For growing champignons at home, you need to perform several very important conditions: carefully study the technology, be patient and have a suitable place. Making mushrooms is not as easy as you might think after reading some articles. The slightest violation of technology will, at best, cause a sharp decrease in yield, at worst turn out to be in vain wasted time and financial resources.
Champignons can be grown in open beds, if climatic conditions allow, but you need to immediately prepare yourself that this method will allow you to try mushrooms with your own hands only a few times. There is no need to talk about any harvesting for the winter - the harvest will be too small. It is much more profitable to grow mushrooms in cellars or cellars. You can do this thing all year round, it is possible to fully provide mushrooms not only with your family, relatives and relatives, but also to be engaged in implementation. And the cultivation of champignons with the proper organization of labor is a very profitable business.
Mushroom cultivation at home
We briefly consider both methods of cultivation, but first we will talk about very important preparatory stages.
Content step by step instructions:
The most time-consuming, difficult and important stage is the manufacture of compost. As experienced summer residents say, the success of the whole business depends on the quality of the compost by 50%. What is compost made of?
Manure. The ideal option is horse manure, only it contains the complete set of elements necessary for the development of champignon. Unfortunately, at present, horse manure is a big problem to find, it is necessary to replace it with chicken manure (the best replacement option) or with any domestic animals.
Horse manure as a fertilizer
Straw. Ideal - wheat winter or rye spring. There is no such straw - take the oatmeal, in the last place is barley. Keep in mind that deviations from the ideal compost components will inevitably reduce the yield of mushrooms under all equal conditions.
Important. The straw should be only fresh, golden in color and with a pleasant "bread" smell.
Straw is an important source of carbon and some of the nitrogen. Without these elements, the synthesis of the protein of the fungus slows down or does not occur.
Mineral supplements. First of all, gypsum belongs to them, it enriches the compost with calcium and improves its physical structure. In the compost, you can give bone meal, urea, brewer's grains and other elements. Of course, you need clean water.
Very important. It is strictly forbidden to pour tap water with chlorine for compost preparation. Compost can only be watered with rainwater, in extreme cases, well water.
Data on the number of each element in the compost are given in the table.
What kind of compost to prepare, everyone must decide, based on the availability of components.
Composting for champignons
If you think that it is enough to mix all the ingredients to make compost, then this is a big mistake. Quality compost, from which you can expect a return, is obtained as a result of a complex biochemical process. The result should be a lignin-protein substrate, optimally suitable for champignons. What are the main requirements to follow?
- The site where the compost is supposed to be produced must be isolated from the ground. It can be concreted, asphalted, covered with thick rubber, film or other materials. The main thing is to completely exclude the possible penetration of spores of pests of fungi, in which they are always in the ground.
- If it is warm outside, then the compost can be prepared under the open sky, you just have to cover the area with any rain cover. Otherwise, it is impossible to regulate the humidity of the compost, and this is a very important indicator.
- In order to soak a ton of dry straw, you need about 20 m3 of water, and for complete preparation of the same amount of compost you will need about 10–15 m3 of water. We have already said that the use of tap water is prohibited. In total, up to 35 m3 of water is needed for a ton of compost. A ton of compost is not very much, in volume it will be up to 2 m3, such an amount is enough to grow mushrooms in an area of approximately 10 m2. Amateur mushroom growers should know that if there is little straw (100–200 kg), then the fermentation process will not start, all attempts to make real compost will actually turn into useless mixing of ingredients.
The main stages of compost preparation
Good quality compost should be soft, without a strong ammonia odor. As you can see, compost preparation is not as simple as it may seem to inexperienced summer residents.
Substrate for champignons
The resulting compost should be poured into wooden boxes with a depth of ≈ 20 centimeters, the length and width should be chosen taking into account the size of the shelves or places in the beds. The introduction of the mycelium (inoculation) should be done only after the temperature of the compost has decreased to + 24 ° C. Immediately after sowing, the temperature begins to rise slightly, which becomes an additional incentive for germination of mushroom spores.
Wooden trough for forming beds
The temperature of the compost should be constantly monitored, if it rises above + 30 ° C, then it can be dangerous for germination, it is necessary to take emergency measures to lower it. The simplest and quite effective way is airing. 600–800 grams per square meter will be required. mycelium. Before seeding the mycelium, it is necessary to preheat it to room temperature, then chop it thoroughly, break the breasts and, in this form, add to the compost. How to do it?
- In the mycelium with the prepared compost prepare cavities ≈ 5 cm. Make holes in a checkerboard pattern, removing them with honey 20 cm.
- Put about 20–30 grams in each hole. mycelium, dimples close with compost.
It is allowed to use another seeding method. The prepared mycelium is evenly mixed with the upper layer about ten centimeters thick.
The process of growing mushrooms
After sowing the mycelium of the box or bed, cover the polyethylens with a film, this way it will be possible to eliminate the quick drying of the surface. Periodically it is necessary to check the temperature of the compost at a depth of about 15 cm, it should be within + 24 ° C.
The first survival test can be performed at the expiration of a week after seeding. To do this, carefully lift the top layer, if the mycelium is clearly visible, then everything is going fine. Under optimal conditions, two weeks are enough for the full development of the mycelium.
To increase the yield you need to gobtirovka - drawing on the rows of mushrooms wet earth. This layer of earth performs several functions:
- protects the lower compost from fast drying. This is a kind of mulching, only with the help of the primer,
- significantly stimulates the development of fruit bodies of the fungus. Without gobirovka mycelium develops perfectly, but few mushrooms,
- adjusts the percentage of carbon dioxide in the compost and maintains temperature values.
Instead of natural land, peat can be used to cover the upper layer of the boxes. The main thing is that the coating materials have a neutral acidity.
Very important. The cover mix must be sterile, otherwise the mycelium may become infected with diseases and pests. To achieve the required performance, it can be steamed, spilled with boiling water or roasted in the oven. Select the method taking into account the amount of coating material and its individual capabilities. Before using the earth, it is necessary to moisten it abundantly, humidity not less than 70%. Apply it to a layer of up to three centimeters, the surface needs to be leveled.
Practical advice. Keep in mind that reducing the coating layer to a thickness of 1 cm reduces the yield of mushrooms by 30%. At the same time, an increase in this layer to 5 centimeters has no effect on productivity. Do not skip this operation, it is of great importance.
Mushroom cultivation in blocks
After 7 days, the mycelium begins to germinate in the covering layer, during this period it needs to be slightly burnt. To increase the yield by another 30%, after the colonization of the compost with mycelium, special nutritional supplements are necessary. You can find them in stores, if such a purchase option is not possible, then use the services of the Internet. The rate of nutritional supplements specified by the manufacturer.
Intensive fruiting of mushrooms begins 14 days after the application of the cover soil, during this period the temperature should be lowered to + 15 ° С. If it is higher, the mushrooms will be small, on a thin stalk, the caps will quickly open. If the temperature is lower, the growth of fungi will slow down significantly. Light mushrooms without the need, on the contrary, they give better yields in total darkness. If direct sunlight falls on the caps, the quality of the mushrooms significantly decreases.
Photo champignon growing at home
Important. During this period, you need to pay special attention to the humidity of the air, it should be ≥ 80%. It is possible to increase humidity by any means, up to spraying the surfaces of boxes.
If during the period of intensive fruiting there are drafts in the room, then the caps will dry out and deep cracks will appear on the surface. This greatly impairs the appearance of mushrooms.
Science claims that for one kilogram of mushrooms you need ≈ 2 liters of water. Watering should be done in between the waves of fruiting. It is necessary to water the boxes very carefully. Moisture on the caps causes stains on the caps. It is recommended to ventilate the room immediately after watering, this will help the moisture to quickly evaporate from the surface of the mushrooms.
How to grow mushrooms
The greatest harvest is collected from the first three waves, further the ripening period increases, and the mass of the crop decreases. Three collections give more than 70% of the total. Keeping the mycelium after the sixth wave is not recommended, it is economically feasible to make new plantings of the mycelium. Once the mushrooms are cleaned, the surface of the earth must be thoroughly cleaned, if it is trimmed or overripe mushrooms, they cause an outbreak of various diseases and the appearance of pests.
After the sixth collection, giving birth to old compost needs to be removed, the boxes should be disinfected. Old compost is an excellent fertilizer for all vegetables. Dig it in the garden beds.
It must be remembered that dealing with diseases is much more difficult than preventing them. In addition, diseases of fungi extremely adversely affect the yield. In order to minimize the risk of disease, you need to thoroughly disinfect the spawn boxes and prepare the compost correctly. Pay much attention to the cover material.
Practical advice. If you find the first signs of illness, the container with mushrooms must be removed, it is not necessary to risk all crops. After removal, try to cure the mushrooms, if it is difficult for you, then throw out the substrate on the beds and use it as fertilizer for other crops.
It is more correct to start from this point, so that the reader will immediately understand, firstly, that there is nothing particularly difficult in this, and secondly, whether he can realize one of the listed technologies with his own abilities and needs.
Favorable conditions for champignons
They do not need much:
- Humidity (%) - above average (about 70 - 80).
- Temperature (ºС) - moderate, within 18 ± 4.
- Good breathability. And how to organize the ventilation - natural or forced, is decided on the spot.
And practically no care, unlike most garden and decorative crops.
In this case, it means not only a plot on the plot, but also a certain area in the greenhouse, a voluminous basement, an empty shed, a vegetable store, and so on. All that is needed is a segment of the territory (horizontal base) on which the prepared soil mixture can be poured.
- Waterproofing foundations. Since champignons need high humidity, it is necessary to exclude the "leaving" of water into the ground. The simplest way is to trim it and cover the entire area of the future bed with a polyethylene film (preferably thick, it is stronger).
- Substrate laying. The recommended thickness of its layer is 35 ± 5 cm.
- Sowing mycelium. You can choose one of two common methods. The first is that grooves are made in the soil into which the planting material is loaded, which is the finest bodies — mushroom filaments of champignons (vultures).
That is, in the same way as seeds of carrots, beets, and a number of other crops are sown. The second technology is no more difficult. Planting material is simply scattered over the surface. So that the mycelium is well fixed in the substrate, on top it is again a small (approximately 5 cm) layer of cooked earth.
It remains only to organize the systematic irrigation of the beds. For the growth of the mycelium, the soil must always be kept hydrated. Plus - to regulate the temperature (if we are talking about the room) at the required level. The appearance of the first mushrooms can be expected in about a couple of months.
- The simplicity of this technology.
- Virtually no preparatory activities, except for the choice of location.
- Minimum investment. Only on the acquisition of mycelium. The cost of 1 sachet is within 150 rubles.
- Great risk of infectious diseases of champignons. It is clear that it is impossible to get out on ready-made beds with planted mycelium. Therefore, when visiting a room with mushroom mushroom sponge, you will have to follow the rules of hygiene. Change of shoes and so on. If the bed on the site, in a shaded place, to fulfill all the requirements of sanitation is much more difficult.
- The impossibility of changing the position of the mycelium. How significant this deficiency is is for the owner of the territory to decide. But it is worth noting.
- The difficulty in harvesting champignons.
On the racks
This method is known as Dutch technology.
The difference from the horizontal method is that the substrate is loaded into containers (preferably plastic containers). They can be put on the shelves (or turned into separate compartments), hammered pallets and so on - there are enough options.
You can do so - to make a kind of shelves with shelves, drawers. It is much more convenient.
- Rational placement regardless of location chosen. Moreover, if necessary, it is easy to change.
- Significant space savings. Shelves can have floors, tiers.
- High quality care. First of all, the fight against infections is greatly facilitated.
- A sharp decrease in labor costs, taking into account the mechanization of the process.
- Some difficulty in caring for champignons is due to the fact that in the process you will have to look after each container (compartment) separately. Make a revision of the soil, determine the lesions and the like.
- Experts note the high cost of this technology. Even very rough estimates show that for growing mushrooms on an area of 100 m², financial investments of at least 500,000 rubles are required. For example, on the organization of drip irrigation and much more. But this is for the bulk production of champignons.
When they are received in relatively small quantities (for oneself), no large expenditures will be required (substrate + containers). Perhaps artificially heated. Therefore, this "minus" is somewhat leveled.
Naturally, in polyethylene.
Step-by-step process description:
- The substrate is loaded into bags, to the top, and slightly compacted.
- Water is poured. So that the soil becomes wet throughout the depth.
- Small holes are made in the walls of the bags (8-10 cm in diameter). Usually the chosen scheme in the form of a chessboard. This allows you to grow mushrooms more compactly.
- The mycelium is placed in the formed “nests” of the improvised grid.
- For the home - the most rational way. Bags can be placed anywhere and in any way, moved to another place, if required.
- All costs are reduced only to the acquisition of packaging and mycelium.
- In fact, the whole mycelium is divided into parts, completely isolated from each other. With its defeat in one of the bags it is subjected to disinfection or discarded. But the "infection" with this method will never spread throughout the room.
The only drawback is increased labor costs. This is primarily due to the loading of the substrate into the bags and seeding the mycelium in the wells.
This is the homely way, since this technology is easy to organize in the apartment. Containers with the substrate can be placed anywhere - on the balcony, windowsill, under the cabinet (closer to the radiator), not to mention the extensions to private houses, basements, and so on.
Step-by-step process description:
- Container preparation. It is necessary not only the “dishes”, but also a lid with a tray.
- Disinfection containers.
- Substrate loading.
- Sowing mycelium. Approximate depth - 4.5 cm.
- Moisturizing soil with mycelium.
The practice of cultivating champignons in this way shows that the main attention should be paid to irrigation. Temperature is a secondary factor. Но если она выше рекомендуемого значения (например, около 26 – 27 ºС), то развитие грибов происходит более интенсивно.
Плюсов у данной технологии множество, а вот недостатков практически нет. For your own consumption (if you consider that no one will eat champignons every day), it is enough to “charge” 3 - 4 small containers. It will take a little time, care is minimal (only watering), and it’s easy to guess where to place them.
There are a number of other ways, but it makes no sense to consider them. For the house, they are hardly suitable. For example, block cultivation of champignons. Such containers are made in production, mainly from organic matter (manure, husk of seeds, peat, sawdust), pressing the prepared mixture. There are advantages, but, according to reviews of those who grow mushrooms at home, everything “crosses out” a significant disadvantage - such containers are short-lived (enough for a maximum of 3 crops), quickly collapse (you will have to look for a solid “shell”), and with their transportation big problems. All this together leads to significant costs.
For those who realized that it is worth it to grow mushrooms at home, such an issue as preparing a soil mixture is no less interesting. The substrate (in some sources it is called compost) is a nutrient medium for planting mycelium, from which the mycelium develops. Instructions for its preparation are placed on the back of the packaging with planting material or attached on a separate piece of paper. Therefore, there are no problems with this.
The main components of the substrate:
- Dead manure (horse).
- Hay or straw (fresh).
- Various additives - chalk, bone meal, superphosphate and a number of others.
In principle, following the manufacturer's instructions, it is easy to prepare a nutrient medium for champignons, knowing the proportion of components. Especially if we are talking about a relatively small amount of substrate.
The article provides full information on the cultivation of champignons. Well, which of the ways to choose, given its capabilities and the required volumes of mushroom production, is not difficult to decide.
What should be the cellar?
You can grow mushrooms in any well-made cellar. The cellar floor must be concrete, not earthen. In general, the more clean and insulated a room is from the outside, the better.
To save space in the basement racks with mushrooms equip several floors (tiers).
Unlike green onions and other plants, champignons do not need additional lighting. They can be grown well in the dark. The lamp should be screwed only so that it is convenient to work in the cellar or basement.
The cellar should be equipped with a ventilation system, since the compost on which the mushroom grows, when decomposed, actively emits carbon dioxide. A stuffing mushrooms can not tolerate. Carbon dioxide should be removed, and in its place to get fresh air. However, do not allow drafts. Ventilation pipes are closed with a fine mesh to prevent insects from getting inside.
If there is not enough ordinary supply and exhaust pipes for good ventilation of the cellar. We'll have to take care of the forced ventilation of the room. For the organization of air circulation over the boxes with champignons, you can use additional fans. If possible, install additional air purification filters.
Temperature and humidity
To control these indicators, install a thermometer and a hygrometer in the champignon growing room. It is possible to increase the humidity by spraying the shelves and the floor from a spray bottle. Reduce - due to airing.
The temperature in the summer can be adjusted by ventilation, but if you plan to grow mushrooms all year round, take care of additional heating of the cellar.
If your cellar is large enough, it makes sense to divide it into two zones. You will use one room for incubation (the spread of the mycelium along the substrate), and the second for the direct forcing of mushrooms (fruit bodies). The temperature for the successful course of these processes requires different. The mycelium grows at about 23 degrees, and fruiting occurs at 16–17 degrees.
Maintaining stable temperature conditions in each room, you can simply carry the boxes with the substrate. In this way, you can grow champignons continuously - as long as half the boxes bear fruit, another grows mycelium and so on. If necessary, you can add a third zone for composting.
To grow mushrooms, the basement must be well sanitized, treated against parasites and mold. The champignons are very susceptible to disease and pest damage, and it will be a shame to lose most of the crop due to the neglect of safety measures at the initial stage.
In particular, the following processing can be carried out:
- Fumigate with sulfur checker.
- Lime the walls and ceiling with lime with the addition of blue vitriol.
- Spray with 4% formalin solution.
- If in the basement previously lay vegetables, and fruit flies or other pests started, you need to treat the room with chlorophos.
- As an additional protective measure at the entrance it is possible to arrange a box with sawdust soaked in disinfectant solution.
After disinfection, the basement should be thoroughly ventilated, otherwise not only the champignons, but it will also be very difficult for you to be inside.
The preparation of a nutrient medium on which mushrooms will grow is one of the most important and crucial moments. To grow the maximum yield, you should prepare the substrate, following the recommendations on the packaging with the mycelium that you purchased. Since the strains or varieties of champignons are different, the technology of preparation and the composition of the substrate may vary slightly.
This is the substrate on which mushrooms grow.
However, there are general principles for the preparation of compost for the cultivation of champignons, which can be considered universal. The best option would be natural horse manure compost. It is important that animals eat hay, not green food.
Two options for the preparation of natural compost:
Where do champignons grow in nature?
If we consider the natural conditions, they are found almost everywhere. Forests, steppes, meadows, edges, lowlands, open spaces with wet ground and even semi-deserts, mountain forests are common places of growth.
As for the “home” conditions, they can grow in a garden or a kitchen garden, a cellar, a basement, a specially equipped garage, a greenhouse.
How to grow mushrooms? With many years of experience of mushroom pickers, it has been proven that they grow best of all where the basement room is equipped with good ventilation.
At the same time, the air temperature should be relatively cool (not higher than +20 ° C), and if this process is put on stream, the indicator of the mercury column on the thermometer should vary between +12 .. + 18 ° C year-round. The percentage of humidity should be about 70..85%, lighting does not play a special role.
It is not recommended to cultivate mushrooms in room conditions due to the absence of all the required standards: temperature, the presence of compost (smells from it), lack of space.
Mushroom cultivation at home - technology
The necessary factors for a successful process are:
- The right choice of location.
- Disinfection room.
- The organization of the microclimate.
- Proper preparation of the substrate.
- Mycelium selection.
- Planting mycelium.
- Appropriate care.
As mentioned above, under properly organized conditions, mushrooms can be grown throughout the year. The technology itself is not very complex, as it may initially seem. From the very beginning, you need to arrange everything correctly, and then the process will go along the thumbed path. This work can even be called creative, something like a hobby. To date, breeders have brought about 50 varieties of this mushroom, which have minor differences in appearance. The color of the cap, its structure, the duration of storage may vary, but all cultivated cultivars are the “children” of the usual white champignon.
An example of a light brown variety in the photo:
Let's, as a basic example, consider basement cultivation, since this method is considered the most common. For the so-called “burial” breeding, it is best to choose high-yielding varieties, such as Silvan 130 (Sylvan 130), Hauser A15 (Hauser A15) or Somicel 512 (Somycel 512). They are quite unpretentious, they are not difficult to care for, and also very "prolific."
Remember - the most important factor for the successful outcome of your efforts is the presence of well-adjusted ventilation in the room where the mushrooms will grow!
A constant supply of fresh air is very important, since during the growth they emit carbon dioxide, and its excessive concentration in the room leads to the stretching, lengthening of the mushroom leg.
Mushroom cultivation in the basement
The selected room must be decontaminated. This factor does not depend on whether it is a basement, a garage or a separate shed. As mentioned above, in addition to high-quality ventilation, there should be a high level of humidity. This is necessary for the qualitative growth of fungi, but because high humidity is a direct path to the appearance of mold and various fungi on the walls and shelves. In addition, the mushrooms themselves are extremely sensitive to all kinds of parasites and diseases. Therefore, the processing room is a must for a mushroom grower.
How to grow mushrooms at home - room disinfection:
- Of the most common, frequently used ones, this is whitewashing of the ceiling, walls, and all surfaces of the limestone with copper sulfate (copper sulphate) added to it. The so-called “recipe”: 2 or 3 kg of hydrated lime + 100 g of copper sulfate per bucket of water (10 liters). When working with disinfectors, be sure to wear a protective mask on your face!
- The second method is more dangerous for the human respiratory tract and also requires protection. It takes 350 g of bleach, is diluted with 10 liters of water, and is applied by irrigating the walls of the room.
- Irrigation of walls and other surfaces with 4% formalin, with the help of a construction spray gun is most convenient.
- You can fumigate the room with the help of sulfuric checkers - it also gives a very effective preventive effect.
- Chlorophos is a radical, destructive method, but too poisonous in its composition. It acts not only on mold, but also on harmful insects.
After any treatment, the room must be ventilated with high quality - this is also a prerequisite.
Let us return to the ventilation, or rather, we will clarify one thing: the air should be fresh, but drafts should be excluded. It is better to close the ventilation pipes (“ducks”) with small mesh nets - this will create an obstacle to the entry of insects, as well as a small barrier to air masses. If you have a serious room of a large size, and the cultivation is put on stream, then the ventilation system should be more global, with additional fans located above each large box. If opportunities permit, the installation of air purifiers with replaceable filters will not be superfluous for this business.
It is clear that a thermometer with a hygrometer is simply necessary for the room where mushrooms are grown. So you can always control the level of humidity: with a lack - irrigate with water from a spray bottle, with an excess - air. With the onset of the summer heat, the fans solve this problem, but if the cultivation of this type of mushrooms occurs throughout the year, then in addition to all the aforementioned benefits of civilization, you will need additional heating of the basement or cellar.
Large cellar room, photo:
Best of all, if your cellar, in addition to all requirements for cultivation, will have an earthen floor (not concrete). By and large, the more purposefully the room will be adapted specifically for mushrooming - the better. Any extra additional factors in the basement, cellar, garage or shed, not related to the topic of cultivation of mushrooms, will only interfere with, violate the "microclimate" of the room.
To the "pluses" of mushrooming, you can add the fact that they are able to bear fruit well even in complete darkness. This distinguishes them from all other green inhabitants. The weakest light bulb is enough - they will feel comfortable, but the light, rather, will be more useful to you in order to be comfortable in the place.
If the cultivation of champignons at home initially has far-reaching plans, the owner has a large room, then it will be a reasonable, convenient solution to divide it into 2 zones. Simply put - the mushrooms must be born somewhere, and a specially prepared substrate is designed for this process (about it a little later). So, in one zone there will be a substrate through which the mycelium will spread (this is called incubation). In the second compartment will be placed directly boxes of mushrooms, where they will be forcing.
The temperature regime of these two compartments should also be different: the mycelium usually grows at a temperature of +23 .. + 24 ° C, and the growth of mushrooms occurs at a temperature column of +16 .. + 18 ° C. If you adapt, develop your own “schedule” of moving boxes from one zone to another, you can grow these delicious, well-loved mushrooms all year round.
Compost for mushroom cultivation
Compost preparation (substrate) is one of the most crucial aspects of mushroom production. The quality of the mushrooms will depend directly on the properly prepared substrate. Usually, when you buy mycelium of champignons, the substrate corresponding to the variety and the nuances of its preparation are indicated on the package with the contents. The varieties are different, and the composition of the compost, its technology of collection may vary. However, most often these parameters do not have significant differences.
The substrate should be prepared either in a specially designated room, or in the open air (outside), under a well-equipped shed. It is important that no precipitations (rain) or sun rays fall on the compost. It is also not recommended to pour the compost on the "bare" ground - spread a sheet of dense plastic film. Thus, undesirable insects or any other pests do not penetrate into the substrate. It should not be in contact with the ground, but blowing it with air from all sides is a must!
Compost for champignons should be moderately wet, since an excess of moisture can disrupt the proper fermentation processes.
Anyway, the street is the best place for maturation of the substrate, active release of ammonia, carbon dioxide will not be useful to anyone. The average time of "readiness" of the substrate, its fermentation, is approximately 25-30 days. During this period, it is recommended to mix it at least three times (to ensure uniform fermentation). The fact that the process has come to an end, you will learn by the absence of a specific smell of ammonia. Its color by this time gets a brownish tint. While the substrate is fermented, the temperature inside it can be about +50 .. + 65 ° C, and the ready-for-use compost has a temperature of no more than +24 .. + 25 ° C.
By the way, to enrich the contents of the compost when it is first mixed, you can add crushed lime to the total composition. During the second mixing - fertilizer superphosphate, with the third - ground gypsum or its construction analogue (alabaster). Already "ready" substrate, in addition to the above signs, does not stick to hands, springy at tactile contact, the straw is extremely softened, easily divided into fragments.
As an alternative to the independent process of compiling the substrate, you can advise the purchase of ready-made compost, which is sold in gardening departments of supermarkets or flower shops. Of course, such a substrate will be of lower quality than it was prepared with its own hands, although it will be written on the package that it possesses all the required characteristics.
Here it is up to you to decide what is more convenient for you, whether you have time for the implementation of all the preparation points for the cultivation of these mushrooms. Considering the common signs of “good” compost, let's highlight the main ingredients.
The composition of the compost for mushroom cultivation:
- For these purposes, it is considered to be the best horse products of vital activity. In addition, it is important to bear in mind that the horses ate hay, and not green grass. Horse manure moisture for the preparation of the substrate should be approximately 45%. Horse waste can be replaced by cow or poultry, but, according to the experience of experienced mushroom pickers, the harvest on such a "basis" will be much worse. So, horse manure you need about 100 kg.
- Straw - better choose a dry, rye or wheat variety. You will need about 100 kg too.
- Alabaster (gypsum) - about 6 kg.
- In other cases, alabaster is replaced by urea (2.5-3 kg) or the same amount of nitrate (per 100 kg of straw and 1000 kg of manure). As we remember, these fertilizers are added with the mixing of the compost.
- Опять же, использование 100 кг конских отходов, 100 кг хорошо высушенной ржаной соломы, 3 кг мочевины, 5 кг мела, 2 кг суперфосфата, 8,5 кг гипса при смешивании создадут оптимальное соотношение ингредиентов.
Как в домашних условиях выращивать шампиньоны? Используйте свежие продукты жизнедеятельности животных, пока они ещё максимально содержат питательные вещества. Следите за тем, чтобы во вносимых составляющих не было хвойных стружек или опилок – они выделяют смолу, а данные грибы её чувствуют, болезненно реагируют на её присутствие. Phosphate fertilizers, as well as urea, are in fact highly recommended, useful - these are sources of phosphorus and nitrogen, so necessary for champignons. But chalk normalizes the acidity of the substrate, maintains the optimum pH level.
Mushrooms: growing at home is the easiest way to create layers:
- We take a comfortable wide container, fill it with hot water, soak the straw for about 24 hours.
- After that we lay it in layers with manure. You will get about 5-6 layers. Do not forget to moisturize each layer is not very hot water, lightly, but do not moisten copiously.
- After 3 days, we take a pitchfork and thoroughly mix the compost-straw "pie", but at the same time we add fertilizers - superphosphate with urea (urea). At this stage, the substrate begins to smell strongly of ammonia. After 4 days, we again shovel the substrate, additionally adding those dressings that are required by the standard of this cultivar.
- In general, compost mixing should be done about 4 or 5 times in all time. Do not spare the effort on this - useful elements are evenly distributed throughout the composition, and the mass will acquire a relatively uniform consistency.
The so-called "care" for the compost has already been described above, but I would like to add, repeat about the warning about excessive moisture. Too much moisture of the substrate will slow down its maturation, but what's even worse - it will wash out from the mixture all the useful ingredients required for development, growth.
Compost components (dry hay, horse manure, fertilizers), photo:
Mycelium of champignons - landing
The substrate, of course, should be purchased from a reliable representative (best of all - special laboratories). When the compost is already ripe, we transfer it to the agreed place, put it in boxes or special forms, where further actions will take place:
- In order to get a good harvest of champignons, about 500 g of mycelium or 400 g of these varietal spores will be needed per 1 m² of compost.
- If mycelium is used, then along the entire surface of the container with compost, at a distance of 20 cm from each other, small dimples should be made, 4 or 5 cm in depth. An appropriate amount of mycelium is laid in these pits, but if fungal spores are used for planting, they are simply spread evenly over the substrate surface.
- After a while, you will notice spiderwebs covering the surface of the containers with compost. By this time, the temperature of the humidity in the room should be at the level of 75-95%. In order to avoid drying of the substrate, it can be irrigated from time to time with clean settled water from a spray bottle, and also covered with a clean, damp cloth or paper.
- The mushroom mushroom begins to grow at a temperature of +20 .. + 28 ° C, the active phase of the spread of the mushroom "spider web" occurs after about 10 or 12 days, and then the top layer of the compost will need to be powdered with the appropriate earth mixture (about 4-5 cm), wait for another 3 days, after which the containers with the future mushrooms should be transferred to a colder room with a temperature of +12 .. + 16 С °. Or by compulsion to lower the temperature in the room to this indicator of mercury.
- Keep in mind that the usual garden soil for "powdering" will not work for you. Prepare a mixture of 1 share of limestone, 5 shares of peat, 4 shares of clean soil in advance. After 3 - 3.5 months, expect the first well-deserved results of their work.
The harvest from one mycelium can give from 5 to 8 periods of ripening of new mushrooms. This is called the "wave", the most generous mushroom picking falls on the first three "waves". Here it is important to catch the moment of ripening - when the cap is still tightened from the bottom with a thin white skin (film), and there are still no brown plates. Mushrooms need to be twisted from the place of its growth, but not cut off (so that no harmful bacteria can enter the mycelium through the cut-off area).
After the crop has been harvested, again gently powder the substrate with the above mixture. During the next two weeks they will grow especially actively.
Mushroom correctly extracted from the soil, photo:
Hat in optimal ripening state, photo:
How to grow mushrooms in the country in the open field?
In addition to the above, the most commonly used "basement" method of growing mushrooms, there are other alternatives. For example, how to grow champignons at home, namely - in the summer cottage. Sometimes, for some reason (the absence of a basement, garage or other suitable premises), the desire to grow these mushrooms seems impossible. But if you are a happy owner of the dacha, everything is possible!
The most successful period for this is summer and autumn, it is also important to choose a comfortable place here. Champignons - where do they grow? In shaded places, on specially prepared soil, the place for the mycelium should be moderately moist, the ground should not dry out, the sun's rays should not illuminate too much the chosen place. To protect against drought on hot days, the beds are often covered with plastic film or a special covering material to create a certain microclimate. It is important to bring the mushrooms as close as possible to conditions similar to their natural habitat. Since we can not affect the weather conditions, we must try to give the mushrooms moisture - when they need it, as well as the presence of fresh air.
In the garden under the trees, photo:
After sowing the mycelium on the beds, on the open field, mushroom cultivation - their technology is practically no different from the rules of cultivation in the cellar. After a couple of weeks, the “cobwebs” of the mycelium expand over the surface of the soil, at this point the temperature is reduced by sprinkling the surface of the soil with a thin (up to 5 cm) layer of moist earth. Temperature, similarly, should vary within +12 .. + 15 С °, but in no case reach above +20 С °. As in the above method, it will be much more productive if this land contains peat and limestone. Regular watering (or rather, delicate irrigation) is best done after sunset - this will optimally moisten the soil and prevent the formation of a dense earth crust. With the right approach to business, in about 3-4 weeks you can expect a harvest of your own mushrooms.
Mycelium launches spiderwebs, photo:
To summarize how to grow mushrooms in the country:
- Mycelium or spores should be planted on specially prepared soil. This may be soil brought from the forest zone.
- The earth should be optimally saturated with top dressing, be well hydrated, not have stones, fragments of bricks or remnants of old roots.
- It is best to plant the mushrooms on open ground at a neutral temperature of air - +21 .. + 22 С °.
- If a greenhouse is chosen for planting, you should carefully monitor the level of humidity and the air temperature in it. Conditions are not very different from the basement or garage cultivation of mushrooms. It should be remembered - that heat and drought are detrimental to them.
- As already mentioned, the method of planting does not differ from the “basement” analogue (20 cm apart, shallow pits, powder with a ground mixture after the appearance of the “cobweb”).
- With the receipt of the first mushrooms, the abundance of irrigation can be reduced (so that the roots do not rot), irrigation is our everything in this business.
After all the waves of the mushroom harvest are gone, the spent substrate can be simply disposed of, and it can be quite successfully used as organic fertilizer or mulch for some trees or even flower beds. Of course, for the re-cultivation of mushrooms, it is no longer suitable, but as an excellent fertilizer for your green inhabitants - it will serve. As for all kinds of packaging, boxes after harvesting and harvesting compost, they will require mandatory disinfecting treatment, as well as the room where mushrooms were grown.
Where can I grow mushrooms?
Mushroom cultivation at home can be done in several ways. Each of them has its own characteristics and specificity:
- In the garden or in the garden. Cultivation of champignons in the open field, of course, will not yield high yields, but it is quite suitable for providing the family with mushrooms. This option involves sowing the mushroom mycelium into compost. To do this, organic waste from the compost pit is laid evenly on the site chosen for sowing mycelium. The very same mycelium is planted in early spring. Subsequent care for him is to regular watering the compost. The width of the beds with compost prepared for planting the mycelium of champignons should be up to 1.5 m. In order for the mushrooms to grow well, it is recommended to moisten the soil under them as they dry,
- In the basement. Mushroom cultivation in the basement is a good option. This room has a suitable microclimate, because the temperature and humidity level in it will change slightly (which is especially important for obtaining a high yield of mushrooms). However, this method has its drawbacks. In particular, good ventilation must be provided in the basement. The walls and ceiling in such a room should be concrete,
- In the garage. The garage is another suitable place for growing a good harvest of champignon mushrooms. It is equipped with solid hinged shelves. Compost is laid on them in a uniform layer, into which they are then sown. mushroom spores. Some craftsmen plant mycelium of mushrooms on the floor in the garage. (To learn how to build a foam block garage, see this article)
- In the greenhouse. Mushroom cultivation in the greenhouse is carried out on the same principle as in the open field. The only difference is the need to create arcs under the greenhouse film and the tension of the film itself,
- In bags. Good reviews received a method of breeding mushrooms in bags. One of the most convenient ways to package mushroom mycelium is considered to be placed in a plastic container. This does not require large material costs and specialized equipment. First, the substrate is prepared for the landing of the fungal mycelium and maintained for several days until complete burnout (decomposition of the components of the mixture). The prepared soil mixture is placed in bags and well rammed. Then spores of mushrooms are seeded into it,
- Houses. Get a great harvest of mushrooms at home can, if you choose the right place for planting mycelium. One of the suitable options is cultivation of champignons inside the house. Champignons, like any other mushrooms, love the shade and a lot of moisture. Instead of plastic bags, you can use containers with a large number of holes over the entire surface to lay the substrate and spore out spores. In them the mycelium will develop well due to good ventilation and maintaining high humidity.
Substrate (soil mixture) for growing champignons at home
The substrate for growing mushrooms is an artificially created soil mixture, rich in nutrients.
The preparation of the substrate (soil mixture) for mushroom cultivation is the most crucial stage in all the work.
Most of all for such mushrooms is suitable a composition in which there is compost (prepared from straw with the addition of wheat seed) and horse manure.
If there is no horse manure, it is replaced with cow or bird droppings (moreover, the latter component is used carefully, since champignons do not tolerate it well).
Preparing the substrate is recommended either in a room with good ventilation or outside.
The technology of creating a nutrient mixture for growing champignons is as follows:
- Per 1 sq.m. Approximately 30 kg of straw is taken in the area of the selected site (less is impossible, since the process of its decomposition will proceed poorly) and 15 kg of manure (horse or cow). Straw for composting choose fresh, without signs of mold. For 2-4 days it is recommended to moisten the straw with water (water from a hose, or put in a large container with water)
- Prepared straw and manure are placed alternately in such a way as to form 3-4 layers of each component. Each layer of straw is additionally moistened with water and sprinkled with a thin layer (1 cm) of fertilizer (ammonium nitrate). The finished substrate should be about 1.2 m in length, and the height with a width of not less than 1.5 m
- 7 days after the formation of the substrate, you need to add 7 kg of gypsum, which helps to improve the structure of the mixture and mix all the layers of the substrate with forks
- 4 days after the first perebivka (mixing), make the second. If the substrate is not wet enough, it is well watered with water, and also add 5 kg of crushed chalk and 2 kg of superphosphate fertilizer to it.
- The third time mixing is carried out 4 days after the second. The same time interval is maintained before the 4th mixing of the components.
- Usually, the substrate for champignons is considered ready 3-4 weeks after the formation. The lack of ammonia odor, the strong softening of the straw and the dark brown color of the mixture indicate its maturity.
- If the mixture is saturated with moisture, it is recommended to scatter and dry for 1-2 days, adding to it 1 kg of chalk. In general, the preparation of high-quality substrate takes 20-22 days
- The finished compost is placed on shelves or in special boxes at the rate of 100 kg per 1 sq. M. square.
If you can not prepare a substrate for growing champignons at home, you can buy it ready-made in a special store.
In addition, at home you can make a mixture of soil for the cultivation of mushrooms from other components.
Ingredients such as straw, wheat, rye, nitrogen fertilizers, crushed corn cobs, rabbit (or poultry) manure, household waste are well mixed together and composted.
There are no exact proportions for the preparation of the substrate, everything will depend on the area of the room in which they plan to grow mushrooms.
The only thing that needs to be done is to mix the mixture during ripening (burnout) every 3-4 days. The finished composition should not have a strong ammonia odor.
We offer you to read an article about 5 recipes for salads with chicken and mushrooms: //6sotok-dom.com/ogorod/griby/salat-s-gribami-i-kuricey-recept.html
Planting mycelium (mycelium)
The sowing of the mycelium (mycelium) of champignons is carried out in different ways, depending on the place chosen for planting.
For example, special holes are made in bags for laying mycelium over the entire surface area. About 15 kg of compost are poured into the bags, and then the mycelium is planted.
Mycelium is buried in the substrate for 5-7 cm, after which it is covered with a layer of substrate (about 10 cm thick) and the spores of the fungus are laid again.
The landing is recommended to be staggered, leaving about 20 cm between adjacent areas of the substrate. A week after planting, the mycelium will grow and its cobweb strings will become noticeable in the substrate.
During this period, it is very important to maintain the optimum level of humidity in the room where mushrooms are grown. On the surface of the substrate mycelium appears 2-3 weeks after disembarkation.
Approximately 5 days before this time it is necessary to prepare a top soil mixture. It can be made from chalk (1 part) and peat (9 parts).
If the mushrooms are grown in a too damp room, it is advisable to prepare the mixture from a mixture of sand (1 part) and loam (2 parts).
Bring it on top of a layer of substrate with sprouted mycelium, adhering to a thickness of 3-5 cm (about 4 buckets per 1 sq. M of substrate area).
After 4 days after the application of topcoat, it is necessary to slightly adjust the temperature in the room where the mushrooms grow. A good harvest of mushrooms will turn out if they grow at a temperature of 14-17 ºC.
How to care for champignons
Caring for planted champignons requires regular irrigation of the substrate and maintaining optimum humidity and temperature in the room.
It is recommended to water the substrate no less than 10 days after laying the top layer. For irrigation, it is recommended to use a small height watering can, feeding water from it in small droplets.
In general, this procedure must be carried out carefully and carefully, since water must remain in the upper, covering layer of the substrate, and in no case will penetrate the compost (otherwise the mycelium will rot and quickly disappear).
Humidity in the room where the mushrooms grow should be maintained at 75-80%. To achieve these indicators, they equip special shelves and install several basins of water on them.
For mushrooms, a high concentration of carbon dioxide will be destructive, so the room must be aired at least once a day.
And here is an article about the cultivation of dill on the windowsill.
How to collect mushrooms
The active fruiting of champignons can last from 2 to 4 months, and the whole process is uneven.
Active growth of mushrooms continues for 3-4 days (the first harvest will appear 30-35 days after mycelium sowing), then a week of calm, and after it - the peak of yield again.
Most of the total yield can be collected in the first three waves of the active growth of champignons (there can be up to seven such waves).
Определить зрелость грибов можно по плёнке, соединяющей ножку плода и его шляпку (она должна потемнеть, но ещё не быть разорванной).
Собирают созревшие шампиньоны очень осторожно, чтобы не повредить находящиеся рядом зачатки плодовых тел. Для этого нужно обхватить пальцами ножку гриба и, аккуратно повернув плод, извлечь его из субстрата.
Делать это также нужно очень осторожно, чтобы не повредить мицелий, от которого зависит дальнейший урожай шампиньонов.
When the entire crop of mushrooms is collected, the spent compost is removed, and the room is necessarily treated with a solution of bleach (4%) to kill the germs.
Learn more about the features of growing champignons at home, you can learn from this video: