Ficus mikkarpa got its name because of the miniature fruits, translated from Greek, “mikros karpos” is a small fruit. The plant itself can achieve quite impressive sizes. Although it is often grown in the technique of bonsai. This type of ficus is interesting in that in the lower part of its trunk there is a thickening of the roots, which takes the most bizarre forms during growth.
Description of the flower with a photo
In nature, ficus mikrokarpa can be found in some provinces of China, in Taiwan, in Indonesia and Australia. In its growth form, this plant belongs to epiphytic species, forms many aerial roots. Under natural conditions, the tree grows up to 25 meters in height, at home you can count on a half-meter specimen.
The leaves of this variety are up to 10 cm in length and up to 5 cm in width, their size becomes maximal in an adult plant, and before that the leaves are smaller. The surface of each leaf is shiny, glossy, the tip is pointed. On the branches the leaves sit on short petioles, their arrangement is alternate.
As it grows, the upper part of the root system rises above the soil and can look very decorative, forming weaves and bends. This is what allows you to grow this type of ficus in the form of bonsai. Often this plant is sold grown just in this technique.
Just bought a ficus, what to do?
Ficus macrocarp is capricious in some aspects and you should be aware of this. For example, he does not like permutations, so he immediately needs to choose a permanent place and try to disturb the plant less in the future. Even this flower does not like drafts, bright sunshine and dry air, it needs proper care.
- Place the purchased plant away from the heaters. It is best suited to him windows with a western, north-western and northern location. If the acquired plant has a variegated, that is, variegated form - the light needs more ficus. Such varieties are better to put on the east and southeast windows.
- In the first days at the new place it is necessary to especially monitor the humidity of the air near the plant. The pot can be put on a tray with wet pebbles, and the leaves themselves spray 2-3 times a day. It is also necessary to ensure that the soil does not dry out; moisten the ground with small portions of water every few days.
- After 2 weeks, when the ficus will adapt, it is recommended to transplant it into a new container. At the same time, you can check the status of the root system, because it is not known how long it took to transport the plant, and how many days it spent in the store.
Useful advice: to increase the humidity in the room will help household humidifier - this is an affordable device that does not require special maintenance, but makes life much easier for indoor plants.
Optimal conditions for growing in the house
Each apartment has its own microclimate and many plants adapt to it, however, we should not forget about their needs so that the flowers can live and develop normally.
Ficus microcarp is considered a shade-tolerant culture. He can feel well both in bright ambient light and in partial shade. As the tree grows, it no longer fits on the windowsill and can be kept on the floor near the window.
If the plant lacks light (this can be seen from the more faded color of the leaves), it will be necessary to organize the backlight. The best fitolamp is best for these purposes, its emission spectrum is ideal for all plants. You can do with a conventional fluorescent lamp.
This ficus roots also need warmth, as well as the aboveground part. It is best to maintain the temperature in the range of 17-24 ° C. In the apartment this is easily achieved with the help of air conditioning.
During the winter months, the temperature may be slightly less, but not for long. From hypothermia plant can get sick. If in summer the temperature rises to 25 ° C and higher, the ficus should be sprayed, at least twice a day, then it will be easier for him to tolerate the heat.
Care for ficus bonsai at home
Of course, in the East, ficus bonsai are not grown, choosing conifers and various shrubs for this art form. Strictly speaking, ficus bonsai is called a pseudo-bonsai, since it uses accelerated technologies to create, and real bonsai grow for decades and it is very expensive, since it is a “piece” product.
But, is it worth it to go into such subtleties of an ordinary florist, if bonsai grown from ficus looks just as good? Independently grow such a tree from scratch in just two years. To do this, you do not need to invent anything, everyone has already come up with many centuries ago in the East.
For bonsai there are various styles. The tree can be formed in the form of a curved vertical, with a slope, a forked trunk, using other options. The advantage of the type of macrocarp is the rapid growth of ficus and its endurance. At home, this plant germinates from accidentally sown seeds, even in crevices of rocks or appears from cracks in the asphalt.
If the ficus mikkarpa you purchased is grown using bonsai technique, it needs special care. Culture bonsai does not tolerate haste, hustle and excess. After all, this tree is in miniature, which means that all actions must be carefully verified.
Since the bonsai is planted in a wide, but shallow dish, such a plant requires a special irrigation scheme. A large surface area of the soil evaporates water faster. At the same time, with abundant watering, the water simply has no place to go, since the layer of earth in the container is not very large.
Important! Water the tree should be often, but little by little. Check the soil before watering. It should dry 2-3 cm deep.
Excess water accumulated after watering in the pan must be drained. Water is recommended to pre-defend, you can use rain or thawed water - it is softer. The temperature of the water for irrigation should be at room temperature or slightly warmer; a plant can lose all its leaves from a cold plant.
Soil, fertilizer, fertilizing
The soil for a ficus of a mikkarp should be light and nutritious, have good moisture and air permeability, with neutral or moderate acidity. You can buy a special soil for ficuses, or make up a soil mix yourself.
Use to compose the substrate:
- 2 pieces of turf land,
- 2 pieces of hardwood,
- 1 part peat,
- 1 part of sand,
- some charcoal.
The first 2 months after transplanting the plant can not be fertilized. Top dressing is carried out in the period of active vegetation of ficus - from March to October. If your plant is grown using bonsai technique, you should buy special fertilizers for it.
Fertilizer is diluted in water and fertilize after irrigation, so as not to burn the roots. Microcarp very responsive to foliar feeding. Fertilizer is bred for them at half the concentration and sprayed with foliage.
Cropping and crown formation
In order for bonsai to grow a powerful trunk, the ficus is subjected to regular pruning. With her help, the crown is given the desired look. The growth direction of the skeletal branches is set using wire. To get as much as possible lush crown, the main shoots are shortened to 5 cm, forcing branching.
Ficus microcarp tolerates pruning, it does not cause him any harm. Since the plant does not have a pronounced dormant period and continues to grow even in the winter months, it is pruned at this time. If you yourself grew a young sapling of the ficus, from which you want to form a bonsai, then it is necessary for it to cut the main stem at a small height, this will lead to the fact that the remaining part of the stem will get stronger and become much thicker.
Trimming start with the lower layers of the crown, then move up, according to the plan, allowing you to create the desired shape. They prune not the leaves, but the branches themselves. If the shoot was thick, the cut must be covered with garden pitch. Cardinally the plant is cut in the spring before the beginning of active growth. At another time, only slightly correct the contour, shortening the individual overgrown branches.
How to transplant ficus
Ficus microcarp does not tolerate transplantation and is very sensitive to root damage, therefore, it is necessary to replant it as little as possible. Experts recommend doing it 1 time in 2-3 years. To restrain the growth of bonsai plants specifically planted in shallow containers. The purpose of transplanting is to replace depleted soil and reduce the number of growing roots.
Act as follows:
- It is necessary to prepare a new pot, which should be 2-3 cm wider and slightly higher than the previous one.
- The drainage hole is covered with plastic mesh and coarse sand is poured.
- On top of the drainage layer poured 1/3 of the prepared soil.
- The bonsai is taken out of the old container, gently shook the ground from the roots, washed in warm water and slightly shortened with sharp scissors.
- Wound on the roots must be treated with charcoal. Thin threadlike roots are removed completely.
- Having prepared the plant, it is set on the ground and covered with earth on top so that the upper third of the roots remains above the surface. If necessary, the rhizomes are pre-intertwined with each other, if this requires a planned style.
- The final stage is the compaction of the soil, watering and laying over the ground of sphagnum moss.
Methods of reproduction at home
Ficus microcarp reproduction occurs in three ways: cuttings, layering and seed.
For a cutting, the apical, half-woody shoot is cut from the tree, and it is soaked for 24 hours to remove the overhanging milky juice. After that, the stalk is put in a glass with water, where they add wood ash or coal to prevent rotting. When the roots appear, the seedling is rooted in a light nutrient soil, covering the top with a glass jar, so that it is easier to take root. When new leaves appear, the jar is removed.
If you decide to try to propagate the ficus by the layers, on a large specimen, retreat from the crown by 55-60 cm and cut the bark from the trunk in a 10 cm long section. The bare area is wrapped in a wet sphagnum and film. After a month, roots will appear in this place. The top of the head is cut with the young roots and put in a separate container.
Bonsai can only be obtained from a plant grown from seed. Landing is traditionally carried out in the spring. The quality of planting material is very important, as well as its storage conditions. If the rules are not respected, the seeds simply lose their germination. Seeds before planting are stratified and moistened. At the bottom of the landing tank is placed drainage, then a layer of soil.
Seeds laid out on the surface of the earth, sprinkled with sand on top, moistened and covered with foil. For successful germination of seedlings need warm and diffused light. Young plants hatch in 2-4 weeks. As soon as several leaves appear, shoots dive. After another 2 months, they are seated in separate pots.
Care immediately after purchase.
First you need to decide on the place where our tree will be placed. When choosing, one should take into account the properties and whims of the microcarp.
Immediately it is worth noting that the plant does not like permutations from one place to another.
Ficus moklame reacts poorly to drafts, dry air and very bright light. Therefore, place a new plant as far as possible from the radiators. Best suited rooms, where the windows overlook the south-western, western and northern sides.
Ficus with the form of Variegata It is best to place indoors with oriental and southeastern windows, since such a plant needs more light.
Microcarp needs to be sprayed. from the very first day of the acquisition, especially the ficus moklame, ginseng and bonsai. It is best to do this 2-3 times a day. It is not recommended to allow the soil to dry out. Check the substrate moisture often by dropping a finger into the ground to a depth of one centimeter.
A couple of weeks after purchase, the plant should transplant to a newer and more constant capacity. Do not forget to take care of the drainage, the layer of which must be at least 1/3 of the height of the pot. For drainage, you can use foam or expanded clay. The soil in the substrate should be loose and nutritious. Perfect ready-made land for ficuses, which you can buy in specialized flower shops. Leaving after transplantation is performed in the same way as for an ordinary microcarp plant.
If the ficus ginseng or moklame dropped foliage, then worry about it is not worth it. Most likely, this is just a reaction to the change of "place of residence".
How to make ficus bonsai at home
Type of roots and trunk - The first thing that attracts attention. The roots have the ability to thicken and bare, taking the form like oval kegs. Branches are thin, have small leaves of dark green color. The surface of the leaves is shiny, as if it was polished.
For some, the ficus may seem rude and ugly to the moklame, but in most cases plant is in great demand in flower shops. To give the ficus an attractive look, one should not only provide the plant with proper care at home, but also constantly form its crown. Ficus can give shape:
- bonsai tree
In order for his crown to be lush, moderately branched and healthy, it is necessary to make regular pruning of the twigs. Here are some important rules to follow:
- Use only decontaminated and sharp objects (scissors, knife).
- Cut off the tops that protrude from the main crown line.
- Cut along an oblique line, not evenly.
- Cut tops can be used for further rooting.
Make bonsai ficus is quite difficult at home, but not at all impossible. When forming a bonsaya, two conditions must be met:
- The plant must be at least 20 cm.
- The ficus should be planted in a wide, but not very deep pot.
Stages of formation of bonsaya:
- Cut the crown of the plant so that its appearance is flatter.
- We attach small weights to the twigs with the help of threads to give the plant a suitable look. This should be done in such a way that the twigs fall parallel to the ground.
- We hold the load in this state for about two weeks, and then remove it.
The branches of the ficus, in the period of their formation in this way, can shed their leaves. This is not a sign of illness or improper care, but only an adaptation to a new situation.
To give the plant an even more colorful appearance, it is worth toss a ficus into a square-shaped pot, the style of which will be characteristic of bonsaya.
The plant mikrokarpa blooms, but this process does not carry any aesthetics. The flowers are small, gathered in a small inflorescence, which has a diameter of not more than 2 cm. These inflorescences are called syconium. Houseplant belongs to the category of decorative and deciduous, so its main beauty lies precisely in this.
Soil and fertilizer
Fertile soil with an acidity level of 5.5-7.5 on the pH scale - favorite for the microcarp. The soil is easy to prepare yourself. To do this, mix in equal proportions sand, leafy humus, peat and sod land. During the growing season it is recommended to make additional fertilizers (from early spring to late fall). Perfect all-purpose universal fertilizers or fertilizers for decorative leafy plants. They need to be added to the water when watering the soil. Fertilizer should be applied every few weeks.
When growing ficus mikkarpa in the style of bonsai used specialized fertilizers.
Fertilizer can also be applied by spraying the foliage - the tree responds well to it.
Crown formation and trimming
In order for the plant to maintain the attractiveness of its forms, it must be periodically cut. Begin to engage in the formation of the crown as soon as possible. In terms of changes in appearance, the ficus is very malleable, which allows your imagination to properly roam.
To get a powerful trunk from a young tree, his it is necessary to prune more often. With the help of wire it is necessary to form the direction of the branches. Thick shoots, whose length is not more than 20 cm, can also be cut off. By cutting off strong branches, branching of the crown of ficus can be achieved.
Let's take a look at when and how best to plant a microcarp plant.
This species should replant every couple of years. The tree grows rather slowly, and the trunk almost ceases to grow in adulthood. For ficus, transplanting basically bears the purpose of replacing the substrate and renewing the soil. This procedure will also allow the grower to look at the state of the root system, which was previously underground.
Transplant is best done in the spring. The size of the pot for ficus microcarp does not play a special role. It is even better to use the same container that was previously, but it should be thoroughly cleaned and washed. If you decide to take a new pot, then be sure to ensure that a small layer of “old” earth remains on the roots of the plant. Обязательно убедитесь, что новая емкость содержит отверстия для слива воды.
Не забудьте уложить дренаж из пенопласта или керамзита слоем в 2-3 см. Установите фикус с землей на корешках на место и досыпьте свежий грунт. One should be extremely attentive with the fragile root system of the plant.
Botanical description of the plant
Ficus Microcarpa (lat. - Ficus Microcarpa ginseng), in appearance one of the most colorful and popular in home gardening - a representative of the extensive family of Mulberry. The birthplace of this evergreen is the forests of the tropical region of Malaysia, the Philippines, southern China and northern Australia. In the wild, Mikrokarp is quite aggressive towards its neighboring trees, tightly braiding them with its aerial roots. However, at home it is a slow-growing, pretty plant that can be molded in bonsai style. It rarely reaches a height of one and a half meters, whereas in a natural environment it grows up to 20 m.
Ficus Microcarp species - Moklame, Albarmarginata, Ginseng.
The thickened stem of a bizarre plant is in essence the continuation of its massive root. This is not a natural property of the plant, but the result of the work of specialists who skillfully prune and stimulate it with special means. "Ordinary" Mikrokarpy similar to Benjamin's ficus.
The bark of the trunk is smooth and tender, easily damaged, gray. The leaves can be round, oval or elliptical.
The plant blossoms (only in natural conditions or greenhouses) with syconium - flowers like berries, subsequently forming small fruits (up to 1 cm in diameter). Translated in Latin, "microcarp" and means - small-fruited.
Features of growing
With properly organized care, even a beginner and a very busy gardener can get an excellent result - a beautifully designed mini-tree with a lush green crown. The most important factors in the cultivation of ficus Microcarp:
- the right place for illumination,
- maintaining temperature,
- timely work on the formation of the trunk and crown.
This indoor plant perceives any rearrangement as stress, so it is advisable to find a permanent place for it immediately.
Planting technology and transplant dates
As the ficus grows, it should be transplanted into large-capacity containers (with an increase in diameter of 4-5 cm). Since the trunk of the Microcarp grows slowly, transplantation is an infrequent procedure. It is important to choose the right pot and soil mix.
Selection of pot and soil
The main requirement for pots for Microcarp - the presence of drainage holes. It is more comfortable for any flower, including ficus, to be in a pot made of natural clay, not covered with glaze. The porosity of the material allows excess moisture to evaporate through the walls of the tank, while the roots receive more oxygen. Although in the presence of good drainage Ficus suitable pot of any material.
The size of the vessel depends on the size of the root system Microcarp. It is desirable that during transplantation the distance between the roots and the walls of the pot was 2 cm.
For bonsai plants, low, flat models are needed. Too large pots are contraindicated for all types of ficus, because the soil is not habitable by the roots sour in them, causing rotting.
The best option is to purchase a special soil formulation intended for ficuses. After home cooking, after the preliminary disinfection, equal parts of leafy ground, turf, sand are mixed, and 0.3-0.5 parts of ash are added to reduce the acidity.
How to plant
If there is a need to prune the root system of the Ficus Microcarp-bonsai, it is advised not to water the soil before the transplantation procedure, so that the roots are better cleaned. Cut to 10% of their length. With regular pruning, the roots grow in breadth and thicken.
In the new container lay a drainage of expanded clay (can be from pebbles), a layer of new soil. Set, holding, the tree in the right place (in the center or shifting from it) and covered the void with earth. To seal it, it is easy to tap the pot.
If there is no need to disturb the roots, transfer the plant.
When is it time to transplant
Usually, Microcarp store ficuses need to be transplanted immediately after the purchase, as they grow in poor peat soil. They do it after two or three weeks, giving the plant time to adapt the plant in a new place - “moving” and transplanting at the same time become too much stress for it. Nevertheless, a tree can still react to transplanting with a slight loss of foliage.
An adult ficus needs a transplant no more than once every three years. Plants of the first years of life are transplanted annually in spring, when it will be easiest for the trees to adapt to a new ground. Sometimes they carry out only the replacement of the upper 2-3 cm of soil (if there is no need to increase the size of the pot).
Subtleties of care
The usual room temperature is quite suitable for the Ficus Microcarp: in summer its optimum level is 25-30 ° C. In winter, the flower transfers its decrease to 17-18 ° C, but when the thermometer drops to 16 ° C and below, it suffers, and with a long cold snap, its roots can freeze and the plant will die.
Ficus painfully transfers permutations, likes fresh air, but it must be protected from any drafts.
It prefers illuminated places, but without direct sunlight falling on the leaves - a place will fit in the back of the room. However, with constant shading, it ceases to grow, it reacts with yellowing and falling leaves. Additional illumination is desirable in winter. It is important to remember: the tree transfers ill fluctuations in the amount of illumination.
The care of the ficus Microcarp at home includes the formation of the crown. In this creative process there are no preferences except the tastes of the owner. The plant is drastically cut in the spring, before its active growth begins, not earlier than it reaches 15 cm in height. Throughout the spring and summer, systematic light pruning is carried out - shortening the branches too strongly protruding beyond the crown's silhouette (for even development, periodically the pot with ficus is turned around its axis). Autumn and winter, this procedure is not carried out.
Rules for watering and feeding
The frequency of irrigation depends on the degree of soil moisture: it is watered when the soil dries by 2-3 cm. Usually in the summer - two, and in the winter - three times a week.
Mikrokarpa loves when his leaves are sprayed from a spray bottle and responds positively to the air humidification. It is desirable that the level of humidity in the house does not fall below 50% (the optimal figures are 70%). Irrigation is carried out with water at room temperature. It is especially important to spray the tree out of the spray gun more often in the winter when the indoor air is dry. The minimum distance from heating devices to the ficus Microcarp is 2 meters.
Fertilize the plant twice a month with liquid nutrient mixture for ficuses (it is possible for palm), alternating mineral compositions with organic ones. In winter, during the period of rest, fertilizing is not introduced.
Diseases and possible problems
The plant "interests" whiteflies, aphids, scutes, thrips, mealybugs. To combat them use purchased insecticides for home flowers.
Microcarp is not susceptible to disease, problems arise in case of persistent violation of the rules for caring for it:
- with a lack of light or food, the young shoots become thinner, and the leaves on them become smaller,
- if the plant lacks moisture, the foliage turns yellow and falls,
- leaf fall from green leaves, on the contrary, indicates excessive watering. With long-term stagnation of moisture in the soil begins to rotting the roots - while the leaves darken, become covered with spots,
- with a dramatic change in the mode of illumination or watering, the tree can also shed its leaves, but after a week or two it adapts to new conditions,
- Falling foliage due to low temperature or constant drafts can lead to death.
Ficus Microcarp can be propagated by seeds, cuttings, root cuttings and the cultivation of the air layer.
Only the first method allows to obtain a volumetric sculptural trunk, characteristic of Mikrokarpa-bonsai, but this can only be done by specialists:
- material for sowing should be stored properly, otherwise its germination decreases sharply,
- sowing is carried out in the spring after pre-wetting and stratification of seeds,
- they are placed in a flat container on a layer of drainage and moist, slightly compacted soil, slightly sprinkled with a layer of sand and covered with a transparent material to create greenhouse conditions,
- keep at extended light bottom at a temperature of 22-25 ° C - two to four weeks until the germination and then until the appearance of two true leaves,
- diving and growing with constant spraying,
- two months after the picking up, they are seated at a permanent place of growth,
- from the “grown-up” ficuses of Microcarp, trunks and leaves are removed, after which the roots are transplanted, leaving most of them above the ground.
Thus, domestic attempts to obtain a microcarp from a tree with a characteristic trunk without proper experience and skills are most often doomed to failure.
For reproduction with apical cuttings, semi-lignified shoots are cut, kept in water for 10-20 hours to remove the milky juice contained in them and rooted in pure warm water. It is periodically changed to fresh, adding a little ash from rotting.
After the appearance of the roots are planted in the soil and cover before the leaves with glass or polyethylene. Ficus Microcarp, obtained by grafting, is similar in appearance to Benjamin’s ficus.
Ficuses grown by the method of cuttings reproduce by air layouts:
- departing from the top about 50 cm, cut off the bark from the trunk to 8-12 mm,
- the cut is wrapped in moistened moss and on top with a film,
- after three weeks or a month, the roots grow on this place, after which the top of the head is cut off and deposited.
Root sprouts are propagated by fully grown plants: a small part of the spine is cut and deposited, leaving 2.5 cm above the soil surface. After the sprout appears, it is treated in the usual way.
Microcarp with a characteristic appearance in any way other than growing from seeds cannot be obtained.
Ficus Microcarp does not require a lot of time and effort to care for it, while it is an original decoration of the room, decorated in any style. Following simple rules, not only a specialist, but also an amateur who is far from floriculture can grow it in the usual way and form a bonsai tree.
Diseases and pests
Ficus disease, as in the case of other plants, can be triggered by improper care or poor conditions. Pests are often moved from neighboring flowers, especially in crowded conditions, dry air and high temperatures.
Most often on ficus parasitic aphid and spider mite. Their traces can be seen on the leaves in the form of the appearance of small black dots or a thin web at the base of the branches. You can often see the pests themselves, they hide on the underside of the leaves.
As an emergency measure, it is necessary to treat the above-ground part of the ficus with soapy water; you can simply try to wash the pests away from the crown under the shower. After that, it is advisable to transplant the plant into fresh ground, after having disinfected the pot. If this does not help, be sure to spray the tree with insecticides, they act quickly and efficiently.
Dark or whitish spots may appear from over-irrigation on aerial roots. This suggests the spread of fungal diseases that cause rot. In this case, cut out all the damaged places, process ficus with fungicides and stop actively watering.
An unexpected fall of the leaves, when the leaves leave the tree green, may be the result of staying in a draft or in a too cold room. Create a ficus comfortable conditions and leaves will grow again. If the foliage is stained, it speaks of rotting roots. The plant will have to be removed from the pot, inspect the roots, remove all suspicious areas and plant in fresh ground.
Why leaves turn yellow and fall
When the leaves fall off not suddenly, but after pre-yellowing - the reason for poor watering. Some growers are afraid to pour the plant and fall into another extreme, allowing overdrying. We must not forget that any extremes are harmful to the plant. Watering should be regular, but neat.
The leaves are neat, miniature. Unlike the classical ficus, there is no elongated spine on the tips of the leaves. The bark is thin, smooth, damaged by careless handling. In translation, the name means “ficus small-fruited”. Often there is the name of the ficus ginseng, or the ficus "ginseng". So he was nicknamed for the similarity of the thickened bizarre stem with ginseng root.
The stalk of ficus is a thickened, massive root. The unusual shape of the shrubs is not a natural feature. So they are made by experts, using a special technology forming.
During flowering forms syconia - specific inflorescences resembling berries. At home, flowering can not be achieved even with the creation of ideal conditions for growth. Flowers do not bear a decorative load - the appearance of the plant does not suffer from their absence.
Interesting! In nature, it is an evergreen shrub growing to 25 meters! His homeland is East Asia. Sometimes it is called the “strangler” for wrapping neighboring trees with its long air roots.
Ficus microcarp is grown by a special technology aimed at the formation of oddly curved thick roots. By itself, the ficus is easy to form, but it takes several years to create a characteristic species of tree. Approximately the process of forming is as follows.
- The ficus is grown by sowing seeds or cuttings. At first it looks normal. A root is formed underground - thick, powerful, branched. To enhance root growth and slow down the gain of green mass, the plant is fertilized with hormonal preparations. Plant growth occurs at a certain level of temperature and humidity.
- To achieve the desired size of the root it is dug. The trunk of the ficus is completely cut off (only a small stump is left), the root is cleaned of the soil and washed.
- The root is planted in a pot, deepening into the ground only its very tips. The main part of the root remains outside - above the soil level. The peel gradually coarsens and transformed into the bark.
- With the help of special chemicals, they first stimulate the growth of twigs from hemp, and then slow it down to preserve the miniature form of the tree.
Only after this ficus gets on the shelves. This way of forming is the ability to quickly get a bonsai tree. The real art of bonsai is much more complicated, takes more time.
Peculiarities of care
Your task is to maintain the original shape of the tree, to create favorable conditions for the preservation of its decoration.
- Lighting. Put in partial shade or shadow. They hide from the sun, do not install near the batteries in the winter. If possible, placed on the north window.
- Temperature. Increased need for warmth. The optimum range is 25-30 ° C at any time of the year. In winter, clean with a cold floor and window sills.
- Watering. In the summer it is watered often, in the winter less often. Do not allow the earthen clod to dry. With a lack of moisture drops the leaves, it becomes sluggish. Pouring is also not recommended - there is a probability of rotting of the roots.
- Humidity. One of the important conditions for the maintenance of decorative - high humidity. Spray recommended daily wipe the leaves with a damp cloth - at least 2 times a week.
- Feeding. Fertilizers are applied to the soil, foliar dressings are used. For spraying take mineral fertilizers in low concentration. For entering into the soil are suitable for any means of decorative leafy plants. The best option - the use of specialized fertilizers for bonsai. Top dressing is carried out after watering.
Tip! The upper part of the roots should be gradually exposed. This will not harm the plant. Surface roots do not serve to get food, but to fix the plant in the soil. They do not have root hairs.
After buying an already formed bonsai ficus, you need to constantly monitor its shape. In stores use special tools - retardants. They slow down the growth of the plant, do not let it drag up. With the end of their actions, growth will resume - the leaves will become larger, the branches will be pulled upwards. With a lack of nutrients, the ficus will begin to use the reserves deposited in the fleshy roots. This will reduce their size, compressing.
To ficus Mikkarpa retained its original appearance, regularly pruned shoots and roots. Pruning is carried out only in the summer! All regrown branches are cut off, leaving 2 pairs of leaves on them. This is a creative process. It is necessary to focus not only on the technology of pruning, but also the general appearance of the plant. Cut off primarily those shoots that violate the desired shape. For cutting use a sharp tool!
The plant is rarely sick. The only common problem is leaf fall.
If green leaves crumble:
- Changing the usual conditions.
- Sudden temperature fluctuations and drafts.
- Excessive irrigation with root rotting.
If the leaves wither and fall:
- Dryness of the soil.
- Low humidity.
- Lack of lighting.
- Дефицит питания.
Проблему решают корректировкой условий содержания и соблюдением правил ухода. Вредителями фикус практически не поражается. In rare cases, it may become infected by other plants with a mealy bug, shield, or thrips.
Ficus mikkarpa - amazing, unusual plant that will become a real decoration of your apartment.
How to care for ficus microcarp at home?
The plant is photophilous, but under bright rays its leaves lose color, so it is better to place the tree in partial shade.
The soil substrate should be moderately moist. Before you water the plant, make sure that the earth lump is dry. If excessive moisture occurs, the leaves will fall off. Ficus microcarp leaves should be sprayed with cool boiled water.
In summer, the tree can be kept outdoors, in the winter in the room it is necessary to maintain the temperature in the range of + 18 ... + 24 degrees.
In order to form a beautiful tree, you need to cut the tops of the shoots in the spring and summer.
In winter, the ficus microcarp is placed near the window or additionally illuminated with lamps.
The leaves turn yellow and fall: what to do?
The reason for this phenomenon may be insufficient watering. Also, this phenomenon can provoke dry air, insufficient light, especially in winter. It is necessary to eliminate these possible causes. If it is not possible to provide the tree with additional lighting, you need to wait for the spring - then new leaves should appear. If the leaves turn a little yellow, the care may be disturbed and the ficus microcarp suffers from a lack of nutrients. It should be fed.
How to transplant?
After purchase, the plant adapts for 2-3 weeks, and then it is transplanted into another container. For planting ficus microcarp acquire a special substrate.
As a rule, the tree is transplanted once every 2-3 years in spring time. Periodically the substrate needs to be updated. Planting is carried out by transferring the plant in order not to damage the root system. The container should have openings to remove excess moisture. At the bottom of the vase poured a layer of drainage height of 2-3 cm.
How to propagate ficus microcarp?
There are the following methods of reproduction of this plant:
- Cuttings - produced from late January to September. You can use apical, semi-lignified shoots. They are kept in water at room temperature until the roots appear. Then transplanted into a flowerpot under the film, which is removed after the appearance of the leaves.
- Air layering. On a long shoot, leaves are removed in a selected place, the bark is cleaned in this place, treated with “Kornevin”, wrapped in moss moistened, and then covered with foil. When the roots appear, the shoot is cut, the film is removed, the shoot along with the moss is planted in the substrate.
- Root scions. Cut off part of the root, keep it in water for a couple of hours, then plant it in a soil substrate, leaving 3 cm on the surface. Cover it with a film on top, water it regularly and air it. After the appearance of the leaves, the film is removed.
Description of the species
His homeland is Southeast Asia. The growth of this plant in nature 20-25 meters. Its feature is a thin, smooth trunk and a lush, dark green crown. The scientific name is Ficus microcarpa.
It got its name due to miniature fruits appearing on it in the wild. At home, neither flowering nor fruit will not succeed, since there are no conditions for its pollination.
In indoor floriculture is grown most often in the style of Bonsai. This miniature tree is, in fact, a copy of an Asian relative.
The plant has lanceolate, wide leaves, smooth in texture, on short petioles. The surface of the leaves as if waxed.
When flowering, like all members of the family, forms spherical, purple, small inflorescences (syconia). They are more like berries.
Benefit and harm
It has long been believed that the ficus helps to maintain comfort in the home and stability in family life.
Its leaves purify the air, absorbing harmful substances.
At the same time, he has also harmful properties.
Juice released when cutting shoots can cause allergies and skin irritation. Therefore, all manipulations are advised to carry gloves.
Growing this type of Bonsai style, it is given a special form, consisting of a fancy interweaving of roots. They are located above the pot and look like a sculptural statue, decorated with a thick crown.
But in order to grow such beauty, the florist will have to follow some rules.
Immediately give him a place where he will be kept constantly. It should be light, but without direct sun, protected from drafts.
The first two weeks in the house - a period of adaptation to new conditions. Ficus can throw off the leaves, but it's not scary. From the shipping container it needs to be transplanted, but only after 3 weeks.
Spraying start immediately after purchase, and postpone watering for two days.
In the photo ficus "Microcarp":
Regular transplant he needs. Do it once every two, three years.
Replace annually there is no need, but recommended partial replacement of the soil. Transfer to a new container is carried out together with the old substrate.
The exception is the transplant after purchase. The substrate in which the plants are sold is not suitable for long-term cultivation and is completely replaced.
Before the procedure, the plant is not watered so that the roots are easier to clean. A layer of drainage is poured into a new container, then ficus soil. The mixture can be purchased ready-made, special.
If this is not possible, make it yourself from equal sod, sand and peat.
To maintain low acidity, charcoal is added to the composition.
In the center of the pot or slightly displacing, put a tree and cover the empty space with soil. Compact it by tapping lightly on the container.
The size of the pot should be 3-4 centimeters larger than the previous one. If you do not want the ficus to grow in size, you can not change the dishes, but only replace the soil mixture.
Abundant moisture is not required, it is enough to maintain the level of 50-60%. However, on hot summer days and in winter, during heating operation, humidity is reduced to 30-40%.
Solve the problem helps frequent spraying, the use of a humidifier, decorative fountains.
Top dressing is a necessary condition for growing.
Fertilize Microcarp from spring to autumn.
You can apply a universal fertilizer for leaf plants or a special fertilizer for bonsai.
The frequency of the procedure is once every two weeks.
During the rest period - November-February - it is enough to fertilize every 30-40 days.
Useful foliar feedings.
The procedure is combined with spraying once every 2-3 weeks.
The concentration of mineral substances, with this method, should be several times less (carefully read the recommendations on the package).
Cut off the apical. Semi-woody shoots. To remove the milky juice stand day in water. Then rooted in a glass of warm water.
To prevent rotting into the water is added a little wood ash.
After the appearance of the roots, the stalk is planted in a pot under a transparent cap until the leaves appear.
Layers can be grown on a specimen obtained by cutting.
For reproduction Microcarp with a characteristic appearance of this method is not acceptable.
To get otvodkaotupa from the crown 50-60 cm, cut off the bark from the trunk (10-12 cm) and wrap the cut moistened with moss and film.
On this place in a month roots form. Then the top of the head is cut and put in a separate container.
Only by the seed method can one grow a specimen with a characteristic sculptural root.
Seed propagation is carried out in the spring. First of all, you should purchase high-quality planting material at the point of sale where conditions are created for storing the goods.
If the seeds were stored incorrectly, they will not grow.
Sowing of moist and stratified seeds is produced in a flat container. At the bottom lay a layer of drainage, then a layer of soil.
The surface is tamped, moistened, laid out the seeds on it.
Then the crops are sprinkled with a small layer of sand and covered with glass or transparent film.
For germination crops need sufficient illumination and heat (22-250С).
Depending on the quality and conditions of the material sprouts appear in 2-4 weeks. In the phase of two true leaflets sprout dive.
During the rearing is carried out regular spraying.
New instances are seated in separate containers no earlier than 60 days after the pick.
Ficus "Microcarp": how to form a crown?
Regular pruning is a necessary condition for getting beautiful ficus. It is held in spring or autumn, at the beginning or end of the growing season, respectively.
To the trunk of the tree was powerful, you need to often and strongly cut young plants. When pruning, remove a lot of leaves.
Branches can be formed by directing in the right direction with the help of wire.
Shoots are shortened when they are longer than 20 centimeters. To obtain a branched crown shoots longer than five centimeters pinch.
This will promote the growth of the lower buds and the crown will become lush.
In order for Microcarp to appear ornamental thickened roots, a specimen grown from seeds must be cut.
In this case, the trunk is cut off to the root collar, leave a stub of 2-3 centimeters long.
The roots are washed and divided, then each is planted so that the main part is above the soil level.
For the appearance of foliage using stimulants.
On large roots, grafting of cuttings is possible to obtain a spectacular crown of complicated shape.
From the experience of florist
Do not water the ficus immediately after transplanting - let it adapt a couple of days.
When spraying and watering do not get on the trunk - it will cause it to rot.
In winter, make sure that the leaves do not touch the ice glass, otherwise there will be a local frostbite.
When airing ficus should not fall under the stream of cold air.
Hot air from the batteries is also harmful to him.
Ficus Microcarp is an ideal indoor plant. Caring for him is simple, and with proper pruning you can create a beautiful, original tree that serves as an original detail of the interior of the apartment.
Useful video about home care for the ficus "Microcarp":