To grow a loquat at home from a bone well, you should know the characteristics of this plant and the rules of its planting. It grows in the form of a tree, which is valued throughout the world not only because of its attractive appearance, but also interesting berries. Many have heard of this culture, but not everyone knows how the loquat grows.
In nature, there are about 30 species of this plant. But despite this diversity, only some of them can be grown at home. The Caucasian or German medlar is particularly popular, as it is also called. The medlar is also good at home and in the open field.
These types of fruit tree differ significantly among themselves. The only thing that is similar in them is fruits that taste good. Japanese medlar berries look very similar to apricot. The flesh is soft and juicy. They tolerate transportation and long-term storage.
For the first time medlar began to grow the ancient Greeks more than 2700 years ago.
As for the German medlar, it is not intended for fresh consumption. Before tasting the berries, it is necessary that they are well cured and froze slightly. Such conditions give the pulp tenderness and pleasant taste.
Fruits are rich in nutrients such as:
Homeland plants are the Balkan Peninsula, Iran, Asia Minor. Often it can be found in the Crimean mountains and in the Caucasus. The plant belongs to the group of heat-loving crops, therefore, more and more medlar is grown at home. In the room it is able to reach 2 meters high. Leathery hardwood plates. From above each of them is brilliant, and from below - velvet. During the flowering period, the room is filled with a pleasant almond aroma, which lasts a long time.
Flowers self-pollinating. But despite this, many housewives, in order to increase productivity, carry out artificial pollination. At the end of flowering, in place of buds appear berries. Their diameter varies within 8 cm. Fruits grow in clusters.
Rules for growing plants in room conditions
The medlar at home in a pot is a real decoration of the family nest. She is not very demanding to care. Compliance with several rules, and your home will get a beautiful view, a pleasant aroma, and children will enjoy the exotic fruits.
To grow loquat in a pot, you can use both processes and bones. For those who decided to use the first method, you will need to separate last year's shoots. Cut twigs into small cuttings and place in moist soil. Then cover the container with a glass jar and put in a warm place for a month.
The fruit of the plant is used to treat pathologies of the intestines and the genitourinary system.
As for the cultivation of medlar fruit at home from the stone, this is the easiest and most popular method. In this way everyone can grow an exotic tree. If you do everything right, then soon your window sill will decorate a beautiful plant.
The first thing to start with is the selection of ripe berries. They need to extract the bones and clean the pulp.
Put the seeds in a container and rinse well under running water. Then put the seed on the windowsill so that it dries well. Since the grains are covered with a dense shell apply scarification. To do this, take sandpaper and rub it with a seed. You can also use a file. Processing these methods, allows you to destroy the dense part, thus speeding up the germination of the stone.
The second stage in growing a medlar tree at home is soaking the seeds. This will require immersing the seed in a container of water. It is important to ensure that the liquid is at room temperature. All seeds that have surfaced can be thrown away. They are unsuitable for planting. Planted in the soil need only those grains that were left to lie at the bottom of the vessel.
After the first shoots, the capacity should be rearranged in partial shade. This is due to the fact that shoots are afraid of the scorching sun and may stall in development.
After the appearance of a full third pair of leaves, plants can begin to form. It is during this period that you should pinch your loquat. This will allow you to get a beautiful tree that will please the eye over the years.
Care for the loquat in the living conditions
In order for the young plant to feel well, it is necessary not only to water it properly, but also to choose the optimal place in the room. Also, special attention should be paid to watering. Indeed, much depends on the amount of moisture.
This is one of the important conditions for growing medlar at home. Best of all, the tree develops on the windows that face the south side. It also feels good in the south-eastern part. A bountiful harvest plant gives only if the pot is not in the shade.
Before you grow a loquat at home, you should remember that an adult tree responds well to direct sunlight.
Indoor air temperature
Medlar is a tropical plant, and therefore indicators should be appropriate. The best figures are 20 - 25 0 С. When growing in room conditions, one should take care that the thermometer does not fall below 15 0 C. In the warm period of the year it is recommended to bring the pot to fresh air. This may be a balcony or terrace. In winter, the tree is kept on the windowsill or away from the window. In the second case, additional lighting is required.
Substrate for planting
Before planting the loquat, it is necessary to prepare the mixture. The peat substrate is best. It can be bought at any flower shop. When growing such a tree, it is important to ensure that the soil is neutral in acidity.
To prepare the land yourself, you will need:
- four pieces of turf soil,
- one piece of sand (coarse),
- two pieces of hardwood land
- one piece of compost.
All components must be mixed well. The resulting substrate does not require additional processing, so it can be immediately used for the procedure.
If you follow the rules of soil renewal, you can be sure that the tree will always grow well and bear fruit. Unfortunately, not everyone knows when to replant the medlar, so often the leaves begin to fall off, and the tree does not increase in size.
Change the soil should be once a year. To do this, use the method of "transshipment". If the plant has grown significantly, then you will need to replace the pot. Adult crops need to change the soil every three years. The pot should be several centimeters wider than the root system itself. At the bottom of the tank must be laid drainage. To do this, you can use pebbles or crushed broken brick. Its fine gravel also performs its tasks well.
Feed the tree should be from early April to September. The number of procedures performed should not exceed two times in 30 days. Best suited for this complex drugs. A good option are tools designed for cacti and indoor roses.
Watering culture depends on the season. In the summer, when there is heat in the street, it is necessary to irrigate the tree often and abundantly. The soil should always be slightly wet. Winter is a resting period for a tree. Therefore, the procedure should be carried out at a minimum, while ensuring that the earthen room is completely dry. Water for irrigation should be taken only at room temperature. Before using the fluid is recommended to defend well.
In order for the air to penetrate well to the roots, once a week you should loosen the upper part of the soil.
It is necessary in order to form a beautiful bush. Using scissors you need to periodically remove the tops of the shoots. To accelerate their growth, you need to cut off the peak part of the plant. This significantly activates the growth of lateral branches.
The tree is often affected by insects. Also, the plant can suffer from improper care. If the medlar began to dry leaves, you must carefully examine their back and front side. Often, a similar sign appears as a result of the development of insects. In the case of extraneous individuals, the tree needs to be treated with insecticide. Also wilting of the leaves can be observed as a result of the overwetting of the soil. If nothing is done, the root system will fester and the plant itself will die.
In order to get rid of the black fungus and shchitovki, systemic drugs will be the best option. You can also treat the plates with water and laundry soap, but only after this procedure, the trees should be redeemed under a warm shower.
In order to grow medlar at home brought only positive emotions, you should follow the tips and rules. Timely watering, proper feeding and the right choice of place will allow you to grow a healthy and beautiful tree with an unusual appearance and colorful fruits. Tasty and incredibly healthy berries, will be the best fruit of the dinner tola.
Medlar bone in the home
Grow a medlar from a stone at home. Photo step by step
Medlar Japanese or loquat can be grown from the stone. The bones are easy to get from the fruit, and they even make up most of it. They are very large, somewhat reminiscent of peanuts.
Take pots with a diameter of 7-9 cm with good drainage holes. Fill them with sand and peat mixture. Liberally spill with water so that the liquid completely soaks the soil and flows through the holes.
Medlar how to grow out of the stone at home photo step by step
Plant bones, deepening by 2-3 cm. You can put one seed in a pot, you can have several. Seeds can not ascend all, and seedlings can wait a few months (up to five). All this time, you just need to maintain moderate humidity without developing mold.
Growing medlar from stone at home photo
Cover crops with a film, put in a warm place. Sprout does not seem soon. During this time, regularly lift the film to remove condensate. Moisten the soil from a fine spray.
How to plant a medlar bone photo
Protect shoots from direct sunlight. When you see the sprouts, remove the shelter. The air temperature must be at least 18 ° C.
Lokva from the bone photo
With the appearance of 3-4 pairs of leaflets, transplant the medlar from a stone into a container of slightly larger diameter. Transplanting soil: 2 parts of leafy ground, 1 part of sod, 0.5 parts of sand.
Medlar japanese at home tree photo
How to propagate the medlar German
Medlar Germanic propagated by seeds. Cut the fruit, remove the seeds, soak in a solution of growth stimulant for 2-3 hours. As a soil, you can take a universal substrate for indoor flowering plants.
- In a pot of 1.5-2 l, place 5-6 seeds, deepening by 3-4 cm.
- Cover the crops with film, put in a warm place for germination.
- Ventilate daily, moisten the soil as it dries.
- Shoots will appear in 40-45 days, and after about 25 days of growth 3 true leaves will form.
- After that, transplant the plants into separate pots by way of transshipment.
Reproduction medlar cuttings
Reproduction of loquat cuttings photo
Both types of medlar are surprisingly viable - they successfully reproduce by cuttings.
Root cuttings of medlar can be in the soil or water (in the latter version, take an opaque container or wrap the jar with a dark cloth, paper - roots appear in the dark). Soil mixture for rooting - sand and peat in equal proportions. The lower cut should be at an angle of 45 °, remove the leaves, leaving a pair at the top. In the soil deepen by 4-5 cm, pour. When rooting in water, a liquid level of up to 2 cm is sufficient. To create a greenhouse effect, cover the top with a bag or a plastic cup. Place in a warm place.
The roots will appear in a couple of months. Replant the stalk in loose nutrient soil. Provide abundant watering, illuminate the lamps.
Care for the medlar Japanese in room conditions
Medlar Japanese home cultivation care and reproduction
Japanese medlar (loquat) should be transplanted annually until the age of 5 years, then once in 3-4 years. At the bottom of the tank, be sure to place a drainage layer. Transfer together with the earthy clod, without violating its integrity. For adult plants every spring, replace the top layer of soil.
The least painful medlar tolerates the transplant after the end of fruiting.
During active growth, keep the soil slightly moist: water 3-4 times a week. Easy drying of the soil is allowed in the period of relative dormancy. Water for irrigation requires softened, at 3-4 ° C warmer than the air temperature. After watering gently loosen the soil.
It is necessary to maintain sufficient humidity in the room. Leaves are pubescent, it is better not to spray the plant, and once a month to bathe the floor with a warm shower. Periodically place on a pallet with wet moss, pebbles, expanded clay.
For the summer season, take it out to the balcony or to the garden - keeping it in the open air contributes to growth.
Lighting is required bright. The most acceptable for growing windows are southeast. Fruit setting occurs at a time when sunlight is not enough. Extend daylight hours to 12 hours artificially. Use fluorescent lamps.
Care of the German medlar
When growing in indoor conditions, follow the same care guidelines as for the Japanese medlar.
- In winter, the Germanic variety does not bloom, so there is no need to create greenhouse conditions for it. Feel free to place the plant pot on the glazed balcony (the air temperature should not lower below +2 ° C), stop watering completely.
- Pinch the tops if you want to form a bush. For growth in the form of a tree, pruning is not required.
- German medlar can be sprayed.
German medlar is often grown in the garden - it can withstand temperatures down to -30 ° C. Choose a well-lit area with fertile neutral soil. Avoid close bedding of groundwater, water moderately.
Medlar Japanese or lokva Eriobotrya japonica
Medlar Japanese or lokva Eriobotrya japonica photo
An evergreen plant, the leaves look like leaves of a walnut, slightly pubescent. Flowering begins in November, and bears fruit in spring (May). Blossoms on the shoots of this year. The fruits are round in shape, apricot color, have one large bone. The skin of the fruit is thin, puree pulp, has a delicate melting taste and apple flavor. They are absolutely not deadly, you will not find them on sale - you should regale yourself from the bush immediately.
Lokva is thermophilic, it is grown in open ground in a subtropical climate. In the autumn comes flowering, the leaves become red, which looks very impressive.
If the climate does not allow, grow loquat indoors. You should not be afraid that the tree will take up a lot of space: growth is limited to a height of 1.5 m.
Medlar German Mespilus germanica
Medlar German Mespilus germanica photo
Deciduous plant. The leaves are oblong, dark green, glossy. Flowering occurs in late spring and early summer, fruiting occurs in October-November. Blossoms on the shoots of last year. The fruit is firm, with dense skin of dark red color, contains 5 small stones. The berries taste sour, and when frozen, they become softer and get a sweet aftertaste. Wait for the frosts to try them.
This type of medlar grows well in cold climates, bravely enduring frost.
- 1. Listen to the article (soon)
- 2. Description
- 3. Home care
- 3.1. Cultivation from a stone
- 4. Growing in the garden
- 4.1. Landing
- 4.2. How to care
- 4.3. Breeding
- 5. Diseases and pests
- 6. Types and varieties
- 7. Medlar in landscape design
- 8. Properties: harm and benefit
- 8.1. Beneficial features
- 8.2. Contraindications
Planting and care for the loquat (in brief)
- Bloom: late spring or early summer.
- Landing: three-year-old seedlings are planted in the soil in early spring or during the period of leaf fall.
- Lighting: bright light.
- The soil: To fill the landing pit, a mixture of equal parts of turf land, humus, hardwood soil and sand is prepared.
- Watering: as necessary, trying to avoid overwetting.
- Top dressing: young trees are fed once every 3 weeks, and adults 2-3 times per season with complex mineral fertilizers or mullein solution.
- Pruning: Sanitary cleaning is done in early spring, and crown formation begins at the age of four.
- Breeding: seeds (stones) and cuttings.
- Pests and diseases: almost not affected.
- Properties: medlar fruits are a valuable dietary product, and the decoction of the leaves of the plant has anti-inflammatory, anchoring and hemostatic properties.
Tree loquat - description
Дерево мушмула – вечнозеленое плодовое растение, покрытое темно-серой корой, которое в хороших условиях может вырастать до восьми метров, но обычно оно не превышает шести. Темно-зеленые эллиптические листья мушмулы достигают в длину от 8 до 15, а в ширину – 3-4 см. Осенью листья краснеют. In late spring or early summer, white five-petal flowers bloom on the tree, attracting the scent of pollinating insects. The pear-shaped or spherical fruit of the medlar with a diameter of 2-3 cm with constant unfolded sepals is colored reddish-brown and appears hollow. In garden forms, the fruit can reach the size of an average apple. Even after ripening, the medlar fruit remains firm and sour, and the fruits become edible only after long storage or after frosts: they wrinkle, become smaller, softer and sweeter.
Growing medlar from the stone.
Growing medlar from the stone can be done at home. Extracted from the pulp bone planted no later than three days. If you bought loquat seeds in the store, you should understand that the plant grown from them is unlikely to yield, but the loquat from the bone of the eaten fruit will almost certainly produce fruit.
The medlar substrate can be purchased at the store, and you can make your own from equal parts of sheet soil, humus, sand and peat. Fill the pot with drainage holes with the substrate, not forgetting to first place a layer of expanded clay in it. Medlar seeds are sunk into a moist soil for 2 cm (up to six stones can be placed in one pot), after which the surface is tightened with a film or covered with glass. In anticipation of seedlings, crops are placed in a warm, bright place, for example, on a window sill.
Not earlier than in a month sprouts will appear, and it will be necessary to shade the seedlings from direct sunlight, air the crops daily and remove condensate from the coating so that the plants do not hit the fungal diseases from the dampness of the plant. When the seedlings grow to 2 cm, the cover is removed from the pot, and the seedlings are kept at a temperature not lower than 18 ºC. If it's summer, put a pot of medlar on the balcony or terrace, protecting young plants from gusts of wind, drafts and bright sun. Keep the substrate in a slightly wet state by watering it 2-3 times a week.
Well, if the loquat has risen, then its growth will be rapid: in a month the seedlings can grow up to 15 cm, and then, so that they do not interfere with each other, they are seated in separate deep tanks with soil mixture of coarse-grained sand, peat and humus. Weak seedlings after transplantation may die, but there's nothing you can do - natural selection ... And large and strong plants will become even larger and stronger.
The home medlar will bloom only in the third year after transplanting to a separate container at the end of autumn or at the beginning of winter, and the first fruits may appear by the New Year. It is possible to form the crown of the house medlar only after flowering, although it is not necessary to do this: you can give the crown a shape, or you can let it look natural, cutting only thickening, weak, diseased and damaged branches.
Planting medlar in the ground.
Three-year-old medlar seedlings grown at home from a bone can be continued to grow as domestic plants, or to be planted in a garden. The medlar soil needs a well-drained, neutral or slightly acid reaction, and the soil composition is undemanding. Groundwater in the area should lie no higher than at a depth of one and a half meters from the surface. If you decide to plant several seedlings at once, observe a distance of 4.5 m or more between them.
Plant the medlar in open ground when it is at rest, that is, in spring or autumn. Clean the medlar area from weeds and dig it with bone meal. Prepare a soil mixture of equal parts of coarse-grained river sand, sod land, humus and hardwood. Dig holes that are one third larger than the root system of the seedling with an earthball. Hammer into the center of the pit a stake so high that it reaches the lower branches of the medlar, transfer the seedling from the pot to the pit and fill the space with soil mixture. As a result of planting, the seedling should be at the same depth at which it grew in a pot. After planting, water the plant abundantly, and when the water is absorbed and the soil settles, tie the seedling to the peg and grind the soil around it with a layer of compost or rotted manure 7–8 cm thick so that the mulch does not touch the trunk.
How to care for loquat in the garden.
Care for the medlar is not much different from the care of other fruit crops. How to grow medlar on the plot? You will have to water the plant, trying to saturate the soil with moisture, but do not over-moisturize it. After watering or rain, it is advisable to loosen the soil in the circle and remove the weeds that appear there.
The medlar feeds 2-3 times per season with both mineral and organic fertilizers, but young plants require more frequent fertilizing: once every 3 weeks. Of all the organic dressings, the plant prefers a mullein solution.
In early spring, before the start of sap flow, sanitary cleaning should be carried out: remove diseased, broken, frost-bitten, and thickening crown branches. The first 3-4 years you need to shorten the skeletal branches by a third increment on the outer kidney. Interlacing inside the crown branches pruned to 2-3 buds. From the age of four, the medlar crown, like the crown of any fruit tree, is formed, and when the formation is completed, they simply keep the shape trimmed.
You already know how to grow a medlar from a stone, but this plant can also be propagated by vegetatively - cuttings. To do this, from last year's growth, a cutting of 15-20 cm long with two nodes is cut, the lower leaves are removed, and the plates of the upper leaves are shortened by a third. This is done in order to reduce the evaporation of moisture. The slices are powdered with ashes, after which the cuttings are strictly vertically planted in a pot with expanded clay and a peat-sand substrate. The stem is recessed 4-5 cm. After planting, the soil is watered. Caring for cuttings consists in regular watering of the substrate and spraying the cutting with boiled water. It will take about a month to root a medlar, and when you make sure that the plant has roots, transplant it into the garden. Further development of the seedling can be very slow, but do not despair: if the conditions for growing medlar by you are met, sooner or later the cutting will surely start to grow.
Diseases and pests of medlar
The medlar is fairly resistant to both diseases and pests, but from time to time it can be damaged by leaf-eating caterpillars. How to deal with them? In the spring you need to collect from the tree all the web nests and burn them. During the bud period, the medlar and the soil around it are treated with a seven percent solution of Malathion or a three percent solution of Nitrafen or Chlorophos. For prophylactic purposes, the medlar twice a year — in early spring and after leaf fall — is sprayed with solutions of drugs Fitoverm (20 g per 10 l of water), Insegar (5 g per 10 l of water) or Lepidocid (25 g per 10 l of water).
Types and varieties of medlar
As we have already mentioned, of the three species of the genus, only the German medlar, or the Caucasian medlar, or the Crimean medlar is grown in culture - the plant that we described at the beginning of the article. However, there is also a medlar Japanese, or eriobothria, or lokva, or shesek - a small evergreen ornamental and fruit plant grown both in open and in closed ground. Lokva belongs to the Eriobothria family of the Rosy family, that is, she is a relative of the German medlar, in fact, not being a Medlar.
Medlar Japanese (Eriobotrya japonica)
reaches a height of 8 meters. Both the shoots and the inflorescences of the plant are reddish-gray from dense, felted pubescence. Oval leathery, glossy leaves on the upper side, sessile or on short petioles, reach a length of 25, and 8 cm wide. They are also densely pubescent below. White or yellow pyatilepestkovye flowers with a diameter of 1-2 cm are collected in the final paniculate inflorescences. The plant tolerates cold, and with age, its hardiness becomes ever higher. Of the varieties of medlar (eriobotrii) Japanese most known:
- Champagne - a plant with fleecy fruits of yellow color with gentle pulp,
- Frost - variety for cultivation in the greenhouse or at home, the fruits of which are devoid of astringency,
- Silas - a variety with fruits weighing about 80 g, similar to apricots,
- Tanaka - this plant has pear-shaped fruit of orange-yellow color with pinkish flesh of sweet-sour taste.
Medlar in landscape design
Medlar German with its sprawling and thick crown designers planted because of the reddish-brown foliage. Often, two or three trees are planted north of other plants so that they create a barrier against cold winter winds, because the medlar is winter-hardy.
The loquat is grown as a central point in a small-sized garden: its magnificent crown is decorative even without leaves, and in the spring flat flowers like fragrant pinkish or white flowers are revealed on it. The second time the medlar will bloom in August-September, and in the fall the leaves of the plant will turn an unusual reddish-brown or red-yellow shade. Fancy fruit also adds attractiveness to the plant. Medlar for all season can be planted in a row along the garden path, creating a park alley of trees with slender trunks and closed crowns.
Useful properties of the loquat.
Medlar fruits contain iron, calcium, potassium, phosphorus, iodine, magnesium, zinc, selenium, sodium, fructose, sucrose, citric and malic organic acids, vitamins A, C, B1, B2, B3, B6, B9, pectins, tannins and phytoncides, which contribute to recovery from gastrointestinal diseases, normalizing the work of the intestines, relieve pain with stones in the urinary tract and kidneys.
A decoction of the immature fruits of the medlar reduce inflammation and stop intestinal bleeding. A decoction of leaves collected from the blooming medlar has anti-inflammatory, anchoring, hemostatic effect. From the fruits of the medlar make alcohol tincture, which in Japan are treated with bronchitis and asthma.
Low-fat medlar, rich in antioxidants, dietary fiber, fructose and citric acid, is often included in the diet. It promotes healing of diabetes, increases the body's resistance to infections, eliminates the symptom of kidney dysfunction, increasing their filtering ability, removes toxins and toxins from the body, improves eyesight, digestive organs, eliminates intestinal disorders, such as constipation, stabilizes blood pressure, relieves intestinal colic and prevents runny nose.
Due to the high content of vitamins, macro- and microelements, the loquat is recommended for pregnant and breast-feeding women who have not found an individual intolerance to the product. From the pulp of the fruit prepare masks, giving the skin a healthy color, eliminating age spots and smoothing fine wrinkles.
Medlar and various dishes are prepared, for example, jams, jams and compotes. Medlar juice is easily fermented, so it is used to make liqueurs, wine and liquor. From the seeds of medlar brewed drink, reminiscent of coffee.
Medlar - contraindications.
At introduction of a medlar in a children's diet it is necessary to be careful as allergic reactions can be shown. The medlar and especially its unripe fruits suffering from inflammation of the pancreas, gastritis with high acidity and gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer are contraindicated. These people are also undesirable to drink wine and juice from the medlar. But jam or jam from it even have a beneficial effect on the diseased organism.
Description and variety
In nature, this tree can reach 8 m in height. At home, the medlar height does not exceed 2 m. The plant has the following characteristics:
- Leaves are oblong, leathery. From above they are glossy, and from below velvety.
- The plant is self-pollinated, but experienced growers prefer to artificially pollinate the loquat. This allows for a more abundant harvest.
- During flowering, the tree gives white flowers, consisting of five petals. Flowers are collected in large inflorescences, located on the tops of the branches. During flowering around the medlar spreads a tart aroma of almonds.
- Fruits appear in clusters. The diameter of one is 8 cm. There can be up to 12 oval fruits in one bunch. The skin and pulp are orange. In the center of the fruit are the bones.
The taste of the medlar fruit is original. Having tried once, a person will not confuse him with any other. Some experts argue that the taste of medlar fruit is an amazing blend of apple, pear, cherry, apricot and strawberry.
There are many varieties of loquat. Growing at home is only suitable for some of them. The most popular are the following types:
- Medlar. This is the most popular variety in Russia. It is considered winter-hardy. The period of growth he lasts until the cold. The stem of the plant is strong and well developed. It has thorns. The leaves are large, painted in rich green color. The plant blooms in May. The flowers are white, but after a few days they turn pink. The fruits ripen in autumn. Edible they become only after the arrival of cold.
- Japanese medlar Under natural conditions, the tree of this variety can grow in height up to 5 m. A characteristic feature is flowering from September to March. At this time, the plant gives pubescent white flowers. The fruits ripen in June. They may be oval, pear-shaped or flattened.
- "Frost." This variety was bred specifically for indoor cultivation. He has large fruits of red-brown color. They smell good, but they have an ordinary taste. Flower growers appreciate them for their richness in vitamins and microelements.
- "Tanaka." The plant produces large orange-yellowish fruits. In shape, they resemble a pear. One fruit weighs about 85 g. The flesh is pink, in taste - pronounced sour notes.
- "Champagne". The variety can be recognized by bright yellow pubescent fruits. Their flesh has a cream color, a delicate flavor and a surprisingly delicate aroma.
German and Japanese medlar can be grown in open ground. However, this is only possible in the southern regions. In central Russia, these varieties do not survive.
Landing at home
In Russia, the medlar is often grown at home. This unpretentious plant does not cause much trouble to their owners.
Soil for planting is usually purchased in specialized stores. If necessary, you can cook it yourself. However, experts recommend buying soil mix.
It is possible to grow a plant at home from a stone or a process. If you choose the second option, you need to take last year's loquat branches and cut them into cuttings. After that, planting material should be placed in a moistened soil. A pot with a spike should always be covered with a can. With regular watering in about 30 days, a small bush of medlar will appear in it.
Cultivation from a stone
This method is a bit more complicated, but even an inexperienced gardener can handle it. Seed material should be taken only from ripe fruits. Extracted seeds should be thoroughly cleaned from the pulp and washed, then sent for a three-day drying.
The seeds of the plant are covered with a dense shell.. To increase the germination of the shell must be damaged. Scarification is easiest to do with sandpaper or a file. After damaging the shell, the seeds for a day should be placed in water. Floated seed can be thrown away - nothing will grow out of it.
For planting it is recommended to use a special soil mixture. It must be neutral. The easiest way to buy soil in a garden store, but you can also make a mixture with your own hands. To do this, mix 4 parts of garden soil, 2 parts of sheet soil and 1 part of sand.
The soil must be placed in pots with drainage holes. Without drainage in the ground, an excess of moisture. Medlar does not stand.
Each bone must be planted in its own container to a depth of at least 2 cm. After planting, the pots are covered with polyethylene to create the greenhouse effect. Miniature greenhouses need to be ventilated from time to time and do not forget to moisten the soil in them.
It is necessary to water only with separated water. After each watering is recommended to loosen the soil.
The film is removed after the seedlings have the third pair of leaves. From this point, you can begin to form the crown of plants. They should be like bushes, not trees. To do this, pinch off the tops of the seedlings. This provokes the growth of lateral shoots in the medlar.
Houses in a pot of loquat will grow well only if it is put in the right place. It is best to install a container with a plant on the window sill overlooking the south-east side of the house. In this case, the tree will receive a sufficient amount of light. It is possible to put on a window sill only the grown strong plant. Young seedlings may die from excess sun. Care for the loquat in the home requires taking into account the peculiarities of watering the plant:
- In the summer medlar requires a lot of water. The soil in the pot should be constantly wet. To avoid caking of the soil and increasing aeration, it should be loosened at least 3 times a week. Кроме полива, летом растение нужно опрыскивать.
- В холодное время года мушмула впадает в спячку. Полив становится минимальным. Нужно лишь следить за тем, чтобы почва полностью не пересохла.
Подкармливать мушмулу начинают с апреля и заканчивают в сентябре. Зимой удобрения давать не следует. В качестве подкормки обычно используются комплексные удобрения.
In order for the plant to bear fruit well at home, it needs to give shape to a bush by pruning. The same method is used in case you need to get a decorative tree with a round crown.
To get bushes from young seedlings remove the tops. After that, the plant activates the growth of side branches. To form a tree, on the contrary, it is necessary to remove the side shoots until their lignification. Cut branches can not be thrown away, but used for plant reproduction.
Medlar should be repotted regularly. Each time the new landing capacity should be at least 5 cm more than the previous one.
The plant is transplanted by passing over. The shrub is carefully removed from the old pot together with the earthy clod and carefully placed in a large planting container with a bottom sprinkled with soil. The transfer is completed with the addition of fresh soil to fill the voids between the bush's root system and the walls of the pot.
Plants under 5 years old are transplanted annually in the spring. Shrubs older than 5 years old roll over only every few years, but at the same time every year they update the top layer of earth in a pot.
Growing from seed is the most common way of breeding a loquat. This is explained by the fact that the bushes grown in this way have all the characteristics of the mother plant. When propagated by seeds, new medlar bushes begin to bear fruit after 5 years.
If you want to get the fruit one year after reproduction, it is better to resort to reproduction by air layering. To obtain the layering need to root the top of the plant. Rooting is as follows:
- Using a knife, you need to remove a small strip of bark in the form of a ring from the top branch.
- It is necessary to take a plastic bottle, place a branch with an exposed ring of wood in it and cover it with soil.
- It should regularly moisten the soil in the bottle.
If done correctly, in 60 days the top located in the ground will give roots. After strengthening the root system, the bottle must be removed, the branch cut and transplanted into a separate pot.
Medlar can also be propagated by cuttings. They are cut from the branches of an adult plant. In this case, only those shoots that grew last year are used.
The length of the cutting should be at least 15 cm. The lower cut should immediately be treated with activated carbon to protect against infections. The stalk must have at least two buds.
Harvested cuttings are planted in separate pots to a depth of 3 cm and placed in a room with an air temperature of 25−27 ° C. With regular watering, they will take root in 30 days.
Varieties and plant varieties
Having only once tasted the fruit of the medlar, you can hardly find a comparison for it. He is unlike anything. This fruit is moderately sweet and has a pleasant sourness. Someone compares the taste of this unusual fruit with a pear and a cherry, and to someone it resembles a combination of apple, strawberry and apricot. But for each person the taste of the fruit is associated with its mix. In general, he does not look like anything.
The fruit is extremely useful for the digestive tract and intestines. It is also recommended for use in urolithiasis. Plant appearance as unusual as its taste. The medlar has large leathery leaves glossy on the outside and covered with small hairs on the inside. The flowers of the plant are extremely fragrant, having a white or cream flavor.
Today, there are two of the most popular plant species:
- The German medlar is a winter-hardy variety. The growing season lasts until the cold. The trunk is well developed, and there are small spines on the shoots. The flowers of this species of medlar have a white color, which later changes to cream. It begins to bloom in May, and the first fruits appear only in the autumn. The fruit of the medlar color is dark red and they are allowed only after freezing.
- Medlar Japanese - this tree reaches a height of 5 meters. It has large oblong leaves. Terms of flowering and fruiting are very different from the previous species. Flowering plant from September to March. The fruits ripen in the first half of June.
But there are a number of varieties that are allowed to grow indoors. These include:
- Frost - feel great in the conditions of an apartment or a greenhouse. The fruits of large plants have a pleasant taste and lack of astringency.
- Tanaka - has brightly colored fruits resembling a pear. The flesh of the fruit has a sweet and sour taste.
- Champagne - the variety has fruits with a small edge, looks a bit like apricot. Their flesh is soft and sweet, with a little sourness.
- Premier - has a delicate flavor and fruits of orange color.
- Silas - to taste is very similar to apricot, but the fruit is somewhat larger.
Planting plants at home and in the open ground
When growing plants at home get a good harvest is possible only with proper care. Planted in vases or pots in autumn or spring. In this case, the size of the tank should be such that the entire root system of the plant is fully accommodated in it. The plant is very fond of slightly acidic or neutral soil. But it does not stand the stagnation of water.
To prevent stagnation of water should be placed on the bottom of the tank a little drainage and make bone meal, which will prevent stagnant water and prevent the roots from rotting.
When planting trees in open ground, do not plant it in places where groundwater comes too close to the soil surface.
Basic landing rules are pretty simple.. You just need to follow the tips and perform all the steps correctly:
- It is necessary to carefully remove the turf and dig a hole of the desired depth and diameter.
- At the bottom of the pit to make a little fertilizer, for this is perfect bone meal or complex fertilizer.
- After that, you need to put the roots of the tree at the bottom of the pit and put a small support next to it. It is needed in order to further secure the tree.
- The pit is carefully shed with water and sprinkled with soil.
- The soil is re-watered and mulched to prevent the earthen clod from drying out.
If you like a medlar, how to grow it at home, you will learn from expert advice. But the rules for caring for her are quite simple. First you need in the first few years to carry out the correct pruning of the plant. The first two years of the branch it is cut exactly half, and then they need to be shortened every year by a quarter. But when the tree grows enough, pruning of branches and shoots is carried out only a few centimeters.
The tree is very fond of sunlight. He helps him to flower and grow as it should. It perfectly tolerates frosts to minus 14 degrees. But if you want to get fruits from a tree, then you should remember - even a slight decrease in air temperature is extremely destructive for it.
When growing plants in room conditions, it must be regularly watered and sprayed. In winter, watering should be slightly reduced, but should not allow the soil to dry out.
Fertilization and reproduction
Fertilizer is required at least twice a year. After all, the soil at the place of growth of the medlar is often completely depleted. For this you should use potash fertilizers during growth and vegetation, and phosphate fertilizers are applied to the soil during the flowering period of the plant.
It is much more convenient to grow a plant from a stone. But it should be remembered that the bone should be planted in the ground within three days after it was removed from the pulp. A week later, the bones will not germinate - the lights just dry out. Deciding to germinate seeds from the purchased fruit, it should be remembered that in the future they will not give anything except bright vegetation and beautiful flowers. The only way growing medlar becomes the devouring of fresh fruit and the immediate planting of the stone in the ground.
The ground for this must also be prepared in advance. Ideally, if it consists of sand, peat and humus. It is best to prepare the substrate yourself, but if there is no such possibility, then you should buy it in a specialized store.
The capacity for growing is allowed to use the one that you like best. Up to 6 seeds can be planted in one pot. They will grow well there before the shoots. Soil before planting must be thoroughly moistened. Otherwise, the medlar Japanese or German simply will not grow.
After planting the seed, it is recommended to cover the container with a film to create the greenhouse effect and accelerate the germination of the seed. Watering seedlings should be at least 4 times a week. For the top layer of the soil is required to use a spray from which it will be moistened.
After the bones germinate, they should be removed from the window sill, because the sun's rays can burn leaves. The film must be removed daily and the condensate must be removed from it so that mold does not appear on the ground. And the soil must be supplied with oxygen, so that the medlar of Japan develops faster at home.
Basic rules for seed germination
Bones of a plant have to be germinated for quite a long time. And the fact that in the future the tree is covered with fruit there is no guarantee. And the first shoots earlier than a month just will not appear.
After the first shoots of the plant have appeared, you can simply forget for several months. The film from the pot requires snyt, and the plant needs to provide air temperature not lower than 18 degrees. If you plan to further transplant it into the open ground, then in the summer, you should take out the pot with a sprout on the balcony or even take it to the cottage. Fresh air to young shoots will only benefit. Watering shoots need at least three times a week.
Medlar shoots develop and grow quite rapidly. Therefore, in a month they reach 15 cm. When this happens, you can safely replace them in separate containers or plant them on the site. After transplantation, they will begin to grow. not only in height, but also in width, forming a strong stalk.
If the cultivation of the plant will occur at home, then he needs to prepare a large capacity so that it can grow and develop properly. It should be prepared for transplanting the soil, consisting of river sand, peat and sod layer.
The young plant begins to bloom most often only three years after transplantation. It happens in late autumn - early winter. Fruit fruits most often appear already in the second half of December. Fruits will please not only the owner of the tree, but also surprise the guests.
After flowering should begin the formation of the crown. But doing this is not necessary. Cutting should be done with extreme caution. It is required only to remove weak and lifeless stems and branches.
Choosing a place for the cultivation of medlar
To make your loquat at home in a pot feel good and give a good harvest, you need to choose the right place for growing a tree.
The window sill, on which the medlar will live, must go to the south side or to the southeast, because the plant needs sunlight. The medlar gives abundant flowering in direct sunlight.
The temperature on the windowsill should not fall below 15 degrees. In summer, the plant can be taken out on the balcony or in the garden.
In winter, the plant can be left on the windowsill, but it should be rarely watered.
The medlar overwinters well on the glazed balcony (provided that the temperature does not fall below 5 degrees), watering in this case is excluded altogether.
Preparing the soil for planting
For planting medlar suitable peat mixture for seedlings, which can be purchased in finished form. The soil should be neutral.
If desired, you can prepare the planting mixture yourself: 4 parts of sod land, 2 parts of leafy earth, 1 part of coarse sand, 1 part of compost earth. A medlar pot must have a drainage system.
Each bone is planted in a separate pot. Soil should first be well loosen and moisten. The stone plunges into the hole at a depth of 2-3 cm. After planting, the pot is covered with glass or plastic film (they create greenhouse conditions). The greenhouse periodically needs to be ventilated and the soil moistened.
After the third pair of leaves appears, the plant begins to form. The medlar should take the form of a lush bush, not a tree.
Watering, feeding and pruning plants
If you have a medlar on your windowsill, then you will certainly be interested in taking care of her at home.
Watering medlar depends on the season:
- Summer. During this period, the medlar requires frequent abundant watering. The soil must remain wet. It is advisable 2-3 times a week to loosen the top layer of soil in a pot. The plant is afraid of spraying.
- Winter. This is a resting period for the plant. Watering is reduced to a minimum, but make sure that the soil in the pot is not completely dry.
Feed up medlar plant from April to September. In winter, fertilizing plants is not desirable. As a fertilizer, use of complex mineral fertilizers or mullein infusion (ratio of 1: 8).
For the loquat to have the form of a bushy bush, you will need trimming. In the same way it is possible to form a round-shaped tree that will decorate any office or winter garden.
The shape of a bush plant can form on their own. If this does not happen, you can pinch off the top of the plant. Side branches will begin to grow more actively.
If you want to get a loquat in the form of a tree, you will have to remove the side branches until they are woody. Cut branches can be rooted. Thus it will be possible to grow more than one plant.
Dried and diseased medlar branches are regularly removed.
How to transplant loquat
Loquat transplanted by way of crossing. The volume of the new pot should be 5-10 cm more than the previous one.
The method of re-rolling is that the plant is carefully removed from the old seat and carefully lowered into a larger pot, having previously sprinkled the earth on the bottom. After that, around the plant, the voids in the pot are filled with fresh earth.
If the plant is under 5 years old, a transplant is required every spring. Medlar over 5 years old requires transplantation every 3-4 years, but be sure to change the top layer of earth in a pot every year.
This method is considered the most effective, since the new medlar will retain all the distinctive properties of the parent plant. Most often it is used for breeding Germanic species.
The ripe fruit is cut and the seeds are removed. They are then placed for two hours in a growth stimulant solution, after which they are planted in a sandy-peat soil to a depth of 3-4 cm. 5-6 seeds can be planted in one container with a volume of 1.5-2 liters. After planting, the ground is thoroughly moistened.
The pot must be covered with plastic film or glass to create greenhouse conditions. Crops need to be aired daily. They should be watered only after the soil dries. After 40−45 days, you can expect the first shoots. After their appearance, the shelter is removed. When a third leaf appears on young plants, sprouts should be sipped in separate containers. This is done by the method of transshipment, since the plants have a very fragile root system.
The medlar has amazing vitalityand therefore it is very easy to cut it. As cuttings, last-year-half-woody branches are used. Cuttings are cut so that the length of each does not exceed 20 cm. It is recommended to cut the foliage on them by half. Prepared cuttings can be germinated both in soil and in water. In any method of germination, it is better to wrap a container with shoots with dark paper or thick cloth, since in the dark the process of root formation goes faster.
The soil for seedlings should consist of peat and sand, taken in equal proportions. Planting should be planted to a depth of 4−5 cm. After planting, the ground should be watered abundantly. Like seeds, cuttings require greenhouse conditions that can be created with a polyethylene cover, a cut plastic bottle, or a glass jar. Then the container with seedlings is placed in a warm place at a temperature of from 20 to 25 ° C.
After 1,5−2 months in the cuttings appear the first roots. This serves as a signal to transplant plants into separate pots. A tree grown from a cutting begins to bear fruit only for 4–5 years of life.
Pests, diseases and possible problems
The medlar rarely falls prey to pests, but it can still be affected by various types of scarab, aphids, spider mites and mealybugs. Help in the fight against these pests can regularly wiping the leaves and stems with special solutions:
- Soapy. In ten liters of water should be dissolved 300 g of soap. The resulting solution must be infused for several hours. After that, it must be filtered and used for spraying or rubbing the leaves.
- Oil. For this solution, 4–5 drops of rosemary oil are added to one liter of water.
- Alcoholic. This is a calendula tincture of alcohol, which can be purchased at the pharmacy.
Wipe the leaves regularly, taking breaks for 2−3 days, until all insects disappear. If these methods do not help, then the plant should be treated with insecticides or acaricides.
In addition, earthworms are dangerous for the loquat. Они прорывают в грунте ходы, которые мешают корням нормально развиваться. Для избавления от червей ёмкость с растением нужно погрузить в воду, благодаря чему паразиты выползут из земли.
При выращивании в комнатных условиях мушмула практически не поражается болезнями. Если же растение заболело, необходимо искать ошибки в уходе и устранять их.
- Root rot is the reason for regular flooding and poor drainage.
- The growth of the tree stopped or the young shoots were very long - the plant does not receive sufficient lighting.
- Spots appeared on the leaves - the ground is too wet or dry.
Medlar is a tropical plant that is quite well adapted to growing at home. Observing the rules of care and planting, you can achieve its successful fruiting. But the fruits of the tree are very tasty and juicy. They are rich in vitamins and microelements. In addition, the medlar itself will be a wonderful and unusual decoration of any interior.