are laid for the next year. To prolong the life of a bouquet of lilacs, cut it should be early in the morning, and do not forget to split the lower part of the trimmed branch. At the end of flowering, cut off all the buds that have begun to fade.

Pests and diseases of lilac with photo examples

Lilac has a fairly high resistance to diseases and pests. But in some cases, it can become sick with bacterial necrosis, bacterial rot, powdery mildew, or verticillis. And on the shrub can live hawk moths, mining moth, kidney or leaf mites and lilac peppered moth.

Bacterial, or non-breezy, necrosis

If in August the green foliage changed its color to ash gray, and at the same time the young shoots turned brown or brown, this means that the bush is infected with bacterial (non-sodium) necrosis. For the purpose of prevention, it is recommended to systematically thin out the crown of the plant to improve ventilation, cut off the diseased areas and get rid of pests in a timely manner. If the defeat of the bush is significant, then it will need to be dug up and destroyed.

Bacterial rot

Bacterial rot damages the foliage, flowers, stems and buds of the plant. In some cases, wet spots appear on the root surface, which grow very quickly. As the disease develops, the foliage loses its turgor and dries out, but its abscission does not occur immediately, and the stems also dry and bend. In order to cure lilac, it is necessary to conduct 3 or 4 sprays of chlorine dioxide, while the interval between the procedures should be 1.5 weeks.

Mealy dew

Mealy dew is a fungal disease that can harm both young and old shrubs. A loose whitish-gray bloom appears on the surface of the foliage, with time it becomes denser and brown. The progression of this disease is observed in the hot dry summer. It is necessary to begin treatment of the plant immediately, as the first signs of the disease were noticed. First of all, it is necessary to cut out and destroy all the areas affected by the disease, then spray the bush with a fungicide. At the very beginning of the spring period, soil digging should be done with bleach (100 grams per square meter), and try not to injure the root system of the shrub.

Verticillary wilting

If you notice that the foliage of lilac rolls up, brown or rusty specks appear on its surface, and they gradually dry out and die off, then this is a sign of another fungal disease - verticillous wilt. The bush begins to dry from the top, while the disease spreads extremely quickly. The affected bush should be treated with a solution consisting of 1.5 buckets of water, 100 grams of soda ash and the same amount of soap. Also good results are shown by spraying Abiga-Pik bush. Cut out all infected areas and destroy them with the leaves that have flown over.

Lilac hawk moth

Lilac hawk moth is a large butterfly, on the front wings of which there is a marble pattern, she prefers a nightlife. In the caterpillar stage, this pest is 11 centimeters in length. It can be distinguished from other pests by a dense outgrowth similar to a horn in the back of the body. The hawk moth caterpillar settles not only on lilacs, but also on meadowsweet, currants, Kalina, ash and grapes. To get rid of such a pest, you will need to process the shrub Phtalofos solution (1%).

Lilac peppered moth

The lilac moth prefers to live on hedges and in light forests. In one season, such a pest is able to give 2 generations. Its small caterpillars eat flowers, buds and buds completely, and only leaf veins folded into a tube remain from leaf plates. The affected shrub should be sprayed with Fozalon or Karbofos.

Leaf lilac mite

The leaf lilac mite is a very small insect that feeds on the vegetable juice of lilac, while sucking it from the lower surface of the foliage. The leaves gradually dry out and change their color to brown. For the purpose of prophylaxis, spraying of lilac should be done on the foliage with a solution of ferrous or copper sulphate, and still systematically thin the crown and feed the plant with phosphorus-potassium fertilizer. Do not forget in the autumn to collect and destroy the fallen leaves.

Lilac bud mite

The lilac bud mite spends its whole life in the plant buds. He sucks the juice out of them, and also experiences in the kidneys and winter. As a result, the buds are deformed, the stems and foliage growing out of them are underdeveloped and weak, there is no flowering and the plant may die over time. In order to be prevented, at the very beginning of the spring period (after the frost is left behind), it is necessary to remove all the fallen leaves and cut off the root shoots, then dig the ground in the prestolite circle to a full bayonet with turning the soil, and then the shrub is treated with copper sulphate solution.

Mining Moth

Mining moths can harm lilac foliage. At the beginning, a lot of brown dark specks (min) appear on its surface, and after some time the plates are rolled up like a fire. In the affected plants there is no flowering, and after 1 or 2 years they die. To get rid of such moths, it is necessary to carry out an abundant spraying of the foliage with a solution of Baktofit or Fitosporin-M, or bordeaux liquid can be used. In the prophylactic purposes, in the autumn time, the obligatory collection and destruction of plant residues is performed, while before frosts and at the very beginning of the spring period, it is necessary to make a deep digging of the soil in the near-stem circle.

Planting common lilac

The optimal time for planting depends on the form in which the seedling went on sale. The best time to plant seedlings with open roots is early autumn. Planting lilacs in the fall should end by the end of September.

The leaves of lilac retain green until frost, so they should be green on a seedling intended for autumn planting. If a lilac sapling without leaves is a bad sign, which means that the planting dates have passed. It should be placed in a prikop until spring, as is done with fruit tree seedlings.

The timing of planting spring lilac compressed. It is necessary to have time to get a sapling from a prikop and plant it on a permanent place before bud break, therefore it is better to prepare a hole in the fall - then you will not have to dig frozen soil with a shovel. Lilac planting in the summer is possible if you buy a seedling in a container.

Lilac survives, if you do not make mistakes when planting:

  1. Failure to meet deadlines.
  2. Planting in acidic, structureless clay soil.
  3. Landing in deep shade.
  4. Landing on the marsh or temporarily flooded area in the valley.

Lilac loves the light, but it will not die in partial shade, but will bloom not so magnificently as in the sun. As for soil quality, this plant grows freely even on poor, uncultivated land. But the plant feels better on fertile, loose soil with a reaction close to neutral.

Lilac does not tolerate flooding and soil with a reaction of the soil solution below 5.5, on which the leaves turn yellow and fall off. To succeed in planting lilacs, the ground must be breathable.

How to plant a lilac:

  1. Dig a hole. The less cultivated the soil, the larger the hole should be. Free space in the pit is filled with fertile soil, mixed with a small amount of compost or peat - up to 1/4 of the volume of land. In the old gardens under the lilac, you can dig small pits - such that they only fit the roots of the seedling.
  2. The grafted lilac is planted so that the vaccination site is at ground level. Vaccination should not be in the soil, so that the plant does not pass on its roots. The exception will be seedlings grafted on the Hungarian lilac or privet, which are planted with the depth of the vaccine to make them more durable.
  3. Root own lilac when planting is buried to form additional roots.
  4. Roots fall asleep with fertile soil and trample down the soil with the foot, forming a pristvolnuyu hole. First you need to make sure that the root neck is at the right level.
  5. The well is plentifully filled with water.

Planting Hungarian lilac, as well as Persian and Amur, is conducted according to the same rules as in the case of ordinary lilac.

How to care for lilacs

Caring for lilac is no different from caring for most winter-hardy ornamental shrubs. Lilac tolerates cold, so for the winter it does not have to warm. Only in young grafted plants in the year of planting can the pristvolny circles be covered with a thick layer of fallen leaves.

After planting, the plant is watered abundantly until it begins to grow. Watering lilacs is needed only when necessary - in the heat. Autumn water-recharge irrigation for lilac is not carried out.

In the first years, while lilac does not bloom, fertilizers are not applied to it. Plants have enough organics added to the planting pits. Young bushes need soil loosening, weeding and watering.

The lilac bush begins to bloom in the third year. Then you can start annual feeding. Mineral fertilizers will make the brush larger, brighter and more fragrant, will increase their number.

In the spring before flowering, you need to have time at least once to break through the soil in your circle and feed the plant with any complex mineral fertilizer soluble in water. The roots of the lilac are located superficially, so you need to loosen the soil carefully and shallowly.

Lilac care after flowering

Loosening and watering stop by the beginning of August, so as not to stimulate the growth of shoots. The wood must have time to mature for the winter, and for this it needs to stop growing in time.

Caution should be exercised only with nitrogen fertilizers, with an excess of which the lilac begins to fatten, that is, instead of flowering, will begin to throw out new shoots and leaves. On the other hand, in order to bloom every year, the bush must give a normal growth that is impossible without nitrogen. Here we have to look for the “golden mean” - for example, it is very moderate to feed the plant once per season with urea or mullein, and do it in early spring when the buds are just starting to wake up.

Unlike nitrogen, phosphate and potash minerals will bring nothing but good. Phosphorus is introduced in the fall, in early October, in the amount of 40 grams. on young and 60 gr. on an adult bush. This element affects the size and quality of colors.

Potassium makes the plant winter-hardy. After potash fertilization, flower buds tolerate frosts well, do not freeze, and the bush blooms profusely in spring. Potassium contribute with phosphorus at the rate of 3 tbsp. on a large adult bush.

Lilac loves feeding wood ash, as this substance, unlike mineral fertilizers, does not acidify, but alkalizes the soil. Ash is poured with cold water - 1 cup per 10 liters, insist 2 days and poured 2 buckets of such infusion on each bush. But first you need to water the plants with clean water so as not to burn the roots.

Ash bushes are fed twice per season: immediately after flowering, when new flower buds are laid, and in October. If ash is applied, then it is not necessary to add mineral fertilizers in the fall.

Cutting lilacs

Lilacs are grown by a bush with several skeletal branches extending from the ground, but if you wish, you can form a tree on a low trunk. In both cases, the bush will need enough space.

If the task is to get a harmoniously developed bush that will decorate the site with abundant flowering and beautiful shape, then choosing a place for planting a seedling, make sure that neighboring plants, fences and buildings are no closer than 1.2-2 m.

Growing lilacs

For lilac to receive proper care, pruning must be systematic. The bush will have an attractive shape and be able to bloom annually.

Pruning is started when the plant begins to form skeletal branches. This happens in the third year.

Skeletal branches in the future will be the basis of the bush. Of course, the bush itself will form them. By interfering with this process in time, it is possible to influence the future shape and size of the bush for the better.

In the third year in early spring, while the buds are still asleep, and the branches are not hidden by foliage and clearly visible, up to 10 evenly located branches are found on the plant, which must be left. Остальные ветви обрезают.

В дальнейшем ограничиваются санитарной обрезкой, вырезая ранней весной веточки, растущие внутрь кроны, засохшие за зиму и поврежденные вредителями. При необходимости санитарную обрезку можно провести в любой момент вегетации. У привитой сирени весной удаляют дикую поросль.

Когда сирень зацветет, с нее без ущерба для растения можно срезать больше половины цветущих побегов и использовать их для создания букетов. If they are not cut off, then in the next year the shoots will form less and flowering will be weak. It is better to immediately remove faded brushes from the branches with shears, so that they do not spoil the appearance of the bush.

Lilac flowers are best cut early in the morning, before the dew dries. For the flowers to stand longer in water, the ends of the shoots should be split with a hammer or a knife.

A bush over 10 years old can make rejuvenating pruning, removing one skeletal branch a year. New skeletal branches form from dormant buds, which bloom on the trunk next to the traces of sawed branches.

Making a lilac hedge

Amur lilac is suitable for use as a hedge, because after pruning the branches do not stretch much upwards, like in other species. Another suitable low-growing lilac Meier.

Saplings for hedge, which is supposed to be cut annually at a height below human growth, are planted a meter apart. Such a fence will not bloom, but it looks neat. For flowering hedges lilac bushes are planted 1.5 meters from each other.

In the second year, young, not yet lignified branches of neighboring bushes are intertwined like a fishing net, fixing them in this position with a rope or soft wire. When such a fence grows, neither a man nor a large animal can move through it.

Lilac is growing rapidly, and with regular watering in the third year forms a thick green "fence" that you can start to cut. High hedges are cut after flowering, low - at any time.

Reproduction by cuttings

Cuttings harvested during flowering or immediately after. For cuttings suitable sprigs from the middle part of the crown, except for the top. Cut the stalks of twigs, each should have 2 internodes.

Leaves are removed from the lower node. The upper pair of leaf blades is cut in half.

Cuttings are immersed for a few hours in a solution of heteroauxin and planted into a greenhouse in a mixture of sand and peat 1: 1, under plastic wrap or cut plastic bottles. The air under the film must be moist all the time, for which the cuttings are sprayed daily from a spray bottle and the soil watered. The roots on the cuttings appear no earlier than 1.5 months.

After the regrowth of the roots, the greenhouse is ventilated starting from several hours a day. Then the shelter is removed, leaving the cuttings to harden under the open sky and not forgetting to water and weed from the weeds. The cuttings are left to winter here, and the following year they are dug out in the fall and transplanted to a permanent place.

In early May, it is nice to sit in the garden under a flowering lilac bush, breathing in a fresh and recognizable scent. Planting and caring for her are simple, but a beautiful plant is worth it to give him some time and effort. It responds to any, the most modest care, responding lush and long flowering.

Varieties of lilac

The varieties and varieties of lilac are usually combined in terms of the main quality that has become the subject of national adoration - the most beautiful flowers with a unique strong aroma. Small and very fragrant flowers in the shape of a funnel with a limb in four lobes form a relatively dimensional inflorescences-panicles.

Other signs can also vary in a fairly wide range, for example, among the bushes there are trees, and the foliage can be oval or lanceolate with pointed tips, dissected and pinnate, but they cannot be decisive against the background of such a vibrant and lush flowering.

Common lilac

All common lilacs are characterized by relatively large flowers (from 1 cm in diameter). In other species, they are smaller. The most famous and popular is the very common lilac, which almost everyone has seen somewhere in the park or on someone's summer cottage. It has been cultivated since the mid-16th century, with the result that today it has a great variety of varieties.

One of the most original and sought after - red lilac Moscow with terry lilac-pink flowers of pearl color, with a diameter of 2.5 cm, forming a 25-centimeter pyramid of inflorescences.

Lilac banner of Lenin - bright and spectacular, with red-lilac flowers up to 2.2 cm in diameter, assembled into broad and dense pyramids-panicles.

Sort lilac sensation it is distinguished by the presence of a pronounced white border on dark lilac flowers of the same diameter as in the previous variety (the size of the inflorescences is approximately 20 cm).

Lilac primrose it is unique in its color characteristics - its buds are colored greenish-yellow, and the flowers are creamy yellow, and the petals often turn white when they fade in the sun.

By ordinary also include lilac hyacinthsvet and Chinese lilac. The variety and the species itself are distinguished by the early flowering, and the second is a natural hybrid with even larger inflorescences compared to the lilac of the bush as a whole.

Derived varieties of Chinese lilac (with double flowers, inclusive) in conditions close to the climate of Moscow may partially freeze slightly, although, if there is no particularly cold weather, they develop well.

Hungarian Lilac

In the Russian Federation, Hungarian lilac is endowed with a special status right after the common lilac. It is valued not so much, but is grown everywhere, mainly in cities. The flowering of the Hungarian begins a month later, and it is characterized by stability and unpretentiousness, worthy of admiration - it easily endures drought, blockage, shade, supersaturation of air with gases and is able to withstand 40-degree cold.

Lilac Zvegintsov (hairy) to which lilac shaggy (hairy), its appearance is so reminiscent of the Hungarian that only an expert can distinguish them. They are characterized by oval foliage, pointed at the ends, with hairs or cilia on the veins and edges. The flowers of these lilacs are smaller compared to ordinary lilacs, but the bushes are wider, higher (up to 5 meters) and with thicker trunks. All are characterized by good resistance to frost.

Peristuol lilac

Present Persian lilac and a number of others. Together with the ovate-lanceolate, she comes across pinnately dissected leaves. Of the lilacs in this group, the Persian is almost the only one capable of developing normally in the Russian central zone.

Extraordinary interest is the hybrid dwarf persian lilac, the aroma of flowers which differs markedly from other species, and the growth does not exceed 2 meters. During the flowering period from mid-May to late June, dwarf Persian lilacs are enveloped in white, red or purple flowers.

Fluffy lilac

Such as lilac meier, have a thin layer of pubescence on the foliage and inflorescences, consisting of small, but very fragrant, flowers. All fluffy lilac peculiarity and originality, which are emphasized by the small size of the bush (up to 1.5 meters in height). They are very cool decorate gardens and rockeries, but not so winter-hardy to survive hard winters.

In particular, for grade Meyer's lilac palibin warm Turkey is considered to be the native habitat of growth, whence it was introduced. In addition to the small dimensions of the bush, this variety differs in relatively small inflorescences (10 cm long), formed from pink-purple flowers with a subtle lilac shade. Flowering lilac Meyer begins in May and lasts for 1-2 months.

Tree lilac

A special place in the classification belongs to the tree lilacs. One of the representatives of this group is Amur lilacsecreted by some researchers in another genus. The reason for this was the fact that although the fruits are characterized by signs of the genus of the same name, then the flowers are more similar to those of plants of the genus Birchichina.

Large inflorescences of Amur lilac are made up of small creamy-white flowers with elongated yellowish stamens. The height of some shrubs and trees can reach 10 meters, the foliage is rounded with sharpened tips. Tree lilacs bloom in the summer (a couple of weeks after the Hungarian), they are resistant to frost and pollution of the environment, but it is difficult to endure a serious drought.

Indian Lagerstroms

Which many call “indian lilac”, Even taking into account the fact that it does not belong to this family, or to order, it is characterized by dimensional flowers, painted in white, pink, crimson or purple. Her foliage is oval, and growth is up to 10 meters.

Based on the name, it can be assumed that the homeland of this plant is India, however, in fact, it is the tropics of China. Evergreen decorative smooth-bore shrubs of Indian lilacs are perfect for decoration of parks and greenhouses.

Lilac planting and care in the open field

For growing lilacs, it is better to choose a lighted area, covered from strong winds. It is not recommended to land at low, swampy and flooded areas at certain times of the year. The slightest stagnation of moisture can adversely affect the development of a young root system of a plant.

The most favorable period for planting is mid July - early September, the weather is overcast, and evening time. At what distance from each other to plant seedlings, depends on what sort / type was selected - it can be from 2 to 3 meters.

We also offer to read, apple tree planting and care in the open field. It can become a worthy decoration of the garden and, moreover, produce a good and healthy harvest. All recommendations for growing and content can be found in this article.

Soil for lilac

Soil requirements are as follows: moderate moisture, fertility, the presence of drainage and high humus content. Lilac prefers a weak acidity or neutrality of the soil and a low standing of groundwater.

The walls of the landing pits should be vertical; an equally distributed volume of the pit should not exceed 50 cu. cm in medium fertile soil, 100 cu. cm - in the poor, sandy. The basis of the soil consists of humus or compost (15-20 kg), wood ash (200-300 grams) and superphosphate (20-30 grams).

Due to the fact that the final component contributes to acidification of the soil, in the case of acidic soils, this effect must be neutralized - a 2-fold increase in the portion of ash (the optimum acidity range is 6.6-7.5).

Soil components should be thoroughly mixed, then, after planting, mulching with peat or half-rotted leaves on a layer of 5-7 cm. It is recommended to loosen the stalk ground 3-4 times during the vegetation period 4-7 cm deep.

Lilac transplant

Lilac transplantation is advisable to carry out in the 2nd half of summer, however, if the temperature is too high, it is better to transfer it to the beginning of autumn. Spring and autumn are not quite suitable for this procedure, because then the plants take root in new areas worse.

From the preparatory work with the onset of summer, dig a groove with a depth approximately equal to the expected volume of the earthy coma, and cut off the roots extending in width. To accelerate the growth of young roots in the pit fall asleep rich fertile land.

If you need to transplant several lilacs at once to one site, then you need to maintain a distance between them, again, depending on the type / species, but the general recommendation is a distance of not less than 150 cm. Again, just like during disembarkation, it is better to do This is a cloudy day or evening.

Specimens with developed and healthy roots of at least 25-30 cm in length are selected for transplanting. Before planting a transplanted lilac, its crown must be trimmed into 2-3 pairs of buds. Pruning is applicable to the roots, from which should be completely eliminate painful and having damage. The root neck of the transplanted plant should be flush with the ground surface.

After planting, it is necessary to moisten the soil plentifully and mumble 5-7 cm. Follow-up care measures are reduced to regular loosening of the stalked ground 5-7 cm deep.

Fertilizer for lilac

Nitrogen fertilizers are applied from the 2nd year to 50-60 grams (urea) or 65-80 grams (ammonium nitrate) per season. Organic matter is quite effective, for example, slurry in the amount of 1-3 buckets per tree / shrub, and the most suitable complex feeding for lilac is ash, 200 grams of which is diluted in 8 liters of water.

Lilac pruning

The beauty of form and rich flowering each year are achieved by experienced gardeners due to proper trimming of the bush. Until the lilac is 3 years old, she doesn’t need pruning, while for 3-4 years she begins to form a branch skeleton.

And from this time on, in the beginning of spring, before the buds begin to awaken, in the crown, 5-10 optimally selected branches are selected for the location, and the rest are cut. There is a certain benefit in pruning to bouquets up to 70% of flowering stems - in this case, the rest will begin to develop at an accelerated pace.

Young lilac should not be left for the winter, not covering it in the forest region. Peat and dried leaves are used as cover (the layer is not thicker than 10 cm).

Lilac leaves healing properties and contraindications

Not many people know how many healing qualities of common lilac. Its various elements contain: essential oil, sinigrin, phenoglycoside, farnesol. There are many drugs with antipyretic, antimicrobial and analgesic effects, including these compounds.

In folk medicine, foliage, buds and flowers have been used. The latter are collected during the flowering period before they begin to crumble. Collection of foliage for ingestion is carried out in the same period, and the buds should be collected when they swell.

Dry foliage based ointment, its juice and powder from the kidneys are used in the prevention of neuralgic disorders, arthritis, and radiculitis. For its preparation you will need to mix the collected parts of the plant with vaseline or butter in proportions of 1: 4. Infusion, made from flowers, helps to cope with bronchitis, pulmonary tuberculosis, cough.

Tincture of lilac flowers: a glass of flowers should be poured with 250 grams of boiling water, insist an hour, strain, and you can use a tablespoon 3-4 times a day.

Lilac tincture on vodka / alcohol gives good results for problems with joints. The recipe for its preparation is quite simple - immediately after collecting 100 grams of flowers and lilac leaves, put them in a 1-liter glass jar with a lid, fill them up with alcohol or vodka, cork, and put them in darkness for 10 days. After the specified time we filter the infusion through 4-layer gauze.

Content

  • 1. Listen to the article (soon)
  • 2. Description
  • 3. Landing
    • 3.1. When to plant
    • 3.2. How to plant
  • 4. Care
    • 4.1. How to care
    • 4.2. Transfer
    • 4.3. Pruning
    • 4.4. Care during flowering
    • 4.5. Pests and diseases
  • 5. Reproduction
    • 5.1. How to multiply
    • 5.2. Graft
    • 5.3. Reproduction by layering
    • 5.4. Cuttings
    • 5.5. Seed propagation
  • 6. Lilac after flowering
  • 7. Types and varieties

Planting and caring for lilacs (in short)

  • Bloom: at the beginning or in the middle of May, sometimes at the end of April.
  • Landing: from the second half of July to the beginning of September.
  • Lighting: bright light, light penumbra.
  • The soil: moderately moist, rich in humus, with a pH of 5.0-7.0.
  • Watering: only in the first half of summer as the soil dries. Water consumption for each bush - 25-30 liters. In the future, watering is produced only in a protracted drought.
  • Top dressing: the first 2-3 years under the bushes make a little nitrogen fertilizer: from 1 to 3 buckets of slurry under each bush. Potash-phosphate fertilizers in the amount of 30-35 g of potash nitrate and 35-40 g of double superphosphate for each adult shrub, followed by irrigation, are applied once every 2-3 years. However, the best fertilizer for lilac is a solution of 200 g of ash in a bucket of water.
  • Trimming: Lilac is cut from the age of two in the spring, before the sap flow begins.
  • Reproduction: grafting, layering and cuttings.
  • Pests: leaf or bud mites, hawk moths, lilac moths and mining moths.
  • Diseases: powdery mildew, bacterial (non-sodium) necrosis, verticillis and bacterial rot.

Lilac bush - description

Lilac is a multi-leaf deciduous shrub with a height of 2 to 8 m. Lilac trunks can reach a diameter of 20 cm. They are covered with gray or gray-brown bark, fissured on old trunks and smooth on young.

The leaves of lilac bloom early, do not fall to the very frost and can reach a length of 12 cm. They are opposite, usually whole, sometimes pinniped. Depending on the type of lilac, the shape of the leaves can be oval, heart-shaped, ovoid, or elongated with a pointed tip. The color of the leaves is light or dark green. White, purple, purple, blue, purple or pink flowers, collected in the final drooping panicles up to 20 cm long, consist of a short bell-shaped chetyrehzyuboy calyx, two stamens and a corolla with a long cylindrical tube and a flat four-part bend. When does lilac bloom? Depending on the type of lilac, the climate of the area and the weather, it blooms from late April to early June. In any case, you will not miss this phenomenon: the blossoming lilac will let you know about yourself with a delicate, delicate and very pleasant aroma. The fruit of the plant is a bivalve capsule in which several winged seeds ripen.

Lilac lives under favorable conditions up to one hundred years. Она не требует сложного ухода, не боится морозов и наряду с гортензией и чубушником, или жасмином садовым, является одним из самых популярных декоративных кустарников.

Сорта и разновидности

Сирень на фото, которая чаще всего встречается в садах и парках, это сирень обыкновенная. Since this species has amazing variability, it is he who holds the record for varieties - there are about five hundred of them. These varieties differ in appearance and other characteristics, but do not have differences in the conditions of growth and cultivation. There are other types.

  1. Hyacinthsvet lilac is a hybrid that is distinguished by purple-colored leaves in autumn and early spring flowering.
  2. Broadleaf, Chinese and Persian lilacs are very decorative, but in the middle lane are often damaged by frost. Chinese lilac bred in France and has a form with different flowers.

Among the variety of varieties pay attention to such:

  • Primrose is the only representative with yellow flowers.
  • Amur - an aromatic variety with very small white flowers,

  • Red Moscow is a variety with striking purple-colored inflorescences. Red Moscow is a rare variety of domestic breeding with piercingly bright colors.

Council Hybrids are often superior to parents. Bloom earlier and grow faster, they lack the root shoots.

Fertilizer and dressing

Nutrients introduced during planting will provide the plant with nutrition over the next couple of years. In subsequent years, in spring, lilacs are fed with nitrogen fertilizers, and after flowering, phosphorus and potassium are added once every three years. Phosphorus-potassium fertilizers have a positive effect on the budding of flower buds. An increased dose of nitrogen provokes an increase in the vegetative mass to the detriment of flowering.

In addition to organic and mineral fertilizers, you can apply chelate fertilizer from the sprayer on the leaves.

Where to plant a lilac

The first thing you need to choose the right place for landing. Lilac refers to unpretentious crops, but it does not tolerate excessive moisture. In such conditions, the roots begin to rot, and even adult shrubs can die. That is why it is not recommended to land in the marshy lowlands or in areas that are regularly flooded with water. In addition, the shrub is undesirable to plant in the shade of large trees or at close range from buildings. Such a neighborhood will not only create an undesirable shadow, but also increase the soil moisture.

It is also recommended to choose areas with slightly acidic or neutral soils. They contain a sufficient amount of humus for the development of seedlings. When choosing a place to disembark, be guided not only by the quality of the soil and its humidity, but also by the illumination of the site. Lilac loves sunshine, but it does not tolerate drafts, so it should be planted in sunny, but protected from strong wind places.

How to choose planting material

No less important is the choice of the seedling itself. When buying, you should pay attention to the root system: it should be strong and branched, and its diameter should be about 30 cm.

Note: Buying planting material is better in specialized stores, and not with it. So you will be confident in the quality and health of seedlings.

At the time of purchase, you can conduct a small check of the viability of the plant. It is necessary to choose a thin small root and bend it. If it breaks and becomes dark, then the root has dried, and such a bush will not take root.

Figure 1. Examples of quality planting material with a closed root system

You can also check the quality of the seedling as its bark. If you lightly scratch it with your finger, there should be a green mark. A brown or gray surface indicates that the seedling is sick and should not be bought.

Healthy and strong trees reach a height of half a meter or more, and also have from 3 to 6 skeletal branches (Figure 1).

When to plant a lilac

Many people mistakenly believe that the best time for planting any garden crops, including lilacs, is spring. In fact, this ornamental shrub is better to plant in the ground in late summer or early autumn. In such conditions, the tree will have time to take root and grow stronger before the onset of cold weather.

But, if you bought a sapling with an open root system in the spring, and the buds have not yet blossomed on it, you can also plant the planting at this time. The main thing - to prevent the awakening of the kidneys, because planting in such a period can greatly weaken the shrub and even lead to his death.

Also, the landing can be carried out in mid-July, when the shrub has already faded and is preparing for a rest period. But the best time is September, and it is desirable to carry out the procedure until the middle of the month, when the daytime temperature is high enough and there is no danger of night frost.

Planting in the fall

In the autumn, it is desirable to complete planting before mid-September, so that the seedlings have time to settle down before the onset of cold weather. During this period, it is still quite warm and there is no night frost, so the risk of freezing of young plants is almost minimal.

Figure 2. Stages of autumn planting shrubs

The landing technology involves several stages. First, you need to clean the area from weeds and roots of other plants. Secondly, it is necessary to prepare pits with vertical walls up to 50 cm deep.

Note: If you plan to plant several bushes, it is better to locate them at a distance of 2-3 meters from each other so that the roots can develop normally.

At the bottom of the pit lay a layer of drainage and fill it with fertile soil consisting of compost or rotted manure (about 20 kg) per plant, 20 grams of superphosphate and a glass of wood ash. The resulting mixture should be poured a mound, in the center of which set the seedling and straighten its roots. It is necessary to deepen a plant in the soil in such a way that its root neck is a few centimeters above the surface. Next, you need to water the ground well, and when the water is absorbed, mulch with any organic material (Figure 2).

Landing in the spring in the ground

Spring is not the best time for this procedure, as during this period it is easy to miss the right moment for landing. It is important that, before planting, the buds on the seedling should not be awakened, but if this has already happened, the procedure is delayed until the end of summer.

Note: Because of the chance to miss the time suitable for planting, it is recommended to buy seedlings with a closed root system, since they can be successfully stored for several months.

Regardless of the time it is necessary to properly prepare the soil: free the area from weeds, dig it up and prepare a nutrient substrate of humus, superphosphate and wood ash.

It is also necessary to inspect the seedlings themselves and remove all damaged and dry parts of the roots. In addition, it is advisable to place the roots in a solution of the root-forming agent for several hours in order to stimulate the acclimatization of the plant in a new place.

Lilac planting pattern

It is best to choose a cloudy day or evening for planting seedlings. After preparing the planting material proceed directly to the garden work.

The classic scheme of planting lilac looks like this:

  • Dig a hole the size of 50 * 50 cm.
  • Nutrient soil from the hole is mixed with compost or humus, superphosphate and wood ash. In total, you will need about 20 kg of organic matter, 20 grams of mineral fertilizer and 300 grams of ash per plant. But, if the soil at the site is acidic, the amount of ash must be doubled.
  • At the bottom of the hole lay a layer of broken brick, which will serve as a drainage. From above pour out a nutritious substrate, forming from it a small hillock.
  • A prepared sapling is placed on a mound, its root system is straightened and deepened into the ground so that the root neck protrudes 3-4 cm above the ground surface.
  • The pit is filled with soil mixture, lightly tamped and watered abundantly.

It is necessary to wait until the water is fully absorbed into the ground and mulch the bed. This will maintain the optimum soil moisture and prevent the weeds from growing, which significantly slow down the growth of young shrubs.

Step-by-step landing instructions are provided in the video.

The distance between the lilac when landing

This ornamental shrub provides a wide scope for imagination in the design of the garden. It can be planted both individually and in groups, but if you want to form strong and beautiful shrubs, it is better to stick to a distance of 2-3 meters between individual seedlings (Figure 3).

Figure 3. The distance between the lilac bushes when landing

In some cases, lilacs even create hedges, but in this case the plants will need more careful feeding. If you have the opportunity to maintain the optimal distance between the plants, it is not necessary to fertilize the lilac especially actively, as it will receive all the necessary nutrients from the soil.

Bouquet landing

This method of placing shrubs is practiced quite rarely. The fact is that when bouquet planting seedlings are located very close to each other, sometimes - in the same pit. This allows you to create lush plantings, but to care for adult bushes will be difficult, especially for beginners.

Figure 4. Bouquet placement of shrubs

In addition, when bouquet arrangement must take into account the characteristics of varieties. As a rule, low-growing varieties are used for this purpose (Figure 4). Tall planted in a similar way is impossible, especially in combination with low-growing species.

Planting a lilac with a closed root system

Seedlings with a closed root system have one important advantage in comparison with the usual planting material. Since such plants are sold in special pots, they can be planted at almost any time of the year: from early spring to autumn.

Most varieties are resistant to drought and cold, but they do not tolerate stagnant moisture at the roots. Therefore, you should carefully choose a place for landing. It should be well lit, but at the same time closed from the cold wind and drafts. In addition, it is better to choose areas with loose fertile soil.

Note: If the soil in your area does not meet these requirements, you need to dig holes, remove the soil and replace it with a special fertile soil mixture.

The depth and diameter of the landing hole should be about 50 cm. It is important that the walls of the hole were vertical. It is desirable to place individual plants at a distance of 2 meters from each other, so that in the process of growth they can develop a strong root system.

The bottom of the hole is filled with nutrient soil mixture, forming from it a small mound. A sapling is installed vertically in its center, its roots are straightened and powdered with the remaining earth. In this case, it is important that the root neck protrudes several centimeters above the ground surface. After that, the ground around the plant must be carefully tamped down, watered, and after moisture is absorbed, it should be mulched with peat or sawdust to prevent moisture evaporation and weed proliferation.

How and what to feed the lilac

Despite the fact that lilac is very demanding on the moisture and fertility of the soil, it does not require special care. In the summer, the land is watered as it dries, spending up to 30 liters of liquid per bush, and also loosening the soil with the removal of weeds.

Top dressing depends on the age of the plant. During the first two three years, young specimens are fed with only a small amount of nitrogen fertilizers, and from the second year they begin to apply urea or ammonium nitrate (50 grams per bush).

Phosphate and potash fertilizers need to be applied once every 2-3 years. They can simply be scattered on the surface of the soil, and then spend abundant watering. Organic supplements are also considered effective, for example, slurry (1 part of cow manure per 5 parts of water).

The rules of cutting lilac, whether to cut it

This ornamental shrub needs pruning just like other plants in the garden. But this process has its own characteristics. For example, bushes less than two years old are not pruned at all, since they have not yet formed all skeletal branches. They begin to form the crown only from the third year, and this process takes several years (Figure 5).

Figure 5. Shaping and rejuvenating shrub pruning

Pruning is best done in early spring, before the start of sap flow and the awakening of the kidneys. To do this, select 5-7 strong and beautiful branches, located at equal distances from each other. The remaining shoots and root shoots are removed. Next spring, cut off half of the flowering branches. At the same time, the remaining shoots are also shortened, leaving no more than 8 buds on them. This will help form a lush and strong shrub.

Note: Simultaneously with the formative pruning, sanitary is carried out, removing all dry or damaged branches, as well as shoots with signs of disease.

Lilac can be formed not only in the form of a shrub, but also a small tree. To do this, choose a seedling with a vertical straight trunk and after planting it is slightly shortened (to the height of the trunk). As the side branches grow back, skeletal shoots form, leaving 5-6 strongest specimens moving to the sides. At the same time, the crown is cleaned of shoots growing inside and root shoots. Gradually, the skeletal branches will get stronger, and further pruning will include only sanitary measures and regular thinning of the crown.

Root shoots

Reproduction by root shoots (branches) is also considered an effective method for obtaining high-quality planting material. For this spring, you need to choose a young sprout that has not yet had time to woody, and drag it with copper wire at the base and at a distance of 80 cm.

Note: When overtightening the shoot, it is important not to damage its bark, since in this case the layering may not settle down.

Next, the prepared branch is placed in a shallow groove (no more than 2 cm), and leave the tip on the surface. To escape is not pushed to the surface, it must be fixed with pins. During the summer, weeds are regularly watered and weeds are removed around it (Figure 7).

Figure 7. Peculiarities of reproduction by root layers

When the shoots formed on the branch reach a height of 15 cm, hilling is carried out to about half the height of the shoots. As the branches grow, the ground is filled up, and with the onset of cold weather, the branches are separated from the mother bush and cut into several parts so that each of them has a part of the roots. After that, they can be transplanted to a permanent place, but for the winter it is necessary to equip the needles shelter.

Growing new planting material by grafting is a rather complicated process for which the gardener needs to have certain skills. But you can immediately get a large number of identical height seedlings.

Figure 8. Features of grafting lilac on a stock

For grafting using cuttings or budding, and as a stock using privet or Hungarian shrub variety. To do this, use the method of budding sleeping or waking kidney (summer or spring). In the second half of June, they start preparing the stock: remove all root shoots and shorten the side shoots so that their height does not exceed 15 cm (Figure 8).

Note: Pruning just before budding can not be done, because the wound will not have time to drag on and the seedling will be too weak.

Prior to the vaccination, they carry out abundant watering for 5-6 days, and before the procedure, wipe the place of attachment of the kidney with a damp, clean cloth. At the stock at a level of 3-5 cm from the ground level, a T-shaped incision is made up to 3 cm long, gently lift the bark and insert a kidney or cutting into the hole formed. After that, the branch must be carefully rewound with tape or film for fixation.

When to plant lilacs in spring or autumn

There are many opinions regarding the best terms for planting lilacs. In fact, the landing can be carried out from spring to autumn, but it is necessary to follow certain rules.

Firstly, if you are planning a spring disembarkation, it must be completed before the start of sap flow and the awakening of the kidneys.

Secondly, during the summer landing, the advantage should be given to the middle of July. At this time, the bushes begin to prepare for a period of rest and tolerate transplant normally.

If you chose fall as your planting period, it is held until mid-September. During this period, it is still quite warm and there is no night frost, so the seedlings will have time to take root before the onset of cold weather.

How to plant a lilac.

Depending on the type and variety of the planted plants, the distance between lilac seedlings should be from 2 to 3 meters. How to plant a lilac in the garden? First you need to prepare landing pits with sheer walls. The size of the pits in soils with good or average fertility should be 50x50x50 cm, and when planted in sandy or poor soil, the size is doubled with the expectation that when planted, the pit will be filled with fertile substrate consisting of humus or compost (15-20 kg ), superphosphate (20-30 g) and wood ash (200-300 g). If the soil at the site is acidic, then the amount of ash is doubled.

At the bottom of the landing pit lay a layer of drainage material (expanded clay, rubble, broken brick), which poured a hill of fertile soil mixture. The seedling is set in the center of the pit on the hill, straightened its roots and fill the pit with the substrate to the top. Корневая шейка саженца должна оказаться выше уровня поверхности на 3-4 см. После посадки растение обильно поливают, а когда вода впитается, приствольный круг мульчируют слоем перегноя или торфа толщиной 5-7 см.

Вредители и болезни сирени.

For pests and harmful microorganisms, lilac is almost invulnerable, but under certain circumstances powdery mildew, bacterial necrosis, verticillis and bacterial rot, as well as leaf or bud mites, hawk moth, lilac moth and the moth mole can strike it.

Bacterial, or non-sodium, necrosis manifests itself in August: the green leaves of lilac become ash-gray, and the young shoots turn brown or brown. To avoid damage, it is necessary to thin the crown of the plant, thereby increasing its ventilation, remove diseased areas and prevent pests from appearing on the lilac. If the defeat is too strong, the bush will have to be uprooted.

Bacterial rot affects the leaves, shoots, flowers and lilac buds. It can also appear on the roots in the form of wet, fast-growing spots. As a result of the development of the disease, the leaves lose turgor and dry, but they do not fall off immediately, the shoots dry and bend. 3-4 treatments of lilac with copper oxide with an interval of 10 days will help you to cope with the disease.

Mealy dew it is caused by a fungus and easily infects both young and mature plants: leaves are covered with a loose grayish-white bloom, which becomes dense and turns brown as the disease progresses. The disease is progressing in arid hot summer. When the first signs of the disease appear, the affected areas need to be cut and burned, and the bush treated with a fungicide preparation. In early spring, the soil should be dug up with bleach at the rate of 100 g per m², trying not to disturb the lilac roots.

Verticillary wilting - also a fungal disease, from which the leaves of lilac coagulate, become covered with rusty or brown spots, dry and fall. Drying begins at the top of the bush and progresses very quickly. To stop the disease, you need to spray a bush with a solution of 100 g of soap and 100 g of soda ash in 15 liters of water. The treatment of the diseased plant with the drug Abiga-Peak is also effective. The affected areas should be trimmed and burned with fallen leaves.

Lilac hawk moth - A very large butterfly with a marble pattern on the front wings, leading a nocturnal lifestyle. In the caterpillar stage, it is also quite large - up to 11 cm in length. You can also recognize it by a dense growth in the form of a horn in the back of the body. Not only lilacs, but also viburnum, meadowsweet, ash, currants and grapes can become a victim of hawk moths. Destroy the pest by treatment with Phthalofos one-percent solution.

Lilac moth lives in light forests and hedges. She gives two generations in one season. As a result of the vital activity of its small caterpillars, only the veins rolled into a tube remain from the leaves, and the buds, flowers and buds disappear completely. Destroy the pest can be treated with lilac Carbofos or Fozalonom.

Leaf lilac mite - a small insect sucking juices from the underside of lilac leaves, making them dry and turn brown. A large number of ticks can destroy a large lilac bush in two weeks. To prevent this, treat the plant on the leaves with a solution of copper or ferrous sulfate, do not forget to thin out the crown, feed the bush with potash-phosphorus fertilizers and burn the fallen leaves in autumn.

Lilac bud mite spends his life in the buds of plants: he eats their juice, and winters in them. As a result, the buds are deformed, the leaves and shoots of them grow weak and underdeveloped, the lilac stops blooming and can die. In order to avoid such consequences in early spring, as soon as the frost has passed, remove dry foliage and basal shoots from under the bush, dig the soil in the near-circle circle on a full bayonet with overturning of the earth and process the lilac with a solution of copper sulfate.

Mining Moth affects the leaves of plants, which is why they first become covered with dark brown spots (mines), and after a while they coagulate into a tube, as if from fire. Sick bushes stop blooming and die for a year or two. They destroy the pest with abundant treatment of leaves with Bordeaux liquid, Fitosporin-M or Baktofit solution, and in order to prevent, it is necessary to remove and burn plant residues in the fall, and deep-dig the soil before frost and early spring.

How to propagate lilac.

Lilac seed reproduction is carried out mainly by specialists in nurseries. In amateur gardening varietal lilac propagated by grafting, layering and cuttings. Both own-rooted lilac saplings grown from cuttings and cuttings and grafted are marketed. Root-own lilac is not so whimsical as grafted, it is easier to recover after frosty winters, reproduces well vegetatively and, therefore, more durable.

Lilac after flowering

Adult lilac winters beautifully without shelter, but the root system of young saplings is insulated with a layer of peat and dry leaves up to 10 cm thick. Varietal lilacs sometimes freeze in winter, so in the spring they need to prune frozen shoots.

Amur Lilac (Syringa amurensis)

- shade-tolerant hygrophyte growing in deciduous forests of northeastern China and the Far East and preferring well-moistened soils. Amur lilac is a multi-stemmed tree with a thick sprawling crown, reaching a height of 20 m. In culture, this species is grown as a shrub up to 10 m. Leaves of Amur lilac, similar in shape to lilac leaves, when blooming have a greenish-purple color in summer they are dark green at the top and brighter at the bottom, and in the fall purple or orange-yellow. Small cream or white flowers with honey aroma are collected in powerful panicles up to 25 cm long. This species is frost-resistant and winters without shelter. Amur lilac is used for single and group plantings and hedges. In culture, the view from 1855.

Lilac Meier (Syringa meyeri)

- compact view up to 1.5 m high with small broadly elliptical leaves 2-4 cm long, tapering towards the apex and ciliated along the edges. On the upper side the leaves are dark green, naked, on the lower side they are lighter and pubescent along the veins. Fragrant bright lilac-pink flowers are collected in erect inflorescences from 3 to 10 cm long. The plant is frost resistant.

Persian Lilac (Syringa x persica)

- A hybrid between Afghan lilac and finely cut lilac. It is a shrub up to 3 m in height with thin, but dense, pointed lanceolate leaves up to 7.5 cm long and light purple fragrant flowers up to 2 cm in diameter, gathered in broad loose panicles. In the culture of this hybrid since 1640. The plant has several popular forms:

  • white lilac - variety with inflorescences of white flowers,
  • red - form with red flowers,
  • dissected leaf - dwarf Persian lilac with sprawling branches and small openwork pinnate-lobed leaves.

Chinese lilac (Syringa x chinensis)

is a hybrid between common lilac and Persian lilac. Bred this species in France in 1777. Chinese lilac is 5 m tall. It has pointed ovate-lanceolate leaves up to 10 cm long and fragrant flowers up to 18 mm in diameter of intense lilac shade in buds and reddish-purple upon blooming, collected in drooping wide pyramid panicles up to 10 cm long. Popular forms of Chinese lilac are:

  • double - terry lilac purple,
  • pale purple,
  • dark purple - the most spectacular variety of Chinese lilac.

Hyacinth lilac (Syringa x hyacinthiflora)

- a hybrid obtained by Viktor Lemoine from crossing a broad-leaved lilac with an ordinary lilac. The leaves of this hybrid species are heart-shaped or broadly ovate, with a sharp top. In the fall, they turn from dark green to brown-purple. The flowers of this species resemble the flowers of lilac ordinary, but are collected in more loose and small inflorescences. In culture, view from 1899. The most spectacular is the terry form of this hybrid, but, besides her, this species is represented by such varieties of lilac:

  • Esther Staley - a plant with purple-red buds and fragrant flowers of a bright lilac-red shade up to 2 cm in diameter with petals bending backwards. The flowers are inflorescences up to 16 cm,
  • Churchill - the red-purple buds of this lilac become silvery-purple scented flowers with a pink tinge,
  • Pull glory - variety with very large simple purple flowers up to 3.5 cm in diameter, constituting dense inflorescences.

As for common lilac, which has been in culture since 1583, it is represented by many varieties of domestic and foreign selection. For example:

  • Red Moscow lilac - variety with buds of purple-purple hue and dark-purple fragrant flowers with a diameter of 2 cm with bright yellow stamens,
  • Violetta - known since 1916, a variety with dark purple buds and light purple semi-double and double flowers with a diameter of 3 cm. The fragrance of the flowers is weak,
  • Primrose - yellow lilac: the buds are greenish-yellow, and the flowers are light yellow in color,
  • Belisent - a tall, straight bush of this variety is decorated with openwork coral-pink fragrant inflorescences up to 30 cm long and large, oval, slightly corrugated leaves.

In addition to those described, the lilac garden varieties such as Belle de Nancy, Monique Lemoine, Amethyst, Ami Shott, Vesuvius, Vestalka, Galina Ulanova, Jeanne d'Arc, Cavour, Soviet Arctic, Defenders of Brest, Captain Balte, Katerina Khavemeyer , Congo, Leonid Leonov, Madame Charles Suchet, Madame Casimir Perier, Dream, Miss Ellen Wilmott, Montaigne, Hope, Lights of Donbass, Kolesnikov's Memory, Sensation, Charles Joly, Celia and many others.

As for the species of lilac, in the culture, besides those described, one can also find lilacs of Peking, wilted, Japanese, Preston, Juliana, Komarov, Yunnan, thin-haired, wooly, Zvegintsev, Nansen, Henry, Wolf and velvety.

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