Home to many beautiful flowering plants that adorn our homes, are tropical countries. Most florists are known gippeastrum, Saintpaulia, fuchsia. But relatively recently, such plants as bromeliad, orchid, poinsettia, jasmine and others have become popular. This list includes bougainvillea. Home care for this plant is simple. It is worth noting that bougainvillea looks spectacular, not only in the open field, but also in a flower pot. The plant received its unusual name in honor of the Frenchman who conquers the sea. Louis Antoine de Bougainville led the first round-the-world expedition. The team was a botanist F. Kommerson. It was he who delivered the plant to Europe.
What does a plant look like?
Bougainvillea, planting and care at home which every gardener can do, can be of different varieties. The homeland of this plant is South America. Here it is found in the form of small trees or lianas. However, most often bougainvillea is a shrub with clinging, climbing and creeping shoots. The twigs of the plant are covered with spines. With their help, shoots cling to the support. It is worth noting that bougainvillea is growing very quickly. Shoots in length can reach five meters. In the climate of our country, this plant can be grown only in a greenhouse or in a room. It looks very beautiful indoors blooming bougainvillea. Care at home gives excellent results. The growth of shoots in the average is 1.5 meters. Of course, if the plant is properly planted, in time to water and feed.
Choosing a place
This plant is brought to us from the tropics. Therefore, it requires a bright light and, of course, space. A prime example in this case is the Sabina bougainvillea. Care at home for such a plant begins with the selection of a suitable place. Of course, creating ideal conditions in the room is unlikely to succeed. To grow a healthy plant, you need to be patient and have a certain amount of knowledge.
It is best to grow bougainvillea in the greenhouse. After all, there is enough space and light here. At the same time it is possible to regulate the temperature and humidity. This is also important, especially if Vera’s bougainvillea is grown. Care in the home allows you to grow a beautiful flowering plant. Subject to all the rules in the greenhouse shoots for the year can give a gain of several meters.
For the cultivation of light-loving Brazilian is better to use large containers. Containers should be installed along the south wall. Only in this case it will be possible to get large blooms full of flowers.
Lighting and temperature
Light is very important for this plant. Only in this case will bougainvillea grow normally. Home care is one of the components of a good plant development. Southern beauty will feel great not only in the greenhouse, but also on the insulated and glazed loggia. The main thing is that the air temperature here does not fall below 10 ° C in winter.
The placement of bougainvillea in the room is very important. Pots with a plant should be installed so that they hit the sun's rays. Such bougainvillea baths should be taken for 5 hours daily. Thanks to this, the plant will develop normally and bloom regularly.
If the sunlight will be absent in the required amount, the shoots will begin to stretch strongly. At the same time flowering will stop, and the leaves will become pale. Bougainvillea, home care for which is very important, will get an unhealthy look and will cease to be a home decoration. It is worth noting that this plant does not tolerate drafts.
How to feed
The plant should be fed about once every 10 days. At the same time, it is necessary to alternate complex mineral fertilizers and organic. According to reviews of experienced gardeners, from the beginning of May to the end of August it is worth making a top dressing, which includes potassium and phosphorus. It is necessary to limit the amount of nitrogen, as this substance stimulates the growth of shoots and prevents the plant from blooming. In winter, bougainvillea is usually not fed. If the room temperature is below 15 ° C, the plant is not even sprayed.
Special attention should be paid to watering. In hot periods, the plant should be watered as needed 1 - 2 times in 7 days. It should be borne in mind that in the natural environment, bougainvillea grows on mountain slopes, where there is a rocky soil. The plant does not tolerate stagnant moisture. After watering it is necessary to drain the water from the pallets. Otherwise, the roots will begin to rot and bougainvillea may die.
In winter, watering is reduced. At this time of year, you should simply moisten the substrate so that it does not dry out. You can water it once in about 10 to 15 days. It should be borne in mind that the lower the room temperature, the less water is needed. If for example, the bougainvillea "Alexandra", care at home for which requires a lot of patience, dropped all the leaves, then wetting the soil should stop.
For planting bougainvillea at home should initially use a small volume of capacity. For this fit pots 1.5 - 5 liters. It should be noted that in capacities with a large volume the southern beauty grows intensively, but practically not in color. In containers, bougainvillea can only be grown in a greenhouse. After all, these containers have a large volume and the plant grows quickly.
Substrate for planting can be prepared independently. This will require turf and leaf soil, as well as coarse grain sand. Take components need in equal parts. In the resulting composition is to add small shards, vermiculite, or expanded clay.
The soil must be sufficiently nutritious and light. However, do not make it water-consuming. As for acidity, the soil should be slightly acidic or neutral: pH 6.8 - 7. At the bottom of the tank should be a drain. To do this, you can use foam, shards, small pebbles or expanded clay. At the same time there is a certain rule. The larger the tank, the thicker the drainage layer should be.
Every year you need to pruning. Usually, this procedure is carried out at the beginning of winter or in autumn. At the same time shoots are shortened by ½ length. This allows you to enhance the growth of lateral shoots.
The pruning carried out in spring also has a positive effect on the state of bougainvillea. In this case, unsuccessfully located, thin and curved shoots are removed, and too long branches are shortened.
In summer, young twigs are usually pruned immediately after flowering. This stimulates the emergence of new inflorescences. Experts do not recommend touching shoots that are between 3 and 4 years old. A small number of buds awakens on old branches. As a result, new lateral processes are not formed.
So how does bougainvillea breed? Bougainvillea, home care for which is not only in regular watering and feeding, propagated by cuttings. In early summer, when it is already warm enough, you should take a half-woody stalk, which is 10 centimeters in length, and planted in the soil. The soil can be taken the same as for an adult plant. However, experts recommend making the composition less nutritious and a little easier. Therefore, in the humus it is worth replacing with peat.
Before planting cuttings should be prepared. To do this, they must be put in a little warm water for three hours and then placed in a stimulator for some time. Planting material after such manipulations should be dipped, for example, in root powder or in heteroauxin.
Bougainvillea (Bougainvillea) - a representative of the Niktagin family. In nature, the plant is found in the form of small trees, shrubs, vines. Bougainvillea shoots are covered with short and rare spikes: they are attached to the support. The branches can stretch to 5 m in length. Home hybrids are not so "creeping", but you still have to carry out regular pruning, otherwise you can get real jungles on the windowsill.
The plant has gained popularity due to a long flowering period: when it blooms in spring, bougainvillea blooms only in late autumn. If the tropical guest has a suitable climate, she can enjoy flowers for nine months.
- Flowers The beauty of bougainvillea lies not in the flowers, but in the bracts. The flowers of the plant are small, inconspicuous. Inflorescences, racemes have a pale yellow color. Flowers fade quickly, but at the expense of colorful bracts the plant does not lose its decorative appeal for a long time.
- Bracts. Large (up to 6 cm), bright bracts of various forms for a long time please flower growers with their beauty. Bracts form a dense dome, behind which there are no branches and foliage. "Classic" bracts - purple, pink, red, but constantly appear varieties with new shades. Orange, white, cream bracts no longer surprise anyone.
- Leaves. The plant has leaves that are elongated and pointed at the end. On the bedspread there are distinct veinlets. The leaves are quite large - an average of 7 cm, however, they are closed by densely located bracts. The shade of the foliage depends on the plant species: in some shrubs the leaves are light green, in others - dark emerald.
Bougainvillea can not boast of species diversity. Although there are a lot of varieties, there are only 14 species. Among them, flower growers distinguish three “favorites”.
- "Beautiful" ("Wonderful"). In Latin, the name sounds like Bougainvillea spectabilis. The plant has velvety leaves. "Beautiful" bougainvillea dubbed because of the very large bracts. There are multi-colored bedspreads, but always in the process of flowering, they turn pale. Southerners love to decorate with this variety arbors.
- "Naked" ("Smooth"). The Latin name is Bougainvillea glabra. The peculiarity of this species is glossy leaves, bright bracts. It is this bougainvillea used in the first selections.
- "Peruvian." Or Bougainvillea peruviana. It is famous for its blooming long and magnificently. It has dense spikes. The bracts of the plant are wrinkled, the leaves are thin. It differs from its congeners in that it branches badly, but it grows very long shoots. Plants that are of this type should be cut frequently. There is another way to preserve the decorative effect: to lay the branches, thereby creating a three-dimensional composition.
Care for bougainvillea at home
The myth that it is difficult to care for bougainvillea is very common among gardeners. Tropical guests are usually considered capricious, however, this does not apply to the “paper flower”. If you know how to care for the bougainvillea in a pot, then there will be no difficulties: a grateful plant will bloom on the windowsill for a long time and magnificently.
Novice flower growers need to remember the main secret: bougainvillea can not be rearranged. It is from the "moves" the plant languishes, and write off all the errors of care. If possible, put the pot on the south window sill. Here it is light and warm - everything, as the tropical guest likes. The plant needs circulating air, but at the same time drafts (especially cold ones) are dangerous.
"Paper Flower" loves the heat. Feels comfortable in the summer when the temperature range varies from 23 to 30 ° C. This mode stimulates flowering. In the hot season it is better to take the plant to fresh air, or at least provide regular and long-term ventilation.
In order for the plant to become dormant, the temperature should not exceed 16 ° C, but in apartment conditions this is difficult to achieve, therefore, bougainvillea usually blooms all year round on the windowsills. Some flower growers take out the tropical beauty to the balcony in the cold time to create conditions for rest, because continuous flowering can weaken the plant. However, we must not forget that the temperature below 7 ° C is destructive for the representatives of this family. Sharp temperature changes are best avoided - from them the “green friend” can get sick.
For the growth and development of bougainvillea need good lighting. This is one of the few plants that really loves the sun, and not just loves, but needs it. The light-loving flower from March and inclusive to September needs a maximum of light, then it will be possible to enjoy flowering in full. Direct sunlight is not terrible tropical "young lady": daily bougainvillea need to be in the open sun for at least three hours. But in the winter, when there is a period of rest, the indoor plant will be comfortable in a shaded place.
Water "pet" need to look at the season. In spring and summer, bougainvillea blooms, which means it requires abundant watering. Allow the soil to dry out - the plant will drop flowers. Look for the "middle ground", because the overwetting is also undesirable. For watering you need to take the settled water. Create a "tropical" conditions for the plant will help regular spraying. Use only soft water.
Caring for bougainvillea in winter involves a significant reduction in watering. Need to navigate the earthen coma. As soon as it dries - we water. But it dries out - it does not mean it dries out completely. Due to underfilling, you can lose the root system: it simply dries.
Top dressing bougainvillea - a mandatory part of care. The plant should receive nutrients in the period of active growth, abundant flowering. Experienced flower growers recommend feeding a blooming tropical beauty every two weeks. To do this, you can use organic or mineral fertilizers intended for flowering plants. If you have only complex ones at hand, you can apply them, but it is important that the composition is designed specifically for ornamental flowering plants. When a flower enters a dormant period, it is not necessary to feed it.
Pruning bougainvillea - one of the most important stages of care. Novice flower growers often do not know about the need for such a manipulation. As a result, the plant slows its growth, ceases to bloom and ... grows into myths about its capriciousness.
The best time for pruning is before waking up and before retiring. In the spring, you need to remove last year's shoots: they are shortened by half. If you cut the bougainvillea correctly, it will bloom wildly. Before wintering, shoots are removed by a third. During the period of active growth and flowering pruning is aimed at maintaining the decorativeness of the plant: without pruning the shoots, the indoor flower will look sloppy. You need to cut above the leaf or buds, weak shoots are better to remove. Be sure to remove the faded shoots: thanks to this, side branches will be formed, on which, with proper care, there will be more flowers this season.
Repotted by the rules
Bougainvillea does not like being bothered. An adult plant does not need to be replanted often: it’s enough to change the “home” of a tropical beauty once every three years. However, if the soil has thinned in the pot or the tank has become too small for the plant - it is better not to postpone it. Young "pet" need an annual transplant. It is possible less often, but usually the flower actively grows, and the pot becomes cramped to it. In order for the transplant to be successful and the “pet” got accustomed in the new house, try to observe the following three rules.
- Pot. Choose a deep pot for roots to grow. A typical mistake - a pot "for growth". A new container in diameter should be greater than the previous one by about 3 cm. In an overly spacious flowerpot, the water will stagnate. If you plan to use the same container, you need to wash it thoroughly, and trim the roots of the plant so that they fit in size to the pot.
- Drainage. In nature, the plant has chosen stony soils, so it cannot do without drainage. Fill it without sparing: the larger the plant, the greater the drainage layer. At the bottom of the pot you can lay claydite, rubble, broken bricks or use purchased drainage.
- Priming. Preference should be given to a specialized substrate from the store. But if it is not possible to use it, prepare the soil yourself. To do this, mix sand, humus, turf and leaf earth in a ratio of 1: 1: 2: 2.
- Separate the stalk from the adult plant.
- Treat it with a growth stimulant purchased from a flower shop.
- Place the stalk in a container of sand and peat. The mixture should be wet.
- Make a "greenhouse" of the package. Put the container where there is a lot of light.
- It is better to plan cutting for the summer months: a temperature of 25 ° C is necessary for successful rooting.
Problems encountered by flower growers
When growing bougainvillea flower growers often face various problems: lack of growth, drying of shoots, dropping of inflorescences. Bougainvillea is a grateful plant. Если за ней ухаживать правильно, вовремя пересаживать, защищать от насекомых, то она будет радовать своей красотой. Если внешний вид растения вас не удовлетворяет, нужно искать причину, почему бугенвиллия изменилась. Не запускайте проблему: чем раньше будут предприняты меры — тем выше шансы спасти растение.
Diseases and pests
Бугенвиллия, как и любое другое растение, может болеть, ее могут атаковать вредители. К счастью, это случается нечасто. But the owner of a tropical beauty needs to be alert, because the speed of the reaction depends on whether the “green pet” can recover. Diseases are treated with proper care, supplements. Insecticides will help to get rid of insects. The basic principles of treatment are described in the table.
Table - Diseases and pests: signs, treatment
Bougainvillea description, its origin and features
European flower growers became acquainted with bougainvillea in the 18th century. This remarkable plant was found in the South American jungle by the French botanist Commerson. He took part in a research tour around the world, led by Louis Antoine de Bougainville. An unknown flower was named in his honor. Bougainvillea was delivered to Europe, but it turned out that the north was contraindicated to it, it felt good only in greenhouse conditions: greenhouses and winter gardens.
On the freedom of bougainvillea - a fairly large plant, it can grow up to 15 meters
Now bougainvillea settled in the tropical and subtropical zones around the globe. It grows where the temperature does not fall below +5 degrees. This bright vine is a favorite plant of masters of landscape design. Her plastic shoots easily take any shape. And the color palette is so rich that you can draw a picture with bougainvillea. There will be only blue paint.
Bougainvillea has all the colors and shades of the rainbow, except for blue and blue
At home, this wonderful plant is also gradually being developed. Twenty years ago, bougainvillea was considered an extremely difficult to care flower. Now there are varieties adapted to the content in the apartment.
Bracts bougainvillea thin, collected in long fluffy brush, very similar to the garlands of paper. Because of this similarity in the southern countries, the plant was given the nickname - a paper flower.
Bougainvillea flowers are good in their own way, but the main charm is bright bracts.
In its natural habitat, bougainvillea is a large vine (up to 15 meters) or a bush. When living in a room, it is rarely above one and a half meters. The shoots of the plant are equipped with spikes and eventually become covered with bark. The leaves are medium in size (up to 8 cm), they are smooth or slightly pubescent, oval in shape with a pointed end. The yellowish tubular flowers of bougainvillea form at the ends of the branches, they are small and not very expressive. A picturesque view of the plant give lush bright bracts - white, purple, purple, fiery orange, purple, pink, yellow or cream and beige.
New bougainvillea varieties combine several colors or change color over time.
Colors, thanks to breeders, is becoming more and more. There are already bougainvilleas bicoloured and changing the color of the bracts. Real flowers fade quickly, in 2-3 days. And bracts preserve decorative long. And bougainvillea blooms for a long time from spring to late autumn with indoor content. Under natural conditions, flowering can last up to 9 months.
Bougainvillea, which was previously considered difficult for indoor maintenance, is increasingly grown on window sills
The difficulty of growing bougainvillea at home is that it requires a lot of light all year, high temperatures during growth and flowering and high humidity. And wintering should be cool and with almost dry soil.
In Brazil, growing bougainvillea survivor. This is a 15-meter tree, and its age, according to estimates by botanists, is over 200 years.
Bougainvillea is ideal for building a stab tree
But you can adapt to the habits of the Tropican obstinate. And then the bougainvillea will delight and surprise with wonderful flowering and unusual forms. From this plant, you can grow a bush with a cascade of colored brushes, form a stem tree or a vine on a pyramidal, round or some other support. Looks great bonsai of flowering bougainvillea.
Bougainvillea manages to form very decorative flowering miniature trees.
Species, hybrids and varieties
Bougainvillea - a representative of the Nocevvet family. There are only 15 species in its genus. Of these, only three: naked, wonderful and Peruvian, as well as numerous varieties and hybrids derived from them - suitable for cultivation at home. Breeders have worked not only on the color of bracts, but also made variegated leaves, smoothed and painted thorns and improved the character of the obstinate beauty.
- Bougainvillea is wonderful, or beautiful, originally from the tropics of Brazil. This fast-growing (up to 9 meters) liana with thorny shoots was chosen by stony slopes. In our country now it can be seen in the Caucasus and the Crimea. She has slightly pubescent stems and velvety oval leaves. Flowers are yellow-greenish, large lilac or red-pink bracts. In regions with a tropical climate from the bougainvillea wonderful grow hedges, it serves to decorate gazebos. In the apartment it is often grown as ampelnaya.
- Bougainvillea naked, or smooth, has a smaller, compared with the remarkable, thorns, and the lack of edge on the shoots and leaves. She is also a native of Brazil and prefers mountainous terrain. Branched stalks of this vine do not grow more than 5 m. At home, it is often grown in the form of a bush and it is from it that bonsai are formed. The plant blooms long and magnificently. Bracts of bougainvillea naked are snow-white, lemon-yellow, apricot-pink, pale lilac, bright orange or scarlet. For greater decorativeness in the same container rooted cuttings of plants of different colors, they are woven together and get unusual multi-colored compositions.
- Peruvian bougainvillea is distinguished by green bark. Its stems cover small thorns and smooth foliage. The plant does not branch well, for creating a bushy bush will need pruning. But Peruvian bougainvillea, if she drought, blooms several times a year. Around the yellowish flowers are formed rounded bracts, as if crumpled, and the color from bright pink to purple.
- Bougainvillea Butt is a natural hybrid of naked and Peruvian. He bears the name of his discoverer - Mrs. Butt, she found an unusual plant in her garden in the city of Cartagena (Spain). The hybrid has larger leaves and bracts, blood scarlet and dark pink.
On the basis of two types of bougainvilleas, beautiful and bare, many varieties are bred. These hybrids are distinguished by a variety of color of the bracts and their shape (there is terry), the variegation of leaves and the size of the plant. The most famous hybrid varieties of bougainvillea:
- Sanderiana is one of the most unpretentious varieties, it blooms violently, sometimes several times a year, with bright purple bracts,
- Vera Deep Purple is a bright crimson bracts and a long lush bloom,
- Crimson Lake is distinguished by bracts of all shades of red: from delicate scarlet to maroon,
- Golden Tango has bright yellow large bracts that surround very small flowers,
- Double red looks original thanks to red multi-layer (terry) bracts,
- Double Pink - another terry variety, lush bracts painted in various shades of pink,
- Strawberry Lace is decorated with terry bracts with a contrasting crimson-white color,
- Bois De Roses - a variety that changes color, first bright orange bracts, gradually becoming pink,
- Double Lilarose with luxurious bracts of all shades of pink: from purple-lilac to salmon,
- The Surprise variety is the result of a kidney mutation; on one plant there are branches with differently colored bracts: pure pink and white-pink.
A separate group is variegated (variegated) bougainvilleas. These plants, thanks to bright foliage, do not lose their decorative effect even between the flowering periods. But they grow slower and more capricious. Some variegated varieties:
- Orange Ice - white-yellow-green motley leaves and bright orange bracts look very original,
- Mini thai is a miniature shrub with rich green leaves, bordered with a white or golden stripe, bracts pale pink or red.
Bougainvillea culture overview
Curly creeper from this. Nightlife, widespread in South America, has also interested floriculture lovers in Russia. In the natural environment can be represented by different life forms: liana, shrub or medium-sized tree. Most often it is a shrub with clinging shoots. Due to the thorns on the stem of bougainvillea clings to the support.
Shoots grow very quickly, able to stretch up to 5m. Oval leaf blade, pointed ends of leaves. During the flowering period (from May to November), they are hidden under the screen of bright stipules. Grow the same bougainvillea as a large container plant for the winter garden, greenhouse or indoor conditions. In culture, the two most famous species are Bougainvillea glabra (nude) and Bougainvillea spectabilis (remarkable).
The flowers are barely noticeable and inconspicuous, the bracts (bractories), which have very different colors, give the decorativeness to the plant. There are two-color varieties, as well as varieties that can change color during flowering. Decorative leaves and attached motley leaves. Breeders dream to bring a bougainvillea without thorns and with stipules blue, but for now this is only a dream. Although a few modern varieties in culture amaze the imagination.
Planting bougainvilleas: features and nuances
To plant an unusual culture should be in pots of small size (1.5-5l), but deep. In small tanks, it blooms better, and in large forms a rich green mass. In large containers it grows well in greenhouses, where there is a lot of light. During the growth of the roots of the plant will occupy the entire volume of the pot. ".
The landing process looks like this:
- A soil mixture is prepared from equal parts of leafy ground, turf ground and coarse sand. Add for loose clay or vermiculite.
- The earth mixture should contain all the necessary batteries, have a neutral or slightly acid reaction.
- It is unacceptable to use moisture-absorbing soil with stagnant water. Drainage is required. Moreover, the larger the pot, the thinner the drainage layer.
- Transplantation is carried out as needed: in old vines, it is desirable to change the land after 3-5 years, young ones should be replanted every two years. Transplanted in the spring, during the period of active growth.
Tip # 1. When transplanting, never touch the earthen room or expose the root system. Carefully transfer the roots to the larger pot in the ground, and fill the space with fresh earth.
Features of growing bougainvillea
When growing bougainvillea do not forget about its thermophilic. In warm countries, the flower pleases with continuous flowering and does not have a rest period, but it is not able to withstand temperatures below +5 ° C. In the subtropical regions of the Caucasus, the plant can sometimes be kept in open ground throughout the year, but even in these conditions preventive shelter is required.
The flower adapts well to conditions of detention that are different from the natural. Indoors, indoor bougainvillea has a distinct rest period and is not capable of continuous flowering, but with good care it can please the owner with bright colors several times a year. In summer, bougainvillea will feel great in the garden, on the balcony or terrace.
The plant can be called relatively unpretentious. Special conditions for the maintenance of bougainvillea does not require, but to know the rules of flower care is necessary to achieve maximum decoration. Even a novice grower should not have difficulty in caring for a plant.
In nature, bougainvillea often grows in a limited space between the stones, so a small pot should be chosen for planting and subsequent transplants. Spacious vase stimulates intensive growth of shoots and leaf mass to the detriment of flowering, and thin roots are not always able to quickly master a new volume of soil, which leads to souring.
A new pot should exceed the diameter of the old one only by a few centimeters. The height of the pot should be greater than the width, and a thick layer of expanded clay should be placed at the bottom.
Location and lighting
In nature, bougainvillea grows on rocky slopes and gets a lot of tropical sun, so at home you need to choose a place with maximum lighting, at least 5 hours of directional light per day. Even on sunny days, the plant does not need shading. Brightness of bracts and color saturation depend on the intensity of illumination. Bright lighting is necessary in winter, despite the period of rest.
It is difficult to create at home humidity characteristic of the tropics and subtropics, but this should be sought. Bougainvillea loves high humidity and regular spraying, especially in between blooms. During flowering spraying can be stopped or carried out very carefully, so that water does not fall on the bracts. The plant can be placed on a wet pebble tray to increase moisture.
Bougainvillea is thermophilic and does not tolerate temperatures below 10 ° C. The optimum temperature for summer maintenance is 20-25 ° C, winter - 12-16 ° C. Lowering the temperature is important for bookmarking flower buds and heavy flowering. If the bougainvillea is contained in warmer conditions in winter, it needs to provide additional lighting.
The plant needs abundant watering, especially during the period of active growth. However, a balance must be maintained between dryness and waterlogging. Earthen ball should be kept wet, but not wet. Bougainvillea in the fall suspends growth and prepares for a period of rest, so watering must be reduced, and then almost completely stopped. In the autumn-winter period, it is especially important not to overwet the substrate and just not to allow too much drying.
Bougainvillea from spring to autumn needs regular fertilizing with liquid fertilizer. It is recommended to use fertilizer for flowering and budding as a top dressing, with a reduced nitrogen content and a high content of potassium, phosphorus and iron. Excess nitrogen retains and reduces flowering.
Pruning and shaping bougainvillea
Pruning - One of the most important moments of plant care. Pruning is necessary not only to form a beautiful plant, but also to stimulate flowering. This procedure is carried out several times a year. In the spring pruning is carried out to remove dried out during the winter and weak shoots. In the summer pruned inflorescences lost decorative. Autumn pruning is done to give shape. Shoots are shortened to a third of the length or more, the excess are cut.
Forming allows you to give the plant a certain appearance. It can be formed by a single-trunk tree, in the style of bonsai, in the form of a multi-trunk bush, or on a support, giving any fancy shapes depending on its configuration.
Extremely decorative look several plants of different colors, planted in one pot, the shoots are intertwined as they grow. Multi-colored plants can be created with the help of grafting on shtamb.
When choosing a pot, soil and time for transplanting it is necessary to be guided by the same criteria as when planting. A new pot should be only a few centimeters larger than the previous one. Choose too big a pot is not worth it, because This negatively affects flowering and plant health. Thin roots are not able to quickly master the earthy bed and the earth can turn sour.
It is advisable not to damage the roots and earthen clod, but simply to cross the plant into a larger pot, and fill the free space with soil. Handling is less traumatic for roots than transplanting, so the plant tolerates this procedure more easily.
The frequency of transplants depends on the age and growth rate of the plant. Young bougainvilleas recommend replanting annually or 1 time in 2 years, adults - 1 time in 3-5 years, or as needed.
So flowering happens
Due to the bright and long flowering plant deserved popularity with gardeners. Bookmark flower buds occurs in winter, and with the onset of spring flowers bloom on the plant, the main charm of which lies in the bright bracts.
The color of the bracts of a plant may vary depending on the variety and type. They can be white, yellow, peach, purple, violet, purple, pink. The terry bouggenvillea is especially beautiful, in which the bracts are arranged in several rows.
The flowers are short-lived, but the bracts decorate the plant for a long time. When bracts lose their decorativeness, the shoot is cut, leaving 7-8 buds of a young shoot. This pruning stimulates re-flowering on young shoots.
Little about the plant
Bougainvillea is a native of South America. The Bougainvilleas genus includes only 14 species (according to other data - 18). Among them are trees, shrubs and vines. In the open ground, it grows in our area, but only in the south. On the South Coast of Bougainvillea can be found everywhere. The plant is evergreen and, depending on the species, can have both pubescent leaves and smooth ones. It may sound strange - bougainvillea blooms with small and inconspicuous flowers. And there is nothing strange. То, что воспринимается, как роскошные крупные цветы, на самом деле прицветники. В природе такое цветение может продолжаться на протяжении всего года. Но в домашних условиях для бугенвиллии требуется время на период покоя. При оранжерейном содержании, он может быть не особо продолжительным, и растение будет способно порадовать вас этим своеобразным цветением не один раз в год.
Освещение и местоположение
Bougainvillea does not like frequent movements. It is not recommended and rotated relative to the light. Therefore, choosing a place for her, keep in mind that you choose it for a long time. The only acceptable movement can be considered its movement to fresh air with the onset of summer heat. During this period, this is the best place for bougainvillea.
Wherever you have a plant, on the street or in a room, it needs a maximum of light. As practice shows, even direct sunlight is not terrible for her. More damage can just cause a lack of sun. In the rest period, bougainvillea also prefers a bright light.
During the active period, bougainvillea prefers warm content. The optimum temperature is + 20-25 degrees. But with the onset of the rest period, the temperature should be lowered. This is necessary so that the plant can lay the largest number of flower buds. The most favorable will be the temperature lying within + 12-16 degrees.
Watering and humidity
During the growing season, which in most cases occurs in the summer, bougainvillea requires regular watering. The potted land should be constantly wet. Overdrying is not allowed. But too much moisture content in the soil is unacceptable. If you are a beginner florist, and you cannot yet determine the time of the next watering, then it is better to allow the top layer of soil to dry slightly and then water it. During the rest period, watering is reduced to a minimum. Reduce watering bougainvillea should be gradual, starting in the fall, when the plant begins to move to a state of rest.
High humidity is desirable to maintain throughout the year. Usually it is supported by spraying. But in the period of flowering bougainvillea with spraying must be very careful. Moisture on flowers and bracts is highly undesirable. It is better to solve this problem in another way. The most common is to set the plant pot on a layer of wet pebbles, sand, expanded clay, etc. During the rest period, the humidification of the air for bougainvillea does not stop. At this time, it can be sprayed with warm water.
Fertilizers can be made both mineral and organic. The main condition is an increased content of phosphorus, potassium and iron. Nitrogen fertilizers are unacceptable. Excess nitrogen will stimulate the growth of green mass of bougainvillea to the detriment of flowering, and therefore decorative. These requirements are met by most fertilizers for flowering plants.
From that as soon as you cut the plant in time and correctly, its future flowering will depend in many respects. The main pruning comes in spring and autumn. Spring is mainly hygienic pruning. Removed dried, damaged, underdeveloped shoots. The main pruning is in autumn. Try to keep the shoots that have grown this year. They will give the bulk of the flowers for the next year. They should also be shortened, but so as to leave at least 5 centimeters of escape (escape with 7–8 buds). At the same time is held and forming Bougainvillea. Depending on the type of plant it can be given any shape. It is usually given once at a young age, and then maintained. Cosmetic pruning is carried out in the summer. Damaged shoots, withered flowers and bracts are removed.
Since this plant is difficult to transfer transplants, they are carried out only by the method of transshipment into a larger pot. In addition, each subsequent pot for transplanting bougainvillea should be only a couple of centimeters more than the previous one. Young plants will have to be transplanted more often, every year after the end of the rest period. With the growth of bougainvillea, it can be transplanted less often, guided by the need for transplantation. When choosing a pot, in addition to size, it is necessary to be guided by the fact that it must be high, with good drainage holes, and for adult plants it is also quite stable.
Land for planting - bougainvillea transplants is easy to make yourself. Its components are simple and easily accessible.
- Sod land (meadow) - two parts,
- Leaf ground (forest, garden) - two parts,
- Humus (greenhouse earth) - one part,
- Sand (coarse river or agroperlite) is one part.
How to form a plant
This is one of the most important bougainvillea care activities. Much depends on pruning:
- what the vine will look like
- its development in the future,
- how abundant the flowering of lateral shoots will be,
- creating a variety of compositions
- the formation of various life forms: vines, trees, bush.
Stimulating pruning is carried out in spring and autumn. In autumn, shoots are shortened by half, which allows for the growth of lateral branches. In the spring they remove weak, twisted, too long twigs. In the summer, they carry out cosmetic pruning: faded shoots are pruned, and new ones are formed in their place, which begin to bloom. In the old wood (shoots 3-4 years) there are almost no sleeping buds, so pruning them is undesirable. ".
Care: plant requirements for environmental conditions
The most favorable place for the growth and flowering of a Tropican woman from Brazil is the greenhouse. Here you can create optimal conditions: a lot of light, t = + 22-25С, humidity of the substrate and air. During the season, the growth of shoots can reach several meters. Placed along the south wall in large containers. So it will bloom profusely and continuously. Liana should be in direct sunlight up to 5 hours a day. Only in such conditions, it is able to bloom and develop well.
Bougainvillea does not like drafts, so when airing the air should not fall on the plant. In summer, the best temperature conditions are + 22-25С, in winter - + 8-15С. In the summer, there is growth and flowering, so we make sure that there are no temperature drops. In addition, the culture should not be moved from one place to another. New conditions may not be suitable for her, and then the “naughty beauty” will throw off both the leaves and the flowers.
We water regularly, not allowing the earthen clod to dry. But make sure that there is no water in the pan. Excess drain. Stagnant water will lead to rotting of the roots. In winter, water every 10-12 days, because the plant is at rest. Spray regularly, but moisture should not fall on Bract.
We alternate organic and complex mineral feedings, taking them in turn every 10 days. Nitrogen leads to the growth of green mass, so from May to August fertilizing should contain phosphorus and potassium. ". In winter, bougainvillea is not sprayed and not fed. You can grow an exotic vine on a glazed and insulated loggia, if in winter the temperature does not fall below + 10C. Can be grown in the summer in the garden, on the balcony or terrace.