Ash-tree or American Maple (international name: acer negundo) is a deciduous tree of a maple variety. Spontaneously growing in North America. Light-loving plant, does not require strong watering, some trees reach a height of up to twenty meters.
American Maple in Europe and Russia
In Europe, American maple fell in the XVII century. Since the XVIII century, these trees grow in St. Petersburg and in Moscow. In the 19th century, maple seeds brought from Canada were imported and planted in Russia. Particularly successful ornamental species. One of them is maple "Flamingo" changing the color of the leaves during growth. Already in the twenties of the next century, American maple began to grow as a result of self-seeding. At present, the hard-leaved maple grows in Russia literally everywhere. Recently, he even began to harm and threaten local plants.
Ash-tree Maple grows, forming many-tier thickets which do not allow to develop to other plants. In the forest zone it is considered the most harmful parasite-weed. Its prolonged presence leads to disruption of the interaction of living beings in the ecological system. It has already been proved that the fight against him with his grandfather’s methods (cutting down trees) does not give any results. For this, he was sometimes called the “killer maple”.
The morphological structure of acer negundo
American maple is a deciduous tree on average about 15 meters in height, with an unevenly distributed crown. The trunk is short with many processes that create an uneven crown. Among other trees trunk grows higher, creating a rare crown. The bark is usually light with a shade of gray or brown.
The leaves are complex, consisting of several leaves about twenty centimeters long. The shape of a leaf resembles ash, so it is sometimes confused with ash. Some leaves are very similar to maple leaves. These plants are dioecious, that is, the flowers are located on different trees, male and female, and they differ from each other. Many in childhood probably launched helicopters, so this is a fruit - a maple wing.
In the wild, leaf-maple or acer negundo is widespread in the United States and Canada. In northern America, it reaches the state of Arizona and the Canadian province of Ontario. It is less commonly found in California, Mexico and Guatemala. Usually it grows with willows, aspen-shaped poplar, narrow-leaved poplar. American maple prevails over other plants in abandoned places, floodplains of rivers and small lakes.
Ash-leaved maple is very unpretentious to soil conditions, but it grows best on fresh saturated soils. Especially aggressively growing in new territories, surprising rate of growth.
Nowadays it has become widespread in many territories of Eurasia. As well as in Russia it was widely used for landscaping parks and squares. Due to the fact that the maple is unpretentious and frost-resistant, its range has reached Verkhoyansk and Yakutsk. This widespread and the fact that seeds with a strong wind can fly very long distances.
Due to the fact that ash-maple wood is very fibrous and fragile, it is used very little. Yes, and for use as firewood, it is not suitable, because of the constant humidity. True, birds for the construction of maple nests is very suitable. Using it as a landscaper also has a lot of disadvantages:
- In the city, these plants do not live long.
- Extremely disproportionate shape of the plant and the ruggedness of the trunk.
- Weak surface root system, resulting in frequent fall of trees.
- Many root processes, leading to the deterioration of lawns and asphalt.
- Because of the strong self-seeding, you have to fight like a weed.
- Too dense crown is an excellent springboard for reproduction of ticks.
All these shortcomings led to the fact that the ash-leaved maple was considered unfit for use in landscaping parks and alleys. The only use received wood for the manufacture of various sculptures, turning vases on lathes, and also handles for knives.
The problem of environmental hazard
Distribution of maple and its environmental hazard at the beginning of the XXI century, was widely discussed by scientists of Russia. What harm does this plant do:
- In the floodplains of the rivers willows and poplars have practically disappeared.
- It has strong allelopathic properties, i.e., it has a chemical effect on the growth of other plants.
- Within cities is a woody weed.
- Male pollen causes severe allergies and a disease called “hay fever”.
- The leaves of the plant cause a strong odor.
- Most recently, maple has been proven to oxidize exhaust gases, making it more toxic.
By its environmental hazards, this plant ranks first among other species brought from other countries. In Europe, the danger of the spread of the acer negundo species has long been understood and they are seriously fighting it. In Russia, not so long ago, a book was published that includes all harmful plant species and it is called “Black. ".
Ways to fight
In the fight against this weed used methods tested in different countries. The cheapest and easiest way is to combat the drift of these plants. So, from the practice of dealing with this plant in Belarus, we have come to a method of limiting the spread of shoots. First of all, it is necessary to prohibit its use in landscaping settlements. And also helps chemical tillage around adult plants.
Many people use tree cutting, but it is a very inefficient way for this type and vice versa leads to the opposite result. Thus, dozens of young shoots were found near the felled trees. Due to the fact that the ash-leaved maple has, besides the surface roots, also deep, uprooting them takes a very long time. It is also useless to burn them out according to the “Finnish candle” principle, due to the high water saturation. Yes, and scorched stumps the next year, give a lot of shoots.
A more effective method of dealing with thickets is chemical. It includes:
- Spraying tree crowns and young shrubs.
- The introduction of drugs directly into the trunk of trees.
- Application of chemicals to the bark at the base of the tree.
- Spraying stumps to prevent the emergence of young shoots.
It is best to combine methods. For example, in the fall, we began cutting, and in the spring we conducted a chemical handling stumps and root system.
Biological Description of American Maple
The ash-leaf maple is also called American or Californian. As the name implies, its birthplace is North America. It grows there on heavy clay soils in river valleys. This is a deciduous tree from the Sapindo family. Its maximum height is 21 meters, average - 10 - 15 meters, the crown is high, rare.
Has a reputation for unpretentious and fast-growing tree. With its delicate leaves, it resembles ash.
Young branches have an olive color with a slight bluish bloom. The leaves are complex, consist of 3 - 13 leaflets on long petioles. It blooms in May or June, male and female flowers are located on different trees. The seeds ripen in the fruit of the crib with two wings, they fly far in the wind in the autumn.
American Maple Tree and Leaves
American maple belongs to deciduous trees. The tree has a short, brown trunk branched at the base. The older the tree, the darker the bark of its trunk. Young maples have small cracks on the surface of the bark. As the tree “grows up” they become deeper, gradually turning into grooves.
Long, spreading, smooth branches of green or olive color extend from branching of a trunk. On the branches of a tree you can often see a gray, less often purple bloom. The crown is wide and spreading.
Leaves complex, pinnate, petiolate. Each sheet consists of 3 or 5 long (up to 10 cm) sheets. The leaves have a jagged edge and a pointed, sometimes lobed, tip. The upper surface of the sheet is darker than the bottom. The lower part of the leaf is slightly pubescent. In autumn, the leaves change color to shades of yellow and red.
American maple leaves look like ash leaves, hence one of the “names” of this plant is Ash-shaped maple. Maple is a dioecious plant. On the same tree, but on different branches, there are both female and male flowers. Male flowers are collected in hanging bunches. Their anthers are painted in reddish tones. Female inflorescences have green color and a brush is collected in inflorescence. American maple begins to bloom in May. Flowering continues until the first leaves. In the autumn, white fluffy buds form on the tree.
The fruit of the lionfish, containing one seed and two wings, is about 4 cm long. The lionfish ripen at the end of summer (August, September) and remain on the plant until spring. Mature trees are highly frost resistant and easily tolerate low (down to –35 ° C) temperatures. Frost resistance of young trees is much lower.
The plant is characterized by rapid growth and rapid development. Easily tolerates high air pollution, adapted to grow in urban environments. Life expectancy in outdoor conditions is approximately 30 years. Differs in high fragility. Propagated by seeds (self-seeding) and pneumos shoots.
American maple does not require thorough care. If you are attentive to the plant and pamper it with your attention, it will thank you with a chic crown and give shade and coolness on a hot summer day.
Care when planting plants consists in applying mineral fertilizers directly into the planting pits. After planting, it is advisable to carry out mulch rim circles. Mulching is made by a five-centimeter layer or peat.
In the spring the plant is fed with a solution of potassium and sodium fertilizers. Summer feeding is done by Kemira-Universal fertilizer.
American maple tolerates drought easily, but develops better and grows when watering. Norm of watering: 15 liters under a tree. For young trees, the norm should be increased by 2 times. The plant is preferably watered once a month, dry summer - once a week.
During the summer period, weeding and loosening the soil in order to enrich it with oxygen is desirable. Summer care includes pruning dry and diseased branches. Some varieties actively grow side branches, they are also better to remove.
In late autumn, the root neck of young (annual) plants should be closed with dense material or spruce. They are sensitive to frost. Adult plants are frost resistant and do not need winter protection.
Planting plants produced in spring or autumn. Planting seedlings carried out in specially prepared pits, at a small depth. The root neck of the seedling should be at ground level. In the event that groundwater passes near the landing site, or the planting is carried out in marshy soil, it is necessary to well dig the bottom of the pit. In the recess for planting make drainage containing sand and construction waste, a layer of up to 20 cm.
When planting seedlings have at a distance of 3-4 meters from each other. To create a hedge - every one and a half, two meters.
Maple tree Flamingo
In the wild state grows in North America. In Europe, the tree was introduced in the 17th century. In Russia, cultivated since 1796. Outwardly, this type of maple is a low deciduous tree or shrub that has many trunks. Plant height is 5-8 meters. Distinctive features of this species are leaves and crown.
Flamingo maple has complex, pinnate leaves, consisting of individual petioles (from 3 to 5). The length of the leaf is 10 cm. The color of the leaves changes as they dissolve:
- on young shoots the leaves are silver-gray.
- in the summer, a white - pink border and spots of the same color appear on them, unevenly distributed over the entire area of the leaf blade.
- closer to autumn, the leaves turn bright pink with dark pink and greenish stripes.
The crown of the tree has a rounded shape with a diameter of up to 4 meters and an openwork look. It is distinguished by an unusual color. The tree looks very beautiful and becomes a real decoration of streets, squares and gardens. The plant maintains decorative throughout life.
Like other members of the Maple genus, Flamingo maple is a dioecious plant. On the same plant are both male and female inflorescences. They are quite small and have a greenish tint. Fruits - gray lionfish.
This type of maple grows well in illuminated areas, loves a fertile, well-moistened soil. Resistant to low temperatures.
Unlike ordinary or platanovidnogo maple, American has pinnate, similar to ash leaves. They are located sequentially on the central stem. Each of them consists of 3-5, sometimes larger number of individual elongated plates with lobed or serrate edges. The color of the leaves in the upper part is light green, dim, greyish-whitish on the back side. In the fall they become bright yellow or reddish. The surface is smooth or slightly pubescent. When rubbing in the hands of young shoots and leaves produce an unpleasant pungent smell. Due to the content of toxic compounds, they can cause poisoning of animals. Below is a photo of this type of maple.
Young trees look pretty picturesque. Their trunks are covered with thin light gray bark with small cracks, side shoots are olive, reddish or purple. With age, the bark thickens, becomes coarse and dark. Trunks begin to branch practically near the ground. Because of this, the trees look like giant shrubs. Maples can reach 20 m in height, but most of them are much lower - about 8–12 m. The maximum thickness of the stems is about 70 cm.
The root system is often fibrous, superficial. In conditions of poor or dehydrated soil, rod-like roots grow.
Crohn irregularly shaped. Due to the presence of sprawling, twisted, horizontal shoots, it looks untidy. Among the other trees, the ash-leaved maple is drawn out, its tops become ragged and sparse.
Growth and flowering conditions
This dioecious plant blooms from late April or early May for 2-3 weeks. Female inflorescences are paniculate hands. Male - hanging reddish long bunches.
Fruits are single-seeded with large light wings. They ripen in September, can remain on the branches until late winter.
The wood is light, soft and fragile, prone to decay, prone to deformation. Due to the presence of large fibers, it is difficult to process. Not widely used in industry. American maple is used mainly for the manufacture of stakes, small parts, wooden boxes, temporary fences.
Ash-leaved maple is light-requiring, prefers fertile and loose soil, but is able to grow on any soil. Differs in good frost resistance. Under adverse conditions, forms a shrub. Insensitive to polluted and polluted air. Trees quickly and actively multiply by self-sowing or pneumatic shoots, show high adaptive abilities, easily master new territories.
The maximum lifespan of this species is no more than 80 years. Flowers and fruits begin to form from the age of 6. Most trees dry out after 30–40 years.
Planting and care
American maples are not recommended to be planted as hedges, because they quickly grow in all directions. In small areas it is better to confine one tree. Place it preferably at a distance from other plants, especially fruit and berry crops.
Plant trees in April or September in loose and moderately moist soil.. In poor soil, it is desirable to pre-make complex fertilizer. The pits should be 60 × 60 × 60 cm. If several plants are planted side by side, they are placed 1.5–2 m apart.
The root ball is deepened so that the neck is at the level of the surface. It is necessary to fill in the wells with a mixture of sod soil, peat in equal proportions and of the sand. The earth is slightly tamped. Do not interfere with plenty of water to plant for early engraftment. Pristvolny circle is recommended to densely mulch with peat, it will prevent the growth of weeds near maple.
Young seedlings are useful to water regularly. It will be enough about 20 liters per week. In the spring, it is desirable to make potassium and sodium supplements or special compositions for maples.
It is only necessary to shelter the first-year trees for the winter, the more grown-ups are no longer afraid of severe frosts. Every year it is recommended to remove overgrown and dried branches, basal shoots. Regular haircut will help curb the overgrowth of American maples.
The tree is considered to be a malicious weed that damages the health of people and plants. Его не смущают морозы, ему не страшна засуха, вырубка и даже выжигание помогает не с первого раза. Зимостойкость растения увеличивается с возрастом, подмерзать могут только молодые саженцы.
Клен ясенелистный начал активно вытеснять из экосистемы местные виды растений.
This is facilitated by the early entry into the fruiting stage, the rapid change of generations, the peculiarity of the roots and fallen leaves capable of releasing toxins that inhibit the growth of other plants. Therefore, the ash-leaved maple is listed in the Black Book of Russia, as a plant that threatens the biological diversity of species.
To destroy the American maple on the site using different methods:
- Uprooting This laborious exercise takes time and effort. It is advisable to use special agricultural equipment and tools.
- Burning out An effective method if the plot is heavily overgrown. They put a little gasoline on the tree saw and set it on fire. Repeat several times until the tree dies.
- Herbicide treatment. Preparations are used - Roundup, Glisol, Zero, Glykor, etc. Spray the plants on the leaves in spring or summer, during the active growth of the tree.
- Cutting A tree is cut down, a thick layer of salt is poured onto the cut, and wrapped with oilcloth. Salt has a depressant effect on the roots of maple, but does not harm other plants on the site.
Currently, ash maple leaves are not used for landscaping parks and city streets. Ordinary logging, like other plants, is impossible to destroy, because in place of one felled tree grows from 10 to 20 new trunks. The ideal method of destruction can be considered a combined approach, when trees are uprooted in the fall, and in the spring the area where they grew is treated with herbicides.
What does an American (leaved) maple look like?
Alpine maple (Acer negundo L.) belongs to the maple family (Aceraceae).
Deciduous tree or large shrub
Up to 21 m (usually 12-15 m)
Unevenly developed, with free growth with a short trunk, intertwining, slightly drooping branches, in plantations - with a high curved trunk and highly spaced branches
On the trunks - gray, light gray, with shallow grooves, on annual increments from green to purple and blue-violet
Opposite, complex, pinnate, with 3-5-7 lobes, 15-18 cm long, light green, pronounced heterophilia
Diode species, male and female flowers in drooping racemes. Male plants bloom a little earlier than female. Pollen is carried by the wind and sometimes by bees. May-June bloom 15 days
Lionfish of two fruits, with one seed in each. Lionfish diverge at an angle of 60 °, the length of the fruit - 4 cm. Fruits ripen in August-October, hang on the branches until spring. Seeds without endosperm. Maximum productivity - 50 0000 cage from one tree
80-100 years old, in street plantations - no more than 30
Ash-leaved maple or American maple reaches a height of 15–20 m, has a broad crown with a diameter of 10–14 m with brittle branches of olive-green color with a bluish bloom. His bark is gray, in old trees it is brown-brown, with elongated cracks. The crown of the elfin maple is developed unevenly.
Leaf maple leaves are located on long, up to 8 cm petioles and consist of 3–7 leaflets up to 10 cm long. In summer they are bright green on top, lighter below, slightly pubescent, in autumn they get a beautiful variegated color that varies from light yellow until bright orange.
Look at the photo of an American maple tree and its leaves:
The tree blooms in April with small greenish flowers, blooming simultaneously with the leaves. Duration of flowering is 10-15 days. After this, fruits appear - light gray lionfish.
Motherland - North America.
When describing a hard-leaved maple, it is worth noting that this tree is wind-resistant, adapted to urban conditions. Loves a penumbra and the sun. The plant prefers rich fertile soils, sandy and poor land can not tolerate.
In the natural habitat of A. Negundo grows in the northeastern United States. There are separate foci of growth in the central and southern states; the species also formed a secondary range, naturalized in the states of Maine, Washington, Oregon, several provinces of Canada, on Prince Edward Islands.
In the natural range, A. negundo is a part of various phytocenoses - swamps, floodplain forests, mesotrophic deciduous forests, coniferous forests with Douglas pine and spruce, oak woodlands, charapala, prairies. Such a wide range of habitats is a consequence of the high tolerance of the species to a deficit of soil moisture and a lack of nutrients.
Here you can see photos of ash-bearing maple trees in their natural habitat:
History of the distribution of the ash maple (acer negundo)
For the first time, a maple-leaf maple was introduced to Europe in 1688 and was registered in the Fulham Garden in England. In 1690 the maple was introduced to Holland, in 1699 - to Germany. In 1808 - was first noted in Poland.
A. negundo was introduced to Russia at the end of the 18th century. Adult specimens were available in the Botanical Garden of St. Petersburg as early as 1796. As noted, tree samples obtained from the southern parts of the natural range were brought to Russia. This explains the first failure of the introduction of the species in the open field. Seedlings died from frost, in grown-ups, annual gains in severe frosts froze up considerably. This gave a reason, according to the testimony of the director of the Imperial Botanical Garden in St. Petersburg, E. L. Regel, to consider the tree maple of the leafless to be unsuitable for cultivation in St. Petersburg. In Moscow, the maple was also heavily frosting in the open field, and therefore in the botanical garden of the industrialist P.A. Demidov in Neskuchny Garden, it grew in a cold greenhouse. By this time, the 20th and 30th years. XIX century., Includes information about the unsuccessful introduction of ash-leaved maple in the Baltic States, where heavily frosting trees wintered only under safe shelter.
In 1809, I. N. Karazin brought maple seeds from the USA and Canada, from which trees grew in the Osnovyansky acclimatization garden near Kharkov with blue-gray pubescent and waxy deposits. In addition, the grown specimens were characterized by rapid growth. American authors refer trees with similar signs to A. negundo pseudocalifornicum Schwer. Offspring from these trees were planted in gardens and parks in the south of Central Russia and in Ukraine. The fast-growing trees with painted bluish shoots turned out to be much more enduring than the previously known forms, and over time the history of its distribution reached the Volga region and the Tambov province, where in large quantities the shoots were found in Moscow and St. Petersburg this form of maple did not ripen, the trees grew poorly, strongly frosting.
At the end of the XIX century. A. L. Regel obtained from the northern regions of Canada A. negundo seeds, from which trees grew, characterized by weak growth, thin branches and the bark of young shoots intensively colored in violet-red. R.I. Schröder described them under the name A. negundo boreale; American authors refer to trees with similar signs to A. negundo violaceum (Kirchn) Jaeg. The offspring of these trees turned out to be quite hardy even in the conditions of St. Petersburg, where the grown trees began to bear fruit irregularly. Of the seeds obtained from St. Petersburg, R. I. Schroeder grew in Moscow two copies of an ash-leaved maple tree, distinguished by abundant fruiting. Currently, ash-leaved maple trees with weak reddish branches are occasionally found throughout Russia among the plantings of the usual form of maple. In the same way, the introduction of the ash maple took place in the Baltic States. Since the beginning of the XX century. In planting in Latvia and Lithuania, the offspring obtained in 1893 by M. Sievers in the Skriversky dendropark from seeds drawn from the province of Manitoba in Canada became widely introduced.
In 1897, A. negundo was noted in the Urals, where the introduction was very successful. In 1909, it began to be massively planted in urban parks.
After connection of this territory with Russia, the ash-leaved maple was imported to Central Asia in 1870. From 1895 to 1908, the species was recorded in Ashgabat and Samarkand, in Kirghizia, Alma-Ata, in the Issyk-Kul valley.
Already at this stage of the formation of the secondary (introduction) range of the maple ash-tree, it was noted that the success of the introduction of this species to the North American flora in the Old World is due to the wide ecological amplitude of the species, the ability to grow in different climatic conditions. A. negundo was imported into Russia several times, the samples came from different sources, from different parts of the natural range, and therefore had different biological characteristics. Tests of various forms of ash maple in Simbirsk province by F. Voeikov in 1908 showed that the “typical” form of A. negundo freezes to the level of snow cover every year, A. pseudocalifornicum is fast growing and rarely frosting, and A. negundo violaceum grows slower the previous two, but almost not damaged by frost.
In the first half of the XX century. in Europe, Russia and the countries of the former USSR, the ash-leaved maple has become one of the most common alien introduced tree species. To date, the northernmost point of the secondary distribution of the ash-leaved maple is the Polar-Alpine Botanical Garden, where the plant nevertheless freezes and does not bear fruit. In Arkhangelsk, maple grows in bush form, in Petrozavodsk in tree and bush form, annual shoots occasionally frost out in severe winters.
In St. Petersburg, the ash-leaved maple also often, in the absence of proper care, takes a bush form, which is due to the ability to easily produce shoots from the base of the trunk. However, in cultural plantings and in single planting it grows with a tree, almost does not frost up, bears fruit regularly and abundantly, gives self-seeding.
In Moscow, extensive planting of the ash-leaved maple, made in the 1950s, is maintained. With the restoration of urban landscaping, lost and disturbed in the war. In Moscow squares, parks, courtyards, the ash-leaved maple grows in the form of large ornamental trees 12–15 m tall, in street plantings and industrial zones — often in the form of oppressed twisted tree stands, in neglected plantings and places of self seeding — in bush form. Also, quite successfully, maple grows in the Baltic States and Belarus, where it can also take a bush form.
In Ukraine and in the steppe zone of Russia, the ash-leaved maple cultivates as a forest drought-resistant breed. In harsh winters, the annual shoots are still frosting there, but at the same time the trees bear abundant fruit and form self-seeding.
In the more arid southeast of the European part of Russia, in Astrakhan, with the condition of watering or in coastal plantings it reaches 20 m in height, it abundantly bears fruit. In the Caucasus, the Crimea grows well and bears fruit. In Makhachkala and Azerbaijan, it develops in urban parks and gardens only with regular watering. On poor dry stony soils it has a curved trunk, irregular crown, drying branches, partial shrinkage of the foliage in the middle of summer is noted. In Central Asia, when the frost is below –10 ° C, it is partially frosting, in hot, dry summers there are small burns on the leaves, trees older than 20 years old begin to wither. Self-seeding is marked in irrigated areas. In Kazakhstan, maple grows everywhere and often runs wild.
In Siberia, the ash-leaved maple grows from Tyumen, where it is recommended for greening cities and towns, to Eastern Siberia and the Far East.
Since the second half of the XX century. Researchers have noted the wildness (naturalization) of ash-leaved maple in most of the territory of its secondary range. Naturalized maple populations in the 1990s. noted in Norway, Poland, Germany, Lithuania, Estonia, Russia. Naturalization takes place in disturbed anthropogenic habitats, along river banks, along railways, in old parks, on wastelands, in abandoned plantings, forest shelter and windbreaks.
On the territory of the secondary range, A. negundo occupied habitats similar to those in which it lives in places of natural growth. Maple colonizes anthropogenically disturbed areas - abandoned parks, villages, abandoned arable fields, roadsides, dumps, industrial zones. The species is actively settled in national parks, reserves, sanctuaries, where it is introduced into natural phytocenoses - floodplain forests along river banks, mesophytic oak forests, and pine forests, where it prefers to inhabit the edges. In the floodplain oak and willow forests, A. negundo even supplants the undergrowth of native species.
Ash-leaved maple in urban greening
Of course, many of you know what an American maple looks like. Despite the relatively low decorativeness of A. negundo, this species is still one of the most popular in urban greening due to its rapid growth, unpretentiousness, gas and smoke resistance, and rapid recovery from damage. In modern landscape gardening, several garden forms (cultivars) of ash-leaved maple have become common: “Auratum” (“Odessanum”) is a bush form with bright yellow foliage, Flamingo is more often a bush form with leaves dotted with white and pink stripes and spots, Often in the suburbs grows in a tree 2-4 m tall. "Variegatum" is also a bush form with a wide white border around the edge of the lobes of a complex leaf. Samples of these varieties of ash maple are imported to Russia from Western Europe and Poland, they are relatively hardy, in extremely harsh winters froze to snow, less often in Moscow, in the Urals annually, but then restored using shoots.
It is recommended to grow these forms in coppice culture, with an annual short pruning of the shoots. Since the listed forms of the ash maple are less stable than the common form, have a bush form and require skilled care, they are not able to replace the ash tree maple in urban gardening in the difficult climatic conditions of Russia. In the conditions of worsening environmental conditions, especially in industrial cities and megalopolises, there is a high potential for demand for maple in the ash-leaved landscape of modern landscape construction.
In garden design, ash-leaved maple is used to achieve a decorative effect in combination with highly decorative, slow-growing species in group and linear plantings.
Further you will be able to get acquainted with the photo and description of the care for the ash list
See photos of American maple tree in urban landscaping:
American maple - weed. Strangler for courtyards, squares and city parks that no one is fighting
Aspen maple or American maple (lat. Acer negúndo), originally from North America. In urban and other cultural conditions - malicious wood weed.
Widespread, out of abandoned areas, parks and falls, displaces aborigines (birch, alder, willow and other species). Currently - dangerous invasive (aggressive alien) species, with which there is no struggle.
The danger and speed of spreading is similar to Sosnowsky's hogweed.
By ignorance of local authorities and residents, it is still used for gardening courtyards and squares. Quickly captures the urban area and industrial sites (where the biological balance is destroyed), then spreads to agricultural land and forest belts.
It is very active and mobile, has a high growth rate and is resistant to air pollution. The most aggressive in the early stages of the invasion, expressing this intense spontaneous seed reproduction.
It spreads by self-sowing in the vicinity of cities and settlements, first in disturbed places, but soon it is introduced into natural communities, it sores. The process of settling goes relatively quickly, since it enters the fruiting stage at the age of 6-7 years, and the change of its generations occurs faster than in other types of trees. In Central Russia, it is notable for its wild growth and regular fruiting, with particularly fruitful years usually occurring two years later in the third.
In the floodplain forests completely stops the resumption of willows and poplars. Emit substances to suppress the growth of other plants (inhibitors of the growth of competing plants). Seeds can be carried by wind to a distance of 1 km.
The pollen of male specimens of the maple maple is a strong allergen, during the spring flowering period (in central Russia in late April - early May) the wind spreads it over long distances, and its presence in the air causes pollinosis in humans (a disease called “hay fever”) .
The wood is fragile, there are cases in the city of falling trunks under the action of the wind. It can be used as firewood, but requires a long drying.
At present, the ash-leaved maple (Acer negundo) has mastered a variety of habitats and has formed an extensive secondary area in Eurasia. It was widely used in Russia in landscaping parks, gardens, squares in the cities of the central regions of the European part of Russia, Siberia, Central Asia and the Far East.
Very winter hardy. Latitudinal distribution is limited only by isotherm. Now it has reached Verkhoyansk and Yakutsk and withstands temperatures of 55-60 degrees in the winter, without dying.
Danger of invasion and further spread
The introduction of alien species (to which the ash-leaved maple belongs) and their distribution can cause irreversible ecological disasters. Accordingly, the problem of invasions at the beginning of the XXI century becomes the most important in terms of ensuring the ecological safety of Russia. Впервые комплексное обсуждение этой проблемы было осуществлено на заседании Круглого стола, организованного в рамках Всероссийской конференции по экологической безопасности (4—5 июня 2002 г., Москва) (Экологическая безопасность и инвазии чужеродных организмов, 2002).
Хотя вид Acer negundo до настоящего времени активно расселяется во всех хозяйственно-административных регионах Средней России, так как клён ясенелистный многие специалисты считают самым обычным и малоинтересным растением. In addition, Russia still lacks integrated environmental management, a clear environmental policy and monitoring of the state of the environment.
Environmental departments are fragmented, they often duplicate work, but many aspects of environmental management are not regulated and not controlled. This is largely true of the ash maple, which legally refers to green plantings of the third category (low value), by virtue of which cutting or damage it without administrative documents entails administrative responsibility (meanwhile, the enormous growth rate of this so-called local “bamboo” among the people leaves little time for various bureaucratic procedures and constantly increases the future costs of eradication).
In Europe, where the danger from the introduction of an ash-leaved maple has long been assessed, the thickets of this tree on the maps are isolated separately from forest plantations and are seriously engaged in restraining population growth.
Preventing skidding can be the easiest and cheapest way to control a marsh-infertile maple infestation, otherwise systematic, time-consuming work will not be for one year.
- Assignment of this species to dangerous, invasive species.(deduction from the category of green plantings of the third category), permission and encouragement of tree cutting by the population,
- The ban on the use of this plant in landscaping,
- Cutting down in cities and towns with replacement to other species to prevent spread by seed,
- Informing the public about the danger of this species,
- Mechanical removal (disk or chainsaw) of young, and where possible, and adult plants. Removal of seedlings and young (shrubby) specimens through mowing or digging along the border of thickets to a width of 3-5 m,
- Chemical tillage around mature plants or along the thickets border will also be very effective, because American maple is sensitive to many herbicides, such as glyphosate.
American weed detail
Description and biological features
Ash-leaved maple, or American, has a similar description with the “local” relative, but it is worth focusing on the main differences, which we will discuss later.
To begin with, this is a deciduous tree, which grows up to 21 m in height, the maximum diameter of the trunk is 90 cm. The crown is uneven due to the structure of the branches.
The leaves have a complex structure, opposite, pinnate. Each sheet reaches a length of 14-17 cm. The shape of the sheet resembles an ash leaf, smooth, painted in green.
Blossom "American" in May for 15 days. These plants are dioecious, that is, male and female inflorescences are located on different trees, as opposed to bisexual ones, the flowers of which have both a pistil and a stamen.
The habitual fruit - the lionfish. Full maturation occurs at the beginning of autumn. Having finished with the description, we turn to the features of the tree.
The fact is that many gardeners and gardeners who are familiar with this crop try to destroy it without thinking.
The thing is that the American maple is incredibly “hardy”, it is almost impossible to completely destroy it, since it is not only excellently sifted out, but also constantly gives out young plants that flood large areas, changing the ecosystem and drowning out the species and plants that are familiar to us. It is worth saying that because of its peculiarity, to force out all other species, the American maple is considered one of the most aggressive tree weeds in the forest zone of Eurasia.
Where grows wild
The habitat of ash maple is North America, from where its seeds were introduced to Europe in the 17th century. And at the end of the 18th century, American maple appeared in the Botanical Garden of St. Petersburg and in Moscow.
Interesting is that already in the 20s of the last century, maple began to sift under natural conditions, and the reason for this was the import of plant seeds from Canada.
Decorative and garden forms
Let's discuss the decorative variations of American maple, which look much better in the garden than the wild version.
Auratum. California variation that grows up to 5-7 m in height. The leafy plates are painted in a yellowish color that this plant produces in the garden. The fast-growing plant begins to bloom only at 9 years after planting. Flowering lasts 10 days. It is worth noting a good frost resistance and a high percentage of rooting cuttings, however, we note that the tree is short-lived.
Aureo-variegatum. The variation has the same maximum height as the previous “candidate”. The maximum diameter is 4-6 m, which is why Aureo-variegatum has the appearance of a shrub.
The leaves are colored green, however, unlike other forms, they have yellow stripes, which not only paint the “fields” golden, but also cover the central part of the plate. Main features: high winter hardiness, lack of flowering and good rooting of summer cuttings. Elegans. Shrub, which has impressive dimensions - up to 5 meters. Sheet plates have a yellow frame, which brightens over time. Flamingo. Maple Flamingo in terms of cultivation and care does not differ from the "elegant" version. It has the same size, but the leaf plates have mysterious pink blotches that appear when the leaves are fully bloomed.
The same color is framed. Unfortunately, with age, the sheet loses fancy pink paint, replacing them with white. Variegatum. It can be both a tree and a shrub having a height of up to 7 meters. The edges of the leaves are painted in cream color, which at the time of leaf blooming has a pink tint.
Some plates may have a solid cream color, replacing the green color. This form is considered the most spectacular, although its growth rate is inferior to the previous one, and the fragility of the shoots leaves much to be desired.
It's time to discuss the rules of planting young trees. We begin with general recommendations and end with the main points.
Initially, a pit is prepared having parameters of 50x50x70 cm. Next, a soil mixture is prepared, which includes 3 parts of humus, 2 parts of soddy earth and 1 part of sand. Such a substrate will differ in fertility and have good drainage properties.
When planting, we eliminate the formation of "air holes" near the roots, slightly tamping the soil as the hole fills. It is necessary to deepen a sapling to the root collar, which should be above the soil.
After planting, pour 15 liters of water under the root and mulch the soil in order not to waste time on weeding and weed control in the future.
If the trees are planted as a hedge, then the distance between the plants in the row should be between 1.5-2 m, if the trees are planted to decorate the garden, then the distance between the seedlings should be at least 3 m. Note that the plant is light-requiring, therefore, it is not worth “hiding” it under the crown of another tree. The soil is neutral, it can grow even in salt marshes. However, it is desirable that the soil was slightly acidic.
How fast is growing
Speaking of rapid growth, each represents something of their own. Yes, the American maple does not grow with the speed of bamboo, however, adding 50 cm per year, the plant very quickly reaches an impressive height and diameter of the trunk.
It is worth noting that over the years, the growth rate is reduced, so you will not be able to get a “mini-sequoia”.
Care for young seedlings
Care is regular watering and timely feeding. After planting, pour in water every week in a volume of 30 l. Water should be at room temperature, so as not to create a contrast between warm soil and cold moisture.
In the spring you need to feed the tree with potassium and sodium, and in the summertime to make a complex fertilizer for maples. Above, we talked about mulching, which, however, is best done to protect the root system from the contrast of temperatures and drying.
Do not forget that the sapling has a weak resistance to frost, so you need to cover the lower part of the trunk for the winter. The krone does not freeze over, therefore it can be left without a heater.
Care for mature trees
Mature trees do not need an abundant amount of moisture and can survive a short-term drought without loss. The rate of watering - 15 liters per week for each plant. Also, do not worry about the fact that the "American" can freeze.
An adult plant can withstand temperatures down to -40 ° C, so no shelter is required. Every year, in the summer, you need to do pruning, removing the cultivated shoots and shoots. You should also inspect maple for the presence of parasites and fungi.
In conclusion, it should be said that ornamental forms are really valuable for gardens, but wild maple, however, is more like a parasite than useful in terms of tree planting. Be careful of planting American maple, as its leaves and rhizome can rot the soil during the process of decay, slowing down the growth of nearby crops.
Do not forget about the care that blurs the line between the ornamental tree and the uncontrolled thicket that captures large areas.