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Arugula: planting and care in the open field, especially the cultivation

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The diet of any person should include at least 70% of vegetables. A good addition is fresh greens, the chemical composition of which is rich in valuable vitamins and minerals. Arugula is considered to be one of the most popular salad ingredients, but when grown in summer cottages it is rarely possible to obtain a product with an exquisite spicy-nutty flavor. The whole secret lies in agricultural technology, rules of planting and care, which will be discussed in this article.

Plant is kind of salad, belongs to the Indus family of the cabbage family. Initially, greens were considered weeds, but later expanded to the lists of vegetable crops grown in our country. The demand for the product began to grow after the popularization of the Mediterranean cuisine.

Arugula contains rich vitamin compositionwhich include:

  • vitamin C,
  • vitamins B, E, PP, K,
  • essential oils,
  • flavonoids,
  • vegetable acids (erucic, oleic, linoleic, etc.),
  • steroids and other substances.

Arugula leaves are high in vitamins.

Regular consumption of greens has the following effect on the body:

  • strengthens the protective function of the body,
  • normalizes metabolic processes,
  • calms the nervous system
  • lowers blood cholesterol
  • increases hemoglobin.

And this is an incomplete list of the achievements of arugula, so its include diet and health food.

Arugula can be sown several times per season, starting from April to August. It is important that the earth had time to warm up to 9-14 degrees. If planted in cold soil, the process of germination and seedling development is inhibited.

In the south and in the middle lane, you can sow from April 15. In the northern regions it is recommended to use greenhouse or seedling cultivation.

Seeds for seedlings need to plant from late March to early April. Preliminary preparation for seeds is not required, they already have good germination. Saplings are grown in pots, boxes or cups.

Arugula Seeds

Shoots appear 4-6 days after seeding. When the sprouts will form 2 true leaves, you need swoop down seedlings in separate containers (plastic cups or peat pots). Grown up shoots are transferred to an open garden bed together with an earthy ball, so as not to damage the root system.

After germination of seedlings, it is necessary to thin out the planting, leaving at first 5 cm between shoots, and later, increasing the distance to 10 cm. Thickness has a negative effect on the taste of the salad.

The most suitable varieties for growing in the country or garden

The range of varieties complicates the choice in determining the variety for cultivation on the site. When buying, you should familiarize yourself with a brief description of the plants and the characteristics of their agricultural practices.

Plant with middle ripening, the growing season lasts 36-38 days. The bush reaches a height of 20-30 cm, forming a raised rosette of narrow long leaves. During flowering appear light yellow inflorescences of small size.

Features of the variety: consistently yields a high yield, external similarity of the culture with dandelion.

Arugula Arrow Cupid

The variety matures in about a month (vegetation 28-30 days). The height of the bush reaches 20 cm, the stem is upright with a small edge. The plant blooms in small cream-colored inflorescences.

Plant of early term of aging, the growing season lasts only 21-25 days. Saturated green leaves of large size, in one outlet there are about 20-26 pieces. The height of the bush is about 20 cm.

To taste arugula sweetish with a mustard note. Seed material retains its germination for 4 years.

Arugula Poker

Plant of early term of aging, the growing season lasts only 20-25 days. The height of the bush does not exceed 16-20 cm. The leaves are lyrate, slightly rounded. Variety refers to the perennial.

Advantages of the plant: high yield, good transportability, high taste, which have a pronounced nutty note and a slight bitterness.

Arugula Olivetta

To arugula filled with rich green color and acquired a pleasant nutty flavor, it is necessary to strictly follow the rules of agricultural engineering, in particular planting in open ground.

Arugula seeds should be purchased in specialized stores. When buying with hands you will need to spend disinfection of seed. To do this, the grains are immersed for 15 minutes in a weak solution of potassium permanganate. After the procedure, you need to thoroughly rinse them under running water and dry on a towel.

Other treatments to stimulate growth are not carried out, since the arugula seed is quite good.

When choosing a place for a rucola bed, it should be noted that the plant love neither shade nor direct sunlight. Therefore it is worth picking up a plot that is in the shade one half of the day, and the other in the sun. Ideally, in the midday hours the plants will be in partial shade.

Landing should be limited to direct sunlight.

Salad soil is good fertile, loose with a neutral medium or slightly acid. The following predecessors are welcome: carrots, potatoes, tomatoes, pumpkin. It is not recommended to plant arugula after: cabbage, turnip, daikon, radish and other cruciferous crops.

Sowing is done in prepared wells 2 cm deep. Interval between rows during transplantation is observed in 30-40 cmbetween the holes - 5 cm. In each hole 2-3 seeds are repaired. A week later, it is necessary to thin the beds, increasing the interval between plants to 10-15 cm.

Air temperature is considered optimal for the growing season. 14-18 degrees. At a lower rate, plant development is inhibited.

The culture will survive a sharp drop in temperature to minus 7 degrees, but on the condition that the cold will be short. If there are frosts after sowing, then it is necessary to build a shelter of plastic film.

The soil is always on the beds with arugula should be wet, so irrigation is performed regularly. Watering mode: 3-4 times a week.

Watering is carried out 3-4 times a week.

In case of settled heat, it is necessary to moisten the soil daily. From the lack of moisture leaves get a bitter taste, and the plant itself produces color.

For normal growing season, the plant requires loose soiltherefore, after each watering or one time, the ground should be pushed down with a hoe or horn.

Simultaneously with this procedure, weeding is performed. Weeds thicken the planting, which provokes the development of fungal diseases, the attraction of pests. In addition, the proximity to the weeds can adversely affect the taste of arugula.

The soil for seeding lettuce should be well fertilized. Then for the entire growing season will need only 1-2 feedings.

Introduce complex mineral compounds should not, because for a short time toxins accumulated in the leaves, do not have time to decompose. It is better to use a solution of chicken dung or rotted manure with irrigation water. Also suitable nitrogen fertilizers.

Chicken litter solution is best used as a fertilizer.

Arugula leaves contain a large amount of essential oils, their aroma scares away many pests. However this does not protect against fungal infectionsthat develop well in a humid environment - the soil.

With the defeat of the root system, the stem begins to fade. At the roots of the fungal disease bubbles form small brown color. When the first signs of the disease are detected, the bush must be removed from the bed, and the soil must be treated with antifungal preparations.

Damage to arugula leaves can only cruciferous flea, lovers of radishes and different types of salad. If you cover the seedlings with lutrasil, then the pest will go to look for food in another place.

Those who have already had experience in the cultivation of arugula know that when overexposed by a plant in the garden the leaves become hard and bitter in taste. Therefore, the harvest should be on time should not be postponed.

One of the signs of ripeness is the length of the leaf, it should reach not less than 10 cm. After ejection of the peduncle, the taste qualities of the salad deteriorate.

Large sockets are cut off completely, other bushes are partially cut off. Use leaves for cooking better fresh. In the refrigerator, it will take only a few days to lay the crop wrapped in food film.

Summarizing, it is worth noting that the cultivation of arugula is a fascinating and simple matter. Adhering to the general rules for the care of a plant can enrich the body with beneficial trace elements, strengthen the immune system and even rejuvenate the skin.

It is possible to plant and grow arugula not only at the cottage or garden, but also at home - on the windowsill or balcony. The main thing is to get acquainted with the compatibility with other plants, plant seeds according to the rules and maintain the temperature at home.

Description of the plant, sowing seeds

Arugula belongs to the cabbage family, it is found in Europe, America, Asia, and India. Italians massively cultivate this plant. Some gardeners grow arugula seedling method, others - seedless.

If your region has a warm climate, sow the seeds for the garden: after a while you will see friendly shoots. In a harsh climate, it is better to grow rucola seedlings, seeds should be sown in early March.

The soil for the plant "Arugula" should be:

  • easy
  • fertile,
  • clean
  • drained
  • breathable.

Before sowing seeds, it is necessary to disinfect the soil. Place it in the oven for 10 - 12 minutes. I used the purchased soil mix, so I didn’t follow this procedure. A couple of hours before sowing, soak the seeds in a weak solution of potassium permanganate.

The seedling takes root in a pot of 10-14 cm. Before sowing the seeds, be sure to moisten the soil substrate. Spread the seeds on the surface of the substrate and sprinkle with sand. Identify the pots in a warm room, do not cover them, see the seedlings in 4 - 5 days.

For the plant to take root at home, you need to regularly water and loosen it. After some time, the seedlings form 2 loose leaves: they will need to be transplanted into separate containers (peat pots are ideal).

Some gardeners dive seedlings into a common container: in this case, keep a distance between seedlings of 20 cm. Arugula can be grown on a window sill. It should be sown in neutral or weakly alkaline soil. To prepare you need to take:

Before sowing seeds, do not forget to disinfect the soil mixture. Place it in the oven, soak for 20 minutes. Place a drain at the bottom of the tank before backfilling. I used a broken brick, sprinkled a small amount of soil mixture over it, and then planted a plant.

Arugula substrate should always be slightly moist. I advise you to water the seedlings 1 time in 2 - 3 days. You can moisten them with a spray bottle. If it is not enough to water arugula, the leaves will become bitter, respectively, unsuitable for food.

Arugula in open ground

In order for the plant to take root in the garden, it is necessary to periodically loosen the soil near it. Carrying out the procedure, try not to injure the roots. If you sowed seeds in open ground, after 12 days thin out seedlings, leaving only tall specimens.

Arugula at home grows well at a temperature of + 18 degrees. Regardless of growing conditions, it can be fed organic (I use 4% mullein solution). It is forbidden to feed arugula with manure or minerals, otherwise it will begin to accumulate poisons.

Planting seedlings

Arugula is planted in open ground when the air temperature reaches + 10 degrees. Plant prefer moderately sunny plot. Better not to plant it in the shade! As for soil, it can be neutral or alkaline. Favorable predecessors for arugula:

If undesirable crops grow on the selected bed, wait 3 years, and only then plant arugula. It is convenient to grow seedlings in peat pots; when planting in open ground, no plants are required to be removed.

If you grow arugula in a common container, when planting, carefully remove the seedlings together with the earthy ball. Place them at a distance of 35 cm, moisten the wells before planting. Arugula is valued for resistance to cold.

If the temperature drops to - 6 degrees for a while, the plant survives. A stronger cooling is dangerous, as it can lead to the death of the culture. To seedlings were protected from frost, at night you need to cover them with a thick film.

How to care for a plant

  • regular but moderate watering
  • soil weeding,
  • thinning plants (if they are planted thickly).

I repeat that the soil should always be a little wet. after watering gently loosen it between the rows. In hot weather, water the plant every day. When the leaves grow by 9 cm, tear them off: after some time, new, suitable for food will appear.

Arugula in the open field does not require additional feedings - this is another of its advantages. But if you need to increase the fertility of the soil, add a small amount of peat under the digging. After this plant, you can plant a culture of pumpkin and legumes. I do not recommend planting cruciferous crops.

Possible problems with growing

If dark spots appear on the leaf plate, then arugula is affected by peronospora. Fusarium shows fading leaves. These diseases are not treatable. To avoid them, you need to observe crop rotation. Infected cultures should be removed and disposed of away from the garden bed.

The best prevention of peronosporoza and fusarium is the removal of weeds. If not in a timely manner to make the water, the plant attacks the cruciferous flea and cabbage mole. Pests lay larvae on different parts of arugula, leaving holes on the leaves.

To avoid insects, cover the seedlings with agrospan. For prevention, you can use tobacco dust: you should gently powder the plant. In the fight against cabbage moth should use a solution of tomato tops.

Arugula species

Consider the popular varieties.

  1. Curiosity. This variety is mid-season: the crop is harvested 30 days after planting the plant in the ground. The height of arugula "Curiosity" from 19 to 22 cm. The stem of the plant is straight, in its lower part there is a leafy rosette. The flowers of this plant are creamy, the leaves are delicious. The variety of arugula "Dikovin" is one of the most sought after.
  2. Cupid's arrows. A plant of this species is also popular. It has a yellowish tinge. Arugula "Arrows Cupid" ripens about 45 days after sowing seeds. The stems of the plant are erect, from a height of 35 cm.
  3. Rocket The variety is early maturing. Its leaves ripen 32 days after sowing. Arugula "Rocket" is relatively low, its leaves resemble feathers in shape, they are distinguished by a dark green color. The grade is used for preparation of the real culinary masterpieces!
  4. Victoria. The plant of this variety is compact. It becomes edible 35 days after sowing the seeds. Arugula "Victoria" has small stalks (approximate height of 1 piece - 18 cm). Variety is a vitamin, often used in the preparation of salads.
  5. Poker. Arugula belonging to this variety is also early maturing. Crop harvested 27 days after sowing seeds in the garden. The plant is characterized by large long leaves, in color they are bright green, sweetish in taste.
  6. Spartacus. The variety is popular among fans of dietary dishes. Arugula "Spartak" ripens 35 days after sowing seeds. The plant contains a large amount of vitamins and microelements. Experienced gardeners grow Spartacus arugula in greenhouses.

Product benefits

The plant "Arugula" has a rich composition, while it is low-calorie: 100 g only 27 kcal. This food product contains zinc, iron, iodine, manganese and vitamins: C, E, A.

The young plant has a large amount of iodine and flavonoids. These components strengthen blood vessels, preventing the development of atherosclerosis.

Iodine improves thyroid function and prevents diseases associated with it. Due to its rich composition, arugula cleans blood vessels, provides prevention of heart disease. The product normalizes blood pressure.

It has been proven that, with moderate use of arugula, it provides cancer prevention.

Food product is appreciated by fans of healthy food: it is included in the composition of dietary dishes.

How arugula affects the body:

  • improves metabolism
  • cleans the blood vessels
  • warns of cancer pathology,
  • gives a charge of cheerfulness
  • promotes weight loss
  • provides prevention of anemia.

Arugula is not contraindicated for pregnant women (with the exception of individual intolerance). The plant improves health with the disease "Gout". It is an indispensable source of vitamin C, which increases the body's defenses.

If a patient has urolithiasis, arugula should be consumed with maximum caution, after consulting a doctor. Pregnant women should not abuse this food product.

Посадка и уход за рукколой (вкратце)

  • Посадка: Sowing seeds in open ground - in April, sowing seeds for seedlings - in early March, planting seedlings in the ground - in April.
  • Lighting: in the morning - diffused light, and after noon - partial shade.
  • The soil: fertile, not very dry, slightly alkaline or neutral.
  • Watering: regular, so that the soil on the site all the time was slightly wet. In drought and heat watering daily.
  • Top dressing: not produced, but humus and old peat are added to the site several times.
  • Reproduction: seed.
  • Pests: cruciferous flea and cabbage moths.
  • Diseases: peronospora, fusarium.
  • Properties: is a dietary plant rich in vitamins and biologically active substances.

Arugula plant - description

In height of arugula reaches from 30 to 60 cm. The stalk is straight, weakly pubescent, branched. The leaves of arugula are succulent, less often bare, but usually absently hairy, with a peculiar nutty aroma. The lower leaves have a lyre-pinnister or dissected form with dentate lobes. Inflorescences of arugula, appearing in May, are long sparse racemes of bright or pale yellow flowers with purple veins. Arugula is a pod with light brown or brownish seeds arranged in two rows.

When to plant arugula on seedlings.

Arugula is grown in seed and seedless ways. Arugula in the suburbs and in areas with a warmer climate is grown by sowing in the ground in April. In regions with protracted cold springs, it is better to plant arugula on a bed of seedlings, seeds of which are sown in early March. As a substrate, you can use the soil in which the arugula will grow later, but before sowing for disinfection, the soil must be calcined in the oven or spilled with boiling water. And you can use for the cultivation of seedlings purchased soil for vegetable seedlings. 2-3 hours before sowing, soak the arugula seeds in a pale pink solution of potassium permanganate.

Fill the container or box with a depth of at least 10 cm with a sterile and well-moistened substrate, spread the arugula seeds over its flattened surface at a distance of 1.5-2 cm from each other, cover them with a layer of sand 1 cm thick and place the crops in a bright place, nothing covering up.

Growing arugula from seed.

Friendly shoots may appear within 3-5 days. Care of arugula during the seedling period consists in regular and abundant watering and loosening of the substrate. As soon as a pair of true leaves develops on the seedlings, two of them dive into peat pots or are transplanted into a more spacious container at a distance of 10-15 cm from each other, keeping a distance of 25-30 cm between the rows - as growers say, this is a spacious planting allows you to get the leaves of arugula with its inherent pronounced taste and aroma.

How to grow a homemade arugula.

If you want fresh greens on your table all winter, you can grow rocket on the windowsill. Sowing of seeds is carried out in a weakly alkaline or neutral soil, which is prepared according to this recipe: two parts of sod land are mixed with two parts of humus and one part of sand. Do not forget to seed the soil mixture in the oven before sowing or sprinkle it with boiling water.

You can plant in a box or container, but arugula in a pot will not only allow you to get vitamins at the table in the middle of winter, but also decorate your home. Fill the tank with drainage holes 2-3 cm with expanded clay, pebbles or broken bricks, then fill it with a wet substrate, level and lightly tamp its surface, and then spread the seeds over the surface of the substrate, as when sown in seedlings.

Watering arugula.

Growing arugula in an apartment will require you to constantly maintain the substrate in a slightly damp state, for which you should water the seedlings once every two days. Moisturize arugula from a fine spray. If plants lack moisture, their leaves acquire bitterness. Do not forget to slightly loosen the surface of the substrate around the seedlings. After a week and a half after the emergence of shoots need to thin out, removing the weaker and less tall specimens that can be used for salad. Best of all, homemade arugula grows at 18 ºC.

Feeding arugula.

When grown in rich soil, arugula can do without fertilizers, but experienced gardeners insist that nitrogen fertilizing is still necessary for the plant. Fertilizers are applied during irrigation: 10 g of fermented cow or chicken manure diluted with water is added 10 to 15 times in a bucket of water and mixed thoroughly. Since the ripening period of arugula is short, it is undesirable to fertilize it with manure or introduce mineral supplements, since the leaves of the plant can accumulate toxins.

Planting arugula in the ground.

Planting arugula on the bed is carried out in April, when the air temperature in the garden rises to 9-10 ºC. Arugula does not like too bright sun, however, it is undesirable to plant it in the shade. It is necessary to choose a plot for it in a place where there is sunshine before dinner and in the midday hours partial shade. The optimal conditions for the cultivation of arugula involve the use of soil with a weak alkaline or neutral reaction, and the best precursors for the plant are legumes, pumpkin crops, tomatoes, carrots and potatoes. It is undesirable to make a bed for arugula where its cabbage relatives grew - horseradish, radish, turnip, radish, daikon, rutabaga, and all kinds of cabbage - for at least three years.

If you grow seedlings in peat pots, then you can plant seedlings in the ground directly in them, and if the seedlings grow in a box, in a container or in plastic cups, the seedlings remove them together with a clod of earth. Planting pattern for seedlings of 10x30 cm. Plant seedlings in wet holes and after seeding make sure to water the beds. Arugula can withstand frost down to -7 ºC, but if you are afraid of a stronger cold snap, cover the seedlings at night with film or plastic bottles, but in the morning shelter should be removed.

How to grow arugula in the ground.

Growing arugula in the open field is about the same as growing lettuce - it needs to be watered and weed regularly, and the soil between the plants and rows should be loosened. If arugula grows too thick, it must be thinned out, otherwise it may lose its special taste and aroma. You should also be aware that hot dry summers of arugula can throw out color, which will adversely affect its taste.

What to plant after arugula.

Crop rotation is the primary commandment of the gardener and the gardener, so alternate the cultivation of arugula with the cultivation of legumes or pumpkin crops. It is also good to grow carrots or potatoes after arugula, but in no case can you plant cruciferous crops on this plot for three years, since they have common pests and diseases with arugula.

Diseases of arugula.

When brown spots appear on the leaves of arugula, it is possible to talk about the defeat of the plant by peronosporosis, while the disease Fusarium causes the leaves of arugula to turn yellow, and the vascular system becomes black or brown. It is useless to treat these diseases on already grown plants, it is better to change the site for arugula, carefully preparing the soil on it. Methods of struggle against peronospora and fusarium agrotechnical - compliance with crop rotation and weed control.

Arugula pests.

Arugula in the open field may be attacked by cruciferous flea beetles - the most dangerous pests of cabbage crops, as well as the cabbage moth. Both pests feed on lettuce leaves, leaving holes in them. To prevent the flea from hitting arugula, immediately after planting seedlings in the ground, cover it with non-woven material, for example, agrospan. You can sprinkle the seedlings with tobacco dust, red pepper or ashes. And from the cabbage moth effective treatment of arugula infusions of wormwood, as well as potato or tomato tops. From the agrotechnical methods, it is effective to dig up the soil in preparing the site.

Types and varieties of arugula

Types of arugula, or rather, its varieties, are annuals and biennials. A two-year-old arugula root tolerates winter and in spring gives juicy greens. The most famous of the biennials is arugula Solitaire - mid-season variety up to 20 cm high with lyre dissected leaves of medium size with notches along the edges. The ripening period of this variety is 35-45 days, the taste is nut-mustard.

Of the annual varieties are popular such:

  • Curiosity - mid-season variety up to 20 cm high with lyr leaves. This arugula matures within 22-25 days,
  • Cupid's Arrows - also mid-seasoned arugula in height from 20 to 30 cm with long narrow leaves and light yellow flowers, ripening for 35-38 days,
  • Olivetta - Early arugula 15-20 cm high with rich mustard-nut leaves, rich in carotene, vitamins and essential oils. Ripening period is 20-25 days,
  • Rocket - early ripe grade 15-20 cm high with pinnately dissected leaves of dark green color of nut-mustard flavor, ripening in 20-25 days,
  • Poker - early variety up to 20 cm high with large leaves with a sweet mustard flavor and pale cream flowers. Maturation term - 22-28 days,
  • Victoria - a variety with a low abundant green of dietary taste rich in vitamins, ripening in 20-25 days,
  • Spartacus - also an early dietary variety up to 22 cm high with spicy greens, rich in vitamins and essential oils, which can be cut off after 20-25 days.

Also popular are the arugula varieties Sicily, Corsica, Euphoria, Taganskaya Semko and Rococo.

Medicinal properties of arugula.

Since ancient times, healers have used Aruguli oil to treat bruises, boils, wounds, sprains and headaches. Today, the beneficial properties of arugula are used in dermatitis, for the care of problem skin, elimination of pigment spots and bleaching of freckles.

The composition of mustard herbs includes vitamin A (beta-carotene), vitamins of group B, vitamins C, K and E, as well as zinc, selenium, magnesium, manganese, copper, phosphorus, sodium and iron. With its biological activity, arugula has a beneficial effect on the gastrointestinal tract and the digestive processes. Arugula destroys viruses and bacteria, increases the amount of hemoglobin, strengthens the human immune system, lowers blood sugar levels, regulates water-salt metabolism. As part of arugula vitamin K contributes to increased blood clotting and wound healing, it is recommended for use by people suffering from high blood pressure and venous disease.

Arugula has a lactogonic, diuretic and expectorant effect. American scientists successfully use it to treat stomach ulcers and gastritis, because arugula strengthens and protects the walls of the stomach.

Eruka is indispensable as a dietary product, which includes a large amount of fiber - sticking to a strict diet for people to eat arugula allows you to save energy and performance all day. At the same time low-calorie mustard herb - 100 g of arugula contains only 25 kcal.

Mustard oil of arugula has a strengthening effect on the hair, improving their structure and preventing their loss.

Arugula - contraindications.

Arugula-rich with phytoncides can cause a strong allergic reaction, and if you have difficulty tolerating turnips or radishes, you should refrain from including arugula in your menu.

Patients with gastritis with high acidity, colitis, suffering from kidney disease or biliary dyskinesia, pregnant and lactating women should exercise moderation in the use of arugula salads.

Not useful to arugula and those who suffer from gout or autoimmune diseases. But even if you are completely healthy, try to make sure that the arugula you are going to eat does not grow in an environmentally unfriendly area or where there is a high content of heavy metal salts in the soil.

Arugula - growing seedlings

In cold climates practiced growing arugula in rassadny way. To do this, plant seeds should be in early March. Crops are produced in seedlings, which are filled with soil. Soil for seedlings can be bought in the store or use garden soil, after shedding it with boiling water or calcined in the oven.

Seeds before sowing for two or three hours are kept in a pale pink solution of potassium permanganate. Then they are placed on the surface of the moistened soil, sprinkled with sand and moistened with water from the sprayer. From each other seeds should be at a distance of not less than two centimeters. Tanks put in a warm, bright place. Top cover crops do not need.

In about three to five days, shoots will appear., care for which is the timely wetting of the soil. After watering, it is recommended to loosen the soil, so that it does not become covered with a crust and air enters the roots of the plants.

When two true leaves appear on the shoots, they dive. To do this, you can use more capacity, planting plants from each other in ten - fifteen centimeters. The distance between the rows should be about thirty centimeters. Seedlings can be planted in separate pots.

Planting in open ground

Arugula should be planted in open ground after the air temperature is not less than +9 degrees. For her selected areas where the day there is no direct sunlight. Bright sun and shade the plant does not like.

The soil for arugula must be neutral or slightly alkaline. You can plant it on the beds, where pumpkin or legumes, potatoes, carrots, and tomatoes grew last year. Only three years later, the plant can be planted after all types of cabbage, swede, daikon, radish, turnip, radish, horseradish.

On a bed dug in advance for planting arugula, holes are made with a distance between rows of thirty centimeters, and there should be ten centimeters between plants. Bushes from rassadny tanks get together with a clod of earth, are placed in holes, sprinkled with soil and watered. If at night the temperatures are still below zero, then the landings are covered with non-woven fabric or film. In the morning, the shelter will need to be removed.

Care for arugula in the open field

When growing arugula in the garden care for it should be about the same as for all salads. The features of care include:

  1. On beds with plantings, the ground should always be wet. Therefore, watering plants in hot and dry weather should be daily.
  2. Weeds should be removed regularly and the soil should be loosened between rows. It is best done after watering or rain.
  3. It is not necessary to feed the plants, but several times you can pour humus or old peat on the garden bed.
  4. Depending on the variety of arugula, it takes from twenty to thirty-five days from germination to ripening. It is recommended to cut the leaves up to ten centimeters. If they outgrow, they will become rude and tasteless.
  5. Thickened plantings must be thinned out, otherwise the rocket salad will lose its flavor and taste.

Growing arugula at home

You can have fresh vitamin greens on your table even in winter, if you grow rocket in the apartment on the windowsill. You can put it in separate pots or boxes. Tanks are filled with soil mixture consisting of sand and humus (2: 1). The bottom of the boxes and pots must be covered with drainage.

Seeds are laid out on the surface of the disinfected and moist soil. From above, they are sprinkled with sand and sprayed with water. After the emergence of shoots need to monitor the soil moisture and air temperature, which should be within 18 degrees.

Moisten plants with a sprayer.using distilled water at room temperature. Watering is done about once every two days. If the apartment is hot, then moisten arugula will have more often. Due to lack of moisture, its leaves acquire bitterness and become tasteless. After watering the soil between plants is recommended to carefully loosen.

If the planting is thick, then seven to ten days after emergence of shoots, they should be thinned out by pinching weak seedlings that can be added to the salad.

If nutrient soil was used for planting arugula, the plants can not feed. Poor nutrient-rich soil is fertilized with a solution of fermented chicken or cow manure (10 grams per bucket of water). Comprehensive mineral dressing is not recommended because they can accumulate in the leaves of the plant.

In order to get more useful arugula at home, it can be planted in large boxes. But the potted plant will additionally decorate the apartment with its rich green foliage and yellow flowers.

Diseases and pests of arugula in open ground

The most dangerous enemies of the plant are the cabbage moth and cruciferous flea. These pests feed on the leaves on which the holes remain. To protect plants from moths, extracts of tomato or potato tops and wormwood are used. To arugula did not hit the flea, planting sprinkled with ash, red pepper and tobacco dust. Planted seedlings are recommended to cover non-woven material.

Из болезней руколу может поражать фузариоз и пероноспороз:

  1. Фузариоз проявляется пожелтением листьев, сосудистая система которых становится коричневой или черной.
  2. Пероноспороз можно узнать по бурым пятнам на листьях.

Пораженные этими заболеваниями растения лечить бесполезно. Их уничтожают, а почву перекапывают. To exclude the appearance of diseases, it is necessary to observe crop rotation and regularly destroy weeds.

Useful properties of arugula

The composition of the leaves of the plant includes iron, sodium, phosphorus, copper, manganese, magnesium, selenium, zinc, vitamins E, K, C, A and vitamins of group B. Vitamin K that is part of the plant promotes wound healing and increases blood clotting. Therefore, arugula leaves are recommended for people suffering from venous diseases and hypertensive patients.

The plant has a biological activity that promotes good digestion and the gastrointestinal tract. Vitamin-rich leaves strengthen the immune system, regulate water-salt metabolism, and lower blood glucose levels.

Mustard oil included in arugula prevents hair loss and improves their structure.

But not everyone can eat rocket salad. It contains volatile, which can cause an allergic reaction in some people. With caution salads with arugula should be pregnant and lactating women, as well as people suffering from colitis, gastritis with high acidity. It is not recommended to take arugula in case of dyskinesia of the biliary tract, kidney diseases, autoimmune diseases and gout.

Arugula rich in vitamins and nutrients can be grown both in open ground and on a windowsill. In order to get a rich harvest, in the garden it is necessary to observe crop rotation, alternating rocket salad with pumpkin or legumes.

Features of growing arugula

Growing arugula - the process is simple, because this plant does not require special conditions for germination. Although Italy is rightly considered to be the birthplace of this crop, many Russian farmers have already learned how to grow arugula at home, and successfully use this knowledge.

The plant will not grow in areas with acidic soil. It is more suitable bed with a neutral ground, as well as land that has a meadow or weak acid reaction.

Since the plant is ready for use in about 20-50 days (depending on the variety) from the moment of planting, it is possible to grow a new crop even several times per season. Thermophilous plant is considered arugula, since growing and care in open ground is carried out at a temperature of + 13-15 ° C. Experienced farmers say that the plant can withstand short-term frosts and survives at temperatures down to -7 ° C. However, if spring seems cold, arugula will grow very slowly. This culture loves the sun's rays and feels good in places with a light tench.

Important! You should not even sow arugula where there is a constant shadow. In this case, it loses its natural color and rich taste.

Loves to drink a lot of rucola, seeds, so the cultivation of this salad requires frequent addition. In the event that the soil dries up, the leaves of the plant lose their delicate structure and become more rigid.

Breeding methods

Today, farmers use two basic methods for reproducing injections:

  1. Plant seeds. This option can be used in any region, if the air temperature allows (+ 10-25 ° C). Seeds can be planted directly in open ground, a greenhouse or any containers with land for growing arugula on a windowsill,
  2. Transplanting. Seedlings are used for plant reproduction in the open field.

Sowing seeds

If there is an opportunity, arugula should be sown already in March so that the seeds of the plant can germinate successfully and the seedlings gain strength for planting in open ground. In those regions where the climate is mild and summer comes early, you can sow lettuce directly in open ground. The best period for this will be mid-April. Late period - the end of August.

Training

Those who are interested in arugula, planting and care, should take care of quality soil. Sowing can occur in the ground, taken from the garden, or in the soil acquired in specialized stores. If the acidity of the garden soil is too high, you can reduce it by adding lime.

If the acidity index is increased, the soil is treated with lime.

Soil disinfection is a mandatory step before sowing seeds. This is easy to do: the earth is placed in a heat-resistant container and left for 20-30 minutes in a red-hot oven. Another option is to pour boiling water over the soil.

Important! Preliminary need to prepare the seeds themselves. They need to be lowered for several hours in a solution of potassium permanganate.

Sowing process

Starting to plant arugula seed, first you need to take care of filling the container. A small pot or container is filled with previously prepared earth and watered. You can also use peat cups for growing seedlings from seeds. If a greenhouse is used to grow a plant, it is important to disinfect and loosen the land in it as much as possible.

Watering the land before planting should be of the highest quality. When water is absorbed, seeds are carefully laid on the surface of the container. They should be placed at a distance of approximately 1-1.5 cm from each other. If ground was the basis for the seeds, top them up with a layer of clean, sifted sand. If the base was peat, then the ground. The optimum layer height is up to 1 cm.

Seed containers should be placed in a warm and bright place. As an option it can be a window sill or a balcony. If arugula grows in greenhouse conditions, cultivation should be carried out while maintaining the optimum temperature. As fans of this culture note, the most suitable for it is the air temperature from +10 to +25 ° С. You also need to provide arugula enough sunlight. That is why it is better to sow seeds in the greenhouse from the sunny side, and on the window sill or balcony to move containers closer to the sun. If it is difficult to adhere to this condition, it is allowed to use artificial devices to illuminate the seedlings. The lamp should be placed at a height of approximately 50-100 cm from the top of the plant.

Some gardeners propose to create a greenhouse effect, that is, immediately after sowing, cover the container with plastic wrap or glass. When the seedlings appear, they need to be aired every day, it is allowed to open fully after they release their first little leaves.

Features care for sunrises

Seedlings, as a rule, appear in unison, on the 5-6th day after the planting. Every day the plant becomes more and more, because the owner can observe how the arugula grows literally during the week. The main care of the plant at this stage is systematic pouring and loosening of the soil.

If the seedlings appear at least 1-2 leaves, they can be dive, that is, transplanted to a separate place. Best of all, if each plant will have its own pot or cup. If you use a single large capacity or greenhouse, it is important to place the seedlings so that the distance between them is not less than 15-20 cm. Only if the plants have enough space and moisture, you can get a tasty crop with a typical for arugula tartness.

If there is enough moisture and space then you can get a tasty harvest.

Top dressing can occur in a very small amount. The best option for this would be a solution of chicken or cow dung.

Landing process

Those who do not know how to plant arugula into the soil should say that first you need to prepare the wells - the pits where the seedlings will be transferred. These should be in the same row at a distance of 10 cm from each other. The distance between the individual rows is at least 30 cm.

The bottom of the hole must be generously watered. You also need to sprinkle the ground and containers in which the seedlings grow. It is better to take out plants together with the clod of earth in which they are placed. If arugula was grown in peat pots, they can be placed in the hole intact.

When planting seedlings, its lower part should be lightly tamped with hands in the garden bed.

Important! Sow seedlings need, along with abundant watering the soil.

If the region is characterized by long night frosts, the seedlings are allowed to cover with a part of a plastic bottle, but only for evening and night.

Protection against diseases and pests

Sometimes gardeners may notice white spots on arugula leaves. This is a sign of perinosporosis disease. If the leaves turn yellow, and its vascular grid itself becomes unnaturally dark, then the plant is affected by Fusarium. Experts do not recommend using any chemicals to treat the plant. As a rule, it will no longer protect against the disease, but it can harm human health fairly, because the plant itself very quickly absorbs all the negative things from the environment.

The way out, as explained by experienced farmers, may be a change of plot for the next harvest. Compliance with the agrotechnical rules for planting and timely weed control are the main preventive measures.

As for the pests, most often the Indo arugula suffers from the attack of the cruciferous flea. It is possible to protect the culture from such, if after planting on a new soil, sprinkle them with red ground pepper, tobacco dust, ash.

Harvesting

How many weeks do I have to wait until arugula grows? Only 2-3 weeks from the moment the saplings were placed in the open ground, you can collect leaflets. If a late variety is planted, or the weather is cold enough, the terrain does not have a mild climate (for example, the Urals), then the leaves will grow in about 4-5 weeks.

Important! You need to harvest from an outlet that is already fully formed.

Begin, as a rule, from the lower and larger in size plants. Do not break off all the leaves at once. Most of the plant should remain in the ground, and the leaves behind each other will grow back.

With the beginning of flowering, the leaves of the plant are made hard and tasteless. That is why it is better not to allow this process and timely remove flower stalks. You can leave several outlets on several plants. Over time, they will have seeds that fall off and germinate. A month after this, the hosts will again be able to enjoy fresh arugula.

Tip! Break off the leaves of arugula, which grows in a greenhouse or on a windowsill (balcony), as soon as its height reaches 10-15 cm.

Arugula remains, as a rule, very bad. After breaking the leaves, they are placed in a plastic bag or wrapped with food film and placed in a refrigerator. In such conditions, the plant will be suitable for consumption for about a week. It is not necessary to make a salad out of this product a few hours before consumption, otherwise arugula will turn into a mushy mixture.

For cooking arugula you need to tear your hands. If you cut with a knife, there will be a trace of rust on the pieces of leaves.

Summing up, you should tell those who are interested in how to plant arugula, that the process is not complicated. All you need to start is plant seeds, a container with the soil or a suitable area, and the gardener's desire to work a little.

What is arugula and how does it look

Plant is kind of salad, belongs to the Indus family of the cabbage family. Initially, greens were considered weeds, but later expanded to the lists of vegetable crops grown in our country. The demand for the product began to grow after the popularization of the Mediterranean cuisine.

Arugula contains rich vitamin compositionwhich include:

  • vitamin C,
  • vitamins B, E, PP, K,
  • essential oils,
  • flavonoids,
  • vegetable acids (erucic, oleic, linoleic, etc.),
  • steroids and other substances.
Arugula leaves are high in vitamins.

Regular consumption of greens has the following effect on the body:

  • strengthens the protective function of the body,
  • normalizes metabolic processes,
  • calms the nervous system
  • lowers blood cholesterol
  • increases hemoglobin.

And this is an incomplete list of the achievements of arugula, so its often include diet and health food.

Terms for sowing arugula in open ground

Arugula can be sown several times per season, starting from April to August. It is important that the earth had time to warm up to 9-14 degrees. If planted in cold soil, the process of germination and seedling development is inhibited.

In the south and in the middle lane, you can sow from April 15. In the northern regions it is recommended to use greenhouse or seedling cultivation.

Seeds for seedlings need to plant from late March to early April. Preliminary preparation for seeds is not required, they already have good germination. Saplings are grown in pots, boxes or cups.

Arugula Seeds

Shoots appear 4-6 days after seeding. When the sprouts will form 2 true leaves, you need swoop down seedlings in separate containers (plastic cups or peat pots). Grown up shoots are transferred to an open garden bed together with an earthy ball, so as not to damage the root system.

After germination of seedlings, it is necessary to thin out the planting, leaving at first 5 cm between shoots, and later, increasing the distance to 10 cm. Thickness has a negative effect on the taste of the salad.

Cupid's Arrows

Plant with middle ripening, the growing season lasts 36-38 days. The bush reaches a height of 20-30 cm, forming a raised rosette of narrow long leaves. During flowering appear light yellow inflorescences of small size.

Features of the variety: consistently yields a high yield, external similarity of the culture with dandelion.

Arugula Arrow Cupid

The variety matures in about a month (vegetation 28-30 days). The height of the bush reaches 20 cm, the stem is upright with a small edge. The plant blooms in small cream-colored inflorescences.

Plant of early term of aging, the growing season lasts only 21-25 days. Saturated green leaves of large size, in one outlet there are about 20-26 pieces. The height of the bush is about 20 cm.

To taste arugula sweetish with a mustard note. Seed material retains its germination for 4 years.

Arugula Poker

Plant of early term of aging, the growing season lasts only 20-25 days. The height of the bush does not exceed 16-20 cm. The leaves are lyrate, slightly rounded. Variety refers to the perennial.

Advantages of the plant: high yield, good transportability, high taste, which have a pronounced nutty note and a slight bitterness.

Arugula Olivetta

What scheme to choose to plant in open ground

Sowing is done in prepared wells 2 cm deep. Interval between rows during transplantation is observed in 30-40 cmbetween the holes - 5 cm. In each hole 2-3 seeds are repaired. A week later, it is necessary to thin the beds, increasing the interval between plants to 10-15 cm.

Temperature

Air temperature is considered optimal for the growing season. 14-18 degrees. At a lower rate, plant development is inhibited.

The culture will survive a sharp drop in temperature to minus 7 degrees, but on the condition that the cold will be short. If there are frosts after sowing, then it is necessary to build a shelter of plastic film.

Watering plants

The soil is always on the beds with arugula should be wet, so irrigation is performed regularly. Watering mode: 3-4 times a week.

Watering is carried out 3-4 times a week.

In case of settled heat, it is necessary to moisten the soil daily. From the lack of moisture leaves get a bitter taste, and the plant itself produces color.

Weeding and loosening

For normal growing season, the plant requires loose soiltherefore, after each watering or one time, the ground should be pushed down with a hoe or horn.

Simultaneously with this procedure, weeding is performed. Weeds thicken the planting, which provokes the development of fungal diseases, the attraction of pests. In addition, the proximity to the weeds can adversely affect the taste of arugula.

The soil for seeding lettuce should be well fertilized. Then for the entire growing season will need only 1-2 feedings.

Introduce complex mineral compounds should not, because for a short time toxins accumulated in the leaves, do not have time to decompose. It is better to use a solution of chicken dung or rotted manure with irrigation water. Also suitable nitrogen fertilizers.

Chicken litter solution is best used as a fertilizer.

Pests and Prevention

Arugula leaves contain a large amount of essential oils, their aroma scares away many pests. However this does not protect against fungal infectionsthat develop well in a humid environment - the soil.

With the defeat of the root system, the stem begins to fade. At the roots of the fungal disease bubbles form small brown color. When the first signs of the disease are detected, the bush must be removed from the bed, and the soil treated with antifungal agents.

Damage to arugula leaves can only cruciferous flea, lovers of radishes and different types of salad. If you cover the seedlings with lutrasil, then the pest will go to look for food in another place.

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