The blooming of tulips marks the triumph of spring. If the site is decorated year after year with tulips, planting and care in the open field is the key moment of such success. Perennial bulbous plants originally from Asia have long been a subject of admiration both in their homeland and in the Old World, where they fell in the middle of the XVI century.
Thanks to the universal love for these flowers, after a hundred years, Holland began to be called the country of tulips, and today tens of thousands of varieties of these spectacular, but quite affordable plants are distributed throughout the world.
Terms of planting tulips in the ground
Tulips cultivated varieties bloom in spring or early summer. Therefore, the optimal landing time is autumn. In 3-4 weeks the bulbs acclimatize and form the root system, but do not form the aboveground part. This allows the tulips to spend the winter well, and with the advent of heat, give strong foliage and uncover large corollas.
Determining the period of planting tulips, it is important not to make a mistake! If the bulbs fall into the ground too soon, they can produce foliage. And the coming winter will take the plants by surprise. The aboveground part will be frozen out, the underground part will weaken and will not be able to guarantee spring flowering. Late planting threatens with the fact that the tulips do not have time to take root, severe frosts will kill them or spoil them.
How to choose the best time? When to plant tulips in the ground in different regions?
Experienced growers are advised to pay attention not to the calendar, but to the weather outside the window. The best start for plants will be planting in the soil, cooled to a temperature of 10–12 ° C.
In the middle lane, such conditions develop by mid-September. To the south, tulips are planted later, to the north, the dates shift by the end of August.
If for some reason the fall of tulips did not fall on the flower beds, they can be planted in the spring. Unfortunately, in this case the plants have less time to prepare for flowering and accumulation of nutrients for the next year. To get the desired result and simplify the care of tulips in the open field, before planting the bulbs, it is better to germinate in peat pots filled with loose nutrient substrate. Before planting the bulbs, the day is cooled in the vegetable compartment of the refrigerator.
Tulips are transferred to flower beds when it gets warmer, and the ground warms up to +15 ° C. This method can be used in all regions, including areas in which tulips in the open field do not survive the winter.
Planting tulips for cultivation in the open field
For bright bloom garden tulips require:
- sun or transparent penumbra,
- nutritious, necessarily loose soil with a neutral or slightly alkaline reaction,
- wind protection
- moderate watering.
A plot suitable for growing tulips is dug up on a full bayonet, loosened by breaking clods, weeds are selected and nitrogen and potash fertilizers are applied, for example, humus and wood ash. Dense, heavy soil is mixed with sand, peat.
Under tulips, as well as under other bulbous cultures, it is not necessary to introduce fresh organic matter, which is often a source of bacterial decay and fungal diseases.
The depth of furrows for growing tulips in the open field depends on the size of the bulbs. Therefore, they are pre-sorted, simultaneously separating sick and damaged specimens. A healthy for half an hour immersed in a thick pink solution of potassium permanganate and carefully dried.
For large adult bulbs, they make furrows with a depth of 20 to 30 cm, pouring a 10-centimeter drainage pad from coarse sand to the bottom. Children are planted, slightly pressing, in the wells with the same drainage, but twice as small, that is, to a depth of 7–10 cm. When the soil is leveled, the area is mulched.
Care for tulips after planting in open ground
Only to the constant and competent care tulips respond mass disclosure of bright colors. Bulbous crops, as a rule, are unpretentious, but still require attention from the appearance of the first leaves, until late autumn. Tulip care after planting includes:
- watering, especially abundant during the set of buds, mass flowering and for 2 weeks after its completion,
- removal of weed vegetation around landings,
- careful not to damage the root system and the bulbs, loosening,
- triple dressing of flowers.
After watering, the soil under the plants should be wet at a depth of 30–40 cm, that is, per square meter, depending on the type of soil, at least 10–40 liters of water should be consumed.
Fertilizers in liquid or granular form - this is part of tulip care after planting. They make three times:
- In the phase of appearance of the first shoots, using a mixture of 2 parts of nitrogen, 2 parts of phosphorus salts, 1 part of potassium compounds,
- By the time of the appearance of green buds, feeding the plants with nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in the ratio of 1: 2: 2,
- After flowering, using potash-phosphate compounds, completely eliminating nitrogen.
Speaking about the care of tulips, you can not forget about a simple but useful procedure. When the flowers fade, they are cut out together with flower stalks. This will allow the bulbs not to expend precious forces for the growth of the bulbs.
If seed boxes are formed and ripen on the stems, it is not necessary to wait for large bulbs, and even children will not be able to gain significant mass.
Before you grow tulips, you need to know that in one place the culture can be no more than 4 years. Then the risk of accumulation of dangerous bacteria, fungi and soil pests increases, the bulbs naturally age and require transplantation. The bulbs remaining in the soil gradually go deeper, so the next year the shoots will have more difficulty getting through to the surface. As a result, flowers become smaller, flower stalks become weaker and shorter.
Tulips are dug up when the leaves wither and fall off completely. The released area is useful to shed phytosporin solution, potassium permanganate or any available fungicide. Plants that remain in the soil for the winter, in order to avoid freezing, thickly mulch with peat, sawdust or cover with spruce branches.
Tulips belong to the group of plants - ephemeroids, so the development cycle is different from all other plants - growth, flowering occurs in tulips in spring, and in summer, when almost all other garden flowers delight in greenery and bright buds, they rest.
In summer, the tulip enters a state of complete rest, and in the first half of September, the bulbs begin to appear processes on the roots and the formation of shoots and leaves begins.
At the very beginning of spring, the tulip begins active growth, then flowering, and by the beginning of the summer season the vegetation period is over, and, unfortunately, we no longer see the flower in the flowerbed.
How to prepare for landing
Before proceeding directly to the process itself, you should consider all the details. We will understand this issue in more detail.
- Carefully select a landing site where there will be the right lighting and fertile prepared soil.
- Be sure to inspect all the bulbs that plan to plant - patients who are too small and damaged should be thrown out.
- Consider the landing time.
- If you plant these flowers for the first time, then familiarize yourself with the material and take into account when planting: the depth of planting holes, the distance between the bulbs.
- Get ready to properly care for the plants immediately after the snow melts in early spring and until the end of the flowering of tulips.
Timing and location
When planning the planting of tulips in the open ground, they usually focus on the terrain features and weather conditions.
- In regions with a warm and mild climate, the bulbs are planted in late September and all of October. In the north, landing time is postponed to September or early October.
- Select the period when the soil cools to +14 - 15 degrees Celsius. Then you can plant smaller bulbs. They must have time to take root and adapt.
- Larger bulbs are ready for planting at +9 - 10 degrees Celsius.
- These plants can exist well in partial shade and in the sun. The main requirement is that there should not be stagnation of water and moisture in the soil. In dark places, flowering may come a few weeks later. If you grow flowers for bouquets, the best place will be spacious, open and well-lit areas.
Which bulbs to choose
Even if on the eve you have sifted through all the planting material, then immediately before planting you should still carefully review each bulb.
Tall beautiful specimens of tulips are obtained from bulbs heavy, regular shape, healthy. They should shine a little and the integumentary scales should fit tightly on each bulb. Small bulbs or kids usually give low plants, and sometimes do not bloom at all.
A few hours before planting, the bulbs should be dipped in a weak solution of potassium permanganate, and then planted immediately without drying in open soil. If you do not have time to carry out this procedure, then just fill up a little manganese in each landing hole.
We plant tulips in open ground
Before planting, one should dig up the area well, free from weeds, debris, roots and weeds. It is not recommended to plant tulips after solanaceae, onions or eggplants, as these plants have the same pests that can spread infections and diseases to flowers and vegetables.
- When digging up the soil, add organic fertilizer, peat or compost in equal parts. It is necessary that the soil is homogeneous, so all components are thoroughly mixed.
- Compost is not brought into the planting pit itself, since this can cause a root burn and subsequent plant disease.
- Wait until the compost is completely decomposed and half-ripe plants remain in it - they can cause fungal infections.
- In the acidic soil is recommended to add a small amount of lime - fluff. Instead, to add alkaline elements to the soil, you can use wood ash, which tulips are very fond of. It must be scattered evenly throughout the site before digging.
- Depending on what type of soil in your flower bed, such a depth should be chosen for planting bulbs. If in the ground a large percentage of sand and a small bulb is small, then it is better to land it to a depth of no more than 5 - 10 cm. Large ones are deepened by 15 - 18 cm.
- Many beginning flower growers do not dare to bury the onion deep and plant it close to the surface. You should know that such tulips will quickly bloom and live no more than a few years.
Some growers calculate the planting depth as follows: dig a hole equal to the size of 3 bulbs. The interval between the flowers, choose for yourself, based on the structure of your flower bed and pans. It is recommended to keep at least 10 cm between the bulbs.
At the end of October, when the earth freezes a little, you need to mulch the place where tulips are planted. Peat or fallen leaves will do. Especially in time, this procedure will be if organic fertilizer was not applied to the soil.
Soil mulching contributes to leveling the temperature of the soil and helps the plants to winter. In early spring, urea is poured onto a layer of mulch (a proportion of 1 tablespoon per 1 m2). The components are then mixed so that the urea penetrates as deep as possible into the mulch layer.
Top dressing and fertilizer
- When the first green leaves start cutting through, you need to feed the plant with urea, if you have not done this before.
- Also, before flowering, the plant is fed with foliar flower dressing, Kemira flower is suitable. Tulips in bloom will need phosphorus and potassium, but still be sure to compensate for the deficiency of magnesium, zinc, calcium, iron, sulfur, cobalt, boron. Without these elements, the flower petals will be much paler, and the flower stalks will fall.
- During the budding process, tulips can be fed with complex mineral fertilizer. This will form strong and healthy buds.
- Chlorine-containing dressing is strictly forbidden to use, since the plant may die.
- It is recommended to fertilize the tulips during soil moistening, after precipitation or in wet ground.
- Deficit in the soil of boron, molybdenum, zinc can cause chlorosis in plants - leaf plates fade and weaken, with a lack of sulfur - they become light green in color, an insufficient amount of iron will result in yellowing of the leaves.
It is better to buy ready-made fertilizers designed specifically for flowers. They accurately calculate the number of elements necessary for the full growth and development, and there is also an instruction on how to properly make a solution and when to feed.
In tulips, the root system is short and has few processes, so watering is required. If there is very little rain and the soil is dry, then you need to water the plants, especially at the time of budding and flowering. If not enough moisture, the flowers will be small.
During the flowering phase, tulips should be watered several times, then beautiful flowers will delight you much longer. All flowers periodically need to inspect and free the flowerbed from the sick, suspicious.
You should wait until the plant has completely faded and the stems turn yellow, but you can not pull too with digging. The bulbs must be healthy and fully covered with scales.
After digging not 2 - 3 hours, planting material is left in the air, and then removed in plastic containers with holes in a dark and cool place.
If the spots are noticeable on the bulbs, then you need to soak them in a solution of manganese for a short time.
Preparing the bulbs and choosing a place to plant them
Although the cultivation of tulips in the open field and is considered a simple matter, accessible to any novice gardener, in fact, you need to take into account many important little things to plants turned out smooth, beautiful, with large flowers. Sometimes even minor mistakes can lead to undesirable consequences such as slowed growth of tulips, rotting of the stems or their curvature, the formation of small buds, wilting and fast wilting of flowers, etc.
Pledge of beautiful, healthy tulips - careful selection of planting material
Excellent results can be achieved if:
- selected a suitable place for planting tulips, with good ground and light,
- bulbs before planting were carefully sorted, and unhealthy, damaged, small specimens were rejected,
- the planting of the bulbs took place at the most successful time for this,
- when planting, planting depth and distance between the bulbs were observed,
- Immediately after the snow melted and until the end of flowering, tulips were provided with proper care.
Let us consider in more detail what the technology of growing tulips is and what moments you should definitely pay attention to.
The pledge of beautiful, healthy tulips is a careful selection of planting material. You can buy already prepared and properly processed bulbs or prepare them yourself by digging up tulips at the end of the growing season. When self-planting planting material bulbs sorted and sent for storage in a dark place at a temperature of +20 degrees until the autumn.
When a favorable time comes for planting tulips, the bulbs are sorted out again, carefully inspecting for injuries, signs of disease and damage to rot. After that, the selected bulbs are cleaned of the upper husk, disinfected with a solution of potassium permanganate and immediately planted into the ground.
When the time comes for planting tulips, the bulbs are sorted out again.
Place for planting tulips should be determined from the summer. Moreover, it is necessary not only to take into account the illumination, the reaction of the soil and the groundwater, but also think carefully about where the tulips will look best. In order for the multi-colored buds to become a real decoration of the garden and to cause constant admiration of your guests and passers-by, it is worth exploring the options for placing tulips in the garden design.
Tulips planting highlights
Most gardeners prefer planting tulips in the autumn, so that during the winter they naturally go through a cooling period, during which sprouts of new flowers are born inside the bulbs. It is also possible to plant the bulbs in the spring, but be prepared for later tulip flowering periods.
Approximately in the second half of September, when the temperature of the earth has already dropped to + 10 degrees, and the frosts have not yet begun, we should start planting tulips. To do this, you can make grooves in the garden of suitable depth, or, for each bulb, dig a separate hole with a scoop. On large areas, planting material is laid out on a flat surface and then evenly covered with earth.
Расстояние между тюльпанами может быть произвольным, в зависимости от ваших дизайнерских задумок, но все же нежелательно размещать луковицы ближе, чем в 10 см друг от друга, иначе им потом будет очень тесно расти, да и выкапывание луковиц летом окажется затруднительным.
Луковицы заглубляйте в землю так, чтобы глубина посадки равнялась тройной высоте луковицы
Высаженные луковицы присыпают плодородной почвой и мульчируют посадки торфом или перегноем для защиты растений от морозов. Дополнительное укрытие посадок на зиму обычно не требуется. You can learn more about the rest of the tulip planting details in an article on our website.
The technology of growing tulips - what is important to consider?
In the spring, as the snow melts, they will scoop mulch from the flowerbed and gently loosen the earth. Further, it will be useful to apply nitrogenous fertilizer for better growth and development of the green part of the plants. In the future, during the entire growing season, do not forget to regularly loosen the soil and water the beds regularly. But remember that you can not overflow the tulips - any stagnant moisture threatens to rot the roots.
When in the spring your flowers show the first sprouts, look - have all the bulbs sprouted, and do all the sprouts look healthy? If there are signs of diseases on some of the stalks, they should be immediately dug out and destroyed. Unsprouted bulbs can also be dug up without pity.
You can not be afraid of spring morning frosts, because tulips even with the appearance of buds calmly endure a short-term decrease in temperature to -4 degrees. And as soon as the weather comes good, the plants continue their development.
When in the spring your flowers show the first sprouts, look - whether all the bulbs sprouted, and whether all the sprouts look healthy
Tulips love fertilizing very much:
- A lot of benefits will come from the introduction of complex fertilizer during the unfolding of the second and third leaves of tulip sprouts,
- Before flowering, be sure to feed the tulips with phosphorus and potassium, so that the buds form beautiful and large,
- complex mineral fertilizer will be useful and during the blooming of flowers,
- fertilizers that contain chlorine cannot be used for tulips,
- it is more convenient and safer to feed in the form of aqueous solutions during watering, before the rain or immediately after it on wet ground.
Ready-made complex fertilizers are good because they contain an optimal ratio of the most important trace minerals for tulips: boron, manganese, molybdenum, cobalt, zinc, sulfur, copper, iron, magnesium (there is no harmful chlorine for tulips). The lack of any of these trace elements can adversely affect the development and health of tulips.
So, with a shortage of boron, molybdenum or zinc, tulips may develop chlorosis, the stems will be weak, if there is not enough sulfur in the soil, the leaves of tulips become light green or turn white at all, and turn yellow due to lack of iron. A strong lack of magnesium leads to the fact that the edges and tips of the leaves of the tulip begin to bend and die, the bulbs of such plants will already be unsuitable for forcing.Video about growing, care and reproduction of tulips
When the flowering of tulips is over, the care of the plants should continue for some time, if you expect to collect good, large bulbs for growing the next generation of beautiful flowers. In this case, it is recommended to break open blossoming buds together with pedicels - all the forces of the plant will be spent on the formation of the bulbs, and not on the development of the boll. Just do not tear off the leaves, otherwise the harvest of the bulbs will decrease several times.
The stalks of tulips are left in the flowerbed until they are completely yellow, until the bulbs mature. And if you don’t like what the garden looks like with withered tulip stubs, think in advance which plants will be able to close the ugly picture. Another option is to grow tulips in open ground in special baskets or containers that can be dug out from the bed immediately after flowering and transferred to a more inconspicuous place for growing the bulbs.
Features of growing tulips in the open field
Growing tulips in the open field is quite simple and feasible even for a beginner florist. In order for plants to retain their varietal qualities from year to year, they must be dug out annually, dried and re-planted. Without this, the flowers are quickly crushed, they lose their varietal differences, or even die.
Selection of bulbs for planting
The result of the grower's efforts depends on how correctly the bulbs are selected. It is better to acquire planting material in the middle of summer or at the end, since during this period the plants are at rest and do not survive the stress of planting. In the fall, at the very peak of planting an onion flower, it is more difficult to acquire high-quality planting material. If you buy bulbs in the spring, they will be old and weary storage in winter. In the spring is sold that which was not sold in the autumn.
When buying, you should choose those bulbs that have a thin husk of a nice golden color. The presence of cracks on the skin is a normal phenomenon.
The bulb itself must be intact. If it is damaged, then the purchase should be abandoned, as a quality plant in this case will not succeed.
Choose the size of the bulbs to choose the average, and when taking in the hand should feel its weight. When viewed from the bottom of a good planting material will be visible small root tubercles. If the bottom is soft, or the roots have already grown, you shouldn’t buy an onion.
Time and timing of the landing of tulips
Homeland plants - Central Asia. Under natural conditions, tulips bloom intensively in early spring, and then dry and go to rest. In gardens, their life cycle goes along the same principle. Therefore, it is important to immediately determine the correct time for planting, as an error in it will lead to the death of the flower.
Autumn is the best time for planting tulips. Gardeners with experience planted bulbs only in September, and never tolerate planting time for the summer or spring. Day for work is desirable to choose dry. Details on how to plant tulips in the fall are described in the next section.
If the bulbs are planted too early, before winter they will not only form the roots, but also release the above-ground part. As a result, the tulips will freeze and may die. If the plant survives after this, then it will definitely not bloom.
Too late planting leads to the fact that the bulbs do not have time to take root. For this reason, the plant winters incorrectly and in the spring, after spending the last forces on rooting, no longer blooms. Also, the tulips which have not rooted to frost can easily rot or freeze.
In the event that it is necessary for some reason to plant the plants at the end of October or even in November, when they do not have time to take root, the garden bed should be covered with spruce leaves, or mulched with a thick layer of sawdust. Suitable for shelter and fallen leaves.
Spring for planting tulips quite the wrong time. The bulbs can take root and even bloom in mid-summer, but their life cycle will be seriously disrupted. Because of this, they will have to be dug out quite late, and it means that the time for autumn planting will move to deep autumn.
Best of all, if the tulips are bought in the spring, plant them in a container very early - before the snow melts. After the onset of persistent heat, the plants are planted without removing them from the container, as this will facilitate their further digging.
Soil requirements, site selection
Plot for tulips is selected in the fall after the foliage falls from the trees. It must be very well lit. Since tulips bloom before the trees open the leaves, it is not scary if the flower bed is in the shade in the summer. For plants, light is important only until the end of flowering. It is better to mix a flower bed on a flat place where melt water does not accumulate.
Soil tulips need a neutral or slightly acid, loose. Fertile layer is needed thick. High permeability and breathability are also of great importance to the plant. Tulips should not be planted in areas where bulbous crops or solanaceous were growing. This is due to the accumulation in the soil of pathogens that can go to the flowers.
If the soil is heavy, then frequent loosening is required. Without this, it is impossible to grow fully blossoming tulips.
Planting in open ground
You can plant only healthy bulbs that do not have pockets of rotting and are not affected by diseases. Before you land, they should be soaked for 30 minutes in a slightly pink manganese solution. After that, the bulbs are dried for an hour and planted.
It is more convenient to plant the bulbs in the furrows rather than the holes, as this allows you to plant the maximum number of tulips. The distance between the furrows should be at least 25 cm, so that it is convenient to care for flowers, and the bulbs can develop, having enough soil and nutrients. The distance in rows between plants should be 10 cm.
How deep to plant?
If the soil is light, the embedding of the bulbs is deeper than when the soil is heavy. In the first case, the bulbs are buried 3 their heights, and in the second - 2 heights. On average, it is 15 cm and 10 cm, respectively. You need to know that rooted bulbs will go to even greater depth.
In addition to proper planting, tulips require competent care, which will allow them to gain maximum strength for a particularly beautiful flowering. Despite their unpretentiousness, varietal plants will not be able to feel well if they are left to themselves.
Watering and feeding
Plant nutrition is carried out 3 times in the spring. Without this, the bulbs will not receive enough nutrients and will go away in a rest period. In addition, the lack of dressings will lead to the fact that high-quality buds and large flowers will not be formed.
- The first feed. It is held immediately after the tulips are seen from the ground. Nitrogen fertilizers are used for it.
- The second feed. It is carried out when laying buds. Complex mineral compounds with a high content of potassium and phosphorus are used for it.
- Third dressing necessary after flowering tulips. Potassium-phosphate fertilizers are introduced.
Tulips react very positively to wood ash, which can be sprinkled with soil before watering at any time.
Watering during the flowering period for tulips is very important. Water is poured at the root.
Usually enough 2-3 watering per week. After the flowers have wilted, soil moisture is stopped, so that the bulbs go to rest.
Loosen the soil around the tulips regularly after watering. At the same time weed out. If it is not possible to break through the soil, you can mumble it.
When to dig tulip bulbs?
Dig out the bulbs after the above-ground part of the plant has turned yellow. You can not try to pull them out for the stem, because if it breaks, it will be difficult to remove the bulb. Due to the property of tulips, they will go deeper into the soil at the time of digging than when they are planted.
Dug onions dried in the shade under a canopy or indoors during the month. After that, they are folded in paper bags, clean until the autumn planting. The temperature at the storage location should be between +15 and +18 degrees. If damaged bulbs are found, they should be discarded. They will not give spring shoots, but infect the planting area.
Protection against diseases and pests
Whatever tulip variety is chosen, it can be subject to diseases and pest attacks. If the plant is affected by fungal diseases, then in order to save the flower, it is necessary to transplant it to a new place and shed a 1% solution of Bordeaux mixture.
Of the pests of the main danger for tulips are:
- bulb mite,
To get rid of mice used mousetraps and poison bait. From pests use special preparations that destroy insects and mollusks, which attacked the flower.
Growing tulips is a fascinating activity that, due to the variety of varieties, often becomes a real hobby for a grower.
Is it easy to grow a tulip?
Arguing about tulips, someone admires him unpretentious and easy farmingand someone indignantly complains of constant failures in an attempt to grow this perennial. Who is right? To find the truth, briefly consider the structure of the tulip and its life cycle, as well as refer to the origins of its origin.
If you approach the cultivation of tulips from the point of view of a person versed in the botanical features of a tulip, you can easily calculate your mistakes, eliminate them and make sure that growing a healthy tulip is very simple.
What you need to know about tulip bulbs - myths and reality
The figure below shows the structure of the tulip bulb.
- Due to the fact that the plants are renewed annually from the buds inside the bulb (number 3 and 5 in the figure), they can delight gardeners for many years. The bulb itself lives a little more than 2 years: the first year - inside the “matryoshka” - the mother (number 5), and the second year - independently.
- Sometimes beginner growers complain that the bulbs are “perepylilis” and the flowers have changed shade. As we see, young onions are not related to pollination of a flower, their appearance is a vegetative process occurring in the soil. Below we will try to consider the true causes of changes in the original color of the tulip.
- Another interesting point: in young bulbs (which do not bloom in the first year) from the bottom grows down the stolon sprout, at the end of which a daughter bulb is formed. This is connected with another mistake of flower growers, who, having discovered new bulbs deeper than they planted them, believe that the tulip is supposedly "pulled" deep into the roots.
- In some types of tulips, such stolons grow intensively not only downwards, but also to the sides (Foster tulips), and at the end of each shoot there is a young onion. And for some, the appearance of stolons is rare, so getting an extra bulb of the right sort is a problem.
- It should be borne in mind that during the disembarkation of flowering bulbs babies are formed at the level of the mother plant and no penetration occurs.
- 1 - covering scales (dry, brown),
- 2– storage scales (juicy flesh inside the bulb, source of nutrients),
- 3 - buds of daughter bulbs (the closer the kidney is to the center of the bottom, the larger the “daughter”),
- 4 - bottom,
- 5 - replacement bud bulb (the one that will replace the old plant),
- 6 - flower germ,
- 7 - leaf buds.
How does a tulip develop
Like a typical ephemeroid, a tulip exists clearly defined period of rest and vegetation. The time when a replacement bud and daughter bulb plants are laid between the accumulating scales is the rest period, which is very important for the further development of the plant.
Many believe that from the moment of digging a new bulb to spring, the plant remains unchanged, but this is far from the case. Take a look at the picture.
After planting in October, the roots begin to grow intensively on the edges of the Donets, which develop up to 0.5 m in depth, and in November a young shoot is thrown almost to the surface of the earth. Thanks to this super-ready plants, we can admire the early spring flowering of tulips and other primroses.
The development cycle of a tulip is directly related to the temperature of the surrounding air and soil, therefore, for abundant and timely flowering outside the street (when forcing indoors) it is important to observe all phases of the season in nature.
We turn to the rules of growing tulips.
Incorrect actions when caring for tulips
How do you usually plant tulips in the open ground in the garden of an ordinary gardener?
- In the garden center the bulbs you buy are bought, without taking into account the height of the adult plant and the timing of its flowering.
- The bulbs are planted in time, comfortable gardener - sometimes very early or too late.
- The landing is done without taking into account the size of the onion — both large and shallow analysis — at one depth and at close distances from each other.
- The place intended for tulips, sometimes happens insufficiently lit because of a proximity of buildings or fences.
- Often planting is done without proper soil preparation - digging to the required depth and without the introduction of basic fertilizers and dressings.
- For placement of tulips choose various inconveniences, up to the places flooded in spring, and with high standing of groundwater.
- After flowering, the green foliage of tulips is cut off due to the loss of decorativeness.
- The bulbs do not dig and do not divide for a long time.
Common situation? In no case should this be done. What is the correct algorithm for caring for tulips?
Botanical descriptions of tulips
Plants belong to the genus lily. Herbaceous bulbous perennials, ephemeroids, grow and form over a short spring time interval. Known around 140 species, native to Europe and Asia.
Shoots, inflorescences, leaves - annuals, bulbs (from the deposit to the mother) - up to two or three years. The bulbs are rounded, consist of 2-5 concentric closed storage and filmy, leathery covering scales. In the axils of the scales in the summer formed the organs of the future flower.
Flower stem with 2–4 leaves, height from 5 to 80 cm. Leaves are bare or pilous, with a wax coating, broadly oval and elongated, pointed, green or with dark-violet strokes, smooth or corrugated edges.
Flowers are single or 2-3 pieces, of various shapes: a glass, a ball, a bowl, ovoid, oval, liliaweed, peony, parrot, orchid-colored. They are a variety of colors, sometimes fragrant, simple or terry. Perianth bell-shaped, share 6 or more, monophonic or motley, often with a spot at the base. Тычинок 6, различной окраски, рыльца сочные. Плод-коробочка. Семена коричневые, плоские.
На какую глубину высаживают тюльпаны
При посадке тюльпанов в грунт, как и при высадке многих эфемероидов руководствуются правилом высоты 3-х луковиц. A threefold size is counted from the bottom and a landing hole is dug at such depth. For tulips, this value is usually 15 cm. Some sand is added to the bottom to drain the area of the bulbous Donets. Young kids are planted in accordance with this rule to a shallower depth.
When the bulbs are deeply buried, the flower grows not so large, and even the babies are small and bloom poorly.
What interval is maintained when landing
Bulbs located side by side should be at a distance of at least 2 sizes (10 cm) from each other. The larger the onion, the farther apart they are seated, otherwise plants, competing for light and food, are quickly ground.
To organize a group, very spectacular planting of tulips, they dig out one common pit, fill it with fertilizers and evenly spread the bulbs.
Now longline flower beds have become very popular when hyacinths are planted with the lower layer, and smaller bulbs of a bird, muscari or hionodox are laid out over slightly sprinkled tulips.
Location in the flower garden and neighboring plants
First you need to decide on the composition of the composition, which will include tulips. If early spring flowering is envisaged (suppose, with muscari or early daffodils), then select early-term varieties that are well combined in color scheme — contrasting or monochrome (one shade). Usually, terry yellow tulip varieties look good with bright blue muscari, and white and bright red with sunny daffodils.
Late-flowering tulips are picked up in conjunction with the groundcovers raging at this time - arabis, splayed phlox, baby flax, and forget-me-not, badani and late daffodils.
If annuals are planted at the place of the faded tulips, then in this case they use special baskets for bulbous ones. These plastic nets are convenient because the plants that have lost their appearance can be easily transferred to a secluded place for the ripening of the bulbs.
Often, tulips are planted to perennials with powerful foliage (hosts, phloxes paniculate, meadow geraniums). Growing up to the moment when the tulips dry up, they perfectly decorate the unsightly bulbous appearance.
Video "Planting tulips".
To ensure a quick and friendly start in spring, under the autumn digging fertilizers are applied with a predominance of potassium and phosphorus (“Autumn Fasco” or slow-acting granules (for example, “AVA”).
In the spring tulips should be fed with a solution of urea, and in the second half of May - with superphosphate. Top dressing is combined with watering or carried out after a rain.
During the growing season and flowering tulips require sufficient soil moisture, but without waterlogging, which can result in the defeat of plants with various diseases.
In addition, an excess of moisture leads to the fact that cracks appear on the bulbs, which of course worsens the quality of the bulb and, subsequently, the plants, moreover, such a bulb is worse stored.
Lack of moisture depletes the plant, it gives smaller and less beautiful flowers, and also forms less daughter bulbs.
Therefore, the correct mode of watering is important. Tulips are watered infrequently, up to 3 times during the growing season, this applies even to the southern regions. But at the same time each watering should be abundant, the water consumption is about 50 liters per 1 square. meter. Water should reach a depth of 30-35 cm, where the roots of the bulbs.
The myth of the "re-pollination" of tulips
The most common complaint among beginning flower growers is the following: “All my beautiful tulips pereoylilis and became ordinary.” This was discussed above when it was said that over-pollination of one variety by another does not in any way affect the bulb's cloning of its children by vegetative propagation.
However, the fact of replacing the elegant parrot, lilianvet, and fringed varieties with ordinary simple ones over time is obvious, and it happens very often. What's the matter?
And the thing is, as a rule, in the elementary laziness of summer residents, coupled with the lack of knowledge of the agricultural technology of tulip. The most important rule of her says: that the plants were always beautiful, powerful and consistent with the variety, they need to:
- time to dig
- properly stored and
- re-planted in time.
Tulip digging and storage
This means that you need to wait for the outflow of nutrients from the leaves to the scales, a replacement bulb and children will be formed. As a rule, this term falls on the end of June - the beginning of July. If you are late - the nest will fall apart, and many children will be lost, dig earlier - a new onion will not have time to ripen. How to find a middle ground? Use the old Dutch way: if the stalk of a tulip has lost its fragility and easily wraps around your finger - dig boldly!
This means to analyze the size of the bulbs and grade. As a rule, simple tulips (especially red) are very stable and unpretentious, give a lot of stolons with children and literally force out the weak and coddled, which are modern varietal specimens. Hence the myth of “pereopylion”. As soon as the florist begins to mark the best varieties with beacons and digs it out in time, immediately spring begins to be painted only with his favorite flowers.
Dug and sorted onions are placed in trellised boxes and dried for 2-3 days under a canopy. Then they are laid out in 2 rows, interbedded with newspapers, and sent to a moderately warm (25 ° C) and ventilated place (attic, shed). There they will be stored until September, periodically subjected to revision and rejection of dry and rotten children.
Planted on time
We repeat once again that when planting tulips, it is important to observe the correct dates indicated in the section “When to plant tulips”
Among the ephemeroids grown in our gardens (the so-called plants with a short growing season) tulips surely occupy a leading position. No early flowering perennial can compete with them on the beauty of the flower, the variety of forms, unpretentiousness.
Europe has been admiring this magnificent plant for just under 500 years. Trial lots of tulips, brought by Byzantine merchants to Vienna in the XXVI century, quickly won the recognition of European flower growers. Obviously, the merchants, buying placers of bulbs in their homeland - the territory of present-day Kazakhstan, did not even expect that this product would be more promising than spices and silks.
The flower-tulip fever that swept through Holland, France, Italy at that time testified to the extraordinary popularity of the new perennial. She raised the poor on the crest of wealth and threw the rich into bankruptcy. The passion for tulips has spawned hundreds of incredible new shapes and varieties, from the mysterious “black tulips” to the fantastically unusual parrot and fringed.
The Netherlands has so far remained faithful to the love of these beautiful bulbous and confidently lead in sales around the world, offering annual planting material in millions of parties.
Digging and storage of bulbs
Tulips are dug annually. The exceptions are kidney bulbs, which remain in the ground for 2 years. For what it is needed: sick specimens are rejected, the appearance is improved (the enlargement of flowers), the ability to give children is increased.
There are a number of rules when and how to dig:
- Do not miss the moment: you need to dig up the tulips when the leaf is 2/3 dry. If you get the bulb earlier, it will not have time to collect the necessary stock for the subsequent flowering. Later extraction is fraught with the fact that the parent part goes deeper into the ground, and the children will be separated from it. High probability of missing or damaging the planting material.
- Arm yourself with a bayonet spade: you must stick it deeply and with a “margin” at the edges in order not to damage the flowers.
- Once in 3 years, change the bed.
Now more about how to store tulips before planting in the fall. The resulting nests need to be divided, free from husks, roots, remnants of leaves. Then they are washed (if necessary), antifungal treatment is carried out and dried. Before laying the planting material in the boxes, it is necessary to sort it into varieties and analysis. Sick copies delete.
Successful planting of tulips in the fall in the ground depends on compliance with temperature and humidity. The bulbs are stored in boxes without a lid, placing them in 2-3 layers. Periodically, they must be inspected to remove rotting copies. The storage temperature is gradually reduced: in July it is 23-25 °, in August - 20 °, in September - 17 °. Non-observance of the temperature limits leads to the appearance of blind shoots on which a flower does not form.
If during the inspection you find rot or mold, you can try to save the tulips. If the mold spread is small, remove it with a dry cloth and dust it with ashes. If the rot has gone deep, cut off the affected part with a knife. Sprinkle with ash or smear with brilliant green.
Choosing a place and preparing a bed
The successful arrangement of the beds and planting tulips in the fall when and how to plant the choice will be less problematic. These flowers like sunny, closed from the winds of space. In the spring there should not be puddles. The soil should be well drained - loamy or sandy loamy soil with a significant proportion of humus will be the best option.
Digging the ground is at a depth of 25-30 cm, carefully removing the roots of weeds, trees and shrubs. If the soil is heavy and poor, add sand and fertilizers: compost, ashes, peat, mineral complexes. Cow manure can not be used - instead, add bird droppings. If PH is increased towards oxidation, liming is required.
Prepare the land need a month before the estimated date of planting. This is necessary so that the soil "settled." In the loose "pillow" there is a high probability of damaging the roots that have appeared. Before direct planting plentifully spill ridges - this will finally distribute the land.
Usually this care for tulips after planting in the fall ends. It is not necessary to cover the beds - this can lead to the fact that the bulb will grow in growth ahead of time, overwinter worse and later bloom. Exceptions are sudden chills. With a sharp decrease in temperature, use specialized covering material. Do not use garden garbage, mulch and leaves for this - it may attract rodents.
How to plant
Treat the tulip bulbs before planting in the fall - this will protect them from fungal infections. For this purpose, special preparations are produced that can be replaced by ordinary potassium permanganate. Inspect it again: you cannot plant healthy and diseased plants together. Affected bulbs must be disposed of.
The standard scheme for planting tulips is as follows: rows are made at a distance of 25-30 cm. Their location should fit organically into the perimeter of the flower bed. The distance between the bulbs is 8-10 cm. The depth of planting depends on the size:
- Children: 5-10 cm.
- III and II analysis: 12 cm.
- I analysis: 15 cm.
Consider that small onions give small flowers. To prevent them from being shaded by tall flowers, plant them at the edge of the flower bed on the south side. If you like the "uncultured" species, then there is no need for a combination. Make the distance between the flowers wider and enjoy the natural, natural state of the garden.
If you are fond of landscape design, then plant tulips by drawing. When compiling it, consider the flowering time, the diameter of the inflorescence, the color of the petals. Think over and draw in advance the scheme by which you will plant the bulbs. Figure can be supplemented with other primroses.
Longlines and sandwiches: alternative landing methods
A creative approach will make any business interesting. This also applies to floriculture. Recently, unusual methods of planting tulips have gained popularity. They save time, decorate the garden and attract attention. In addition, they are quite simple and everyone can master them.
Container planting or planting in baskets simplifies the process of growing tulips. The essence of this method is to use baskets, containers and other containers instead of a flower bed or bed. They can be both dug into the ground, and freely placed in any convenient place.
Advantages of this method:
- You firmly believe that they have dug out all the planting material. The onions themselves are minimally injured and therefore better stored.
- You create optimal conditions for plant growth. Relevant to poor soil - it is easier to create ideal conditions in a limited space.
- Reduces the likelihood of damage to the bulbs by rodents. Mice can not overcome the barrier from below.
Anything can be used as a container: plastic bottles, boxes, baskets, pans, and even bags. One condition - you need to make holes for the outflow of excess water. Use a hot needle or other similar object for this. The holes should not be large, otherwise the mouse will go through them.
The second way to arrange flowers unusually is a tiered planting. The essence of this method is to lay the bulbs at different depths. The very first, starting from the bottom, is occupied by large onions. The higher the level, the smaller the size. In order not to be mistaken and not plant one flower on another, use long, thin chopsticks. Stick them near the landing site, and after filling the pot completely, remove them. Another such combination method is called “lasagna” - the structure resembles this dish by its layering.
It is important when drawing up a similar composition to take into account the color, size and shape of the petals. Try to play on contrasts: smooth plant with terry, red with yellow. Beautiful will look like a group of colors, united by color. For example, motley with monotonous: the color of inclusions should correspond to the mono-color of the petals of the neighboring variety. The group in which tulips are matched to blooming time will look impressive.
Video "Methods of planting tulips"
When to plant
Planting time is affected by soil temperature. In the fall, a reserve for subsequent flowering is being made, so it is important to plant the bulbs on the garden bed in time. In order for all processes to start, it is necessary that the soil is not colder than 10 ° (the lower limit of the boundary is 8 °). You can check the data using a depth thermometer.
In different regions, the time of planting in open ground is different. So, planting tulips in the fall in the Moscow region takes place from mid-September and all of October. The hotter the region, the closer to the winter shift dates. If during the pre-inspection you noticed that the bulb is ready to actively start growing, it makes sense to leave it for distillation (that is, put it in a pot and keep it at home).
In other regions that are distinguished by more severe climatic conditions, the landing period falls at the end of September to mid-October. If autumn is hot, then planted until the beginning of November. For example, the optimal planting of tulips in the fall in Siberia falls on the 10-20 of October.
Video "Planting tulips in the fall"
Tulips are beautiful flowers, a real decoration of the spring garden. Autumn planting of tulip bulbs is the best solution for early flowering. They do not require complex care and the presence of special skills, so everyone can try to master an unknown flower for themselves.
In our time there are about 2.5 thousand industrial varieties, united by international classification in 15 classes, similar classes in 4 groups. By flowering time such groups are highlighted:
- 1. Non-shag In height reach 25-30 cm, flowers terry cupped or goblet-shaped, of various colors. Early flowering periods, resistant to rain and wind. Used for forcing, growing in pots and planting in borders. Not suitable for cutting. Grades: Bellona, Brilliant Star, Christmas Marvel.
2. Terry 15–25 cm high, terry flowers of warm tones with a double set of perianth sheets, have a small multiplication factor. They are used for distillation in pots and in open field culture. Resistant to cut. Grades: Bonanza, Carlton, Triumphant, Electra.
- 3. Triumph Height up to 70 cm, with a large goblet flower, includes more than 500 varieties. They were bred at the beginning of the 20th century as a consequence of the crossing of simple early and Darwin hybrids. It is considered the most extensive class of tulips. Blossoming long from the end of April, perfectly keep a form. Used in the design of parks, gardens, cutting and forcing out at a later date. Grades: Blitzard, Kansas, Prominans.
- 4. Darwin hybrids are characterized by bright colors mostly red, large goblet flower, tall, early, capable of forcing. The flowering period from the beginning of May. Frost-resistant, long stored in the cut. Popular among gardeners, widely used for registration of plots. Grades: Apeldoorn, Diplomat, Oxford, Parade.
- 5. Non-fringe late In this class are collected mainly tall and many-flowered plants, 60–70 cm high, with strong peduncles and goblet-shaped flowers of various colors, most often two-colored. Blossom in May, good for late forcing. Grades: Georgette, Cherbourg, Aristocrat, Bartigon.
- 6. Лилиецветные Сорта характеризуются удлинённым цветком яркой окраски, с острыми, узкими, отогнутыми наружу листочками околоцветника, крепким высоким цветоносом. Сорта: Аладдин, Уайт триумфатор, Бургунди.
- 7. Бахромчатые Листочки околоцветника имеют бахрому, насчитывается около 50 сортов. Высота растений варьируется от 50–80 см. Идеально подходят для срезки. Сорта: Белфлауэр, Гамильтон, Канова.
- 8. Зеленоцветковые Затейливая форма цветка с зеленоватым окрасом и небольшими листьями, является весьма популярной. Grown for decoration of gardens and parks, as well as cut. Varieties: Artist, Dolores, Greenland, Champagne.
- 9. Rembrandt To this class all variegated varieties belong. The flowers are scyphoid, large. Reach 40–70 cm in height. The smallest class. Grades: Montgomery, Black Fight, Pierrette.
- 10. Parrot Varieties are characterized by a large, wide open flower with jagged edges of tepals. Bloom later. Grades: Black Parrot, Discovery, Karel Dorman, Texas Gold.
- 11. Terry late Owners of bright, terry peony colors. In height reach 40–60 cm, have sturdy flower stalks. Color from white to black, sometimes two-tone. Used for cultivation in gardens and parks. Grades: Cox, Symphony, Eros, Blue Diamond.
Varieties and hybrids
- 12. T. Kaufman. The plants are low, the leaves are sometimes speckled. The flowers are large, elongated, star-shaped when open, the color is varied. Bloom earlier than other species and varieties. There are about 60 varieties. Grades: Vivaldi, Eliot, Shakespeare, Orange Boy.
- 13. T. Foster The flowers are larger in size than those of Kaufman, cupped and goblet-shaped, elongated. The colors are mostly red, less often pink and yellow. Grades: Madame Lefeber, Juan, Purisima.
- 14. T.Greiga. Class of stunted plants with large peduncles widened at the base and folded edges of the petals. The color is dominated by red, orange. Used to decorate borders, alpine slides, gardens. Grades: Bento, Pandoor, Tango, Oriental Splender, Plaisir.
- 15. Combinations of species, varieties, varieties with the biological characteristics of wild species ever introduced. As a rule, undersized, early-flowering plants of various colors. Indispensable for rockeries and alpine slides. Grades: t. Shrenka, Gesner.
Planting tulips in the open field, methods of reproduction
Frost-resistant and moisture-loving plant. It grows well on fertilized, drained, loose soils with a neutral reaction environment.
The site for planting and cultivation requires a flat, protected from the winds and well lit. Well react to the introduction of mineral fertilizers into the soil.
Planting material is purchased in advance before the season. Bulbs with thin scales of light golden color of medium size without significant damage are considered more preferable.
Before planting, the bulbs are treated with a 0.4–0.6% solution of TMDT (Tetramethylthiuram disulfide) or a 0.2% solution of benlate for 15 minutes. They are planted in September-October by 50–80 pcs. on 1 m². The baby is sown in furrows of 0.5–1.0 kg per 1 m of the row length. Planting depth is 10–12 cm. At the first frost, beds are covered with peat, straw or a sheet with a layer of 7–15 cm. Mulching with peat crumbs and half-broken compost improves plant development and increases productivity. The following year, during the growing season, plants are fed 3 times with a full range of mineral fertilizers.
Propagated by vegetative means - bulbs and babyand species tulips - seminal method, as they rarely form kids. Breeders also use the seed method. Plants bloom in the fourth or fifth year.
Tulips: growing and care
To improve phytosanitary timeliness remove weeds and viral nests. Sick plants are burned. Cutting is carried out in the stage of dyed bud, usually in the morning when the plant has not yet reduced the turgor. Rip off the stem with 1-2 leaves.
After yellowing of the leaves (June), the tulips are dug, dried, cleaned of old scales and clods of earth, sorted by parsing, laid out in boxes of 2-3 layers and kept at a temperature of 25–30 ° C for two weeks and then stored at temperature of 17 ° C. The room is well ventilated, the material browsing and remove diseased bulbs. Planted and rooted bulb at 5–9 ° C. The main care for tulips involves loosening, timely bait and irrigation. Average rate of irrigation about 40 liters per square metery. Watering is recommended carefully, not allowing water to fall on the leaves. After flowering, the rate of irrigation is reduced, and closer to the autumn they completely stop.
It should be remembered a few rules for the care of these plants after flowering, namely:
- Remove faded colors.
- Abundant irrigation for 14 days and its gradual reduction.
- Box of the final complementary foods.
- Cutting yellowed foliage.
- Harvesting ripe onions.
Diseases and pests
In the absence of proper care, flowers may be affected by fusarium, fungal and viral diseases.
In case of fungal diseases, fungicides are treated and transplanted to a new site.
Fusarium spreads through the soil by slowing the growth and development of the plant. The method of dealing with it will be the treatment of soil with special chemicals.
Symptoms of viral diseases are light-green stripes on the leaves and petals, with this disease the only correct method is the elimination of affected plants along with an earthy clod, and the former growth sites are treated with a solution of manganese.
Tulip pests include onion mite, bear, rodents, snails and slugs. From mites helps heat treatment of the bulbs. From a bear and slugs, banks of water are dug into the ground near the flowers, creating peculiar traps. Also rags are laid out on the section, pieces of slate to which slugs usually stick, and then they collect and destroy pests every day. Regarding rodents, mousetraps are often used, or tulip bulbs are treated with kerosene and iron minium; they use poison for rodents by burying it next to flowers. To scare away the mice next to the tulips try to plant daffodils and grouse, as their bulbs are poisonous for rodents.
Thus, the cultivation of tulips in the open field with proper care is not difficult and will please their owners with magnificent flowering for several years.