Geranium is a flower that in our time has been considered “grandmother” because it has been known for a very long time in indoor and garden flower growing, and it is mainly the older generation that is engaged in breeding and collecting these plants.
Young people imagine geranium in its standard form: rounded panicles of red flowers and double dark green terry leaves. In fact, progress does not stand still, and breeders have discovered so many varieties of pelargonium, which differ in flower shape, leaf color, plant size and other parameters.
If you want to buy a houseplant that will not require constant thorough care and annual transplants, while remaining very decorative for a long time, then you should think about growing any sort of room geranium.
Zone geranium (fringed)
It can be immediately recognized by the characteristic color of the leaves: a dark green leaf is bordered with a brown stripe, and hence the second name of the species. Zonal geranium is the very “grandmother's” species, because this group is the most common and has more than 70,000 varieties.
They are separated not only by the color of the flowers, but also by their shape. Allocate simple flowers, semi-double and terry. It is clear that, depending on the complexity of the flower, they have a different number of petals.
Also, the leaves differ in the severity of the dark band: in some varieties of geranium it can be seen very clearly, in others it is almost invisible, the width of the border also depends on the variety.
This is an ampelous species of pelargonium, which produces a variety of long, falling shoots. In this regard, the ivy geraniums are planted in hanging pots or pots that stand at a height. It should be borne in mind that the ivy varieties produce lashes up to 1 m long.
The group is also characterized by the absolute smoothness and glossiness of the leaves, which resemble ivy leaves. Hence the name of the group.
Here already from the name it becomes clear what this group of flower growers are interested in. The smell of the sea, it all depends on the particular variety. Pelargoniums collected in this group contain phytoncides in their leaves, which are responsible for the production of the fragrance. The smell is very strong, especially when touching the plant.
Immediately I would like to note that the appearance of a fragrant geranium is not as interesting as in previous cases: the leaves are green with a fuzz, uneven and large, the flowers are simple standard colors.
Perhaps the most beautiful pelargoniums belong to this species. Flowers are also collected in paniculate rounded inflorescences, but at the same time each of them can reach 7 cm in diameter. Thus, flower hats are obtained simply gigantic. And their color can be very different, and here we have in mind not only the main color, but also the presence of veins, edges, spots, etc.
Indeed, it can be considered unique, as it has collected many interesting signs: the flowers are very beautiful, with streaks and drawings, which the previous group can boast of, but the size, of course, is not that big.
Miniature and dwarf geraniums
They are small bushes that bloom profusely and at the same time do not require pruning at all. Varieties of such geraniums will be useful to those who have all the windowsills already made by other plants.
Now you can consider some interesting species of geraniums, differing precisely in the shape of the flower. These include :
- rose flowers zonal. Flowers resemble real little roses, gathered in a whisk,
- cactus zonal. It is difficult to say whether they are beautiful or not. This is an option for an amateur. The flowers themselves are large, and the petals are twisted into cones and resemble the thorns of cacti,
- star zonal. Named so in connection with the shape of the petal - it is pointed, narrowed to the top,
- Clove colors. The carnation has jagged petals, and it is this property that this group of geraniums has adopted.
Growing pelargonium seed
Pelargonium seeds are quite large, so problems with their planting, as a rule, do not arise even among novice gardeners. When planting seeds they are laid flat side on the ground, slightly pressing down. The distance between the seeds is observed at least 2 cm.
After they have been planted in the ground, the ground is not watered, but is well sprinkled from the sprayer, so the seeds will not be washed away and remain in their places.
Usually in order for geranium colors in summer, the planting of its seeds begins at the end of February. A plastic bag is put on the container in which the seeds are planted. Everything must be removed in a dark warm place and checked daily for seedlings. Basically, pelargonium sprout in 5-6 days.
After at least one sprout appears, the entire container is exposed to the light, and the bag is removed. When a seedling grows up and has four leaves, it can be planted in separate pots (this operation is called picking).
Growing rooted cutting and well-developed bush
Here everything will be based on the selection of a pot and a primer for transplanting an acquired seedling. The ready-made soil can be bought in a specialty store, and you can make it yourself if there is land at home brought from the garden in the autumn. To do this, simply mix:
Composed in this way the soil will be loose. Selection of the pot is made depending on the state of the seedling root system.
Even for an adult bush, a small pot with a diameter of about 15 cm is suitable. Of course, it is recommended to buy a pot of burnt clay, but they are usually more expensive than plastic ones.
It is imperative that, in order to prevent root rot and black leg, it is necessary to provide high-quality drainage in a pot, filled with a layer of 2-3 cm. What can we say, the pot itself should have at least one drain hole at the bottom.
geranium cuttings in peat tablets
As it was said at the very beginning of the article, geranium is very undemanding in care, for which flower growers love it. Care is the fulfillment of the following conditions:
It all depends on the rate of drying of the upper layer of the earth. Geranium tolerates drought much better than excessive moisture, so it is important not to “pour” it, otherwise the destruction of the bush cannot be avoided.
This factor is not particularly important in summer. In winter, the temperature should not fall below 10 0 C. The main thing is to protect the plant from drafts.
This operation is recommended to be carried out periodically in order for air to reach the roots and the earth does not turn into one monolithic piece. In order to gnaw the ground, it is not necessary to have a special rake: you can use an old fork or wand.
Geraniums are fed during flowering and before it begins phosphorous fertilizers. In no case should organic fertilizers be applied, geraniums simply cannot tolerate them.
Forming a bush
It implies the rejuvenating pruning of an adult plant and the formation of young animals. In the first case, up to five buds are left on each shoot, of which in the future new branches will appear.
It is carried out not annually, but once in 2-3 years. It is best to transplant with a lump of earth without baring the roots.
Reproduction room geraniums
To preserve the characteristic features of the variety, geranium is usually propagated by cutting or dividing an adult bush.
If you personally collect the seeds, then there is no guarantee that the variety will be preserved. If you want to try planting collected seeds, then it is necessary to conduct scarification, i.e. removal of the outer shell. Seeds fray between two pieces of sandpaper.
Still, flower growers often shrub the bush. Cuttings of about 6 cm in length are placed in the water before the young white roots sprout and then sown in the ground or germinated in large, moist sand. Both methods are effective and widely used.
Geranium blooming occurs after planting seeds in about five months, so if they are planted exactly at the end of February, then pelargonium will bloom in the same year.
The stalk will bloom earlier - in three months. However, these dates mainly relate to zonal species, Angels and Royal Pelargonium in any case only bloom in the second year.
Pelargonium diseases and pests
The most frequent diseases of the geranium in room conditions include fungal and viral diseases. To include fungal black leg, leaf rust, various kinds of rot. Most often, these diseases are treated with solutions of fungicides.
Geranium pests a bit, but they are already very annoying. These include aphids, whiteflies, caterpillars and ticks. They themselves or traces of their activity can be detected by a careful examination of the leaves of the plant on both sides.
To get rid of pests by spraying geranium special means. If it was not possible to establish who specifically settled on the flower, then it is better to use the drug from the pest complex.
Why do the leaves turn yellow?
Inexperienced growers can often encounter the following problems when growing geraniums: the leaves turn yellow, fall off, and the bush itself does not want to bloom at all.
This is most likely the result of improper care.
- If the leaf turns yellow on the edge, it means that the bush receives little water.
- If the leaves are sluggish and fallen, then the bush is flooded.
- If the leaves fall from the bottom of the plant, the geranium does not have enough sunlight. By the way, for the same reason may not bloom.
- Also, geranium does not want to produce flower stalks if it is overfed with nitrogen, which serves as a plant for green mass.
In order not to end on such an unpleasant moment as problems in the cultivation of pelargonium, we can talk about its beneficial properties.
Useful properties of geraniums
- Firstly, this plant perfectly cleans the air in the room from harmful microbes. The smell of geranium relieves stress, relieves depression.
- Secondly, it repels pests from other flowers and plants. In the summer, it is recommended to take geraniums into the garden, under currant bushes - so that there is no aphid!
- And thirdly, geranium is widely used in traditional medicine for the treatment of various diseases. It is compared with the plantain! Fresh leaves perfectly tighten wounds and heal ulcers. Broth helps with intestinal and stomach diseases.
- Also from geranium get the essential oil with a delicate aroma, which is used for medicinal purposes. It treats a runny nose, pain in the ear, relieves fatigue in the muscles, pain in the back.
Botanical description and history
This plant belongs to semi-shrubs, but there are also grassy species. Stems are straight, and they are branched and creeping. The leaf structure also varies from simple to palmate-dissected.
Inflorescences come in a wide variety of colors, from white to dark red.. Flowers grow umbrellas. Umbrellas are small and large, with a complex branch.
This amazing creature originated in South Africa. In the 16th century, sailing began actively in the direction of Africa, from where not only animals were brought, but also plants. Among the brought treasures was geranium. Her beauty fascinated Europeans. However, it was not adapted to the new climate.
The breeders soon adapted the flower, and it became widely popular in Europe.
In Russia, geranium was brought two centuries later. By the nineteenth century, it was in almost every wealthy home. It should be noted that some species remained wildand adapting to the harsh climate of Russia developed under the open sky.
So what is it - zonal geranium? This appearance is rich in appearance. It is a shrub that grows vertically with fluffy foliage. The top of the bush is decorated with bright small flowers. Most often red, white and pink color.
Geranium has a distinctive smell. And the smell is not flowers, but leaves. Before you purchase such a flower, smell it. Not everyone likes her smell.
Room geranium reaches a height of 90 cm. This is a perennial plant. At the same time, it needs to be renewed, as the leaves fall out from below and the bare stems do not quite have an aesthetic appearance. It grows quickly - up to 30 cm in 12 months.
Zone geranium is the most common species. It has more than 75 thousand species. Of course, all these thousands look different. Some are not at all like their fellows. Only one thing unites them, everyone on the leaves has a zone painted in a different color. From here and the name was established "zonal". This famous leaf zone reflects very well the health of the plant. The zone disappears at the slightest lack of light and appears when the stimulus is eliminated.
There is a generally accepted division of geraniums depending on the number of petals. So, distinguish:
- Non-shag - 5 petals.
- Semi-double - 6-8 petals.
- Terry - 8 petals.
Also, Depending on the color and structure of the inflorescences, the following varieties of zonal geraniums delimit:
Photos of different types
Below you can see photos of different types of geranium zonal.
Where and how to plant it?
Plant need to spring, since it is during this period that nature emerges from hibernation, and is set to develop.
Need to choose a small pot. The roots will grow in the big pot, but the flower itself will not. In addition, in a large pot, the likelihood of flowering drops to a minimum.
As for plants that are already a year old or more, they are transplanted as needed, if the roots already go out through the water outflow openings. At the same time it is necessary to choose a pot not much more.
So, in order to plant a flower, we need:
- Choose a small pot.
- Lay a drainage.
- Gain up to half a pot of prepared earth (a description of the proportions is given below).
- Insert the stalk with the roots, and holding it with your hand add earth.
- Pour over settled water, you can add a tool to improve root growth.
- The pot should be placed in a bright place.
- After 15-20 days you need to feed fertilizers rich in phosphorus and potassium.
If you are transplanting a perennial flower, then you need to trim the branches that have stretched out after the winter, pick a pot for more, and repeat the above steps.
Lighting and location
Geranium loves bright light. Without it, it withers and does not bloom at all. However, it can not be placed in direct sunlight, otherwise there will be burns on the leaves.
The south window is suitable if there is a tree growing on a street nearby or another structure that sets off direct rays. Windows from the west or east also fit. The main thing that the light lasted at least 16 hours.
Suitable general purpose soil. For homemade soil it is necessary to take: 2 parts of peat on 2 parts of garden soil and 1 part of coarse sand.
Another version of the mixture: 2 parts of sod land, 2 parts - humus, 2 parts - peat, 1 part sand. pH should be 6.0-6.5.
Good drainage required. Too much peat can lead to stagnant moisture, which is harmful for geranium. In too fertile soil, flowering slows down.
Geranium zone is not a supporter of temperature changes. In the summer, it is enough for it to be 20-25 degrees Celsius, in the winter it is 13-16 degrees Celsius. Does not tolerate dried air. You can splash the leaves with soft water. Watering is often necessary: in the summer every other day, in the winter once a week. The remains of the liquid which has flowed out in a plate need to be merged. Top dressing is very important, especially during flowering. It needs to start in the spring, and finish in August.
Many take out the flowers in the garden for the summer. This has a good effect on the general condition of the plant. They love the air. Spring must be cut necessarily. Stretched and weak shoots will not bring benefit. Pinching improves bushiness, gives a good appearance and stimulates flowering. Geraniums do not carry drafts.
You can also find out about the proper fit and care of geranium zone in this video:
Common diseases and pests
Like all organisms on the planet, zonal geranium can hurt.
Geraniums can be affected:
- mealy worm,
- gray rot
- gray mold.
Treatment with chemicals can help. They can be bought at a flower shop. They will tell you the order of application and dose.
Also geraniums can have the following problems:
- blacklegif the flower is poured,
- foliage rednessif the temperature is low
- lack of floweringif the flower has been re-approved,
- yellowing foliageif not enough light.
These problems are easy to eliminate if you exclude the source of their occurrence. Of course, There are situations when a plant is running and it cannot be saved.. Be vigilant and do not bring your pets to such a state.
Propagating this plant is very easy. It can be propagated:
- CUTTERS. His cuttings quickly root. Virtually no rot. Breeding can be done in spring, late summer or early fall. Growing fast.
- SEEDS. To increase the level of the shoot, remove the husks from the seeds. Seeds are sown in a special mixture consisting of peat and sand. This mixture should be wet but not wet.
Perhaps spraying spray, to dispense better watering. Cover it with a film. When sprouts appear on the surface, you need to put in a bright place. After the cotyledons grow, seedlings are planted in permanent pots.
The geranium is zonal, on the one hand an easy-to-care flower, and on the other a beautiful queen on the windowsill. The history of its origin is rich in various events. In other words, zonal geranium did everything to be a worthy resident of our homes.
Pelargonium got its name due to its unusual fruit - a box, which is shaped like a stork's beak (in Greek “pelargos” - stork).
In the wild, pelargonium is found in South Africa. The plant was brought to Europe at the end of the 17th century and immediately selected the window sills and greenhouses of Europeans.
Pelargonium became a symbol of luxury and was present in all the rich interiors of European cities.
Now breeders bred more than 10,000 varieties of pelargonium, which differ in the shape and color of flowers and leaves, stem height and other signs of the variety. Some varieties were derived specifically for greenhouses.
Of the variety of species for home cultivation is most often used. garden geranium or zonal pelargonium.
Medicinal properties of the plant
Almost all pelargonium zonal differ in the specific aroma of the leaves.
This smell is able to scare away some insects, for example, the mole, for which he caught on home window sills.
Also, the fragrance can be used in herbal medicine for the prevention and treatment of neurosis, stress, insomnia.
Useful properties of geraniums:
- they produce essential oils for the cosmetics industry,
- leaves can be dried and added to tea, make sachets,
- geranium cleans the air in the apartment
- has antibacterial properties,
- accelerates the healing process of wounds,
- a positive effect on the human nervous system,
- root extract is used in the treatment of diseases of the respiratory system.
How to organize therapeutic phytotherapy sessions?
Such sessions can be carried out independently at home.
For this you need:
- sit next to a flower
- touch his leaves,
- feel the aroma, breathing deeply 2-3 times,
- and then breathe at your usual pace.
You will be able to observe positive changes in 10-14 days.
The height of the stem
Plants are divided into:
- tall specimens (up to 42 centimeters in height),
- srednerosly (grow up to 40 centimeters),
- undersized (no more than 20 centimeters in height) and
- miniature (only up to 5 centimeters)
Reproduction of geraniums (geraniums)
The easiest method of breeding Pelargonium - cuttings. Using a sharp knife or blade, cut a plant with two or three internodes from the plant. Remove the lower leaves. Pelargonium cuttings do not plant immediately, you need to cut it slightly dried, covered with a thin film. To do this, leave it in a cool, shady place for a day. You can put the stalk in a jar of water, where he will give the roots, or put in a pot with sandy soil. Cuttings for reproduction of pelargonium can be cut off already from the end of winter, all spring and even in June - July.
The stalk should sit firmly, compact the soil around it and pour it with a weak solution of potassium permanganate. Pots with cuttings should be put on a bright, but not sunny window. Soon leaves will appear. Do not wet them when watering. To make the bush more lush, remove the apical bud. At the end of summer, young geraniums of spring cutting will brightly bloom!
Briefly about what is pelargonium
- This plant of the family Geraniah in the form of a dwarf shrub.
- Its natural area is South America. However, at present it can be found in completely different countries.
- Based on its habitat, pelargonium loves light and heat very much. In addition, it is resistant to dry periods.
- The leaves of the flower are characteristic of the family of Geraniahs - the palmately-dissected form.
- Perennial, depending on the variety will have both a straight and creeping stem.
- Pelargonium zonal flowers are always very colorful, consisting of textured lines. They appear for quite a long time in the summer.
- The average duration of preservation of the appearance of the plant is 2-2.5 years. After this time, the pelargonium zone needs to be updated, as the appearance deteriorates.
- Despite the fact that pelargonium and geranium from the same family, they require different care.
What are the varieties of pelargonium?
Pelargonium has a huge number of different varieties - there are more than 200. But the most popular species stand out, which can often be found on the windowsill or in the garden.
- Royal This variety is a broad bushes of small size, which appear large flowers. Peduncles are located with a plant bush on the same level. Most often, the variety is used for home breeding. The appearance of a blooming culture can be compared with a fluffy bright ball.
- Tulip. By name, we can conclude that the type of plant is very similar to a tulip. And there is. Flowers have close similarity to the unopened buds. In shades, the variety is represented - from light pink to burgundy. The leaves of this species are very shiny and have a hard texture.
- Rosebud. Here you can also navigate by name. Flowering culture will transfer the gardener to the park of roses. There are a lot of petals in a flower, and all of them are close enough to each other, which forms a form close to a small rose. Lush buds will serve as a wonderful decoration.
- Terry. Pelargonium inflorescences of this variety are characterized by double petals. Color can be found for every taste: raspberry, pale salmon, lilac.
- Angular. The plant will be very high - up to 100 cm. The shape of the leaves in the species is quite unusual - the leaves are short, can be compared with oak leaves. Inflorescence in the form of a bright red umbrella.
- Capitate. Compared with the previous variety, this crop will be two times smaller - about 50 cm. The shrub constantly pleases the eye with a green color. The flowers are also in the form of an umbrella of pink-purple hue. At the same time, pelargonium emits a magical aroma.
- Curly. This species is strongly branched. The bush will not grow more than 50 cm, but will be evergreen. The leaves are shaped like a heart and grow in two rows. Their edges are torn, jagged.
- Fluffy sheet Fluffy pelargonium varieties are characterized by thick stems and lobar leaves. The flowers have a snow-white color, while the inner core is bright red. 5-6 of these inflorescences join together and create an umbrella.
- Meaty. The perennial of this type has a very small size - only 30 cm. Its leaves are in a lowered state and have a distinct venation. The flowers mainly appear either white or pale beige with small red dots.
- Tolstostebelnaya. Here the name speaks for itself - the stem of the culture is very thick, and the plant itself is about 20 cm in size. Compared with other types of pelargonium, this is quite small. The wide leaf has silvery hair. Flowers appear in the form of standard umbrellas, but the colors are varied - from yellow to lilac.
- Fragrant. This shrub is distinguished by its branches and, of course, by its strong aroma, which does not come from flowers, but from the leaves of the plant. Inflorescences according to the standard take the form of an umbrella.
- Large-flowered. For street cultivation large-flowered variety is not quite suitable. He is very moody and requires special care. The plant will not be able to without constant heat. Its height is from 30 to 60 cm, which is an average figure. Inflorescences have a corrugated structure and large size.
- Klobuchkovaya. This species is notable for its dense terry bright green foliage, which is lowered down. Flowers are painted in violet-red shades.
- Soiling. One more grade which grows up practically the highest. Its size can reach about one and a half meters. The leaves are rounded dark green, planted on a rather fleshy stem. And the bush is decorated with bright scarlet flowers that can be compared with lights.
- Ivy leaf As for this variety of pelargonium, it is not at all suitable for planting in open areas. Cooling for him are destructive. The foliage of this culture can be compared with ivy. Inflorescences with very motley.
- Pink Based on the name, it can be understood that the inflorescences have a pink tint. They are located on a branching shrub.
- Pelargonium zonal (varieties, photos, we consider next). This is the most common and unpretentious view. It is perfect for breeding on the windowsill, in parks and gardens. The sheet of pelargonium zonal has a clear pattern. The shrub is very resistant to drought and other critical conditions. Even frost up to 5-6 0 С is not terrible for him. Therefore, it is so popular among gardeners.
After examining all varieties of pelargonium, we can conclude that it is best to give preference to the zonal form.
What species has pelargonium zonal?
In order to easily navigate when buying, you need to know the main varieties of this plant.
- From 42 cm in height are called tall.
- With a height of no more than 40 cm - sredneroslye.
- Less than 12.5 cm - undersized.
- Up to five petals on a flower - simple.
- From 5 to 8 petals - semi-double.
- More than 8 petals - terry.
According to the form of flowering:
- Bouquet - standard inflorescences in the form of an umbrella.
- Stellate have pointed teeth on the petals.
- Cactus flowers with narrow petals that are similar to dahlias.
- Floksotsvetkovye differ in two shades in one inflorescence - white and crimson at the edges.
- Tulip flowers correspond to the name and are shaped like a bud.
- Rosebud. Their flowers are very similar to rosebuds.
- Carnations can be compared in inflorescence with carnations due to dissected wavy edges.
Leaf color and shape:
- Green. The leaves are special in that they have circles that are either darker in shade or lighter in shade than a horseshoe.
- Variegated. This variety destroys stereotypes about flowers, as it is grown not because of beautiful inflorescences, but because of the beauty of the leaves. They have a very fancy color and shape. Leaf color excites fantasy - it can be pink, bronze and yellow, etc.
The best varieties of pelargonium zone: photos, reviews
- Rafaella. The plant has beautiful, compact, well-branched, strong, dense and dense bushes. Lush and beautiful balls have a very rich color palette. The hybrid quickly and easily grows from seed. The first shoots begin to appear after 1-1.5 weeks. Pelargonium zonal Raphaella grows both as a potted room flower, and on well-lit balconies, and as a letnik in garden flower gardens. The plant has good resistance to heat, well tolerates short-term lowering of temperature. Planting of pelargonium zonal seedlings produced in January-March.
- Chandelier Mix. Magnificent perennial compact plant with large flowers collected in spherical inflorescences. The leaves are rounded. Flowers of various shades. Pelargonium zonal Chandelier Mix prefers sunny places and loose, fertile soil. It grows well both at home and in the open field.
- White Very gentle and beautiful plant that can give any garden lightness and charm. White zonal pelargonium is a low plant, the stem of which is only up to 30 cm. It grows well at home in pots and in flowerbeds.
Pelargonium zonal reviews received the most positive. This is a real decoration of apartments and front gardens.
How to plant?
Flower growers actively practice two types of reproduction of pelargonium: cuttings and with the help of seeds.
- Cherenkov reproduction. This is the most popular way that even a beginner can handle. The characteristics of the variety remain the same. First you need to cut off the upper part of the shoot by 5-15 cm. All lower leaves and flower stalks are removed from the finished cutting. The place that was used for cutting is required to air dry for several hours. Provided that the leaves on the process are too large, it is allowed to cut them only half. For rooting, it is quite possible to use an ordinary glass with water, but a priority will be a mixture of peat, perlite and sand. The prepared soil should be moistened periodically, but always monitor the stagnation of moisture and this should not be allowed. On the roots must necessarily get the light, and the temperature must be warm. Complex fertilizers will contribute to the strengthening of sprouts. In the future, it remains only to transplant the grown culture in the pot.
- Growing pelargonium zonal from seed. If, when using a cutting for breeding, you can be completely sure that all maternal characteristics will remain, in the case of seeds, this does not always work. Basically, the crossed shrubs of two varieties grow. In order for the seed container to give shoots, it is necessary to keep it warm with a temperature of about 20-25 ° C with diffused light. Cover it is not required, but be sure to moisten periodically. After a couple of weeks, the first shoots should appear. As soon as two pairs of small leaves are cut through them, seedlings can be easily transferred to full-grown pots.
The subtleties of lighting and temperature
In no case should not allow a lack of light for this beauty. Otherwise, it will leave you without flowers and will delight you with a half-empty stem with small leaves. To be able to observe the chic hat and fragrant flowers, it is necessary to pick the pot the brightest place, for example, the south side of the house. But, if after some time in the sun, faded yellow spots on the leaves began to appear, then it is necessary to add shadows. In winter, small lamps are suitable for good lighting.
The heat for a little beauty is harmful. She will not tolerate 30-degree heat. The standard for pelargonium zonal F1 is a stable +20 degrees, maximum +25. Drafts and cold glass are also enemies for the plant.
Air and watering
In the care of the flower culture must necessarily be rational watering. If pelargonium is too little water, it can be understood by yellow and dry leaves, and if you overdo it, you can say goodbye to a healthy root system. As soon as the topsoil layer becomes dry, it is necessary to add moisture. In winter, one or two times in two weeks is enough.
By the color of the petals and the shape of the flowers
- simple flowers, forming large inflorescences - umbrellas - this is a bunch of varieties
- flowers with pointed petals and strongly dissected leaves - star varieties
- flowers with narrow petals, often twisted to the center - cactus-flowered varieties.
- Two-color flowers with white center and crimson edges of petals - floksotsvetkovye varieties
- Flowers, the shape of which resembles the buds of tulips, due to the fact that until the end the flower never opens - tulip varieties
- Flowers resembling small roses, lush with half-opened petals, rolled to the center - rose-sewn.
- Flowers with wavy petals cut along the edges resembling a carnation - carnations
In shape and color of foliage
- green varieties with ordinary green leaves of varying degrees of color intensity and dark or light circles on horseshoe-shaped leaves.
- variegated varietiesthat grow just for decorative foliage, as the flowers themselves are small and inconspicuous, but the leaves strike with a variety of shapes and colors.
The circles on the leaves can be located not only in the form of a zone, but also in the form of a sector.
And its shades in combination with leaves can be completely unimaginable - pink, bronze, brown, silver, white, yellow, as well as combine several shades.
Features room geraniums
Home geranium is a herbaceous perennial in the form of a fast-growing branched bush. The leaves are pubescent, juicy green color and a rounded-lobed shape, when touched emit a peculiar peculiar smell. The plant blooms profusely and continuously. Small geranium flowers are collected in umbrella inflorescences and, depending on the variety, have a rich color range: from pale pink shades to rich red and crimson. In room culture common hybrid varieties with beautiful buds and unusual leaves. Geraniums are famous for their medicinal properties, unpretentious, multiply quite easily and do not require complex care.
The most popular types of geraniums
Geranium varieties and varieties are distinguished by botanical features and colors. Among the amazing variety of species of this plant for growing at home and in the garden several groups are most known.
- Geranium (Pelargonium) zone. Differs erect stems and spherical umbrella inflorescences. Light green leafy plates are covered with fibers. Flowers appear from late April to September. Familiar and familiar "grandmother" geranium.
- Geranium grandiflora (royal). Plant with rounded bright green leaves and luxurious large flowers on high peduncles. Many monochromatic hybrids (white, crimson, pale pink) are derived.
- Scented geraniums. They are a group of fragrant geraniums, whose leaves exude an intense unusual odor - lemon, apple, mint and even fresh rose. The leaves are carved, palmate-blade form with the edge. The flowers are small and inconspicuous. Flower growers prized for the amazing smell.
- Ampelnaya (ilepalischnaya) geranium. Характеризуется свисающими длинными побегами с мелкими пятилопастными гладкими листьями, своей формой напоминающими листочки плюща. Летом выпускает соцветия с бело-сиреневыми цветками.
- Герань грузинская. Это садовый декоративный вид с волнистыми листьями и фиолетовыми шапками цветков, распускающимися с середины июня.
Особенности ухода и размножения
Despite the fact that geranium is an unpretentious and not at all capricious plant, favorable conditions and necessary care will ensure full growth and beautiful flowering. When growing geraniums take into account several important factors.
- Lighting. Geranium is not afraid of direct sun and loves sunbathing. For the formation of a healthy shrub and long flowering plants need sufficient lighting. The south or southeast window sill can be a permanent place, and in the warm season - a balcony or a loggia. With a lack of light, the shoots will gradually stretch out, the leaves will be crushed, and flowering will be scarce.
- Temperature mode. In summer, the plant is comfortable at any temperature above 20 degrees. In winter, geraniums need a cool area away from heating devices.
- Watering. Geraniums are watered as the soil dries up in a pot, in summer more, in winter, in the period of minimal growth, less. The plant does not need constant spraying, it does not tolerate waterlogging and stagnation of water in the pan.
- Top dressing. The application of mineral complex fertilizers has a beneficial effect on the appearance of the plant. Standard feeding is carried out from the beginning of spring, during the growing season. The only exceptions are organic fertilizers. They are not recommended to bring in the soil under geraniums.
The best way to breed geraniums is grafting. Apical cuttings are cut from the mother bush and placed in water until the roots form. Then planted in small pots with a universal soil mixture. It is important to arrange a drainage in the form of brick chips or expanded clay to remove excess moisture.
Sometimes geraniums have yellowing and leaf fall. This is a normal and quite natural process associated with the age-related extinction of a part of the foliage. The plant thus adapts when relocating from the street to home conditions. Transplanting geraniums into a larger pot with fresh soil will be a good incentive for further growth of green mass.
Healing properties of geraniums
Geranium creates a special microclimate in the room, disinfecting the air, saturating it with phytoncides and essential substances. Compresses from the infusion of geranium leaves have a wound healing, antimicrobial and hemostatic effect. Due to its amazing bactericidal properties, preparations based on raw materials from geranium have been successfully used in herbal medicine to facilitate the course of such diseases as:
- stresses, nervous exhaustion, insomnia,
- allergic diseases, dermatitis, conjunctivitis,
- headaches and toothaches, migraines,
- sore throat, runny nose,
- burns, ulcers, acne, inflammation,
- kidney disease and many others.
Geranium oil is widely used in the perfume industry and cosmetology. Among other things, it is believed that geranium harmonizes the atmosphere in the house and is a natural stimulant of people's energy and an indicator of well-being in the family. In the old days they sincerely believed in the ability of geraniums to protect the house from penetration and evil forces.
Differences and similarities
- Inflorescences: geraniums - a curl of 1-3 flowers, and pelargonium - an umbrella.
- Flower form: in geranium, a simple flower with 5 petals, in pelargonium, non-double, semi-double and double flowers with different petal shapes.
- The shape and color of the leaves: in geraniums - green finger-dissected leaves, in the pelargonium zone - monochromatic and motley, of different shades and shapes, with weak or strongly pronounced contrast zones.
- Color: geranium flowers white, as well as red, purple and blue shades, zonal pelargonium - white, variegated, all shades of yellow, orange, red and purple, but no blue colors.
- The shape of the fruit box - it looks like the beak of a stork.
- Hairy leaves - hairs secrete essential oils.
Zone Pelargonium is a genus with about 70 thousand varieties. Some old varieties and hybrids are already lost. Plants are divided into subgroups on several grounds..
- microminiature - less than 10 cm in height,
- miniature - 10–13 cm,
- dwarf - 13–25 cm,
- medium (normal) - 25–60 cm,
- tall (Ayriny) - up to 80 cm
According to the structure of the flower:
- non-double - 5 petals arranged in one row,
- semi-double - 6–8 petals,
- terry - more than 8 petals, which are arranged in several rows.
By flower color:
- “Bird's Egg” - with a rounded spot at the bottom of the petal.
By leaf color:
- Regular - green leaves with a contrasting area of a slightly lighter or darker shade.
- Variegated - have two-color or tri-color brightly colored leaves, green, golden, reddish and dark brown tones with spots and strokes.
According to the shape of the flower and inflorescence:
- rose flowers (rosewood),
- Clove colors,
- deacons ("deacons").
Rosaceae - zonal pelargonium with double flowers, which are very similar to miniature roses.
Tulip - plants form flower stalks with lush “tulip bouquets”. Semi-double or double flowers are not fully disclosed, keeping the shape of a tulip bud.
Clove colors - have large petals with jagged edges.
Cactus - Pelargonium flowers resemble cacti flowers, petals are similar to petals of dahlias and needle chrysanthemums, often twisted into tubules.
Stellate - petals of flowers have a sharp, angular shape.
"Deacons" - hybrids of zonal and ivy gellite with large flowers. Bloom profusely, inflorescences and compact bushes.
Reproduction by cutting
Reproduction using cuttings provides a copy of the parent plant. The cuttings of Pelargonium zonal are well rooted and have a high viability.
You can chop in the spring and autumn. Autumn cuttings before spring transplantation pruned, leaving 3-4 points of growth.
- Prepare the uterine plant for pruning: plentifully watered and fed. You must ensure that there are no diseases and pests.
- Prepare clean scissors and activated carbon.
- Cut the twigs of the geranium and cut cuttings about 5-6 cm long, leaving the top pair of leaves.
- Treated sections of activated carbon.
- Shave cuttings in air for 4–6 hours.
- Prepare the soil - loose, light mixture. You can take ready-made universal primer and perlite in a ratio of 1: 1.
- Prepare small containers for planting with holes in the bottom, having treated them with fungicide or potassium permanganate.
- The cups are filled with primer and put on a tray through which the plants will be watered.
- The soil is slightly moisturized and deeply planted deep down to the bottom.
A few days of planting are kept in the shade, and then exposed to bright sunlight. The temperature should not exceed 20–23 o C.
On sale there are many seeds of magnificent F1 hybrids. Breeding plants are compact, even in height and bushiness, resistant to diseases and have a wide range of color shades: from snow-white and yellowish to variegated and dark purple. The optimal sowing time - from December to April.
Seeds germinate on average 8–40 days, depending on the variety and freshness. It is possible to increase seed germination by mechanical or thermal scarification. Such seeds sprout for 5–7 day.
- Prepare tools, soil, seeds and packaging for sowing.
- Seeds of unknown origin and the container are pre-disinfected with a pink solution of potassium permanganate or a fungicide.
- Sowing is done in a moistened substrate from a mixture of soddy earth and perlite or wet peat tablets.
- Sprinkle the seeds with a thin layer of soil, not more than 0.5 cm thick, covered with glass or plastic wrap. The coating is periodically removed for airing and moistening the soil.
- Maintain the temperature in the room at a level of 22-24 ° C.
- Regularly moisten the soil with a sprayer.
- After the shoots appear 3 true leaves, they dive.
In the open ground, plants are planted only when the temperature at night stops falling below +5 degrees. Before transplantation, hardening is carried out - they transfer the plants to a cool place with a temperature in the daytime of 15–17 ° C. The hardened zonal pelargonium in open ground can withstand light frosts, but will not bloom after that.
Pelargoniums, which are grown from seeds, begin to bloom at 125–140 days from sowing.
Pelargonium in garden compositions
In central Russia, perennial Pelargoniums are grown as annuals. Before frosts, the plants are dug up and transferred to the room for the winter. Geraniums are planted in open ground after warming up the soil and establishing a daily average temperature above 12–14 o C.
For planting choose open sunny areas - in the shade of other plants, geraniums grow weak and bloom poorly. The tops of the shoots pinch over 6-7 this leaf. Watered when planting drug that stimulates root growth.
Pelargoniums adorn the verandas and gazebos. They are planted in flower beds and flowerpots along with other plants.
The zone geranium harmoniously looks in single landings and together with chlorophytum, violet petunia and pelargonium ivy.
The border of multi-colored pelargoniums, which are planted along the paths or around arbors, looks elegantly.
Zonal Pelargonium - the familiar home geranium, will long serve as decoration for apartments, houses and personal plots.
Transplantation and fertilizer
Due to the accelerated growth of zonal pelargonium, it is necessary to immediately take care of the transplant possibilities. From spring to autumn - the most optimal period for this. If the culture is grown outside, then during the cold season, starting from autumn, you will have to transplant it into pots and keep it until summer, until the soil and air have warmed up sufficiently.
Pelargonium is not particularly fastidious in fertilizers; therefore, a universal complex of fertilizers for tomatoes or flowering plants will go well with it. The only thing that needs to be checked in the composition is a small content of such substances as phosphorus and potassium, and at a minimum of nitrogen. After transplanting fertilized culture is not recommended for another 1.5 months. In the cold season it is enough to fertilize the soil about once a month.
To the shape of the bush remained decorative and pleased with its beauty, you should monitor its formation. Otherwise, nothing but rare flowers and an elongated stem can be expected. Such a species as zonal pelargonium is distinguished from other varieties by very rapid growth, therefore one should not forget about pruning and nipping.
Varieties of Pelargonium Zonal
Allocate the most popular varieties for cultivation.
Differs in saturated dark green leaves, on which the zoning zone is almost invisible. The flowers are bright red with dark longitudinal stripes. Perfect for garden growing.
This is a tall plant with large white flowers, in some varieties of the variety they may be purple or salmon.
Differs saturated almost luminous red flowers and the average height of the bush.
It has pastel pink and white flowers with the transition to the crimson to the heart of the flower.
With huge bright red flowers with a relatively small own growth.
With a small growth has large white flowers.
Differs in flowers of gentle pink, almost salmon color.
For the growth and flowering plants do not need so much - the right watering and sufficient lighting, and your pelargonium will delight you with lush flowering long enough.
In order for the plant to grow and form a lush green crown and abundant inflorescences, it needs a bright light of 4-8 hours a day, the ideal place is the south side.
On hot days, the plant should be darkened to avoid sunburn. In summer, it is optimal to maintain a temperature of 20-23 degrees during the day and 12-15 at night.
In winter, it is optimal to keep the flower at a temperature of 12-20 degrees. Blooming geranium must be protected from drafts and from contact with cold glass windows.
Watering should be regular and dosed, because if there is too much water, the roots can begin to rot, if there is not enough of it, the leaves will wither and turn yellow.
It is necessary to water abundantly only after drying of the top layer of soil. In winter, you can water once a fortnight.
Spraying the plant is not necessary, because it is tolerant of air humidity, and water on the leaves can lead to the formation of ugly spots.
In winter, when the air in the apartments is dry, the plant should be placed on a tray with expanded clay, which is important to periodically moisten.
Pelargonium zonal grows quickly enough, therefore, it is necessary to periodically transfer to a new, more spacious pot.
It is possible to transplant a plant at any convenient time from spring to autumn. When kept in an open field, the plant should also be transplanted into a pot for the winter and brought into the room.
Young plants should be transplanted into slightly larger containers a couple of centimeters in diameter. Adults - in the same volume pots, changing only the whole soil mixture, which usually includes peat, loamy earth, sand, perlite and charcoal.
Flowers appear on young shoots, so it is important to timely pruning to form a crown, if it is not done, the plant will stretch and lose its decorative effect.
Since the plant grows very quickly, it is important to prune and nip plants regularly.
Pests and diseases
On pelargonium may appear signs of damage by such insects:
- spider mites,
When a lesion is detected, it is necessary to treat the affected plant with insecticides.
Most often the plant is affected whitefly. She lays her larvae on the back of the sheet.
You can overcome it with soapy water. The bush should be treated with soapy water and covered with polyethylene for several days.
In case of severe injury, treat with special chemical preparations.
The plant may be affected by a dangerous disease - black legMost often this is due to excessive watering, improper temperature conditions.
If you notice a gray bloom on the plant on the leaves, they also turn yellow with brown spots, it is likely that the plant is affected. mold fungus. It is important to destroy the affected leaves and process the plant with fungicides.
As you can see, it is quite easy to grow Pelargonium zone and even a novice gardener, as it is not quite whimsical to the conditions of detention, but it will take you a long time to enjoy the fur and beautiful flowering of the house, on the balcony or in the dacha.