Violet belongs to the genus of flowering plants of violets. It dwells on many continents, in different natural zones, and each of the 500 species amazes the imagination and pleases the eye with the unusual beauty of flowers and tart aroma.
One of these species is mattiola pink, night violet, which in ancient times was used as home decoration on holidays. The flower belongs to the genus Matthiola, and is sometimes referred to as Levkoy.
Gardeners grow night violet not because of the special appearance or rare medicinal properties, but because its smell when flowering is so strong, the plant becomes desirable in every yard and flowerbed.
Description of the appearance and features of the night violet
Flowers of violet are not of great interest, they are small and inconspicuous in comparison with other ornamental plants. They look like a scattering of pink and lilac stars on tall, thin stalky stems with bright, closely spaced green leaves.
Mattiola grows from 20 to 90 cm in height. Annual plant. The fruit is an elongated pod with many small seeds. The main feature of violets - bloom at sunset.
As soon as the sun begins to set beyond the horizon, the buds night violet flower bloom, and a tart fragrance spreads around the yard where the plants are planted. For such dignity mattiola love gardeners so much and will certainly plant on their plots.
Buy night violet possible for a small price in the form of seeds, seedlings. In addition, mattiol is used to top off the composition in a bouquet, giving it a special flavor.
Planting and breeding violets
Special difficulties in care, planting night violets not foreseen. The plant is not whimsical in the climate, it is easy to tolerate different weather conditions, but the land on which it is planned to plant seeds should be fertilized, add chernozem, sawdust, do not use oxidized soil.
Avoid places previously planted with cabbage. If the violet has to grow with such a neighborhood, it will easily pick up various diseases (fungus) and die.
Planting soil is prepared in advance, preferably in the fall, carefully loosening it and plowing it so that it is saturated with necessary oxygen. Night Violet Seeds planted on a sunny plot in two periods, making a break for three weeks. A moderate shade is also appropriate, but total darkness should be avoided, as the plants grow thin and weak without scenting buds.
Possible and planting seedlings. In this case, it is better to start in March, after adding a wood and sand layer to the soil. Seeds, until the first sprouts sprout, do not water. The best temperature for seedlings is 10–12 ° C, and the room in which they are located should be sufficiently lit by sunlight.
If one of the conditions is violated, the shoots do not sprout. After the shoots are ready, they are transferred to the ground like seeds. Already an adult Mattiola, rooted in the ground, can survive severe frosts.
Top places for growing mattiola pink night violet near people near benches and curbs, on balconies, so that a person can enjoy the smell, and other types of flowers do not overshadow it.
In the future, when the plant after flowering seeds appear, they can be collected independently for re-planting. Seeds hiding in the pods and they should be collected only in the autumn.
Night Violet Care
Although violet compared to other flowers is easy to maintain, so that the plant grows and blossoms actively, it is better to provide the necessary comfort conditions.
It is necessary to maintain sufficient moisture of the earth, making watering as necessary, and not plant the plant in dark places. But it is dangerous to overdo it with the volume of water, filling the roots, possibly their rotting.
Mandatory weeding violets from weeds and removal of excess shoots. If you do not do it in time and throw flowers, weeds can destroy flowers, sucking all the nutrients and water from young shoots and even strong plants. Gardeners cut off faded flowers, it positively influences growth of a violet.
Mineral fertilizers - the best solution for maintaining health in plants. But the manure, which so love to fertilize unscrupulous gardeners should be neglected.
The fact is that natural fertilizers decompose for too long, unlike industrial substances, and the plant receives the necessary vitamins for a long time.
Mineral fertilizers in a short time saturate the violet with the required elements, accelerate growth, flowering and, moreover, do not have the unpleasant smell that is characteristic of manure.
If the flowers have a negative reaction after fertilizer, you need to change the components or the type of substance, or re-calculate the dose. It should be remembered that in large quantities fertilizer instead of benefit, can destroy the plant and the surrounding soil.
Another danger for mattiols are harmful insects and diseases. Signs of infection can be a painful condition of the leaves: wilting, bald spots, dryness.
Fleas often gnaw holes in the leaves, which is why the plant suffers a lot. From her rescues dipping leaves of violet ash, which does not like insects. In extreme cases, when butterflies and caterpillars are precipitated with mattiol, all plants are treated with insecticides.
Useful properties of night violet
Probably the main useful property that is well observed. in the photo of night violets, its attractive, but not too fanciful, look. She will always delight the eyes and organs of charm with her wonderful aroma.
In violet, there are also therapeutic properties, the flower is used in the treatment of bronchitis, as a means for rubbing with pain in muscles and joints. Apply and bath with flowers of violets. They heal the skin from rashes, relax and soften coarse areas of the body.
Of course, the use of violet flowers is not a panacea, it can not cure completely, only provide a temporary effect or relieve symptoms. Treatment with mattiola is considered as an additional to other means.
Night violet is a perennial plant that belongs to the cabbage family. It is known since the XIV century. At home, the most common types of two-year varieties. Plants have straight stems, the height of which can reach 50 cm.
General Information on the Night Violet
Night Violet has another name mattiola two-horned.
It grows in the European part of Russia, in the Caucasus. The leaves are small, sharp, the flowers can be double, but more often they are simple. It blooms in a delicate purple color and has a pleasant aroma. Flowers are collected in small inflorescences in the form of small brushes. The value of this plant for gardeners is that flowering begins in the evening and lasts almost all night. Night violet is very similar in appearance to phlox, so it is sometimes called the "bull phlox."
The flowering period takes place in the summer, mainly in June and July.
Fruits appear in the autumn, these are pods, the length of which is no more than 6 cm. The pods contain seeds, the number of which may be more than 1500 pieces per 1 gram. Seeds can be saved for 2 years and after this period they will still be viable. It tolerates winter, even without additional insulation. Very easy to grow, does not require special climatic conditions. Very unpretentious, and this attracted the attention of gardeners of the Eurasian continent.
Types of violets
In nature, there are many varieties of night violet, gardeners also prefer only a few varieties that are best suited for home cultivation.
Mattiola Evening Flavor:
- The plant of this variety has stems with strong branching, the height of which can reach 40 - 45 cm.
- It blooms in a delicate lilac color with beautiful dense buds.
- When flowering emits a gentle strong aroma.
- This variety is the most popular among gardeners due to the delicate color of flowers that open in the evening, and a pleasant aroma.
- This Mattiola variety grows up to 50 cm in height.
- Flowers when flowering have a varied color.
- Very appreciated by gardeners for the scent, the flowers do not have much beauty.
- It is recommended to sow at the benches, near the entrance, under the windows.
Mattiola Night Violet:
- This variety is not very tall, the stems grow to a height of 30 cm.
- Blossoms delicate flowers, collected in loose buds.
- In the daytime, the plant looks faded and not attractive, so it’s better not to plant them in open flower beds and along the paths in the garden, their appearance is not attractive.
- And in the evening the plant "wakes up", opens, its appearance becomes fresh, and the flowers exude a delicate pleasant aroma.
- Tall plant variety, stem height can reach 50 cm.
- The leaves are small, large-toothed.
- Prefers bright places for growth.
- Stems have a strong branching.
- The flowers are small pale purple, collected in loose inflorescences.
- It has a pleasant delicate smell.
Flower care and reproduction
Night Violet - an unpretentious plant and does not require special care. But when breeding this plant at home, you should follow some rules of care.
- Watering violet night is regularly, but moderately, not more than once a week, especially if the summer is dry. It is not necessary to allow the soil to dry out, but the stagnation of water is very harmful for the plant. Very useful after watering weed the earth around the plants. The irrigation process is best done in the morning, and in two stages, for a good passage of water into the depth of the soil.
- To feed a plant costs no more than 2 times a month with mineral fertilizers.
- Night violet loves humid air, but even in low humidity it feels great and does not affect flowering. It coexists well with any plants, although it grows well.
In winter, the plant can not be warmed, night violet tolerates cold winters.
- You can buy Night Violet seeds in almost any store for gardeners and gardeners.
- For planting seeds must be mixed with sand. The sowing period in open ground is the end of April, if the weather is warm, or in early May, if April is cold.
- The depth of planting should be minimal, a very good percentage of germination, if the seeds are sown on top of the ground and sprinkled with 0.5 cm of soil.
- The distance between crops should be at least 10 cm.
- The landing place must be chosen light or in the penumbra, and, to subsequently enjoy the aroma of the Night violet, it is worth sowing near the gazebo or bench.
It is not recommended to grow the Night violet on the seedlings, and then plant it in open ground.
It does not tolerate transplantation and as a result only 20% of plants can grow. But if the plants are sown on the open ground in different places on their own, as a result of the flowering of the plant in the previous year, then it is recommended to replant it in a flowerbed together with a clod of earth in which the flower grows. The soil for planting Night Violets should be wet and loose.
It can be slightly fertilized, but without organic matter, and water should not linger in it. Poor tolerates acidic soil. Flowering plant begins after 1.5–2 months after planting. To prolong the flowering of plants, after the first planting, after a week you can sow some more seeds, and after another - the next batch. Thus, the Night violet can be enjoyed until mid-autumn.
With proper care for the Night Violet, it becomes very resistant to diseases and pests.
But sometimes the plant can be attacked by pests such as cruciferous flea, whitefish, and, most often, the caterpillars of cabbage butterflies. To remove all these insects, there are many drugs that are presented on the shelves of gardening stores.
Varieties of night violets
The name "night violet" combines several dozen different species and varieties of perennial cruciferous plants. They envelop the territory from Asia to Central Europe with their fragrance, capturing the eastern regions of the Mediterranean.
However, in our latitudes under the name "night violet" grow two flowers of Matthiola (better known and familiar name - Levkoy) and, in fact, Hesperis.
There are quite a few varieties of levkoev, but two of them are most common - two-horned and gray. It is a double-leafed plant, an annual plant, it blooms for up to two months and is self-pollinated. It has small flowers of 2-3 cm in size, the inflorescences resemble brush of dark pink shade.
The gray-haired levokoy flowers have the correct form, the same, smooth or terry, while there may be a variety of shades. The first bloom only a few days, the second - more than two weeks. Some terry varieties have up to 100 petals in a flower.
Also popular are Levkoi Starlight and Evening Fragrance. Mattiola Starlight They look like a mixture of varieties with flowers of different shades and have a rather high (up to half a meter) stem.
Evening aroma is distinguished by a large number of very fragrant even in comparison with other representatives of the type of purple flowers located on a branched stem (its length is slightly shorter than that of Starlight).
Hesperis (evening party), in turn, includes many varieties of night violets, the most common among them is Matron, lat. - Hesperis Matronalis (she is an ordinary, Caucasian, master party, Hesperis Matrona, Hesperis female and many others.).
Flowers at the evening party Matrona are of two types: smooth white and terry reddish-purple. The stem of the flower is high, slightly less than 1 m, the leaves are oval oblong.
Other representatives of the evening party are the Siberian evening party and the dark evening party.
Siberian party - one of the highest flowers, its stem can reach 1.3 m. The leaves are covered with villi, the flowers are mostly pink or white. Begins to bloom in June.
Dark nightwearit is also called sad; it is a shrub up to 60 cm tall with a thin stalk and small velvety leaves. Its flowers have a very unusual color - when they begin to bloom, turn brown or purple, and eventually turn into a dark yellow shade. Bloom in late spring - early summer.
Strictly speaking, night violets are not really violets. The name of the flower is due to the fact that its aroma really resembles the smell of violet and is particularly rich in the dark in warm weather.
Place and soil for night violet
When choosing a place to plant a night violet, one should proceed from the fact that the plant loves light. Moreover, the evening party can feel comfortable both in direct sunlight and in diffused light, however, if the climate is too hot, the night violet can also develop normally in the shade and dusk.
Although the evening party is considered immune to diseases and pests, it should not be sown in places where other cabbage used to grow, since the probability of infection with their characteristic diseases and pests can increase dramatically.
Sowing Night Violet Seeds
The main way in which night violet propagates is to grow from seed., although some varieties, especially terry violets and varieties that bloom twice a year, can also breed by dividing the bush.
The agrotechnical cultivation of the evening party is generally similar to the biennials that are common in our latitudes, such as mallow, Turkish carnation, and Pansies (viola). You can plant the seeds of the night violet in pots for seedlings (this is done in early spring), but there is not much point in this - the plant sprouts just as well if it is sown directly in the garden, in late spring - early summer.
Since the seeds are small, they should be sown shallowly, but not too tight. It is better to use special cups for planting than to plant a violet on a bed, as in this case it will be much easier to deal with weed control.
After sowing, the soil should be sprayed well (without applying watering, so as not to erode the seeds) and cover with a film, which later needs to be removed from time to time, providing airing to the soil.
The shoots of hesperis appear almost a month after sowing, if the soil is already warm enough. Night violet after planting requires not only watering, but also care in the form of loosening the soil and weed control. After the sprouts of three true leaflets form, they are dived, then they are watered abundantly and covered from direct sunlight. For the normal development of the plant, it is necessary to provide each copy with a “personal space” of at least 30 cm in diameter
Planting of the night matrona violet in open ground is carried out in late summer - early autumn, when the plant has completely formed large leaves.
Bloom hesperis begins in the late spring of the year following the landing. However, if the planting was carried out early, the plant sometimes has time to bloom in the first year, however, such individual flower stalks cannot be called full-flowering. Первое цветение ночной фиалки может длиться до одного месяца (продолжительность цветения зависит от сорта растения), однако с третьего года этот период резко снижается, и клумбу с ночной фиалкой приходится обновлять. Приходится признать, что за эту особенность вечерницу недолюбливают многие садоводы.
Подбираем соседей для ночной фиалки
Подобрать партнеров для ночной фиалки несложно. Mattiola coexists well with summer flowers such as petunia, nasturtium, viola, as well as with a variety of spicy herbs - melissa, mint, basil, thyme, sage, etc. - together these plants create amazing bouquets of aromas and color shades. An interesting combination with an evening party is also garden geranium, yarrow, monard, and nivyanik.
The unique combination of aromas arises if you plant a night violet next to a rose, especially a climbing one.
Selection and Seeding
Despite the "nocturnal" lifestyle, Hesperis and Mattioli love light.. However, they feel more comfortable not under direct rays, but under scattered rays and in partial shade.
For the cultivation of these flowers is best suited fertile, loose, moist soil (neutral or slightly alkaline). In its composition will not be too much lime. Before planting plants in open ground, the soil should be dug up and make complex fertilizers.
Night violets are not particularly susceptible to pests and diseases. But they still should not be planted on the places where other crusader (cabbage) crops had previously grown.
The main method of reproduction of these plants is seed growing. The most common are biennial soda species. Seeds appear in oblong pods at the place of the faded buds. Therefore, they can multiply and self-seeding.
In early April, the violet can be planted in pots for seedlings, and in late August - early September, it can be planted in open ground, leaving a distance of between 10–15 cm between the sprouts. immediately to the ground in late May - early June.
Seeds should be sown shallow and not heap. After planting, you need to spray with water, but do not water so as not to wash the seeds from the soil. If sowing is done immediately in open ground, then after spraying the soil must be covered with foil, further airing the planting, opening the foil from time to time.
Seed entry occurs in almost a month. When sprouts form 3 true leaves, the plant dives.
Watering and loosening the soil
Watering - the most important in the care of night violet. This plant does not tolerate the drying out of the soil and the stagnation of water. Therefore, watering should be regular and moderate. It is best to produce it in the evening in 2 stages, so that the water is absorbed after the first watering. Immediately after watering, loosen the soil and remove weeds.
Fertilization, preparation for winter
Once every 2 months you can fertilize the violetusing complex mineral fertilizers for flower crops. In addition, wood ash can be used for fertilizer, which not only enriches the soil with the necessary substances, but also makes it more alkaline, which will favorably influence the growth and flowering of the plant, especially if the soil was originally acidic.
Mattioli and hesperis are frost-resistant varieties. Therefore, adult plants do not need to additionally cover before winter. However, young plants, wintering for the first time, can be mulched if frosty or little snowy winter is foreshadowed.
Features growing on the balcony
Night violet will feel great on the balcony or loggia. For growing in such conditions are best suited low-growing varieties mattioly, eg:
An ideal place for mattiola will be a fairly lighted balcony, not facing the south side.
Mattiola seeds sown on seedlings in March, and at the beginning of the summer they are transplanted into pots or wicker baskets and carried to a balcony. Otherwise, growing on the balcony is no different from growing on the garden. The plant also needs regular watering, loosening and application of complex fertilizers.
If the balcony or loggia is glazed, the plant will be able to spend the winter in its place.
Night violet in landscape design
By combining “daytime flowers” with night violet, you can create extraordinary fragrant flower arrangements. The most unique aromas can be obtained by planting violet and climbing roses or spicy herbs (basil, sage, thyme, melissa) on one flowerbed. The most beautiful combinations: night violet and viola, petunia, nasturtium, geranium. But, combining plants, it should be borne in mind that:
- Violet grows quickly, so you should not place the culture tight,
- Violet is an early plant, so it is worth planting it next to late crops to get a flower garden that has been pleasing for a long time.
To prolong the bloom of violets, it can be planted in several stages at intervals of 10-15 days, then the plants planted at different times, will bloom in turn. In addition, it is worth noting that to extend the bloom almost 2 times you can simply place the culture in partial shade. And to bloom was more lush, bloomed buds need to be cut, leaving, if necessary, a few for the seeds.
Many varieties of violets are actually perennial, however, the best flowering occurs in the second year: in the first - the plant does not have time to pick up color, and starting from the third - the flowers are getting smaller. Therefore, gardeners use this crop as a two-year crop, renewing their plantings gradually, so that on the flowerbed each year a part of the plants will be two years old.
Flowers "night violet" - they are distinguished not only by their simplicity and opening of buds at night. The main feature of these plants is a wonderful aroma that can turn a garden or balcony into a romantic and inspiring place with the sunset.
Features of the plant
Mattiola is an annual, biennial or perennial herb. Some species of violets are shrubs with branched stems, bare or covered with felt pile. Their height reaches 20 - 80 cm. The flowers can be different: pink, white, yellow, as well as simple and double. Regardless of the appearance, they are all collected in inflorescences resembling an ear or fancy brushes.
Levkoy blooms from early June to November. The fruits are represented by small pods in which there are seeds of violet.
The main distinctive feature of the flowers is considered a special smell, which is simply impossible to confuse with anything.
Terry varieties will be concise charming garden decoration, often grown on the balcony. Non-curved species are excellent honey plants. Levkos are unpretentious in caring, and even a child can cope with outdoor planting.
The genus Mattiola has about 50 main varieties. Of these, scientists were able to derive about 600 ornamental plant species. Violets are classified by height:
According to the structure of flowers mattiola is divided into simple and terry.
The most popular varieties are mattiola bilobus, gray and fragrant.
The annual plant has a branched stem, which forms a small 50-centimeter shrub round shape. In the period from June to August comes the flowering of mattiola two-horned. Flowers are simple, consist of 4 petals. Color purple or pale pink. The plant exudes quite a strong pleasant aroma. The fruits are represented by pods, in which small, oblong-shaped seeds ripen. Mattiola two-horned is often used by flower growers to create a variety of landscape design projects.
Annual plant has a weak branching. The height of the shoots is 20 - 80 cm. Oval leaves with short pubescence densely cover the stems of the left. Flowers can be, both simple and terry. At the top of the plant, they gather in thick attractive inflorescences. Their color is diverse, there are white, blue, pink, purple and yellow flowers. The period of flowering of this variety levkoev continues from June until the first frosts. In the southern regions, Mattiola is pleasing to the eye with its lush inflorescences even in winter. Fruits appear only in varieties with simple flowers, they are represented by flat pods with seeds inside.
A perennial herbaceous plant, which reaches a height of 20 - 50 cm. The leaves and shoots are painted in dark green color, covered with long felt down, which has a silvery shade. Mattiola blooms fragrant in May - June. Crusiform inflorescence consists of simple flowers of yellowish-brown shade. Buds open at night, exude a characteristic smell.
Each grower will be able to choose suitable varieties for his garden or balcony. White and purple, purple and yellow, pink and blue inflorescences will be the perfect decoration of the exterior.
Mattiola is considered an unpretentious flower that does not require complex care. It is forbidden to plant plants in areas where cabbage and other representatives of the cruciferous family were previously grown. Otherwise, the flowers are infected with a keel and a fungus that infects the rhizome.
Mattiola successfully adapts to the most different climatic conditions. For effective cultivation of the soil should be fully moisturized. Suitable soil - loamy, black soil, sod-sandy, but not sour. Landing is better to make in sunny open areas.
The flower propagates with the help of seeds. Gather the pods after the onset of the first frost. They must be thoroughly dried. Soil preparation for sowing is done in autumn. Then the soil is enriched with fertilizers of organic origin. Plant reproduction occurs in two ways:
- Growing mattioli from seeds. From mid-April to May, depending on the climatic conditions, the seeds of the plant are sown in the soil. The procedure is repeated every 2 weeks. This will make the flowerbed fragrant for a long time.
- Planting Mattiola If the climate allows you to land in March, the flowering will begin in June. Seedlings are grown in special containers filled with a mixture of sand and sod in a ratio of 1: 3. Seeds are placed in the ground and 0.5 cm sprinkled with earth. Watering is not required until the first shoots. Mattiola rises in about 4 days, after which the containers must be placed in a room with full lighting and temperature that does not exceed 12 ° C. This period is considered the most difficult, since suitable temperature indicators are not always easy to achieve.
After 14 days, the seedlings are swooping in separate containers. Not all of them will be able to withstand such manipulations, but as a result only the strongest resistant flowers remain. Planting mattiola in open ground is made in the middle or at the end of April. After that, the plant will be able to successfully tolerate a slight frost down to -5 °.
For the landing of preparing the wells, filled with water. The plant survives better after placing in liquid mud. After filling the pits with soil, it must be thoroughly sealed. Stunted annual flowers with one stem are planted at a distance of 15-20 cm from each other. Mattiola two-horned and other branched high varieties are located 25-30 cm.
Perennial plants feel best in open areas that are well lit by sunlight. The ideal option for growing at home will be the location on the balcony, which faces south.
Terry and simple varieties are planted without damage to the earthen coma on the rhizome. Depending on the type of plant, there is a distance between the seedlings. Ideal for planting will be a cloudy day or evening, when there is no bright sunlight. If the seedlings are located too close to each other, it threatens to have a black leg infection. Mattiola grows well in fertile, loose soil with neutral acidity. Heavy soil and prolonged stagnation of water are unacceptable.
Two-horned mattiola and other varieties are unpretentious in care. They need active lighting and high-quality drainage system. Watering should be regular, but not too abundant. It is recommended to loosen the soil more often, so that under the influence of moisture a dense earth crust is not formed. Weeding weights is of great importance, because the leftists do not tolerate the proximity of aggressive plants.
Systematic application of top-dressing to multi-year matthiols is not required. In the spring, it is enough to water the seedlings once with a solution of a complex fertilizer intended for flowering plants. In the presence of fertile soil, even this is not necessary.
Levkoi are especially vulnerable to the effects of fungi, in particular, to the black leg and cabbage keel. To prevent infection, it is necessary to properly care for the plants. Mattioli should not grow too close to each other and be subjected to excessive watering. The most common pests are the whitefish, the cruciferous flea, and cabbage moths. By processing perennial and annual flowers with special insecticides, you can quickly get rid of their negative impact.
A few decades ago, mattiola was considered quite a popular plant. Nowadays, it is less common. The plant looks great in the classic park direction. He is very fond of flower growers who prefer traditional styles. Blossoming brushes have a bewitching scent that fills a flower garden with special charm.
Terry gulfs are harmoniously combined with other summer flowers. The most interesting combinations are obtained with rosemary, decorative wormwood, lavender. The two-horned mattiols look good in tandem with feverfew and phlox. Decorative leafy plants and herbs - thyme, thyme - emphasize the attractiveness of the night violet.
White, soft pink, purple gulfs are planted in the foreground of flower beds and flower beds, as well as along garden paths. Often flowers are used for the purpose of gardening and decorating loggias and balconies. They are suitable for growing in flowerpots. Low-growing varieties are used to decorate ponds and pools.
For the creation of floral compositions suitable high varieties mattioly. Plants do not lose their original appearance and pleasant smell throughout the week.
Mattiola is a night violet, beautiful and mysterious. The flower is unpretentious in the care, so it is often grown beginner gardeners. The plant offers great opportunities for creating original landscape design projects.