In nature, blueberries can be found in the forests of Siberia and Altai, in the Urals and the Caucasus. But a huge number of useful properties of this berry made it popular among gardeners. For growing at home using a special variety of garden blueberries. It is important to bear in mind that this crop is considered one of the most demanding and standard care measures, such as periodic watering and fertilizing, will not be enough to collect a rich harvest.
If you want to grow garden blueberries on your plot, but do not know which variety to choose and how to properly care for the plants, we recommend that you read this article. In it you will find not only a description of the main features of the berries, but also detailed recommendations for the care of shrubs.
Garden blueberry - variety description
Externally, blueberry berries resemble blueberries, but these crops have many differences. Blueberries are a small shrub with small leaves, while garden blueberries can reach a meter in height, and tall varieties can grow up to two meters or more.
Figure 1. Exterior features of garden blueberries
Blueberry twigs are covered with dark brown or gray bark, on which are quite large leaves (about 3 cm in length). During the flowering period, the bush is covered with small white or pink flowers.
But the main difference between blueberries and blueberries relates to berries. Blueberry pulp has a rich blue color, whereas blueberry has a greenish tint. In addition, blueberries are much larger and have a slightly oblong shape (Figure 1).
It is noteworthy that from the point of view of the requirements for the soil at home, it is much easier to grow blueberries, which can successfully bear fruit on any soil, while blueberries prefer soil from pine forests.
Planting blueberry garden
If you decide to grow this culture in your garden, you should be prepared for the fact that this culture will require a lot of attention, starting with the selection of the right cultivation site and the optimal planting time.
So that you can successfully complete the planting of blueberries, we will provide detailed instructions for this process.
When to plant
As for other horticultural crops, spring or autumn is considered to be the best time for planting, and the spring planting should be given priority. In this case, the seedlings will have time to get stronger until the autumn, and will not be damaged by winter frosts.
However, if the seedlings of culture came to you at the end of the summer or in the autumn, it does not make sense to keep them until next spring. It is better to plant the plants immediately in the ground, and in the winter to provide them with shelter of agrofibre or organic mulch.
In nature, the largest and most juicy berries grow in wetlands. But trying to recreate such conditions at the dacha is not worth it, since garden blueberries have completely different requirements for growing areas.
For planting it is better to choose solar areas protected from the wind. It is desirable that next to no lush shrubs, tall trees or buildings that will create a thick shadow. In such conditions, the harvest will not be abundant, and the taste of the berries will become too sour or watery.
Equally important is the soil. The best for the culture are acidic soils with a pH of about 3.5-4.5 units. In addition, it is important that the selected area is not used for the cultivation of other crops: blueberries do not tolerate predecessors at all, and either will not take root on the site, or the fruiting shrubs will be low.
The optimal soil will be sandy-peat or loamy-peat. If the land on your site is different, you can plant blueberries in fenced beds filled with the necessary nutrient mixture.
Landing in spring
As mentioned above, early spring is considered to be the best time for planting seedlings in open ground. It is important that at the time of planting the buds do not swell on the plants: otherwise, the seedlings will not take root well on the site.
Equally important is the correct selection of varieties. In this case, you should take into account the climatic features of the region of your residence. For temperate and cold climates, low-growing Canadian varieties are more suitable, and in the southern regions you can cultivate all varieties of garden blueberries. When choosing a variety, pay attention to the time of ripening of berries: it is better to harvest in the middle or late summer, so that the berries have time to acquire their unique taste.
Figure 2. Shrub planting pattern
In addition, for spring planting, it is better to choose seedlings with a closed root system (sold in containers). Even if you miss a suitable time for planting and the buds begin to swell, you can always keep planting material until autumn. However, the use of the transshipment method for planting seedlings from the container is not recommended, since in this case the risk of damage to the delicate roots is significantly increased. It is much more efficient to immerse the container with a seedling for 15 minutes in water, and then carefully remove the plant and move it into the planting hole, lightly fluff the earthen clod (Figure 2).
Other requirements for planting garden blueberries in spring include such nuances:
- Preparation of holes: landing pits should be 60 x 60 cm in size, and their depth should be about half a meter.
- Optimum distance between landings: depends on the variety. For short-growing species, a gap of 50 cm between individual plants will suffice, for medium-sized ones, this indicator will increase to one meter, and for tall ones - up to 120 cm. Between the rows, a gap of 3 meters is left to make it easier to care for grown bushes.
- Excavation: for the roots of the seedling to get enough moisture and nutrients, it is desirable to slightly loosen the bottom and walls of the hole. In addition, in the pit you need to create an acidic soil environment, which is most suitable for blueberries. To do this, in the well you need to put a little peat mixed with pine needles, sand and sawdust, and add a little sulfur for oxidation. Fertilizers, especially organic, do not need to be applied when planting.
- Seedling placement: when all the preparatory work is completed, you can put the seedling in the hole. Roots need to gently straighten, orienting them in different directions. Then they are sprinkled with a layer of soil so that the root collar is 3 cm deep into the ground.
At the end of planting, all seedlings need to be watered and mulched with organic matter: needles, dry leaves and bark or sawdust. The layer of mulch should reach 12 cm: only in this case there is enough moisture in the soil, and weeds will not interfere with the growth of seedlings.
Planting in the fall
The technology of autumn planting of seedlings in open ground does not differ from the activities that are held in the spring. There is only one difference - when disembarking, you will have to carry out minimal trimming.
In this case, at the annual plant, all weak or damaged branches are completely cut out, and the strong ones are shortened by half. This is a necessary condition for successful engraftment and wintering of culture. If you plant a two-year sapling, pruning before or after transfer to open ground can be avoided.
Description of blueberry varieties
All varieties of blueberries can be divided into groups, depending on the height of the shrub and the optimal climatic conditions for its cultivation. For example, low-growing varieties are suitable for temperate and cool climates. There are also special northern tall varieties that are characterized by high winter hardiness and late onset of fruiting. For the southern regions, there are also separate tall species, a distinctive feature of which is their high drought tolerance (Figure 3).
Among the popular varieties of garden blueberries are:
- Patriot - tall sprawling bush with large berries, which can be collected at the end of July. Differs in high winter hardiness, productivity and resistance to diseases.
- Sunrise - a variety of medium height, a distinctive feature of which is in the weak branching of lateral shoots. Because of this, pruning plants should be carried out much less frequently. Differs in high productivity, but at the same time it is sensitive to frosts.
- Northland - low-growth appearance, the height of adult specimens rarely exceeds the meter height. At the same time, it is distinguished by high yield and excellent taste of berries.
- Elizabeth - tall shrub, which has a particularly high winter hardiness. Differs late onset of fruiting, but the taste and size of berries significantly exceeds other varieties.
You can appreciate the external features of each variety by the photo, which, together with the description, will help you choose the best hybrid blueberry for home cultivation.
If you have already planted seedlings on your plot, it does not at all mean that you can not pay attention until the time of harvest. Immediately after planting, plants will need care, the main purpose of which is to accelerate the acclimatization and stimulate the growth of the shrub.
During the whole growing season, the soil around the plant will have to be regularly but gently loosened. The depth of loosening should be no more than 8 cm, since the root system of the culture is close to the surface.
Note: In the process of loosening, the main thing - to be careful and moderation. If you do the weeding too often, the ground will be dry and the crop yield will decrease.
In order to provide the plant with optimal conditions for growth, it is desirable to cover the tree trunk with a layer of mulch, which not only prevents moisture loss, but also stops the growth of weeds.
Competent and timely watering plays a key role in the cultivation of abundant crops. In this case, it is important to develop such a pattern of irrigation, in which the roots will get enough moisture, but it will not stagnate for a long time at the roots. If the soil around the bush is too wet, the root system will begin to rot and the shrub will die.
Fortunately, there is a clear pattern of irrigation culture. It is carried out twice a week, in the morning and in the evening. During each watering under a bush poured on a bucket of water. Particularly attentive to irrigation should be taken in July and August, when the plant forms the ovary and badly needs moisture and nutrients.
If the summer is too hot, you need to not only water, but also periodically spray branches and leaves. It is necessary to carry out this procedure in the morning or after four o'clock in the afternoon so that the plant does not get burned leaves.
It is believed that blueberries are not demanding of soil fertility. At the same time, if you add mineral dressings under the bush, the harvest will be more abundant.
It is best to fertilize blueberries in early spring, when the process of bud swelling has not yet begun. For this purpose, you can use ammonium sulfate or zinc, superphosphate or magnesium sulphate. Any organic fertilizer is strictly contraindicated for culture.
Reproduction of blueberry
For breeding blueberries can be used as a seed, and vegetative method. When using the first method of the largest and most mature berries, you need to get the seeds, slightly dry them and sow them in beds with sour peat in the fall.
Note: If you plan spring sowing, planting material needs to be stratified in the refrigerator for three months.
In order for the seeds to sprout quickly, you need to maintain a stable temperature (23-25 degrees) and humidity (40%). In the second year after sowing, the seedlings are fed with nitrogen fertilizers and two years later, the grown seedlings are planted on a permanent bed.
The cutting method is considered to be faster and more reliable:
- In late autumn, after abscission of leaves, the necessary amount of rhizomatous cuttings 8-15 cm long are cut.
- Choose better thick shoots, as they take roots much faster.
- Harvested cuttings for a month are placed in a cool room with a temperature of not more than +5 degrees.
- Planting of planting material is carried out at an angle in the tank with a mixture of sand and peat in a ratio of 3: 1. Top saplings sprinkled with the same nutrient mixture, 5 cm thick.
With proper care, after two years you will have full-fledged seedlings that can be planted on a bed (Figure 4). If your site already has a bush of blueberry, you can multiply it by the usual division of the bush. To do this, the adult plant is carefully dug and divided into several parts. Each of them should have a well-developed rhizome, up to 7 cm long. Ready delenki can immediately be planted in a permanent place.
To bushes blueberries regularly brought a bountiful harvest, they need to be properly cut. It is better to spend it in spring, before the start of sap flow: this is how the plant will experience minimal stress from the procedure (Figure 5).
Note: Sanitary pruning can be done at any time of the year. If you find diseased branches in the middle of the growing season, you should not wait for autumn or spring: immediately remove such shoots, as they can become a source of diseases and cause the bush to die.
If you just planted blueberries on your plot, and in the first year it was covered with flowers, they should be removed immediately. This will allow the plant to get stronger and bring more abundant harvest next year.
Figure 5. Shrub trimming scheme
Shrubs aged 2-4 years are subjected to formative pruning, the main purpose of which is to form strong skeletal branches that will withstand the weight of the crop. To do this, immediately after the descent of snow, all basal shoots are removed, and also weak or damaged branches are cut out. In plants older than four years of age, all five-year shoots are removed, since they do not bear fruit, but only consume the plant sap. Of the annual shoots need to leave a maximum of 5 of the strongest: this amount will be enough to get a bountiful harvest.
During pruning, it is important to ensure that the branches of neighboring bushes are not intertwined with each other. This can cause not only the rapid spread of diseases and pests, but also reduce the quantity and quality of the crop.
Features of care in the spring and autumn
Spring and autumn are the periods when blueberries require special attention. After winter, the plant needs to provide optimal care for a quick awakening, and in the fall - to provide the necessary conditions for a successful wintering.
However, if spring activities are reduced to pruning and mulching, in the fall the range of work will be broader. First, you need to collect all the berries in time so that the plant can gain strength before winter. Secondly, if in your area harsh winters, it is necessary to provide blackberry shelter. To do this, the branches attract to the ground, fasten them to the ground and cover with sacking. From above, it is desirable to additionally cover the bush with fir branches. When the snow falls, try to sketch more of it on the shelter to give the bushes additional protection from the cold.
Such shelter can only be removed in the spring, after the snow melts. However, if winters are mild in your region, you can not cover the blackberry or use winter-hardy varieties for growing.
Pest and disease control
The main pest of blueberries are birds that peck already ripe berries. For protection, you can stretch a grid with small cells on the bushes. Among the insects, there is no serious pest for blueberries, with the exception of the May beetles, which can be eaten by young leaves in the spring. Collect and destroy these insects will have to manually.
Of the diseases, the main danger is fungal diseases. They are provoked by improper care of the crop, namely, excessive irrigation, which provokes stagnant moisture at the roots. For prevention in early spring it is recommended to spray a Bordeaux mixture.
In some cases, blueberries can become a victim of viral or mycoplasmal diseases (mosaic and various spots). Unfortunately, there is no cure for these pathologies; therefore, the affected shrub needs to be excavated and burned.
In the video you will find even more information about planting and caring for blueberries.
And so blueberries are grown too!
The roots of the garden blueberry are fibrous, hairless. Brown or dark gray branches grow straight. Shoots are characterized by green color.
Garden Blueberry Bushes can reach a height of one meter, but usually grow to half a meter, tall varieties grow more than two meters.
Small harsh leaves have a smooth surface and grow up to 3 cm in length. The leaves are lanceolate or obovate, the edges slightly bent downwards. The shade of the leaves is usually bluish-green with a waxy coating.
Garden blueberries are characterized by small five-toothed flowers of a drooping shape. Corollas pitcher, white or light pink.
Oblong fruits have a blue color with a bluish bloom. Тонкая кожица покрывает зеленоватую мякоть. В длину ягоды вырастают до 1 см и весят около одного грамма. Плоды используют для изготовления варенья, вина и употребления в свежем виде.
Сорта голубики садовой
Все сорта садовой голубики отличаются крупным размером
Все сорта голубики, bred by breeders for growing on summer cottages, are combined into 5 large groups:
- Northern tall. The main advantage of the northern varieties - high frost resistance. They are late-ripening species. For breeding varieties used North American species - tall blueberries and common blueberries.
- Semi-tall. This group was obtained by a higher saturation of tall blueberry species. Increased frost resistance allows you to grow varieties at a temperature of -40 degrees.
- Southern tall. To obtain hybrids used northern tall blueberries and some species of southern blueberries. Varieties are drought tolerant and do not require wet soil.
- Undersized. These species were obtained by crossing a narrow-leaved blueberry, northern and myrtle.
- Rabbit eye. The cultivar was based on blueberries, whose properties helped make the species more resistant to high temperatures and droughts. Varieties are characterized by a long growing season, so they must be grown in latitudes with a warm climate so that the fruits have time to ripen before the winter period.
In the regions of Russia, it is possible to use only northern tall species. The following popular varieties should be noted:
- Blucrop. Mid-season variety with large flattened fruits has a high degree of drought resistance, frost resistance and yield. Bleukrop practically not subject to diseases and the influence of pests. This species is considered a reference when breeding new blueberries.
- Northland. Low sprawling bushes with a height of up to one meter bring a stable yield of up to 8 kg of medium-sized berries with a dense structure and excellent taste. The short growing season helps the fruit to ripen before the onset of winter. The value of this variety is high ornamental and compact bushes.
- Patriot. Tall bushes with spreading branches are characterized by medium ripening periods. Blueberries grow to 1.5 m. Large, light-blue berries have a dense skin. Fruit ripening occurs in the middle or end of summer. With one bush you can collect 7-8 kg of delicious berries. Patriot has a high resistance to frost and various diseases.
- Sunrise. Shrubs of medium height do not require frequent pruning due to poor sprouting. Dense fruits of the oblate shape and the big size differ in high taste and ripen in July. 3-4 kg of berries are collected from bushes. Sunrise does not tolerate spring frosts.
- Elizabeth. Tall, sprawling shrubs have erect stems and reddish shoots, which indicates a high frost resistance of the variety. One shrub brings 4–5 kg of sweet and fragrant fruit. Some berries of the late blueberry do not have time to ripen in time.
In the Urals and Siberia, you can safely grow blueberries Marvelous, Canadian nectarand Taiga beauty. All these varieties are highly resistant to frost.
How to grow blueberries in the country
In order for the bushes to enjoy stable and high yields of delicious berries, the gardener needs to know how to plant blueberries and care for them in the future.
The plant can be planted in spring or autumn, but the best solution will be planting seedlings in the spring: during the summer season, the bushes quickly take root and become strong enough and resistant to the winter cold.
For growing blueberries in the garden need a sunny and well protected from drafts area. If you plant the plant in the shade, the berries will ripen fine and tasteless. A suitable soil for cultivation will be acidic soil, on which nothing has been grown in the last 2–3 years. The substrate must be loose and permeable.
If the suburban area is not suitable for these criteria, then you can independently make a suitable substrate for blueberry: you need to mix high-moor peat and coniferous leaf litter with chopped pine bark.
For spring planting It is preferable to choose low-growing varieties of blueberries, for example, Canadian nectar, which gets along well at low temperatures. For warm regions with a long and hot summer, suitable varieties of blueberry garden - Blyukrop or Elizabeth.
Seedlings purchased in pots or other containers. Because of the fragile root system, it is impossible to make the usual transfer of a plant into open ground: the roots will not be able to turn around in the ground, therefore, the development of the bushes will not be complete. Before planting, containers with blueberries are dipped in water or a solution of a root-stimulating drug for 10–15 minutes. Then the seedlings are carefully removed with an earthy lump, which should be gently stretched, straightening the root system of the plant.
Planting seedlings on the garden plot is made as follows:
- A hole for each seedling is dug out with a diameter of 60 cm. The depth for low-growing species should be 0.5 m, for medium-growth - 1 m, and for tall ones - 1.2 m. Distances between rows should be 3–3.5 m.
- For good air circulation, the walls and the bottom of the recesses must be loosened.
- At the bottom pour out the prepared mixture of an acidic substrate of peat, coniferous litter and sawdust, which is thoroughly mixed and compacted.
- Seedlings are lowered into grooves, straightening the roots in different directions, and covered with soil. Root necks should be submerged in the ground by 3–4 cm.
- Garden beds are watered and mulched with peat, straw or coniferous sawdust, forming a layer of 10 cm.
No fertilizer when planting blueberries do not make.
Autumn planting is no different from the actions performed in the spring. After planting, one-year-old saplings are cut off by weak shoots, and in developed branches they are shortened by half. For bushes that are more than 2 years old, they do not prune.
For better development Blueberries need to loosen the soil at a depth of 8–9 cm. The procedure should be carried out only a few times per season. Due to the frequent loosening of blueberries overdry. If you loosen the soil at a greater depth, then there is a risk of damaging the root system, which is horizontal. The mulch layer should be replenished every 2–3 years. You also need to promptly remove weeds that prevent the bushes to actively grow and develop.
Growing blueberries in the country can not do without regular but moderate watering. The stagnation of excess moisture adversely affects the health of the plant.
You can increase the amount of nutrition for blueberries during the formation of flower buds on the branches. Due to the lack of water on the bushes, few berries can ripen, which will affect the low yields not only in the current, but also in the next year. In very hot periods, the bushes are not only watered, but also sprayed, otherwise they will overheat. Spraying is performed in the early morning or in the evening, when the activity of the sun decreases.
Blueberry does not require a high level of soil fertilityand, however, it responds well to mineral fertilizers. Top dressings bring in the beginning of March, during sap flow and formation of kidneys. It is forbidden to make organic fertilizer for blueberry. Blueberries are well absorbed feed with ammonium sulfate, potassium sulfate, magnesium sulfate, superphosphate and zinc sulfate. Stop fertilizing with the onset of winter dormancy.
Pruning and winter rest
For stable fruiting Blueberry bushes need spring pruning. The procedure is carried out before the formation of kidneys. If diseased branches are found in other seasons, they should be removed. To year-old plants developed well, they remove all the flowers. For the formation of a strong skeleton, pruning of weak and diseased branches is carried out in young specimens who already have 2–4 years. Also for them, they remove the root shoots. Older bushes eliminate the underdeveloped branches of five years of age, leaving 3–4 strong annual shoots. In spreading plants pruned branches are pruned.
Gardeners need to carefully inspect the aisles for possible closure of neighboring branches, because of which the ripening period may increase and the taste of the fruit deteriorate.
Although garden blueberries are excellent against frost, still for bushes need to create protectionwhich will help them to transfer winter frosts. The branches are bent to the ground with the help of loops of twine and cover with sacking. Additionally thrown over it lapnik will protect the plants from mice. In regions with warm winters, shelters are not necessary.
Selected from fruits collected from busheswhich dry and sow in the fall into the acidic soil of the training beds. Before spring sowing, the seed material is stratified for 3 months. Then the seeds are planted in grooves with a depth of 1 cm, which are covered with a mixture of peat and sand. The material germinates at a temperature of + 22-24 degrees. Nitrogen-containing fertilizers are applied to the plant only in the second year of cultivation. After 2 years, the seedlings are transplanted to a permanent site.
Cutting rhizome cuttings make late fall or early spring. The shoots are cut 10–15 cm long. In order for the cuttings to quickly take root in the open ground, they are stored in a cool room at a temperature of + 1-3 degrees before planting. Planting shoots produced in an inclined location in the same mixture of the substrate as the seeds. With the right care, seedlings will get stronger in 2 years, then they can be transplanted to a permanent place.
Pests and diseases
Blueberries are often affected by the following fungal diseases:
- Gray rot
- White spot,
- Physal sporosis
- Monolios fruit
- Stalk cancer,
The fungus appears due to stagnant moisture in the soil. In this case, reduce the degree of irrigation and check the soil for breathability. For the treatment of plants for fungal diseases use Topaz, Fundazol or Topsin.
If the plant gets mosaic, red ring or necrotic spotting or dwarfism, it will not be possible to cure it of viruses. Infected specimens are dug up and destroyed.
Yellowing leaves occurs due to the low acidity of the soil. The problem is solved with the introduction of peat into the soil. Sometimes foliage turns yellow due to lack of nitrogenous fertilizers. Top dressing needs to be brought in three stages every spring.
Plant development can be hindered by such insect pests, like May beetles, crunches, caterpillars of pine silkworm. In this situation, the correct solution will be the use of insecticides.
Garden Blueberry: General Description
Garden blueberries, planting and caring for bushes which are quite accessible even to beginner gardeners, will delight you with a tasty good harvest. We cultivate for the most part varieties of the American version of garden blueberries, finally bred half a century ago, although the first experiments in the United States date back to the beginning of the last century.
A bush of such a blueberry garden differs from a forest plant in high (up to 2.5 m) growth with a width of one and a half to two and a half meters and a larger size of berries. Harvest, if you know exactly how to grow such a blueberry, also get more abundant. It will be even more if several varieties are grown in the garden at the same time — insect pollinators (bees, bumblebees, etc.) will be able to more intensively fulfill their natural duties. The ripening season of blueberry berries depends on a particular variety, in general it is limited to the middle of summer and the end of September. The organic feature of the garden blueberry root system is its absorption from the soil of moisture and nutrition by mycorrhiza (symbiosis of fungi with root tissue) instead of root hairs common to most plants. Mycorrhiza fully performs its functions only in the soil with high acidity (up to pH4.5).
A common feature of all American varieties is the love of heat and light and dislike for long periods of drought and moisture overload. The most famous blueberry varieties cultivated in our area are Bluecrop, Patriot, Blueette, Bluette, Elizabeth and Northblue.
The choice of lighting
For garden blueberries need a well-lit area. The rapid growth of the plant and the size of the grown berries depend on the intensity of the received solar energy. Given the fact that blueberries do not tolerate drafts and strong winds, a quiet place on the southern side of a dense fence or wall would be best for it.
The main requirement for the soil is the presence of good drainage, eliminating the stagnation of water at the surface. Water-loving blueberries are not afraid of the proximity of groundwater (even at a depth of only 0.5-0.7 m), but can die from a long surface excess of moisture.
The second condition that provides soil moisture optimal for a blueberry is the absence of large fruit trees next to it that can compete with the shallow roots of the berry bushes in the water intake.
Blueberries prefer acidic soils, it will be most comfortable on light sandstone or peatlands covered with a solid layer of hardwood litter. But it is absolutely not suitable for the cultivation of blueberry clay and loam.
Landing pit preparation
Before planting blueberries, pits are prepared in advance. They are pulled to a depth of up to half a meter, width - to 0.8 m. Further steps are as follows:
- Filling the pit with soil, taken in a coniferous planting and mixed with the natural vegetative layer of fallen needles, pieces of bark, whole and broken branches, moss. This composition is complemented by low-acid sour peat and fertile soil from any location,
- Inclusion in the pit of nitrogen fertilizers, in which a high concentration of sulfur, at the rate of 25-30 g per seedling. Immediately you should consider how to acidify the soil for blueberries. You can simply purchase special soil oxidizers in the agro shop. If the possibility of buying is not available, then available food ingredients are used in the form of table vinegar, which in this case is dissolved (50 ml) in a bucket of water, or citric acid (5 g / pail).
Description of the process and landing pattern
The classic method of planting blueberries is the planting method in rows. The distance between seedlings varies depending on the varieties selected for cultivation:
- from one to one and a half meters between tall saplings
- from 0.8 to 1 m - the gap between the bushes of low-growing varieties.
The importance of watering
Reflecting on what it will be necessary to feed the garden blueberries in the spring, do not forget about her regular watering. Moisture-loving blueberries require frequent watering. Natural precipitation is not enough.
You can organize drip irrigation - such a hydraulic system guarantees excellent results. In other cases, it is assumed that:
- the signal for irrigation is dryness of the 4-centimeter upper soil layer,
- saplings and young blueberry shoots should be watered every 2-4 days, taking into account the drought regime and weakening it at moderate temperatures,
- Ready acidizers or table vinegar (up to 0.1 l per bucket) are added to irrigation water every month, if it is known that the acidity of the soil does not reach the blueberry cultivation rate.
Top dressing blueberry bushes
Top dressing blueberries do not begin in the spring, but in the fall, when they mulch the soil around the planted bushes. The procedure for mulching fallen needles and / or sawdust of coniferous trees is considered mandatory. Mulch in this case performs a dual function - it retains the necessary blueberry moisture in the ground and, gradually decomposing, maintains the necessary acid balance in the soil.
Of the finished fertilizers needed for blueberries in spring (the first feeding is mid-April, the second is in a month), you should pay attention to the multicomponent mineral Florovit and Target, which have everything you need shrubs, including soil oxidizers.
The third dressing needs to be done in a month too. If the problem is, how to fertilize blueberries in the spring and in subsequent periods, is not solved by ready-made preparations, then you can independently prepare fertilizers that can saturate the soil primarily with nitrogen, which has an extremely positive effect on plant growth.
- 1 year - 1 spoon,
- 2 years - 2 spoons,
- 3 years - 3-4 spoons,
- 4 years - 4-5 spoons
- 5 or more years - 6-8 spoons.
When and how to prune blueberry bushes
In terms of pruning garden blueberries coincides with a similar operation on fruit trees, that is, either in early spring, until the plant "woke up", or in late autumn, when the leaves naturally fell off. For the intended purpose, there are three types of pruning, also based on how to care for garden blueberries.
Features care for garden blueberries in winter
The garden blueberry starts to really freeze when the subzero temperature drops to 23-25 degrees. But the frozen shrub is able to restore its viability in full with the return of heat. Risk fine plant is still not worth it.
therefore conifer mulching should be used. Помимо этого, используют ещё и так называемые влагозарядные поливы (до 6 вёдер воды на каждый куст, уже перенесший формирующую обрезку), смысл которых сводится к осеннему пропитыванию верхнего слоя земли на глубину до 0,4 м. Предполагая сильные морозы, следует осенью, закрепив скобами наклонённые к земле ветки голубики, для самого куста сделать укрытие из лапника или из иного материала.
Описание основных болезней и вредителей куста
To the already mentioned reason for the redness of the foliage on the shrub garden blueberries should be added and a serious vegetable disease - stem cancer. In this case, the process begins with the appearance of red spots on the leaves, spreading with time and becoming brown, and ends with the death of the entire shoot.
Almost no cure for treatment, so all hope for prevention. It consists of early spring (before the leaves bloom) and autumn (when they fall off) spraying of bushes with Bordeaux liquid (3%), including sixfold treatment of the berry with “Fundazole” (0.2%): three times with a weekly period before flowering and three more spraying after all ripe fruit has been harvested.
Another serious disease that threatens a garden blueberry (also manifested in red spots on the leaves) is fomopsis. The causative agent is a special fungus, and the disease leads to drying out and death of young branches. Dead shoots are not only cut, but also burned to prevent the expansion of the distribution range of the dispute. The scheme of preventive spraying with “Fundazol” is the same as with stem cancer.
Blueberry diseases such as mummification of berries, gray mold and anthracnoseaffecting mostly berries, but also affecting wood. Prevention is also important to combat them.
Speaking of pests, you need to start with the birds, who love to feast on blueberries. To protect against birds use a covering grid with a small cell. Maybugs are the most well-known of the insects, which in the spring eats the leaves and does not disdain the contents of the flowers, thereby reducing the prospects for future harvest. In the soil the larvae of these pests also gnaw young shrubs.
To combat the beetle use acquired chemical and biological agents. But you can give preference to folk remedies, collecting the Maybugs manually directly from the bushes (you need thick gloves and a glass jar), either shaking them out, first laying a plastic film, or choosing white larvae from the ground during spring soil preparation. The larvae are doused with boiling water and discarded.
Do not forget about the natural enemies of the May Beetle. These are the moles, as well as the starlings, which can be attracted by placing a birdhouse nearby.
To combat the larvae, you can also treat the soil with onion solution (1/3 of the bucket of onion peel is filled with water and infused for a week).
Blueberry garden: harvesting
Ripe berries garden blueberries are in no hurry to crumble. They can hold out on branches until crescent. Given this circumstance, blueberries are removed without haste, taking weekly breaks between harvesting procedures. Large softish berries of blue-gray color are gathered, and dense fruits are left on the branches so that they can gain sugar content before the next stage. Berries perfectly tolerate long-term transportation, a month of storage in the refrigerator and a week in an ordinary home environment. The first crop of farmed blueberries is expected in the third year.
Growing blueberries in the country or another area is very promising. Due to the wide range of vitamins, acids, sugar, minerals and tannins contained in it, garden blueberries, which have been given proper time to grow, will help to cope, for example, with angina, hypertension, dysentery, catarrh of the stomach, rheumatism, enterocolitis and even scurvy. Regular consumption of blueberries helps to rejuvenate the body, maintaining its brain activity in an active state. In short, garden blueberries should be grown by those who want to live longer, while remaining healthy.