Crimson Japanese is a representative of a small kind of deciduous trees that are common in mixed forests of China, Japan and other Asian countries.
The Japanese crimson or round leaf is widely used in the field of landscape design - the reason for this is the incredibly spectacular appearance of the tree, as well as its unusual and original colors.
This plant is extremely popular in many European countries, where it is used as a decorative hardwood.
About plant details
As already mentioned, the Japanese robe is a deciduous tree, which at home reaches up to 30 m in height and 5-6 m in the girth of the trunk.
Trees used in gardening most often do not exceed 4-7 m in height. Most often, a tree grows with several trunks from its base, and its bulk and spreading form most often has a wide pyramidal shape.
Due to its shape, the young plant has noticeable similarity with the bushes.
The bark of the tree is fissured, and its color can vary from light to dark gray. But with all his merits, nevertheless The main advantage of the tree is the unusual shape and color of its leaves..
As a rule, the leaves have an original heart-shaped or slightly rounded shape with a mesh venation. Streaks are reddish or purple.
The round leaf is one of the sought-after decorative and hardwood species, and the main reason for this is the unusual color of its leaves, which changes several times during the season.
Extremely spectacular look only blooming leaves purple - they have an attractive pale pink color. As the foliage dissolves, its shade changes from light blue or magenta to golden sand.
It is the unusual, changing color of the leaves, as well as their unique, delicate aroma, reminiscent of vanilla, give the plant a particularly spectacular and noble look that harmoniously fits into absolutely any park or backyard territory.
The video shows how the purple blooms in the Crimea.
The reasons for the rare use of wood in Russia
It should be noted that despite its spectacular and original color, this tree is rarely used in our latitudes.
The main reasons for this include the fact that the natural habitats of this plant are solar subtropics.
Also, the reasons why Japanese purple is rarely used in gardening is the lack of knowledge of many amateur gardeners about the basic rules of planting and caring for this plant.
And of course, the purple japonica is a rather exotic plant that can be bought exclusively in specialized nurseries.
Difficulties with the acquisition of plants contribute to the fact that many fans of gardening simply refuse to grow it.
Planting and tree care
Despite the fact that this plant can adapt to the conditions of Russian latitudes, it is necessary to strictly adhere to the basic rules of planting and caring for purple.
The ideal soil is fertile, with neutral acidity and high humidity. This may be sandy loam or slightly acid loam.
Japanese exotic purple robe needs to be planted on the shady side, since this plant is very demanding on illumination.
Also remember that Alluvia refers to moisture-loving plants.
On the photo of the landing of purple Japanese
In hot, dry weather, the plant must be watered abundantly, regularly controlling the level of soil moisture. But do not even go to the other extreme and fill the purple water daily - the best option for a dry summer is watering 2-3 times a week.
The average growth rate of a young tree per year is about 25-30 cm. To improve plant growth, you can use mineral fertilizers with a low nitrogen content.
Crimson is very sensitive not only to direct sunlight, but also to sudden temperature changes. This characteristic feature is especially pronounced in the winter season.
As a rule, young trees can tolerate Russian winters normally, but during severe frosts, the shoots of the plants can freeze over. That is why it is recommended to cover the tree in the cold.
During the absence of sap flow, many gardeners recommend forming and sanitary pruning. A characteristic feature of the tree is a high degree of resistance to various pests and diseases.
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This amazingly beautiful garden plant is propagated by cutting, as well as through seeds.
The ideal environment for high-quality rooting is the greenhouse. Carefully monitor the air temperature, which should not exceed 23 degrees and the level of soil moisture.
In the absence of the necessary moisture, water the cuttings abundantly - this will contribute to the soonest rooting of the plants.
Also for the propagation of the Japanese can use the method of using seeds. It is worth noting that due to its complexity and laboriousness, this breeding technique is used much less frequently than grafting.
Ripened seeds are best collected in the autumn season - the ideal option would be September or October, before the onset of the first frost.
The collected seeds are planted in a box with the soil, which is perfectly permeable to moisture and air. In the soil for planting purple, you can add a little clay or perlite.
The seed box should be placed in a dark and cool place and carefully monitor the soil moisture level.
With the onset of spring, you can go to planting seeds in open soil.
When creating the most favorable conditions The percentage of plant germination is quite high and may be about 70%.
Pay special attention to the fact that many experienced gardeners recommend holding stratification procedure purple seeds before planting in open ground. This is done in a conventional fridge.
As a rule, seeds sprout in 15-20 days after planting into the soil, subject to the creation of the optimum temperature and the required soil moisture.
In dry weather, young plants should be watered at least 3 times a week, fed with nitrogen fertilizers, as well as fertilizers, which include potassium or phosphorus.
With proper care, tree growth in the first year of life can be up to 50 cm.
Place in landscape design
An aesthetically attractive round leaf is often used as an ornamental garden plant.
This tree is notable for its unique beauty and nobility.
Especially effectively purple-pink purple look in combination with coniferous plants, as well as in various compositions.
Description of Japanese purple
In its homeland, the tree reaches a truly gigantic size: it grows to a height of 30 meters, and in the girth of the trunk it can be up to 6 meters! Varieties cultivated for gardening are much smaller, and grow no higher than 4-7 meters in height. The plant grows into several trunks, a bit like a shrub. The crown has a pyramidal shape.
The bark of the tree is speckled with cracks, and the heart-shaped leaves with an unusual crimson or reddish color, which constantly changes with the change of the seasons, give it a special decorative effect. Only the leaves that appear have a delicate pink color, which darkens over time, and in the fall can turn into golden-sandy. Additionally, the effect is enhanced by clearly visible streaks on the leaves. Fantastic sight!
No less delightful is the tree during the flowering period: the flowers bloom before the leaves, covering the branches with solid inflorescences of bright purple with a pink shade. The delicate vanilla scent surrounding the flowering tree adds to its attractiveness and makes it a welcome guest in the recreation area and in the backyard plots.
Winter hardiness of purple
What does a purple photo look like?
The plant comes from subtropical countries with mild winters, this was the reason for the rare cultivation of Japanese purple under the conditions of the harsh Russian winters. However, a patient gardener can overcome difficulties and settle an exotic wonder in his garden.
The tree can withstand temperatures down to -29 ° C, but young seedlings require close attention and shelter for the winter.
Growing and planting conditions
The preferred site for planting is a sun plot, with well-drained, organic-rich soil (well-fertilized sub-acid loam or sandy loam). Carries a tree and a penumbra.
Young saplings are planted together with a clod of earth by the method of transshipment, because the root system of the Japanese crimson root is very few lateral roots. For the same reason, the plant is not recommended to replant. So you should immediately determine the place of planting, because the transplant will most likely not transfer the plant.
- The hole is prepared in advance, fertilized with rotted compost or humus.
- The root neck should not be buried; they observe the same landing level as before the transplant.
- The seedling is installed vertically, sprinkled with earth, lightly compacted the earth, pressing his foot.
- Water plentifully, on a bucket under each sapling.
Next you need to make sure that the soil does not dry out, and the plant will quickly recover and grow.
Purple Japanese is very hygrophilous, during periods of drought and abnormal heat with a lack of moisture can shed leaves. Therefore it is necessary to water regularly, well wetting the near-stem zone.
It will not be superfluous to mulch, which will protect the roots from overheating, retain moisture and improve the structure of the soil, making it air and moisture permeable.
You should feed only young plants, in the period of active growth of green mass. Complex nitrogen-rich fertilizers are desirable in order not to provoke excessive growth of young branches that may not mature before the onset of cold weather. Feed in the spring and in the first half of the summer every two weeks, after feeding stop, letting the twigs to woody.
The bloom of purple Japanese photo
Japanese crimson blooms briefly, about a week, and then produces no less attractive bright leaves. When returning frosts young greens may freeze, but quickly recovers with the onset of heat.
Propagation of Japanese purpurea by cuttings
Cutting is the most accessible and easiest way to propagate purple. It is enough to cut green twigs in June-July and put into the water or wet sand, nutritious soil mixture. Pre-exposure of the cuttings in a solution of epine, heteroauxin or root will have a positive effect. This will strengthen the rooting process.
Cuttings can be covered with plastic bags or cups to create greenhouse conditions with high humidity to further accelerate rooting. A month later, the seedlings start up young shoots that indicate a successful rooting.
Growing purple from seed
Seeds of purple Japanese photo
Seeds are harvested in late September-October and immediately sown in a seedling box to a depth of 1-2 cm. The box is taken out into the garden and covered with a layer of leaves. Such a natural stratification will be very useful, and up to 70% of the seeds will sprout in the spring. Upon the occurrence of thaws (in the month of March), the seed box is freed from the shelter and brought into the house.
Stratification can be carried out in the refrigerator, keeping the seeds in a damp cloth wrapped in a plastic bag.
Shoots of purple Japanese Photo seedlings
Germinate seeds at room conditions, observing the condition of regular watering. Shoots develop slowly, so do not worry. When two or three true leaves appear, the plants are transplanted into separate pots for further rearing, carefully moving with a clod of earth, trying not to damage the root.
Japanese purple saplings ready for planting photo
Seedlings can be planted in a permanent place in early autumn, and before winter they should be well covered with leaves and spruce branches to protect them from death. Many gardeners prefer not to risk and plant plants in the future season, in the spring.
Chinese purple in landscape design
Crimson Japanese landscape design photo
Japanese bogtails are combined with evergreen shrubs (boxwood, holly, magonia), conifers, and other decorative flowering plants (for example, forsythia).
What to plant purple photo
Beautiful combination of purple and black crow-cloth Actaea simplex ‘brunette’: bright yellow foliage effectively harmonizes with the dark-purple leaves of the black crow. Looks good and planted near rudbeckia.
Japanese crimson or round leaf - this tree or shrub up to 35 meters. Its crown is quite wide and has a pyramidal shape, most often formed by several trunks that belong to the same rhizome. In adulthood, the bark of gray is covered with cracks, rough to the touch. The bark of young shoots is smooth, most often light brown in color, over time acquires a grayish tint. The plant has a very powerful root system (by type - rod) goes deep underground, thin root-hairs are located at a small depth parallel to the ground. This culture is a fast growing plant.
Purple leaves are assertive, usually small in size, about 9 cm long. From the outside they are of a deep green color, even with some blue tint, from the inside they are most often white. At the very beginning of the growing season, the leaves can be purple-pink, because of this, the purple purple looks very nice compared to other ornamental plants. In the autumn, the leaves become golden-orange or crimson, and the sweet smell of vanilla and ginger is felt throughout the site.
Purple ordinary is also called gingerbread tree. First of all, it is interconnected with the smell that can appear in the fall when the leaves turn yellow. The purple flowers are unattractive, they are gathered in the racemes of the perianth. The inflorescence has four pods that are the fruit. In the box a lot of winged seeds.
In very harsh winters, especially when there is no snow, the scarlet can freeze. In the first period of fruiting purple usually begins with 12-15 years. Flowering is quite short, up to 5 days, most often in late April and early May. The fruits ripen in late September, early October. However, an important role is played by climatic conditions in which the plant grows.
Conditions for growing purple
Japanese crimson is undemanding and unpretentious culture, but there are certain points that need to be considered when planting and growing plants. For landing purple used well-lit places where there is no strong winds. Young plants the first half to two years need shading, in order to on the bark of the trunk, as well as on the shoots did not appear sunburn.
In the use of soil prefers moist, light and loose soil. Acidity does not play a significant role and can be both alkaline and acidic. Acidity affects solely leaf color in summer and autumn. Undesirable plant growth on highly wetted, as well as marshy soil. The level at which the groundwater will pass must be more than 3 m.
Japanese crimson can be propagated using:
The cutting technology used for purple is not much different from the technology used for a number of other ornamental trees and shrubs.
For this you need cut cuttings 10–15 cm longand on each, there should be three nodes. It is preferable to carry out this procedure in the summer, in the middle of June at the beginning of July. Cuttings should be rooted best in small greenhouses that can be made by forming yourself out of four wide boards and covered with a film cover. It is important that in this greenhouse observed high humidity and temperature not lower than 23 degrees. If all conditions are met, then up to 65–70% of the cuttings will be rooted. And this is a very good result.
The way in which the seeds are applied is also quite effective, but it is better to sow at the end of autumn. When trying to sow last year's seeds, they must be subjected to cold stratification. Seeds of purple seed are sown in open ground or in a container intended for seedlings. You can fill it with peat or sand in a 1: 2 ratio. Dead compost can be used as a substitute for peat. A small layer of coarse sand can be applied to the soil mixture.
It is not necessary to sow the seeds very deep, cover the sowing with a film or glass. After the emergence of shoots, capacity can be left on the windowsill. The dive is carried out in the appearance phase of 3-4 true sheets. Planting in open ground is carried out in early spring, it will help the seedling to strengthen the root system.
Как ухаживать за багрянником
The main procedure for the care of the plant will be the enrichment of the soil with mineral and organic additives that will affect the growth and rich color of the leaves. Feed should be carried out as needed, try to do no less than 3 dressings per season.
For fertilizer, it is possible to use both complex compositions, and potash, nitrogen, and phosphate preparations separately. One procedure will require:
- Nitrogen fertilizers 10 grams.
- Phosphate fertilizers 15 grams.
- Potash fertilizer 20 grams.
This complex will allow the bush to maintain a healthy root, trunk and crown.
During a drought, purple is very sensitive and needs to be watered more often, this applies to all trees, but especially young ones. It is recommended to make shallow loosening around the trunk and remove weeds, this will have a beneficial effect on plants as a whole. Crimson as usual tolerates pruningIt is recommended to conduct it in March, until the moment of sap flow.
Purple Cercidiphyllum japonicum rarely found in gardens in Russia. This is due to the fact that gardeners are not sufficiently aware of all the nuances of growing an ornamental plant. Material for planting can be bought only in specialized nurseries that import it from Poland, Holland or Germany.
The plant is great in order to make a hedge or arrange borders, as well as various sites. Looks harmoniously with other shrubs and trees, as well as tall flowers.
The wood of Japanese purple is unusual in its structure and red-brown color. Wood is perfect for crafts and woodcarving. Purple purple is resistant to pests and diseases, propagates overgrown, and fresh fallen leaves even at a very long distance have a delicious and sweet smell of honey like cinnamon or caramel soft and light wood.
General description with photo
Botanical name is cercidiphyllum. In nature, there are only two types of family, but only one of them is grown in culture. Two more species are considered extinct. However, European collectors have already bred at least 12 purple hybrids, which differ in branching pattern, crown shape and foliage color at different times of the year.
This deciduous shrub (at a young age) over time forms a tall tree, which in its natural environment can reach 30m in height and up to 6m in the girth of the trunk. In the middle latitudes, its size is much more modest, 4-7m, which does not affect its decorative qualities. The crown of an adult specimen has a pyramidal shape. Leaves are heart-shaped, changing their color several times in a vegetative cycle. The bark is gray with pronounced cracks. The inflorescences are small, bloom early, even before the leaves fully unfold, by the autumn, the leguminous fruits ripen on the condition of pair planting.
The reasons for the rare cultivation of purple in the territory of Russia are not so much its thermophilicity and complexity of cultivation, as the small supply of specialized nurseries for the cultivation of exotic plants.
In relation to the soil culture is not demanding, for it applies a fairly wide range of permissible acidity. Suitable for planting slightly acidic loam or sandy enough fertilized. The higher the acidity index, the brighter shades the foliage gives, but you should not overdo it in this respect, as the general development of the specimen may suffer. The soil structure should be loose, since the root system has a core shape. At the same time, it also gives surface cuts, sometimes protruding to the surface, which provides the tree with excellent wind resistance.
The penumbra would be an ideal place for a round leaf. In the open area of the sun he may suffer young shoots, but full shadow is contraindicated for him, because he will certainly be reflected on his decorative effect. It is best to plant a tree from the north side of the large-sized trees or from the east - from buildings.
Crimson makes high demands on moisture. Despite the fact that the taproot that goes deep into the soil is capable of extracting it from great depths, the plant is not drought-resistant and, if it is not sufficiently moist, it can prematurely lose foliage. It prefers the shores of water bodies with more humid air, but it requires well-drained soil and does not tolerate the proximity of groundwater. In case of irregular rains, watering is required 1-2 times a week.
Different hybrid varieties of purple robe can have one trunk or several.
At a young age, seedlings are recommended to be fed with mineral complexes with a low nitrogen presence, in order to ensure a qualitative annual increase. In good conditions, it can be 0.3m per year. In the spring and in the winter, rotted organic matter is added to the tree by the traditional scheme.
The climate in the places of natural vegetation of the Japanese purple is more moist and mild than the Russian one. Despite this, the plant shows good winter hardiness, the limit of which is estimated at -29C. During the warm season, due to early flowering and the opening of the buds, the most vulnerable period is the late spring period, when returnable frosts are possible. If the cooling was not critical, then with proper care, the tree is soon restored. For it to survive an extreme winter, it requires shelter and high-quality mulching of the tree trunk. After the formation of a permanent snow cover, it is recommended to form a dense high embankment around the tree.
Crimson quite well tolerated pruning. If desired, instead of a tall tree, you can form a short shrub, and at home - even bonsai. Both molding and sanitary pruning, including the removal of frozen and just unsuccessfully growing shoots, should be done in early spring, strictly before the start of sap flow, because the plant wakes up before many other garden trees and shrubs.
Planting and breeding
Due to the core of the central root, the plant does not tolerate the transplant. Age instances do not usually take root in a new place. If such a need nevertheless arose, transplantation should be carried out with a large earthy clod, as much as possible covering the root system. With open roots, only very young saplings can be transplanted.
In order to collect the seeds of the leaves, it is necessary to plant trees as a pair - a male and a female.
Selection of seedlings for planting
The round leaf saplings sold in specialized nurseries can be found less often, and their price is estimated at several thousand rubles. Therefore, it is necessary to approach the choice issue seriously. First of all, there is a danger of buying another plant instead of purple, which is sold under its guise - cercis (iudino tree), which in our area practically does not hibernate in open ground. Their external similarity at a young age, unfortunately, contributes to this practice. Meanwhile, it is not difficult to recognize an error or deception, if you pay attention to the location of the leaves (in early autumn - the location of the points of their growth), In purple, they are located opposite, i.e. on the same line, and at the cercis - alternately.
When buying, it is recommended to pay special attention to the root system. Saplings with bare roots can be bought only at a very young age, otherwise they are unlikely to take root.
It is best to buy specimens in containers with a closed root system at the age of 1 year.
If bisexual representatives of purple are growing on the site, in the fall a female specimen will give seed pods from which material can be obtained for planting. You can sow seeds immediately in the fall, in which case they will undergo a natural stratification and will be more adapted to climatic conditions. To do this, use a shallow tank, in which drainage is filled (for example, expanded clay). Perlite mixed with any non-heavy substrate is used as a primer. You can use ready-made compositions for decorative foliage crops or for indoor plants. Seeds are laid out on the surface, easily pressed, sprinkled with substrate or wet sawdust and moistened. The container is closed with polyethylene and placed in a cool shaded place where it will require constant airing. If planting will be done in spring, the seeds should be stored in an airtight container in a refrigerator to undergo artificial stratification.
During spring planting the germination percentage will be reduced by a quarter.
In the spring, the container is placed in a warm place. Shoots usually appear after 2 weeks. Young shoots are extremely sensitive in the lack of moisture. Just a few hours spent in dry ground can completely destroy them.
The fastest and best way to breed. Cuttings produced in the summer in July. The length of the cut delenok should be about 15 cm. The apical part is not recommended because of its insufficient maturity. The ideal environment for the rooting process is the greenhouse. If this is not possible, the mini-greenhouse is artificially made by covering the container with cuttings with a plastic bag or glass. Conditions should be wet, but not hot, in the region of + 23C. The soil should be permanently moistened, drying it is not allowed.
Why does not purple bloom?
The reason for the lack of budding may be a lack of watering. In addition, the plant could suffer from the cold. Another reason may be physical damage, affecting the deep layers of wood, in this case, the tree may not die, but stay in development and remain low scrub.
Purple in a pot
If desired, the Japanese guest can be grown in a flower pot at home, forming a bonsai dwarf tree. It should pay attention to the following rules.
- The plant gives rapid growth and requires regular molding.
- Numerous branches and leaning shoots make it unstable. The discrepancy between the above-ground and the root part often leads to the tipping of the pot. The dishes are chosen wide and stable, it is better if it is a wooden tub.
- The more the roots develop, the faster and higher the tree grows, so much depends on the place allotted to its root system. For the formation of bonsai plate should be less, but do not forget that the central root of purple root has a core structure, and he needs a certain place for growth. Maintain the same tiny shape has frequent pruning side shoots.
- The plant needs to provide high-quality watering and high humidity.
Cranberries have a high resistance to any kinds of insect pests, but if unwanted proximity to other crops more susceptible to their attacks, it can be affected by aphids. For the fight is recommended to use systemic insecticides.