If there is a pond near your home or country house, created by nature or by your efforts, it is necessary that it fits into the surrounding landscape. To do this, it is necessary to plant water plants in it. But before that you need to figure out exactly which types of them are best suited for this.
First of all, it should be understood that it is worth choosing from the category of crops that can grow in ponds of any type, regardless of climate and terrain. Properly selected crops should be resistant to frost and, after a difficult wintering, should be revived in order to please the surrounding leaves with green leaves and beautiful flowering.
What are plants in the pond for?
The greenery in the pond attracts the attention of vacationers. After all, the bare mirror of the water surface looks gray and not expressive, even if the banks are covered with plants. In such a place not only to rest, I do not even want to stop. Another thing is when you can see beautiful flowers and leaves on the pond surface. In addition, aquatic representatives of the fauna balance the ecosystem of such a reservoir, especially if there are fish or mollusks in it.
All water plantings can be divided into two groups:
Consider what is characterized by each of them.
- Pond fauna representatives decorative plan serve to decorate this object. This group includes water lilies, lotuses and other plantations with magnificent flowers and leaves, which make the reservoir truly fabulous.
- Plant crops for the pond, possessing cleansing propertiesare not always attractive in appearance, but they are no less useful. Without them, not your body of water will simply overgrow with mud and mud. These orderlies absorb carbon dioxide and mineral elements, and enrich water with oxygen. Without their help, all life in the pond will simply die. This group includes bogs, elodey and some others.
Water species grouping
Depending on the functions performed and its structure, all cultures for a reservoir are called:
- Deep water.
This division is necessary to create different depth zones. So, deep-water plants are planted in the deepest part of the reservoirs, near the coast have coastal specimens.
In swampy areas, floating and marsh species grow well.
On the shore are planted those flowers and shrubs that will grow well on the wet or dry soil of this place.
Such aquatic plantings must necessarily be present in the dacha pond, since they synthesize oxygen from carbon dioxide and purify water. For fish, it serves as a tasty and nutritious food and a place for spawning.
The main part of the oxygenators is under water, and only the upper part can be seen on the water surface of the pond.
In the second half of May, they should be planted in special baskets, which then simply sink to the bottom of the reservoir. Aquatic plant cultures are difficult to take root, and if the environmental conditions are not suitable for them, then problems with their cultivation may arise.
This group includes: buttercup, hornpole and other types of water workers.
Deep water plants
These representatives of the flora are rooted at the bottom of the pond, while the leaves are above the water. Such plants feed on organic elements that are in the water and negatively affect the ecosystem of the entire water body. In addition, large leaves do not allow algae to multiply and overheat the water. In addition, most of the representatives of this group has beautiful inflorescences. These include: water lilies, brazieniya, etc.
Like underwater species, they protect the water surface from strong heating on hot days and do not allow plants to spread to parasites.
A distinctive feature is that their root system floats in water, rather than being attached to the soil. In this case, the leaves and flowers are above the water.
Planting such plants is simple. It is enough to lower the appendix into the water, and they will begin their life. Moreover, such aquatic plants for the pond very quickly adapt to any conditions.
But at the same time, floating plants grow too quickly, and they have to periodically reduce their colonies. Otherwise, they will flood the entire reservoir.
Representatives of this species are: duckweed, swamp flower, rogulnik and others.
Representatives of the group of marsh
In fact, many of these plants prefer dry land. Among them are iris and astilba, which successfully decorate flowerbeds in gardens and parks. But still representatives of the bogs like moist soil rich in organic matter. They grow along the banks of ponds in country houses and meadows. Their beautiful flowering makes the landscape more concise.
This group includes: calamus, sedge, chastuha and others.
Coastal group representatives
Such plantings can be seen around the reservoirs. They perform a decorative function and allow you to create a single landscape composition on the site.
It is best to plant coastal plants in baskets, which are then placed in shallow holes along the perimeter of the coast. It is best to plant one specimen to grow plantings, do not interfere with each other to grow.
Representatives of this group: host, aquilegia, swimsuit and others.
Whatever the size and structure of the pond you planted, the plants for it should be of several types, sizes and shapes.
Plantations of different levels will make an ordinary suburban reservoir voluminous.
In addition, it should be remembered that any ecosystem consists of different organisms and therefore plants for a pond should occupy no more than half of its area.
Consider how to properly plant such plants.
- there is two ways of planting plants in a pond: in the tank and without it. The coastal part of the pond with steep slopes is better to be landscaped in a dirt way. Planting in containers limits the growth of planted plants.
- Best of all disembark in spring or early summer. At first, oxygenators are planted, who are not afraid of the cold, and then, when the water warms up a little, the turn of underwater and floating species comes. Lastly, they improve the coastal strip.
- If the pond is new, then worth the wait before releasing the fish. During this time, the plants will take root and begin to develop. This will take several weeks.
- Choosing landing tanks, make sure that the soil is not washed out of them. Ordinary pots can be covered with a cloth and the top layer of earth covered with pebbles.
The use of artificial trees
Artificial plants for the pond in the country are used when the owners do not have time to take care of live specimens, or it is impossible for other reasons.
But even artificial flowers require some care. They periodically need to be cleaned from silt and growths. In addition, these plants quickly fade in the sun and become faded. They need to be replaced to make the pond look attractive and natural.
In winter, artificial flowers are removed from the water and stored in a special room.
Sometimes so that an ordinary pond at a dacha looks attractive, one has to experiment with different types of plantings.
Rules for the design of different in shape and size of water bodies
The design of each water body should be approached creatively. But at the same time observe some rules
You can plant several species of plants in a pair of small in displacement pond in a pair of specimens in each group.
At the same time, care must be taken to observe the following nuances:
- All vegetation should not cover more than half of the water mirror.
- Plants for the reservoir, it is important to plant it to the depth that is acceptable to them.
- For normal development of marsh crops, before planting, drainage is required.
- Coastal vegetation is better to stir near the shore, and deep-water crops grow well in the center of the reservoir.
- The bottom of the pond should be sprinkled with river sand to protect the plant roots from leaching.
If you used heat-loving crops for decoration, it is better to dig them up or take them out of the water for the winter period. For this purpose, container cultivation is used, since with the onset of cold weather it is much easier to store them.
In this case, you must follow the following rules:
- Choose a spacious container that allows plantings to grow freely.
- Protect the bottom of each container with burlap and the surface with pebbles.
- Select containers of neutral colors so that they are not visible to others.
Of course, when designing large bodies of water, you can more freely experiment with the design. The number of plants planted here can be much larger and brighter. But the basic rules remain the same always. This will get a great result.
Plants in a pond are not only decor
Grassy plants and shrubs, decorated with delicate and variegated flowers, complement the picturesque composition of the natural cozy corner with bright strokes and unique aromas.
A pond in a frame of green compositions always looks natural and elegant at the same time.
However, besides the decorative attractiveness, aquatic plants for the pond also serve a practical purpose. The leaves of plants located above the surface of the water slightly shade the water space, thereby preventing the development and intensive growth of algae. Due to this, the water can remain for a longer period clear and clean.
In addition, on hot summer days, the natural shading of the foliage of the water surface allows you to disperse the sun's rays, which heat the water.
Shading is particularly necessary for reservoirs inhabited by fish, frogs, turtles and other amphibians.
Factors determining the choice of plants
Choosing plants for a pond in the country, you must adhere to a single decorative idea. This will allow you to create a composition that, standing out against the background of other landscape elements, at the same time will harmonize with them.
When planning the placement of green landings, it is advisable to decide on the basic angle in relation to which the composition will look most impressive.
Any decorative composition looks elegant and rich, if it is created taking into account the planned nature of the elements, when the foreground is decorated with low or ground cover plants, the higher plan is the tall plants.
Planning to equip a recreation area along one of the sides of the reservoir, the plants for this site are low, so that they do not close the picturesque landscape and access to the pond.
Plants for ponds are selected taking into account the zoning of the latter in depth. In the deepest part of the reservoir, which is mainly located in the center of the pond, deep-water plants are located, closer to the shores and the marshy zone - shallow floating ones. On the coast of the pond there are representatives of the plant world, which grows comfortably on wet soil, and on the dry shore - less moisture-loving shrubs and flowers.
The middle of a handsome man floating on the water surface is dotted with countless stamens. The lotus prefers to grow in sunny areas of the reservoir, the depth of which is not less than 40 cm. Its roots are submerged in the soil under water, and the flowers and leaves float freely above the water surface.
Lotus - a gentle and surprisingly beautiful flower, beloved by many gardeners, can rightly be considered the king of the pond
The middle of a handsome man floating on the water surface is dotted with countless stamens. The lotus prefers to grow in sunny areas of the reservoir, the depth of which is not less than 40 cm. Its roots are submerged in the soil under water, and the flowers and leaves float freely above the water surface.
Water lilies can also be a spectacular addition to the plant composition.
There are more than a dozen of these nymphs, and each of them requires certain landing conditions and depth for growth. The waterlily is also among the sun-loving deep-sea flowers.
Brazenia with dark-purple inflorescences and mulberry flowers with delicate white miniature flowers can become a worthy decoration of the central part of the pond.
Floating on the surface
Freshwater plants that freely float on the surface, act not only as a natural "screen", pritenyayuschy water surface. They perform an important function because they absorb organic matter dissolved in water and thereby regulate the ecological balance.
To the number of the most picky representatives of this variety of plants include: azole, wolfia, water chestnut, zherushnik. They feel very comfortable both in sunny areas and in shady places.
Lace thick carpet, woven from the tiny leaves of the azole, gives any reservoir a special mystery. Shades of carpet can vary from red-brown and deep green with pinkish to gray-green.
The water nut, visually reminiscent of a spiny ball with curved horns, is decorated with a decorative rosette of jagged sheets
Among the beautiful-flowering fastidious floating plants stand out: vodokras, gidrokleis, luronium, pemphigus.
Unpretentious vodokras, also known as the gill, stands out effectively against the background of other aquatic vegetation with heart-shaped leaves and three-petalled flowers. The exotic hydroleic that has taken root in our latitudes is very similar to the water rank
Planted such plants should be in small quantities. Their leaves should cover no more than half the surface of the water.
Plants – oxygen generators
Outwardly unattractive plants, oxygen generators, serve primarily to clean the reservoir. Absorbing carbon dioxide and minerals from water, they deprive algae of food and thereby prevent water pollution.
Among the ornamental varieties of oxygenerator plants stand out a horn leaf, rdest, elodey and urut
A fluffy pintail leaves prefers shady coastal areas. Spike-shaped inflorescences of pink hues are excellent food for inhabitants of the reservoir. Floating branches with a metallic sheen of elodea grow so fast that in the first year of planting the plant is able to create dense thickets in a pond. Elodea is picky about lighting and temperature conditions.
Choosing plants for registration of a pond in the coastal zone, the choice can be stopped on such moisture-loving plants as calamus, marigold, rogoz, reed.
Among marsh plants, ornamental forms have fern, daylily, volzhanka, and gravilat.
Forming a flower garden in the coastal zone, you can play on the contrast of shapes and colors. For example, graceful elongated leaves and unusual flowers of iris, contrasting with the golden inflorescences of the swimsuit, look effectively against the background of openwork fern. When creating compositions, the main thing is not to overdo it. A harmonious aesthetic composition of plants should decorate the landscape of the site, filling the soul with pleasant emotions from contemplation.
Aquatic plants for the pond at the cottage
It is not enough that it attracts views, as a pond with skillfully thought out landscape design and its own ecosystem can do on its own, equipped with ornamental plants.
Even with a small pond, you can always enjoy the charm of its water coolness on a hot day, and skillfully selected green areas will delight your eye.
What plants for a reservoir exist?
Depending on the mode of growth, aquatic plants are separated as follows:
- as free-floating plants
- submerged in water
- coastal plants.
The former can float, both on the surface of the water surface and in its thickness, sinking a little. Such plants are not rooted to the ground.
The latter are held by their root system for the ground and can grow at different depths, as fully submerged, partially or located on the surface of the water.
And finally, third, it is plants growing on the shore, near the water, the plants are beneficially felt in overmoistened soil.
Such plants are placed in tiers, using a special container for this.
Free-floating plants for the pond at the cottage
These plants can float freely, either on the surface of the water or in a slightly submerged state and are not tied to the soil by the root system.
The depth of the reservoir for such plants is not critical.
These plants include:
- Lemna (this plant requires special control over their systematic removal),
- Azolla fern (also requires periodic removal),
- Pistia (water rose) is an aquatic plant, it is planted in the summer in a street pond with light green leaves. The roots of the plant are lowered by 0.3 meters below the surface of the water, the favorable water temperature is + 25 ° С,
- Eichornia (water hyacinth) is a perennial floating plant with submerged leaves with bluish flowers. Since the plant is tropical, it does not tolerate cool weather and grows in an open reservoir from June to August. Top dressing eichornia is carried out once a month with fertilizers for aquarium plants.
1. Несколько молодых розеток эйхорнии переносятся в теплый не замерзающий аквариум, находящийся в теплом и светлом помещении. Чтобы растение не загнило оно требует регулярной подсветки минимум 12 часов в день.
2. Pistia (water hyacinth) for the winter is transferred to a warm and illuminated aquarium (water temperature + 15 ° C).
Submerged and Coastal Plants
The most common among submerged coastal plants are the following plants:
- Pygmaea dwarf water lilies (nymphs)
Their depth of their growth is 0.1 - 0.5 meters, they have flowers ranging in size from 5 to 15 cm.
Among the plants of this variety, such names as pygmaea alba, pygmaea helvola, pygmaea rubra, aurora, numphaea solfatare and others can be named.
Dwarf water lilies are planted in open ponds or pots with standing water, they are also light-requiring,
- Lotus - is a perennial plant.
Germinated from seeds at the beginning of May in the bank, and after a couple of weeks, when sprouts and leaves appear, seedlings are planted in a container with drainage, the soil for them is used ordinary garden.
The lotus is a heat-loving plant, the ideal conditions for it are the bright sun and the water temperature above + 20 ° С. For convenience, it is better to grow in a container.
- Bulrush - the depth of growth ranges from 0.05 to 0.15 meters,
- Calamus: calamus calamus - growing at a depth of 0.2 meters, calamus calamus at a depth of 0.05 to 0.15 meters,
- Pontederia - grows to a depth of 0.15 meters,
- The headrest is planted in a container (characteristic depth of growth is 0.1 meter),
- Trilineus watch grows at a depth of from 0.05 to 0.15 meters.
- AIR - requires transferring to wintering in an ice-free aquarium or a suitable container.
- Dwarf water lilies - need to be transferred for wintering in a dark, not freezing room.
- For Pontederia in winter, a cool room is well suited.
- The lotus in the container for the winter should be transferred to a warm, non-freezing place by placing it in a suitable container with water.
What you need to know when organizing planting plants around the pond?
First of all, it is important to know that for organizing the space around the reservoir there are many small things, the observance of which will help avoid unpleasant surprises and disappointments.
The following tips will help you greatly simplify the task on your chosen path:
- Water temperature
The temperature of the water used in the pond, especially affects the immersed in the water and floating plants.
These plants will not like cold water (at least + 10 ° C), so if you use well water or spring water, take care in advance to create a sump where it could warm up to ambient temperature.
The main factor on which the purity of your pond depends is the soil; if water grows turbid in the pond, it usually happens because of the large amount of organic particles and clay in it.
It does not cause harm and over time suspended matter will settle on the stems of plants.
- Water hardness and acidity
For some plants, indicators of hardness and acidity are key.
- if the pond is filled with rainwater and soil enriched with organic matter, the water will be soft and sour,
- the water in the old pond with the settled water will be less soft and sour,
- the water in the pond, which has a cement bottom with the filling of limestone rubble, will be more rigid and have an alkaline reaction.
It is important to remember that algae cause water to bloom, spoiling the visual appeal of the pond. In combating this, shading the surface of the pond with plants will help.
- Plant shading
A good ratio of the surface coverage of the pond with plants can be considered 1/3, that is, one third of its surface should be covered with floating plants, coastal plants do not count, only floating.
- Water plant nutrition
Garden soil without fertilizer fertilization is well suited for feeding aquatic plants. The use of fresh manure and fertilizers is highly undesirable, as this will lead to water bloom.
On the contrary, it is possible to increase the nutritional value by adding old, rotted manure, or to complete bone meal.
Features of wintering aquatic plants
It must be remembered that small garden or dacha ponds, created by themselves on the basis of containers mounted in the ground, are freezing in winter.
In order to save the plants from freezing in winter, they must be transferred to wintering in specially prepared for this place, namely:
- plants growing in baskets are moved to a warm room (basement or other non-freezing room), in a container with water, providing food for water,
- free-floating plants are moved to a warm aquarium or other suitable container.
Planting rules for aquatic plants
Consider the main points:
- The priority option for planting aquatic plants is container planting or mesh baskets.
- The most favorable period for planting aquatic plants: the end of spring - the beginning of summer.
- When preparing the soil for planting, you need to mix clay and peat in a proportion of 2/1, add fertilizer and mix, moisten with water.
- Pour the prepared soil to the bottom of the container (basket).
- Place the plant in the container (basket), after removing the dry and dead leaves and other parts from it.
- Spread out the root system of the plant, distributing it evenly throughout the container (basket).
- Carefully cover the plant to the root collar with soil and compact the soil around it well.
- Top of the soil to fill pebbles about a couple of centimeters high, then you can put a larger decorative stones.
- In order to make it convenient to lift or release the container (basket) into the pond, fasten a fishing line on it in 3-4 places.
- Carefully release the container (basket) into the water, so as not to disturb the plant and the soil, first do not lower the container (basket) deeply (bring the ends of the fishing line ashore by decorating them for any object convenient for you).
Pond decoration with aquatic plants
Pond decoration with aquatic plants
In order to decorate the pond with aquatic plants, it is necessary to first determine the following questions:
- Will the plants be able to overwinter (and the way of planting will depend on it: in containers or in the soil).
- Which plants to choose: deepwater, oxygen generators, embankments or floating
- When and how to plant water plants
- Planting requirements
- Which representatives of aquatic plants to give preference
From all these issues will depend not only the overall decorative appearance of the pond, but also its durability and ability to ensure the vital activity of the fish. Next, consider in detail all these questions.
Types of pond water plants
There are many classifications of plants for the pond (aquatic plants). In order for an ornamental pond in the country house to be attractive and function normally, it is necessary to give preference to the following types of aquatic plants:
- Oxygenerators - plants that produce oxygen to ensure the vital activity of all living things in the pond.
As we have said, oxygenerator plants sponsor a pond with an additional dose of oxygen. In addition, these plants are food for some fish (for example, carp). Also oxygenators are sanitation reservoirs and carry out biological water purification. Experts recommend planting several types of oxygenerator plants in one reservoir, the main thing is not to overdo it with their number.
Among the most popular aquatic plants of this species it is recommended to give preference to the following:
- Turcha marsh
- Water star
- Uruti spiky
- Hornpaw dark green
Embankment plants are used to decorate the contours of the reservoir, as well as to protect water from overheating on hot days. It is recommended to use low embankments of plants, with the expectation that the shadow would fall on the pond during the daytime sun.
We draw your attention to the fact that trees near the reservoir are not recommended to be planted, because with time, the root system of trees will begin to destroy not only the shore of the pond, but also the waterproofing of the bowl. If you still decide to plant a tree, it should be at a decent distance from the shore, decorating only the general landscape design of the site.
For the decoration of the reservoir use such embankment plants as:
- Decorative dwarf fir
- Weeping willow
Floating plants are used to decorate the pond mirror. They can be planted in the ground at the bottom or placed in containers, we will talk about this later. Floating plants are both frost-resistant and tropical, preference should be given first.
Most floating plants practically do not require care, the main thing is to follow the rate of their growth and the number of plants, otherwise in a short period of time the whole pond will acquire this type of aquatic plants, which is not good.
Among the most popular floating plants for the pond, you must use the following:
- Azolla (fern and caroline)
Deep water plants
Deep-sea plants need to be seated in combination with floating. In order for deep-water plants to decorate an ornamental pond, the water must be clean and the pond itself is shallow.
Since most deep-sea plants are not capable of hibernating, they must be planted in containers, so that before the frost it was possible to bring plants into the basement without any problems.
Among the most attractive and easy to care deep-water plants emit:
If the depth of the pond exceeds 60 cm, these plants are allowed to leave for the winter in the water, because at such a depth the roots are not frozen.
Differences and features of aquatic plants for decoration and cleaning of the pond
Pond and river are not only an integral element of modern design, but also an indispensable part of the ecological system of water bodies necessary to stabilize the balance of the ecosystem. The presence of higher plants that purify water reservoirs, especially important for small and stagnant mini-ponds, as it helps to prevent "flowering" and turbidity. Such processes develop particularly rapidly in warm and sunny weather, and decaying organic matter, unicellular algae and bacterial flora can make a reservoir in the yard or garden plot unsuitable for use. For the purpose of cleaning, in this case, some higher water plants are used, having certain characteristics and features:
- the foliage of aquatic plants is characterized by a filamentous form dissected into parts,
- the stem part is represented by airy cavities,
- root system is rather poorly developed.
Criteria for selecting plants for artificial reservoir
If there is an artificial reservoir in the backyard territory, it is necessary to take into account the total area and depth, as well as the characteristics of the surrounding landscape. It is advisable to give preference to the most unpretentious, not requiring special care species.
When water gardening is recommended to consider the following features:
- the ability of decorative culture to survive the winter period in the pond or the ground next to it,
- terms and methods of planting, as well as the durability of vegetation,
- need for care.
If the pond has a basic perspective, then the plant composition should be arranged in such a way that the vigorous vegetation does not obstruct the view of the reservoir. Recreation area is better to draw a stunted or ground cover crops. With a usable area of four square meters, reeds, hogsheviki, cattail, reed, and angelica and rhubarb are used. Too small ponds are decorated with arrowhead, air, bracken, daylily and chastukha. The design of the survey part is carried out by stunted cinquefoil, bergenia, marigold, and medicated female pear.
A good result is given by the contrast of long-leaved plants: cattail, calamus, daylily and reed with a round-leaved water lily, lotuses, bergenia and chastuhoy. Near-water and aquatic flowers are also widely used. To ensure multi-season flowering, such crops can be placed in decorative containers.
Water floating on the surface
The foliage of such a decorative culture floats on the surface. A characteristic difference is the lack of attachment of the root system in the ground. The surface vegetation protects the water surface and the thickness from overheating and uses organic compounds, which prevents the water from “blooming”. Floating plants can grow very quickly, so they need to provide high-quality care, including pruning and timely removal of excess shoots. A good result gives growing in special floating baskets.
Coastal perennials are also very popular for decorating ponds. In order for the vegetation of the reservoir to look interesting and attractive, the coastal area also needs to be formalized accordingly, with the result that moisture-loving crops planted on the shore will be a link.
Organically and very picturesquely on the coastal zone look all sorts of decorative cereal crops, as well as flowering daylilies and irises, swimsuits, meadowsweet, ladler and valerian. Incredibly elegant looking species of ferns.
Many marsh crops are categorized as quite unpretentious, so they are excellent for both sunny and pristine areas. Important to remember, that in order not to allow swamp perennials to grow strongly, it is necessary to periodically exhaust the seating on the floor.
The qualitative characteristics of the water affect the growth and development of the flora, so the water should be regularly cleaned. This category includes the marsh’s forget-me-not, the Magellan sedge, urchin head, Zyryanka, the brook, the vaccinium and the marsh violet.
A significant part of such perennials that are useful in terms of the ecosystem is in the water, and the flowers are above or under water. They help to prevent water pollution, and also serve as food and breeding grounds for fish.
Underwater foliage absorbs mineral salts and carbon dioxide. Several plants planted in the spring and summer at the bottom of the pond, can significantly improve the appearance and condition of pond water.
The root system is located in the bottom ground, the foliage on the surface of the water, and the flowers on the surface or above the water. Some deep-water crops allow water to be cleaned.and their absence can cause uncontrolled reproduction of algae and bacteria.
Most often, such a group of decorative perennials is represented by a marsh or a nymphaifique, a water lily, a yellow bean, an eyhornija, a vodokras, a hornpole and a duckweed.
Landing rules and design features of various types of water bodies
It is required to plant a couple of plant species of each type in small reservoirs of small size and size, distributing them in small groups:
- deep and floating vegetation should cover no more than half of the entire surface of the water,
- It is important to plant aquatic plants according to their adaptability to certain depth indicators,
- when planting swamp ornamental crops, drainage is a must.
How to care for plants in the pond (video)
Registration of reservoirs may be in the soil or container method of cultivation and planting, performed in the following sequence:
- after draining, pour ten centimeters of fertile soil substrate, represented by compost, sand and rotted mullein, to the bottom,
- coastal tall vegetation needs to be planted closer to the shore, and deep-water crops are planted in the central part,
- the bottom surface should be covered with a five-centimeter layer of medium-grained river sand, which protects the root system and soil from erosion.
Thermophilic cultures in the winter period are quite often completely frozen out, so it is desirable to dig them up and move them to storage. No less popular in our country is the container cultivation of aquatic plants, which allows you to move them with the onset of a strong cooling in the cellar:
- for growing, a sufficiently large, trellised-type planting tank is used, which allows the root system to actively multiply,
- it is best to use non-brightly colored containers that will be in harmony with the surroundings,
- It is recommended to effectively protect the bottom part and walls against leaching of the nutrient substrate by sacking, and sprinkle the surface of the soil with gravel.
As a rule, all aquatic vegetation is planted from the last spring decade to mid-summer. It is necessary to approach registration very carefully and responsibly.
Coastal aquatic plants
Coastal and marsh plants have significant differences. The former should have the root system directly in the water, the latter prefer a well-moistened soil.
Coastal plants planted, as a rule, in shallow water or on previously prepared terraces. These include highlander, iris, three-leaf watch, valet cattle, cotton grass, marigolds, calamus and arrowhead. It should be noted that only three species of the genus of iris are suitable for cultivation in reservoirs - this is the above ирис аировидный, ирис разноцветный и ирис сглаженный.
Большинство прибрежных растений дают очень красивое и продолжительное цветение. Самая ранняя из них калужница, она распускается в апреле. Затем вступает вахта, покрываясь в мае нежными звездчатыми пушистыми соцветиями.
Ирисы they enliven the shores of the reservoir with their majestic buds from May until September. Very unusually shows its bloom cotton grass, covered with white or bright red powder puffs in June and July. From June until autumn bloom arrowhead and Highlander.
Marsh plants, as we have said, planted in close proximity to the reservoir, but the soil should be without stagnant water. In these conditions, the bright bathing vessel, tall and spectacular lobelia and derbum (plaqun-grass) with beautiful candle-like inflorescences in pink and crimson shades feel fine.
In addition to its obvious decorative qualities, plants for coastal waters serve to strengthen the coastline from erosion and landslides. This is mostly related to natural water bodies.
Coastal, marshy, shallow and deep-water zones are distinguished in the pond and on its banks. For each zone pick up different plants, combining them together. It can be both cultivated and wild species.
Coastal area not flooded with water. At the ponds, just dug in the ground, the soil on the coast will be wet. Here, moisture-loving species feel good: willow, host, sedge, molinia, willow bush, willow, bird cherry, boxwood, dahmer, fern, astilbe, irises. Tall plants cast shadows on the water and prevent it from overheating. They must be planted by the reservoirs in which fish, turtles, frogs, and tritons live.
If the bottom of an artificial reservoir is covered with a film that prevents water from seeping into the ground, the banks will be dry. They are planted with flowers and shrubs, loving moderately moist soils (oregano, goldenrod, sedum, alder, many varieties of garden flowers).
Marshy area extends from the edge of the water mirror to a depth of 0.1 m. The level of the water mirror is constantly changing due to evaporation and infiltration of water into porous soils. In shallow waters they plant reeds, cattails, calla lash, jerk, arrowhead.
Shallow water area is located at depths from 0.1 to 0.4 m. Plants are planted here, the root system of which must be constantly covered with water. These are susak, orontium, calamus, calla, Marsilea, hedgehog, watermint.
Deep water zone located at a depth of 40 centimeters or more. Plants that live in deep water are divided into three groups.
- Deep-water plants, the root system of which is located in the soil layer of the pond, under the water column. The most decorative deep-water species are the nymphea (waterlily), lotus, nugget, vodokras, water hawthorn.
- Plants that are not attached to the bottom and that live in the water column and on its surface are Wulfium spherical, water-lettered salad and azole.
- Plants-oxygen generators saturating water with oxygen. This elodeya Canadian, urut, rdest pierced-faced, hornolisnik. These species absorb minerals and carbon dioxide from water and produce oxygen.
Water Lily (nymphea)
The water-lily is a perennial with large round leaves and bright cupped flowers. In size flowers and leaves nymphs are divided into large, medium, small and dwarf. In large varieties, the diameter of the corolla reaches 20 cm, in the dwarf - 3-5 cm.
Nymphaea with large flowers planted in large ponds, dwarf suitable for the most miniature. Petals of water lilies are not only white, but also pink, yellow, lilac, red. Many breeding varieties have terry corolla.
Bubble is interesting because it has small bubbles on thin, narrow leaves. With the help of bubbles, this grass catches small invertebrates, but this plant is not dangerous for fish. But if it is a lot of bubbles, it will destroy insects and invertebrates that fish feed on. The bright yellow flowers of pemphigus rise above the water, and the leaves are on the water surface.
The plant floats freely in the marshy and deep-water parts of the reservoir, it feels good in slow-flowing waters.
The green stalks of the leaves are covered with thin needle-like leaves. This plant has no root and is attached to the bottom with sprigs. Small flowers devoid of petals. Pollination of this plant occurs under water.
The rodentard has no decorative qualities, as he lives in a layer of water. The hornberry produces a large amount of oxygen that saturates the water than is useful for fish.
This plant has many narrow, long green leaves, it grows in water and blooms with small white cupped flowers. It can be seen only in July, when the flowers rise above the water. For the most part of its life, the telecutter spends under water and quickly covers large areas.
The name of the plant speaks for itself - this species is not planted in places intended for swimming. The leaves telorezza sharp edges with spikes, they easily damage the skin of the bather.
Buttercup water (mulberry) begins to bloom in the first and second months of summer with small white flowers. The surface leaves of the mulberry fan-shaped, underwater divided into segments and segments. The roots of the plant are cord-shaped, they are loosely fixed in the silty soil of the pond. The single flowers of the water buttercup do not make an impression, but when a large number of mulberry blooms, the pond looks very beautiful.
The round, dense leaves of a water vault are reminiscent of water lily leaves. They cover the water surface of a continuous multi-layered green carpet. Cup-shaped three-petal flowers have yellow stamens and white petals. Flowers towering above the water on the peduncles, they look like little nymphs.
The flowers are very small, you can only consider a flower close to it. Vodokras ordinary looks good in small and medium ponds.
A jug also resembles a water lily in miniature, but the yellow petals have a rounded, strongly concave shape. Flowers towering on long, thick peduncles.
The underwater leaves of the plant are thin and translucent. Bulb leaves hard, round and large.
Plant leaves should not occupy more than 50% of the water surface of the pond.
Canadian Elodea is also called water plague. The growth of this herb is difficult to control and limit. This plant multiplies rapidly and occupies large volumes in the water column. The plant is a long stalk, on which elongated leaves of marsh-green color are densely growing. There are no roots in Elodea Canadian, it blooms with small flowers with white and pink petals.
Elodea Canadian perfectly purifies water, this plant is planted in aquariums. In the thickets elodey fry and small fish hide.
The floating flock consists of a long stem with elongated lanceolate underwater and oval surface leaves. The rhizome rdest powerful and branched.
The decoration of the pond are the long stalks of the worm, which, like candles, rise above the floating foliage. On the peduncles there are many small greenish flowers. In the underwater thickets of the cave dwellers like to hide the inhabitants of the reservoir.
Pond design rules and plant compatibility
Artificial reservoirs make out in the different styles corresponding to design of a site. Ponds of regular geometric shape can be round, oval, square or rectangular. For registration of such ponds use a small number of plants that harmoniously complement the strict forms of reservoirs. On the banks of a reservoir of geometric shape, plants are planted, which create a contrast with the strict form of the reservoir and thereby emphasize its strict geometry.
Good looking ponds, made in a natural, landscape style. In landscape ponds, vegetation should look as natural as possible. As a rule, the coasts of such ponds imitate natural shores. The coastlines of landscaped reservoirs have a smooth, rounded, irregular shape. Stony banks, lined with boulders, stone hills alternate with sandy and grassy areas. The shore is decorated with climbing plants that grow low.
When choosing vegetation take into account the condition of the water. Many plants look good not only on the water surface. Lush green leaves, stems, viewed through the clear water, highly decorative and beautiful.
If the reservoir is small, large plants on the coast are not planted. They visually reduce the pond. At the tiny pond they plant small shrubs and grasses.
The variety of plants allows you to combine them together to create a harmonious combination of garden and pond. Landscape designers are advised to follow the rules of compatibility of shrubs, grasses growing near the pond and in the water.
- In a small pond, large plants should be 1-2, medium - 3-4, small ones can be many.
- Large plants visually reduce the size of the pond, small and dwarf - increase.
- Plants that decorate the coast should not distract all attention to themselves so that aquatic plants do not remain imperceptible.
- The combination of cultural and wild-growing species transferred to the pond from the surrounding water bodies and wetlands is allowed.
- Dwarf and large plants do not plant near, for small ponds should choose small species.
- Stunted species (bergenia, silverweed, forget-me-nots, and others) are planted in front of medium and tall plants.
- Tall grasses (cane, cowberry, rhubarb, reed and other species) and shrubs are planted in large bodies of water. They should not close the water surface and the prospect of the review.
- Plants with contrasting leaves form a beautiful effect: Badan and calamus, water lily and rogoz, calamus and arrowhead.
- For different types of design combine plants with flowers of the same color, or several contrasting colors.
Plants for decoration of artificial reservoirs can be wild-growing and selective, annual and perennial. Frost resistance is important for perennial species. The smaller the reservoir, the less likely the perennial to survive the winter. If the frost resistance of the species is low, the plants are removed from the reservoir, cut and placed in storage in the cellar.