Red books are different: national, international and regional. The first attempts to unite in one edition all the endangered representatives of the flora and fauna of humanity made 50 years ago. In 1963, the first, still very meager list was released. They decided to call it red, because it is this color that signals the important thing that needs to be highlighted and highlighted.
When our state gained independence, it had its own list of endangered species of flora and fauna - the Red Book of Russia. What plants and animals entered there, you can see in the copy for 2001. This is the last full edition, updated and improved. As for the volume dedicated to flora, it was updated in 2008.
It is known that at the end of 2015 a new Red Book of Russia will be released. This was announced recently by Sergey Donskoy, Minister of Natural Resources and Ecology. According to him, leading specialists of the country are working on its content, who cross out obsolete samples from the list and enter new copies.
Medicinal plants of the Red Book of Russia
There are a lot of them here. Using such plants in traditional medicine, a person mindlessly destroys living specimens in nature. Often, pulling the stem from the root, he does not allow him to sprout again next spring. At the same time, it is known that many inhabitants of the outback are engaged in gathering. They do not care so much about their own health as they make a profitable business out of this: herbs are sold to pharmaceutical companies or procurement organizations. For example, only in the Omsk Region, about 110 thousand people are robbed of medicinal plants. In fact, these are all village men and women of working age.
What plants are listed in the Red Book of Russia? From medicinal it is, first of all, ordinary ginseng, Rhodiola rosea, forest pine, belladonna, or belladonna, autumn crocus, and others. Such plants for medical needs are often grown on fields specially created for this purpose. From here they are then broken by professional biologists, while observing all the rules of collection.
Rare plants of the Red Book of Russia are under constant care and protection of the state. Among them, and ginseng - a real miracle of the world of flora. In many countries, it is considered a cure for all ailments, even from the Latin language the name of the plant is translated as "panacea."
The most valuable thing in ginseng is its root. In length, it often reaches 15 centimeters. Numerous branches grow from it, taking on an often bizarre form. It is believed that the use of ginseng root will not only be able to get rid of diseases, but also preserve vitality and youth, even among the elderly.
Like all plants of the Red Book of Russia, the description of which you will find on the pages of the latest edition, ginseng does not grow throughout the entire territory of our country. He is more to the land of the Far East, Khabarovsk and Primorsky Krai. It is interesting that in nature its appearance is associated with the intervention of the Gods. In China, they are sure that it is the lightning strike to the source that causes the water to go underground, and in its place, the root of life, blessed by higher powers, grows.
Also known as belladonna. Belladonna and ginseng are not only medicinal, but also forest plants of the Red Book of Russia. The first is found in the grassy form at the edges, the second is in the form of a bush and is sometimes located even in the very depths of the leafy thicket. The fruit is a cherry-sized dark blue berry. They can not be eaten, as they are very poisonous. After swallowing a few berries, even an adult gets a severe form of poisoning, not to mention children.
Belladonna is common in the Southern and Central regions of Russia. Her healing properties have unraveled even our ancestors. In ancient times, women squeezed juice out of the berries and buried it in their eyes. It dilated the pupils, the look became clear and brilliant. If the juice was rubbed into the skin of the face, then the cheeks from this became ruddy, the skin looked healthy. Belladonna is listed in the Red Book as a valuable pharmacological material. Additionally, it is grown in the Krasnodar Territory in specially created farms.
What plants are listed in the Red Book of Russia? Know that these are not only herbaceous specimens, like ginseng, and artisanal ones, like belladonna. There are trees among them. For example, pine. There are many varieties of it, five of them are protected by the state: European cedar, grave, chalk, eldar and pitsunda.
In Russia, pine is usually found in coniferous forests: near peat bogs, on the slopes of mountains and on their very tops. He likes a different climate: both temperate in botanical gardens and hard, at an altitude of about two thousand meters. Pine cones are especially valued in pine. Their seeds, which are also called nuts, contain a lot of nutrients, vitamins, oils and acids.
The healing properties of the fruits of pine discovered in the XVIII century. They were brewed, made from them alcohol tinctures and ointments. It was believed that the "pine nuts" can not only return youth, but also the lost male power. Nowadays, milk, made on the basis of cones, helps with diseases of the bladder and kidneys.
Flowers in the Red Book of Russia
Unfortunately, in this edition appear not only simple plants, bushes and trees, but also flowers. People pick snowdrops in the forests, not paying attention that they are endangered. Just for the sake of profit and short-term pleasure from a flowering branch, they destroy whole glades of rare specimens.
Due to human greed and lack of culture, the pearl of any lake - an elegant water lily - will soon disappear from the face of the Earth. All less often you can see bells, irises, peonies in the field or in the forest. Mankind risks losing irrevocably many types of spring flowers: a wood anemone, a lungwort, a European bathing suit.
Therefore, the state has taken many of them under its own protection and severely suppresses any violations in this area. It is known that in Moscow and other Russian cities it is forbidden to collect flowers in forest-park zones. Herbs need to learn to take care of since childhood, so that in the future our planet will not lose its main treasures.
Ecology lessons should be held in every school, so that children from an early age know which plants are in the Red Book of Russia. Perhaps this way it will be possible to save some species from complete extinction, including the beautiful water queen - the water lily. Every year the number of this flower decreases exponentially.
They bloom for a long time, almost all the warm season - from May to August. In the morning, with the first rays of the sun, the bud opens. In the evening, he firmly closes the petals. A spectacular sight can be seen at dawn: from the depths of the lake flowers appear on their leaf boats and open to a new day. The mankind may soon forever lose this wonderful phenomenon, therefore the Red Book of Russia (plants) has sheltered the flower on its pages.
The water lily is not only a beautiful representative of the flora, it also has magical properties. At least, our ancestors believed in that. They believed that it revives strength in a person in order to defeat the enemy, and also protects and protects him from troubles, envy and sorrows. If a scoundrel with dirty thoughts and a dark soul touched her, the water lily could even destroy him. Believers wore a dried flower as a charm, putting it in a bottle.
The list of plants of the Red Book of Russia includes this beautiful and delicate flower. He loves the soil near the reservoirs, on the forest edges, especially coniferous, on rocky slopes. You can meet him in the Irkutsk Region, Buryatia, Altai and Krasnoyarsk Territories. Violet notched propagated by seeds. They are formed not every year, so this flower was on the verge of extinction.
The ancient Greeks paid attention to the charming plant. In this country, she was under the auspices of Persephone, abducted by Hades into the realm of the dead. Since then, the flower is a symbol of dying and reviving nature.
Nowadays, the population size has decreased dramatically. The features of the biological, which lead to the extinction, had a hand in humanity. Mastering new spaces for the development of tourism and agriculture, it destroys the entire plantation of the plant. As a result, we lose one of the most beautiful purple flowers on the planet.
Rare plants of the Red Book of Russia include in their list and this name. An amazing flower, a real miracle of nature, was protected by environmentalists because of its mass destruction by people. Legend tells that the lilies of the valley were formed from the endless stream of tears of the girl behind the groom. Falling on the grass, they turned into white little buds.
Lilies of the valley grow in the European part of Russia, they are also found in the forests of the Caucasus and the Far East. At the same time the plant prefers shady places. In height reaches 20-25 centimeters. After the buds bloom, green berries are formed in their places, which eventually turn red. Lilies of the valley are poisonous. Despite this, they are actively used in the treatment of heart disease, ophthalmological ailments, neurosis and depression. They are often pulled out with roots in large quantities. Therefore, together with other representatives of the flora, this flower is very vulnerable and needs protection.
Knowing now which plants are listed in the Red Book of Russia, you will pay more attention to their value. Telling this information to your children, you will teach them to love the world around them, to preserve it and increase it.
Species categories in the Red Book
- Endangered species. Rescue of such animals or plants is impossible without taking special measures for protection.
- Rare. Animals and plants listed in the Red Book are not under serious threat. There are these species in small areas of the territory, and quite rarely, so if you do not take special measures, they may soon disappear.
- Shrinking views. Under the influence of any factors, the number of these plants and animals is rapidly declining.
- Undefined. Animals and plants listed in the Red Book are not studied enough yet, which makes it impossible to determine their exact location and number.
The Red Book of Russia
The list in which plants are listed in the Red Book of Russia was revised at the beginning of the XXI century, and the document itself was reprinted in 2008. According to this list, 24 species of fungi and 652 plant species are on the verge of extinction.
In the Red Book of Russia, the categories of species are somewhat broader:
- Endangered species.
- Shrinking views.
- Probably missing.
- Species with undefined status.
In addition, each region or region of Russia has its own Red Book.
The article will consider some of the plants listed in the Red Book, photos will also be provided.
List of plants in the Red Book of Russia
The most numerous in terms of the number of species is vascular plants. It includes more than 11,400 species. These include: gymnosperms, flowers, ferns, psilotovye, horsetails, gliding.
Plants listed in the Red Book of Russia: 10 species of fern, 11 species of gymnosperms, 440 species of flowering.
Flowering plants are striking in their diversity. We list the most rare: Alpine arnica, Martyanov's volodushka, Shlippenbach rhododendron, Fori rhododendron, high gastrodia, aldreunda blister, dwarf tulip, etc.
It prefers the mountain slopes of the Kola Peninsula with dry soil. Rarely found in meadows with open vegetation.
Disappearing species is due to violations of mountain ranges as a result of mining.
It grows along the Amur, in Primorsky Krai, and is also found on the island of Iturup. Loves thickets of willow, forest deciduous forests.
The roots of this plant were previously widely used in medicine, which led to a reduction in species.
This is an aquatic plant that is found in Lake Ladoga, in the lower reaches of the Kuban, in the Volga delta, in some areas of the Amur.
The main factor in the reduction of species numbers is water pollution, which occurs due to land reclamation, hydraulic engineering, and others.
Gymnosperms, listed in the Red Book, are second in number in number, of about 11 species. These are such plants as berry yew, spiky yew, cretaceous pine, densely flowered pine, pitundus pine, sargent juniper, hard juniper, smelly juniper, high juniper , Olgin larch, cross-pair microbiota.
Sometimes it can be found in the Krasnodar region near the Black Sea. It is a symbol of the Crimea. The age of this woody plant can reach 600 years.
Rare species has become due to human activity (uprooting trees for pasture for livestock and agricultural activities).
The Red Book of Russia has 10 species of fern plants. This is Chistus claiton, a simple grape, lingual pyrrhosis, Dagestan Kostenets, Wright Mecodium, Poor Kostenets, bristly marsilea, Egyptian marsilea, Mikel's leptoroumore, Kuna landbreaker.
4 species of aquifer are under state protection. These are polushniki: bristly, Asian, lake, sea.
Distributed throughout Russia, but the number of plants in each area is relatively small.
This species reacts very sharply to changes in temperature and pollution of the soil and atmosphere. These factors are the causes of his disappearance.
More detailed information about which plants listed in the Red Book of Russia (with a description and a photo) are the most rare can be found in the special literature.
The plant habitat is Don, Volga and Ciscaucasia. This is a herbaceous perennial plant that grows exclusively in forest glades and meadows. Autumn crocus is very reminiscent of crocus. The color of flowers varies from purple to violet. The flowering period is in autumn. Colchicum belongs to poisonous plants, it is used for medical purposes. The main reason for the reduction in the number is a massive collection of bouquets. The remaining bulbs in the ground are restored poorly.
The plant is endemic to the central part of the Caucasus, and is found on alpine and subalpine meadows. Most of the year broadleaf snowdrop holds in the form of bulbs under the ground. It is a frost-resistant type, preferring shaded places. The snowdrop wakes up in the fall, and in the spring it increases the green mass. The flowering period occurs in March - April. Flowers exude a delicate scent. The exact number has not yet been established. In some areas, the mind faces complete extinction. Tourists and plant collectors uncontrollably pluck flowers and dig up bulbs. Due to the cut foliage, the quality of flowering deteriorates in the next year.
The habitat of this cold-resistant species is Southern Europe and Siberia. Under natural conditions, lily saranka grows in deciduous forests and forest edges. The height of the stem is 80 cm. The flowers, painted in a purple tint, have dark spots. Lily blooms in the middle of summer. Blooming flowers exude a sweetish aroma. The limiting factors include: deforestation, grazing, picking up bouquets and digging up bulbs for transfer to the garden.
Rare species from the lotus family, growing in the rivers of the Amur region, Primorsky Krai, as well as along the shores of the Caspian and Azov seas. The rhizomes of this aquatic perennial plant are immersed in silt, and the leaves stick out above the water surface. Flowering occurs in July - August. Pink flowers of the nut-bearing lotus reach 25 cm in diameter. Seeds remain viable for many years. The decrease in population size was influenced by the development of floodplains in Russian rivers and heavy floods. During the flowering period, the lotus suffers from the hands wishing to pick a flower. People do not realize that the flower will not stand in vases, it fades in a few hours. The increase in numbers is observed exclusively in the protected areas of reserves and national parks of the country.
Narrow plant, which is found in the Primorsky and Khabarovsk territories. Ginseng ordinary grows in cedar-deciduous forests and stony slopes. As a rule, there are single individuals, the plant does not form clusters. The shape of the root of this perennial resembles a human figure. It has a powerful root, thin stem, and the inflorescence forms an umbrella. The pulp of the fruit is poisonous.
The plant is famous for healing. Оно обладает общетонизирующими свойствами. В медицине применяют корни женьшеня, которые содержат эфирные масла, микроэлементы, витамины и пептиды. Падение численности напрямую связано с заготовкой корней. Страдает женьшень и от лесных пожаров. На сегодняшний день растение разводят искусственно.Plantations are located in Primorsky Krai.
Relic plant growing in the European part of Russia and the Caucasus. It got its name from the sharp leaves that resemble a sword, and have cutting properties. The grass grows along the marshy and muddy banks of rivers and lakes in the country. The plant is drawn up to one and a half meters in height. The inflorescence resembles spikelets, and the seeds are spread by water. There is no accurate data on the size of the population. Sword-grass is in danger of extinction. The negative factors include the economic development of reservoirs, peat extraction and fires. Reservoirs on the shores of which grows sword-grass, must be given the status of protected areas.
The water nut is a grassy annual, which is found in the Far Eastern rivers. This relict species develops exclusively in warm water. In low-flowing reservoirs forms dense thickets. Glossy leaves are shaped like birch leaves. White flowers appear in the middle of summer. The ripened fruits look like a devil's head. For a long time, water nut seeds were massively harvested for culinary and medical purposes. Today the plant suffers from water pollution and long dry periods. To restore the number of needed control over the state of the population.
Shrub plant, common on the slopes of the Greater Caucasus. Its habitat is wet forests. An important role in the development of boxwood groves is played by the abundance of heat, moisture and light. The shrub has small green leaves, the bark is covered with green moss, which acts as a heat insulator. During flowering on the bushes bloom yellow flowers. The value is solid wood, which, under its own weight, even sinks in water. Cutting and exporting had a negative effect on the number of plants. Only maximum control over the condition of the groves and a complete ban on logging will allow this small number to remain on the territory of Russia.
A perennial plant that grows in the European part of the country. Thin-leaved peony can be found in the steppe zone, on the stony slopes of the mountains, edges and glades. Plant height can reach half a meter. Peony leaves are thin, divided into feathers. Flowering occurs at the beginning of May. The color of flowers varies from purple to blood red. The diameter of a single flower is 8 cm. Terry specimens are rare.
The plant is winter-hardy and drought-resistant, but in shady areas it blooms poorly. In connection with the reduction of the steppe area, the number of pions has decreased dramatically. To date, it can be found only in inaccessible for plowing lands. Another negative factor is cattle grazing, which tramples the aerial part of the plant. Thin-leaved peony also suffers from massive collection and excavation of rhizomes. Numerous populations survived only in the territories of nature reserves.
On the territory of Russia, the species is found in Khakassia, Siberia and the Far East. Plant height does not exceed ten centimeters. The violet has no stems, and the feathery leaves are on short petioles. Peduncles rising above the leaves. The size of purple flowers is 15 mm. In the southern regions the violet blooms in June, and in the northern - not earlier than August. The species has a spread on the sand and pebble shores. The plant does not multiply well: seeds do not ripen every year. The reason for the reduction of the population are numerous floods, cattle grazing, human economic activity. To save the incised violet, it is necessary to regularly collect seed and monitor the situation in the natural habitats of the plant.
What plants are listed in the Red Book?
To begin with, there are more than ten million plant species on our planet, and half of them are on the verge of extinction. And this list is updated every year. The book allows you to see a complete picture of the state of various species of plants and animals in each region and protect them legally.
Plants need to protect the environment of their habitat. But all measures for the conservation of rare species will be effective only in the case when each person is aware of his responsibility to future generations.
The first official documents, which spoke about the need to preserve the flora and fauna of the planet. They were adopted at the plenum of the International Union for Conservation of Nature, which was created in the middle of the last century. The headquarters of the organization was located in Switzerland. The logical result of the union was the creation of a commission for rare species. Its competence included the identification of rare species and their systematization.
Since the danger is always a bloody hue as a distress signal, the list is called red. The list was impressive and it was decided to publish the Red Book, the first volume of which was published in 1963. Since then, it has been republished several times, since it was necessary to add and exclude from the list individual species due to the restoration of the population.
Sometimes some populations were included in the list because of ignorance of the complete picture of its development. After all, only on the spot, you can see what the situation really is. Therefore, each country of the country makes its own list of plants and animals in the international edition.
Currently there are national, international and regional Red Books. In the latter version, the plants are divided into six categories and comprise 652 species.
Russia is a huge country, and a large number of trees, shrubs and flowers grow on its territory. But in some regions, as a result of their activities, a person reduced to a minimum the number of steppes, meadows and forests. As a result, many plants were on the verge of extinction. In order to preserve them, the state takes such representatives of the flora under its protection and enters the book.
The lists of rare plants in Russia are constantly updated, but since the methods for determining the number and habitat are imperfect, we can only imagine the approximate state of green natural resources in the country. Most of the species on the verge of extinction grow in the steppe zone, the Siberian region, in the littoral and in the Caucasus. But only data collection and updating of the list will not allow preserving the flora of our country.
There are species that need constant protection and the creation of conditions for reproduction. This is a completely solvable task in mountainous areas and places where human activity is not so active.
In regions with developed industry to save the plants is much more difficult. They have to fight poachers and preserve protected areas. Great damage to the flora and fauna of the country causes pollution of the atmosphere, rivers and land. However, by joint efforts of conscious citizens, it is still possible to preserve rare species. The Red Book is a unique edition where you can see which rare and endangered plants, birds and animals need to be protected.
In order for future generations to see for themselves the diversity and richness of the plant world, it is necessary to properly educate those children who are growing up today. They must understand all the responsibility for the preservation and multiplication of the natural wealth of their native country.
It is necessary to understand that sometimes the reduction of species is associated with the inability of some herbs, shrubs and flowers to adapt to changes in environmental conditions.
Sometimes the spread of the population is affected by the absence of insects that pollinate them. However, a large proportion of the blame for the disappearance of rare plants lies with man. In addition to industrial activities, there is also traditional medicine.
Many unscrupulous herbalists, collecting raw materials for their medicinal fees, destroy plants in the meadows and forests of their region. Because of this, the ecology of the area suffers.
These include such types as:
- Yellow water lily. In the people, this plant is called a capsule for a compact flower, inside of which there is a seed box. The roots of yellow water lily are widely used in the pharmaceutical industry and a number of medicinal fees for the treatment of skin and mucous infections.
- Coral root spotted. This representative of the orchid is valuable for its tubers. Of them are made ointments and infusions that help relieve inflammation and restore immunity. In addition, many are attracted by beautiful flowers.
- Nose-bearing lotus. This species is one of the most ancient on earth. His remains were found in the layers of the Tertiary period. The flower got its name because of the seeds. In addition to our country, it can be found in China and India. The plant is used in some religious rituals, cooking and medicine.
This group includes the following endangered plants:
- Barguzin wormwood. The fact that this species has practically disappeared from the face of the earth is the fault of the man. The grass juices contain a huge amount of healthy oils and trace elements. Therefore, it is used for medicinal purposes and mercilessly exterminated. If for several decades the plant could be found everywhere, now even the smell of grass seems unfamiliar.
- Plantain Krasheninnikov. This plant has excellent hemostatic properties and therefore it is often used in folk recipes.
This category includes species whose numbers are steadily declining. Despite the fact that their population is quite extensive, it is necessary to take measures to change trends so that in a few years they do not have to be entered into endangered species.
These plants can be attributed hawthorn, wolfberry, and some others.
Species with undefined status
This group includes plants about which little is known. Perhaps they are widespread in some regions. Or, on the contrary, completely disappeared. Such species require more careful study, the main thing is to find their habitats.
To such species can be attributed chastuhu grassy, uzhovnik Japanese, leafless chord and some others.
Almost extinct species
This category includes species, copies of which are not found on earth for more than half a century. Sometimes a person discovers a disappeared species for himself, when one or several specimens are suddenly found in a remote corner of the earth. Thus, pine vollemy was discovered. It has long been considered extinct, but one of the caretakers of Australian parks found a whole grove of such trees.
In the Red Book of our country more than seventy of these species, which include:
- Lily Kinky. Just a couple of decades ago, the sarans could be found in the Volgograd region. There is evidence that its copies still exist today, but there is no practical confirmation of this.
- Potentilla Volga. According to experts, the silverweed was distributed in the Volga region and has not been found in this region for a long time.
If the number of plants is small, but there is a steady increase in its population, then it is transferred to the group of recovering ones. For such plants there are special green pages in the book.
- Butterbur Reed. This representative of the Astrov family is common in Udmurtia and some Asian countries.
- Mock iris. A powerful plant has huge buds of golden color.
- May Lily of the Valley. Together, we managed to restore the population of flowers in the metropolitan area.
The yellow pages contain information about rare species, and the red ones are for endangered flora representatives. Presumably extinct plants are listed on black sheets.
In order to achieve the restoration of the country's natural resources, it is necessary to popularize the book of endangered species, to study its content in schools and other educational institutions.
The last complete publication of lists of rare animals, plants, mushrooms and birds was published in 2001. An update of the flora volume was in 2008.
According to information from the Ministry of Natural Resources and Ecology, work is currently underway to clarify information on the status of various species for updating the Red Book of Russia.
“The abundance of vascular plant species listed in the Red Book of Russia is quite original. In addition to the highs in the centers of high biological diversity, where species come from adjacent territories (Caucasus, mountains of southern Siberia, Primorye, Sakhalin and Kuriles), there are also regional centers that have no analogues in other groups. An increased number of rare plant species is characteristic of the steppe zone (usually 15–30 species), which, of course, is due to its deep anthropogenic transformation. The local maximum exists in Chukotka (11 species) due to the penetration of a number of American species here, as well as on the southern shores of the Gulf of Finland and its islands (27 species), where a significant number of West European plants grow. In the vast expanses of northern Siberia, rare plant species are unknown. The maximum number of rare plant species is observed in the Prikhankaysky lowland - 66 and at the western tip of the Russian part of the Caucasus - 65 "(Biofail.ru).
Despite the "medical" name - it is clear to all, the most common, surrounding us from all sides, especially in summer, plants.
Fluuniform - a division of higher spore plants, similar in structure to mosses.
There are only 4 representatives on the list of plaspid plants listed in the Red Book of Russia: Hemispheric Asiatic, Hemispheric, Northern Hemisphere, Hemisphere Bristly.
The list of angiosperm plant species listed in the Red Book of Russia contains more than 90 items. Some of the most famous:
Pictured snowdrop flat leaf
A beautiful flower, fully corresponding to the first part of its name, blooms growing out of the snow in spring. It is found in Georgia and North Ossetia.
On photo Volodushka Martyanova(rare view)
The plant grows mainly only in Russia, Altai, Sayan.
In the photo Colchicum cheerful
It occurs mainly in meadows and in the steppes of Ciscaucasia.
In the photo Rhododendron Schlippbach(population is declining)
Deciduous shrub, one of the most beautiful among similar. In Russia, there are specimens only in the Khasansky district in the south of Primorye on the mountain slopes.
Rhododendron Fori on the photo(rare view)
In the photo Saffron is beautiful
On photo Lily lantsetolistnaya
In the photo the Tulip dwarf
On photo Magnolia obovate
Flowering plant. In Russia, it meets and feels good on the Black Sea coast of the Caucasus. In the Botanical Garden of the Far East Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences in Vladivostok there are 15 magnolia trees, also in the Moscow Region, Voronezh, and St. Petersburg. However, in colder regions it is heavily frosting in winter, heat-loving. Ornamental breed, deciduous tree with very beautiful flowers that bloom in May and June.
Nuts Lotus (one of the rarest and most beautiful flowers)
How lotuses are blooming in Russia (Vladivostok) in the plot of a local TV company:
The lotus is found in Russia mainly in the regions neighboring Asia, in the Far East in the lower reaches of the Amur, in the basins of the Ussuri rivers, on the shores of the Caspian and Azov seas. Disappears mainly due to negligence, for example, the lotus root is considered a delicacy in Chinese cuisine, and therefore the flower is often destroyed for food, near the swamps and on the shores of wild boars and cows eat it.
Pictured Mountain Peony
On photo Mack Oriental
Pictured Buttercup Sayan.
Despite the prevalence - listed in the Red Book as a rare species. It occurs mainly in Siberia.
On the photo Violet incised (population is declining)
On a photo the Ginseng ordinary
This is a very useful plant, it is used in medicine, the raw material from ginseng root has powerful immunomodulating, stimulating properties. It grows mainly in the territory of the Russian Federation: in the Far East of Russia - in the south of the Khabarovsk Territory, in the Primorsky Territory.
In the list of fern plants listed in the Red Book of Russia, about 10 plant species, one of the representatives:
On the photo Marsily Egyptian (view disappears)
The list of gymnosperm plants listed in the Red Book of Russia includes 11 plants, one of them is:
On the photo Juniper high
An evergreen coniferous tree 10–15 meters high, a species of Juniper genus, of the cypress family. In general - the symbiosis of juniper, cypress and pine. Lives on average 2 centuries, distributed in the Crimea, Asia Minor, in the Caucasus. Status - endangered view.
In the photo is Olgin larch
It is found in the south of Primorsky Krai, along the coast and along the eastern foothills of the Sikhote-Alin. Relic rock occupies less than 1% of the forest area in which it grows. In the Red Book under the status - endangered species.
According to the information at the end of 2013 - 29 species of lichen are included in the Red Book. What kind of plants are these and where do they most often grow? Lichens are organisms that combine the features and structure of terrestrial algae, fungi, mosses, and there are about 25 thousand species in the world. Важны для почвообразования, лишайниками питаются олени на Крайнем Севере, в густой растительности их прячутся и живут насекомые, лишайники необходимы для поддержания баланса окружающей среды, используются в народной медицине, из некоторых видов готовят изысканные блюда, не выживают в «грязном» воздухе, а потому являются индикаторами экологической обстановки.
«Из примерно 3000 видов лишайников России в Красную книгу внесено 29. Следует отметить, что эти материалы далеко не полны. The lichen flora, the distribution of their individual species have not been studied sufficiently for the territory of Russia, especially considering their high role in the formation of the Arctic, subarctic and boreal ecosystems. In addition, lichens are very sensitive to external influences, especially air pollution, which makes them especially vulnerable. The same property makes us consider the group as an important indicator of the general state of the natural environment.
The flora of moss in Russia is now estimated at 1370 species, of which 22 are listed in the Red Book of Russia. But the moss flora has been studied even worse than lichens, so these data are indicative in nature ”(Biofile.ru)
Lobaria pulmonary in the photo
On the photo of the Letharium wolf
The list of moss-like plants listed in the Red Book of Russia numbers over 60 items. “Mosses is a department of higher plants, numbering about 10,000 species, combined into approximately 700 genera and 110–120 families.” Widely distributed in swampy areas, in coniferous forests. Participate in important natural processes to maintain the balance of the environment of soil, air, water, ecosystems. All plants have their own functions, their place, and without moss there would be no peat, there would be no alternative to the most powerful natural sponge holding a large amount of water, which would negatively affect the state of the landscape as a whole. Some species of mosses are used in medicine for the preparation of drugs. Mosses and lichens on very important roles are involved in soil formation processes.
Photo: Alaskan Fossombronia (rare species)
On the photo Skapaniya ballonosnaya
The list of mushrooms listed in the Red Book of Russia has 17 species. The kingdom of nature, especially the forests of Russia can not be without mushrooms. And basically, we all sympathize with butters, champignons, saffron mushrooms, boletus mushrooms, but besides them there are a lot of "unsightly", inedible, moreover - poisonous mushrooms, which for some reason take their place in the world of flora. Mushrooms - decomposers (collect and process dead remains into inorganic compounds), increase soil fertility, are used for food and medical purposes, and can be harmful (for example, poisoning caused by the use of fungi). There are many inedible mushrooms in the Red Book of Russia (but there are also allowed for consumption), which is good: it means that there are many edible mushrooms, you just have to get up earlier during the harvest season.
On the photo Amanita pineal
On the photo Sparass curly (edible)
Pictured white aspen
On liability for violation of the preservation of specimens of plants listed in the Red Book of the Russian Federation:
“According to the Code of Administrative Offenses of the Russian Federation (Article 8.35), the destruction of rare and endangered plant species listed in the Red Book of the Russian Federation or protected by international treaties, as well as the act (inaction) that could lead to the death of such plants, or , the collection, maintenance, purchase, sale or transfer of these plants, their products, parts or derivatives (derivatives) without proper permission or in violation of the conditions provided for permission m, or in violation of another established procedure, entails the imposition of an administrative fine on citizens in the amount of from one thousand five hundred to two thousand five hundred rubles with confiscation of the tools of obtaining plants, as well as plants themselves, their products, parts or derivatives, or officials - from fifteen thousand to twenty thousand rubles with confiscation of tools for obtaining plants, as well as the plants themselves, their products, parts or derivatives, or no, on legal entities - from three hundred thousand to five hundred thousand rubles with confiscations her guns getting plants, and the plants themselves, their products, parts or derivatives or without "
If the party is particularly large or the collection of rare plants has led to their complete destruction - criminal liability occurs.
National programs for the preservation of endangered plant species are implemented in reserves, game reserves, national parks, fines and administrative (sometimes criminal) measures are imposed for the violation of the preservation of natural specimens. In total, there are 66 reserves, 103 reserves, 47 national parks in the territory of the Russian Federation.