One of the most beautiful garden flowers is considered by many flower growers to be - pion. The beauty of flowering peonies fascinates the view so much that sometimes it is very difficult to admire the diversity and richness of the color gamut of the flower bed on which peonies grow.
Annual flowering and large green leaves can not leave indifferent even the most demanding gardener.
Therefore, for these beautiful flowers strive to take the best place in the garden. But in order for plants to be beautiful and healthy, you need to know and follow certain breeding rules and care.
As a garden culture, these flowers began to be bred in the era of the Han dynasty, in ancient China more than 2 thousand years ago. The flower was named after the famous ancient healer Pean, according to ancient legends, who saved the lives of not only people, but also gods. Currently, mainly herbaceous peonies are cultivated, some varieties of which have retained their medicinal properties to this day.
They are presented in a diverse color palette, so their use is actively represented in solving landscape design problems in any country and suburban areas. The plant looks great as a large individual arrays, as well as a quality addition in the design of flower beds. High and medium growing varieties are often planted around the edges of the lawn or around garden trees, and low growing varieties are often used to decorate rock gardens.
They differ not only in a variety of color buds, but also in their large size. All varieties have a strong cone-shaped root system. On the stems do not grow paired mainly trifoliate, feathery leaves, of various shades. The color of the leaves can be from the classic green to a kind of dark purple. On almost every stem, one bud blooms, 15–20 cm in diameter.
Peonies are considered to be quite unpretentious plants, which are valued by both professional and novice growers, because even after withering, they still delight the eye until mid-autumn. Yes, and the long growth of these flowers in one place is also considered their advantage.
These varieties reach a height of one and a half, two meters, and are mainly represented by Chinese varieties. In turn, these pions are classified into three main groups:
- European - peonies with double flowers, of various colors ranging from fuchsia and ending with pale pink hues. Bud size is large. On the stem are large leaves, dense structure and with a noticeable terry.
- Japanese - have smaller buds, but also with a well-marked terry. A distinctive feature is considered good frost resistance. This property has acquired a variety, thanks to a peculiar method of grafting, which consists of grafting cuttings to the roots of grassy peonies. For the harsh climate of Russia, these peonies are ideally suited, which determines their widespread occurrence in this region.
- Hybrid - have semi-shrub structure. Were obtained by crossing the pion of Delavery and Yellow. They have a very rich yellow color and bright specks of purple at the base of the petals. On one tall stem, three or four buds can grow, after blooming which flowers appear with a diameter of 4–10 cm.
All varieties of tree peonies like draft-free areas with good natural light. The soil should be well drained and rich in minerals and organic matter. Frost-resistant Japanese peonies, for additional insurance, it is recommended to cover for the winter period with wooden shields and spruce branches.
This variety of pions is distinguished by good resistance to adverse climatic conditions, which allowed breeders to grow hardy hybrid varieties. If you decide to decorate your garden plot, it is best to grow several varieties next to it with a different flowering period, since most of the herbaceous peonies finish the flowering period by the middle of summer.
Popular grassy peonies:
- Evasive - This variety has vertical thick stems that can reach a height of 40 to 100 cm. The flower, about 13 cm in diameter, has a bright pink color. On the stem grows one flower, which blooms in late May and blooms until early June. Peony is also well known as Maryin root, and has not only decorative qualities, but also medicinal properties.
- Drug - This is a plant with a long rhizome and a height of 40–90 cm. Many gardeners grow it for decoration, sometimes even unaware of its medicinal properties. It has large dark red flowers without odor. Dissolves in early June.
- Narrow-leaved - this peony is widely used by landscape designers to decorate flower beds located on arid slopes. Peony has small (6–8 cm), bright crimson flowers that bloom in late May.
- Pion Mlokosevich - got its name in honor of the breeder discoverer. It has long pinkish stems, gray-green foliage and flowers of yellow saturated color. Flowers are large up to 12 cm in diameter, bloom in late spring or early June.
A large number of varieties of white-flowered peonies are known. These flowers are very popular with amateur flower growers due to the presence of large buds and beautiful flowering.
White flowered peony varieties:
- Simple - non-terry peonies, have wide, corrugated petals in one or two rows. Numerous stamens and pistils grow along the center of the petals. The flowers are very large.
- Semi-double - depending on the color, there are several varieties of such a peony: white - “Miss America”, coral - “En Berry Cause”, pink - “Citeria”, burgundy with black tint - “Sable” and red - “Laster”. This variety is considered the light version of the terry pion, which has many stamens, located 3–7 rows between the petals.
- Japanese Peonies - is considered one of the most popular species. Petals frame the core of the bud and are located in one, two rows. The stamens have a two-tone coloration, in the upper part of the same tone with petals, and the lower part is slightly yellower and lighter. The shape of the stamen - narrow, long.
Unlike Japanese peonies, terry-shaped flowers are characterized by the shape of spherical-type buds with many petals.
They bloom beautifully and incredibly magnificent. And the petals, when bloomed, make up several tiers, and the middle tier differs in color from the upper and lower tier, which visually gives the flower even more volume and beauty.
Some types of terry flowers:
- Hemispheric and spherical - These peonies have narrow, slightly cut along the edges of the petals, as well as horizontally located wide. In form at the beginning the flower looks like a hemisphere, and after full blooming it is a sphere. The best varieties are: “Red Charm” with buds of dark red color up to 22 cm, “Monsieur Jules Eli” pinkish blue with buds up to 20 cm, “Alexander Dumas” lilac-pink buds up to 15 cm.
- Crown peonies - the variety has a three-tiered flower structure. The most popular is the variety “Rasberi Sande” with pink flowers and a bud of 19 cm in size. It is recommended to tie the stems to a support, as they often do not withstand the large weight of the bud.
- Rose-shaped - The buds are very similar in shape to a rose, and therefore received a variety of such a name. Rounded wide petals characteristic of this variety. The most popular varieties are: blooming Solange with creamy large buds, which must be additionally fixed to the pole, early flowering Henry Boxstore with bright red flowers, Mrs. Roosevelt with pink flowers and up to 23 cm in size.
Of course, when choosing a landing site, it is imperative to observe certain conditions, observance of which will please you with a lush and beautiful flowering of chic peonies. There are some useful tips from experienced flower growers:
- Any plant likes sunlight, so the plot should have good lighting.
- The flower is very afraid of wind and draft, and therefore the planting of peonies must be done next to shrubs or trees, while providing enough space for the normal development of the root system of the plant.
- Planting pions near the house is not recommended, as overheating adversely affects their viability, and heat can constantly emanate from the walls of the dwelling. Landing should be carried out at a distance of no closer than two meters from the building.
The composition and nutritional value of the soil is very important in the care and cultivation of flowers. In addressing the issue of soil selection, some professional advice can help:
- For good growth and development, peonies prefer loamy soil.
- If the soil at the site is clayey and heavy, its quality can be improved by adding peat, humus or sand. In such a land peonies feel great.
- And if the site is dominated by sandy soil, then you need to add clay and humus.
- Pure peat soil is considered destructive for planting pions, therefore sand, ashes and organic matter are added to such soil.
Selection of landing time
It is believed that the best time for planting these plants is autumn. Open ground begin to prepare in August, and the process of transplanting carried out in the second half of September.
Causes of landing at this time:
- The kidneys by this time completely complete their formation.
- The upper part of the bush enters a state of sleep, so its growth ends.
- But small roots still continue to grow, which facilitates the restoration of the plant root system, after receiving minor injuries when planting pions.
- The absence of hot weather at this time of year also has a positive effect on planting and caring for flowers.
- The rooting process of the plant will proceed faster during the rainy period.
Peonies: planting and care in the open field
If the work on planting pions is carried out correctly, then this occupation will not take much energy from you, on the contrary, it will bring a lot of joy and inspiration. It is better to plant peonies in open ground at the end of summer or early autumn.
- Previously, a few days before planting, it is necessary to prepare pits with a depth and diameter of about 60 cm. It is desirable to maintain the distance between the pits about a meter.
- To make a drainage for the dimples, by installing a pillow made of expanded clay, coarse river sand or gravel. The thickness of the drainage pad should be 10–20 cm.
- Pour the top dressing on top of the drainage, which consists of: dolomite flour - 100 grams, ash - 300 grams, superphosphate - 200 grams, potassium sulfate - 70 grams and compost. The thickness of the bedding is 20-30 cm.
- Free space is filled with soil.
- Until the time of planting, the ground in the fossa will be compacted, so we carefully lower the rhizomes of the plant into it, sprinkle it with fresh earth, and hand it down with it. Seedlings should stand exactly. The roots can not be very deep - the plants do not like it.
In the spring, no manipulations with this plant are recommended. But in life everything happens, therefore, in an exceptional case, spring will be suitable for planting.
Watering the soil
Watering the color is considered an important flower care action. Especially the plant needs watering in the spring, during the formation of buds. During this period, you need to organize watering once a decade, while pouring water of 20 liters per square meter.
During the flowering period and after it is finished, it is watered less often, twice a month, while the norm is doubled.
Loosening the soil should be done carefully so as not to damage the root system.
In the first year after planting flowers, feeding is not required, despite the fact that the roots are actively developing, they still poorly assimilate mineral fertilizers.
In the spring, when the leaves begin to grow actively, the soil around the bush is fertilized with compost or humus. Nitrogen fertilizers are used to feed the root system.
When flowers begin to form, it is necessary to add liquid organic matter (mullein) to the soil. And also sprayed additionally buds and leaves with Bud. At the same time, in the spring, pristypolnye circles sprinkled with two glasses of ash.
After completion of flowering, you need to water the plant with a solution of potassium sulfate and superphosphate.
To begin cutting flowers should be two weeks after flowering. If you cut off just ottsvetyshie stems, you will not have time to form buds for the next year.
As soon as the first frosts appear, the herbaceous plants cut off all the stems. Tree peonies are pruned in early spring.
Remember, if you want to have beautiful, lush, multi-colored flowerbeds in your garden, then growing peonies is the best for this purpose.
Varieties and types of peonies
Nowadays, many varieties of peonies have been bred that delight the eye with its decorative properties.
For the type of flower peonies can be divided into 7 types:
- Non-curved flowers have large flowers with a large number of stamens.
- Semi-double such peonies have very large flowers, which consist mainly of 7 strips of petals.
- Japanese stamens in the middle of the flowers look like a pom-pom, and the petals are arranged either in one line or several.
- Anemone-shaped is something in between Japanese and terry peonies. The upper petals are shorter, and the lower ones are bigger and rounder.
- Terry flower of this type is like a ball.
- Rose-like flowers resemble the structure of a rose.
- Crown petals on flowers are placed in three levels. The upper level is narrower in comparison with the others. Usually the outer rows of the same color, and the middle has a difference in color.
As already mentioned, color will differ according to the variety.
For example, the type of thin-leaf peony and varieties of Carol and Red Charm - red color.
- Peony Evade and Neon - lilac.
- Peony Kansas bright scarlet.
- Maxim Festival Grade is white.
- Solange is white with a pink tinge.
- Peony Sarah Bernard pale pink color.
- Beautiful coral coloring flowers of peonies Coral Sunset and Coral Charm.
- Bartzella is a yellow peony.
- Sorbet variety differs bicolor pink-yellow color.
In addition to the above, there are many other varieties of high decoration.
Peonies planting and care in the open field
Planting and caring for peonies in the open field is not very troublesome. The most important step is choosing a place for flowers, since they can grow on it for ten or more years. Already a five-year-old peony has a root depth of about 80 cm, so it is very difficult to transplant it.
The site for these plants should be well lit, not be in a draft. You also need to plant flowers on a hill, because the deep roots of a peony can rot.
The soil for peonies must be prepared slightly acidic. In the case of very clayey soil, you need to add sand, humus and peat to it. If sandy - humus, peat and clay.
Planting peonies in the fall
Disembarkation as well as peony transplantation is carried out in the autumn, and not in the spring or summer, as people sometimes tend to think. Seven days before planting, pits about 50x50x50 cm in size are dug for plants, a little deeper. The distance between the pits is about a meter. The bottom is covered with a 20 cm drainage layer and fertilizer is added (humus, 100 grams of lime, 200 grams of superphosphate, 100 grams of potassium sulphate, 300 grams of wood ash), the layer of which will be approximately 25 cm.
The remaining space is filled with soil mixed with compost. Seven days later, you can plant peony roots. Do not bury rhizome unnecessarily, because it threatens with the lack of flowering in peony.
It is worth noting that a year after this procedure, flowering will not occur, and the bushes themselves will look sluggish.
If the planting material you received in the spring and does not have the opportunity to wait until the autumn, then the peonies can be planted in a 3-liter capacity. You need to place it in a damp, dark place, and sometimes put ice on the ground, which when it melts, will moisten the substrate.
At the end of spring, the plants, along with the pot, are buried in the open ground until the autumn, when it will be possible to transfer the peony to a special pit by transshipment.
As mentioned, the autumn time is the time to transplant peonies. This procedure is not carried out annually and if this is a year when transplantation is not required, then you only need to prune the withered stems and burn them. The stems themselves are covered with ash. At this departure ends in the fall.
Since spring, sometimes you need to water the soil. For each adult plant you need to pour out a couple of buckets of water, because it is necessary that it reaches to the deepest roots.
In early spring, when the peonies have a growth period, they especially need watering. You also need to moisturize the substrate well during the formation of buds and buds. Still wet ground need to loosen and weed weeds. Watering spend carefully, not allowing water to fall on the leaves.
How to fertilize peonies
Peonies fertilizer should be started from spring. Immediately after the snow melts, the soil should be fertilized with manganese potassium - a couple of grams per 10 liters of water (this dose is enough for two flower bushes).
В период быстрого развития зеленой массы, пионы требуют удобрения аммиачной селитрой – 15 грамм на 10 литров воды.
С середины мая на листья выливают минеральные подкормки.
Чем подкормить пионы во время цветения
Когда пионы цветут, нужно проводить их подкормку смесью суперфосфата (10 г), аммиачной селитры (7,5 г), калийной соли (5 г) в воде (10 л).
After a couple of weeks of flowering, peonies are fed the same solution as for flowering plants, but without saltpeter.
In the summer, when flowering is over, you need to irrigate, fertilize, loosen the soil and remove weeds, take care of the plant.
Fully trim the peonies only when the first frost comes.
After flowering, it is desirable to cut the flower stalks, but not too low, leaving a little stem with leaves.
Peony Transplant When Better
Transplantation, as well as the division of the peony bush, is carried out once every four to five years, since older plants have too large roots and this causes problems during transplantation, but this process can be carried out once every 10 years.
To transplant a peony, you need to dig a plant in the autumn not less than 20 cm from the rhizomes, and then carefully pull it out of the soil with a fork. Next, the soil is removed from the roots and lightly washed.
The stems are cut almost to the root, and after the rhizome dries out and cuddle a little, too long roots cut to 15 cm and begin division. Old roots can be divided wedge. If inside the root there is rot and voids, then they are cut out and disinfected with potassium permanganate, and then with fungicide.
Parts should be about the same - not big and not small. How the roots are planted, has already been described above.
For the winter, the peony-mulch land is peat. In the spring, with the advent of sprouts, mulching is removed. Old bushes can not cover for the winter.
The first year must be removed from the bush all the buds. In the next save one, and when it is full, cut and make sure it is a varietal color. If the similarity with the color is not observed or it is minimal, then the buds will need to be removed for another year.
It is even possible that flowers that match your variety will start appearing only in the fifth year.
If you have a tree peony, then in the spring, before the awakening of the buds, you will need to prune it, this is done in order to form the crown. You also need to remove dead, frozen, old branches. In this case, caution is important, because this peony is bad for pruning, and therefore it is necessary to observe the measure. Sluggish inflorescences also need to be removed.
For winter, tree pions need to be sheltered, as in the case of a snowless winter or large frosts, the bush may suffer, despite its cold resistance.
A tree peony transfers a transplant even more painfully than a grassy one, and it is necessary to be even more careful when it comes to this process.
Peony seed multiplication
The transplant method described above can be called reproduction by dividing a bush.
Also, peonies can be propagated by seeds, but it is desirable to do this for species, but not varietal peony, because varietal characteristics usually disappear with this method of propagation, and peonies grown from seeds only bloom by the fifth year.
If you have all decided to use seeds exactly, then simply sow them in loose soil at the end of summer. The next year, the spring, they should germinate.
Reproduction of pions by root and stem cuttings
Grafting, unlike seed reproduction, retains the varietal characteristics of pions. Part of the rhizomes with a bud are cut off in July and planted, and by the beginning of autumn it should take root. The disadvantage of this method is the slow development of plants. Flowering will come only after four to five years.
In addition to the root, you can use stem stem. The top of the stem is cut, so that it had 2 internodes. You can handle the cutting means for accelerated formation of roots.
Such cuttings are planted in homemade greenhouses. The landing is carried out under a peg, no deeper than 4 centimeters. A couple of weeks, peonies will need to be sprayed three times a day. The temperature of the cuttings should not be higher than 25 degrees. Direct sunlight on the seedlings is also not desirable.
Three weeks after planting, it is sometimes necessary to air the seedlings, but in such a way that they do not pass through. In about two months, roots will appear and a vegetative bud will form. Autumn plants are planted in the ground. Further, all the operations described above are performed on them.
Tree peonies also multiply by dividing the bush and cuttings, but you can also use the methods of layering and grafting.
Propagation of pions by layering and grafting
The process of reproduction by layering lasts two years. At the end of spring, before the peonies bloom, the most developed shoots are notched, treated with a root stimulator, and then tilted in the soil and tied to a peg. The layer of soil, which cover the cuttings, must be at least 8 cm. The ground with the sprigs is moistened during irrigation.
At the beginning of autumn the roots should appear and the branch can be transplanted to another place.
You can try the method of aerial layouts. To do this, just make an incision and cover it with raw moss and film. By the fall of the roots may appear. But this method often fails.
Most often the tree peony is propagated by grafting. The root stalk of a peony tree is inserted into the root of a grassy peony. The junction of the roots wrapped with film. Peonies are kept in a dark place in a container with raw sawdust.
A month later, the material is planted in another container so that the lower peephole falls into the ground by 6 cm. They contain cuttings in the greenhouse. The process of growing a grafted plant lasts up to two years.
More information on the care and cultivation of tree peony can be found here.
Diseases and pests of peonies
- The most common disease of peony is gray rot. It mainly affects the stem, but can also appear on the leaves. Determined by the appearance of mold on the plant, if the peony blackens buds and leaves, then, most likely, this gray rot. The diseased parts are cut off and burned away from the flowers, while the peonies themselves are sprayed with a solution of copper sulfate or garlic water.
- Brown spots on leaves indicate septoria. Struggling with it, as well as with gray mold.
- Powdery mildew is also possible. In this case, the plants can be seen white bloom. In this disease, the peonies are washed with a solution of soap mixed with copper sulphate (200 grams of soap, 20 grams of vitriol per 10 liters of water).
- If a peony leaves turn yellow and curl, then maybe the root is gnawed by mice or caps. A sucking insect attack also occurs. Examine the bush carefully. If it is the defeat of the root, then the plant needs to be transplanted to another place.
- The lack of flowers in peony due to too deep planting or excess fertilizer.
Peony tincture instructions for use and contraindications
Peony tincture is a sedative that is made from the grass and peony roots evading. Used mainly as a sedative and hypnotic medication, but in general its range of use is wider.
Peony tincture helps with vegetative-vascular dystonia, neurosis, convulsions, stress, anxiety, menopause, for diseases associated with low acidity of the stomach, pain in the kidneys and bladder, also has a general strengthening effect.
It is undesirable to take pregnant, lactating, children, people with high acidity of the stomach, people with an allergy to the components.
For instructions, it is recommended to take 30-40 drops before a meal. Reception duration - 1 month. Before taking you need to consult a doctor. Unauthorized increase in the number of drugs taken is prohibited. If within two weeks there is no positive effect, the course of treatment should be discontinued.
Planting in the fall
Autumn is the most optimal period for planting seedlings in the open priming. Works begin one month before frost. Seedlings are well tolerated winter. Having undergone a natural stratification, the bushes develop well at the onset of a warm period. The start time of work is determined depending on the climatic characteristics of the region.
The beginning of autumn is the time for planting shrubs. The mother bush gains strength after flowering, the root system grows. Planting material is obtained strong and well acclimatized and prepared for winter.
Peony after flowering
In different regions, flowering ends from May to June. During this period, it is important to remove from the bushes damaged stalks, withered flowers. 2 weeks after the end of flowering, in order to support the plant, it will be necessary to feed the flowers with a solution of mineral potash - phosphate fertilizers (40 g ammophoshka under each bush).
In August, the flowers will need to increase the rate of watering - during this period, flowers begin to lay bud replacement.
Preparing for the winter
In autumn, when yellowing of shoots and foliage, watering is reduced and during autumn precipitation is reduced to a minimum. On the ground, the first frosts begin - the time has come for the autumn pruning of bushes. The stems are cut flush with the soil and covered with a layer of peat or sawdust up to 70 mm thick.
Important! Such processing is obligatory for young bushes, old plants calmly endure severe frosts.
In the spring, at the first thaws, an extra layer of mulch is scattered around the aisle;
Planting pions in the open field (photo)
How to choose a place in the garden for peonies
To determine where to plant these flowers correctly in your area, it is important to know the following nuances:
1. Perennial peonies can be grown in a permanent place without a transplant for several years. However, despite the simplicity, to get lush flowering still need to take into account some of the nuances when planting pions in open ground. It is undesirable to plant them along the fences, walls of buildings, as they need space and good lighting.
In the shade, peonies stretch out, flower stalks bend under the weight of flowers and break. Most often in such conditions, the plant ceases to bloom at all.
If you plant peonies on the south side of the plot, the flowers will quickly fade in the sun. Therefore, the best option for their placement would be open slightly shaded areas, protected from the wind,
2. According to the soil composition, light loams with a weakly acid reaction (pH 5.5-6.5) are optimal for pions. Before planting, heavy clay soils must be “ennobled” - add coarse sand, dolomite flour or lime (1 kg / m2). If sandy loam prevails on the site, clay is added to it. In both cases, rotted manure or compost is introduced to increase the fertility of the soil,
3. Depth of groundwater: at a high level (1 m and above) it is necessary to drain the site.
Terms of planting peonies
Peonies are planted mostly in the fall, and in rare cases in the spring. The optimal landing time is from the second half of August to the second week of September. Before the onset of frost, saplings will have time to grow young sucking roots and get stronger.
In the spring, peonies are planted after the snow melts, before they start to grow in buds. If you plant already with awakened buds, then such a plant will lag behind in development from seedlings planted in the fall.
Peony planting technology
Due to the fact that the peony bush will grow in one place for several years and grow, you should plan 1-2 m2 of planting area for each plant. Planting pits are dug 50-60 cm deep and 70-80 cm in diameter.
At the bottom of the hole poured drainage of large claydite, rubble or broken brick.
Then pour a mound of a mixture of excavated land, mixed with rotted manure or compost (5-6 kg), wood ash (0.5 liter jar) and potassium phosphate fertilizers (for example, 100 g of potassium sulfate and double superphosphate).
The seedling is lowered into the pit, straighten the roots, directing them down, and fall asleep with the remaining earth. At the same time, the growth point is deepened by 3-5 cm. With a deeper planting, the plant will be weak, prone to frequent diseases, flowering will be scarce or will be completely absent.
Peony planting: 1 - drainage, 2 - mineral-organic earth mixture, 3 - garden soil, 4 - seedling necking depth
In order not to be mistaken with the depth, it is convenient to use a landing board or a stick. It is put across the hole and measure the desired length value.
Using a stick to determine the depth of planting a peony seedling
After planting, the plants are watered, consuming 10 l of water each. The soil at the same time settles, so the hole is filled with earth and mulch with peat or straw.
How to propagate peonies
For reproduction of pions there are several ways.
Seed method used in breeding to obtain new varieties. In addition, plants grown from seeds do not retain the varietal signs of "parents" and bloom for 6-7 years of vegetation.
Layering You can multiply adult flourishing bushes. To this end, as the shoots grow during the season, the bush spuds up to 30–4 cm in height 2-3 times, watered and fed abundantly.
The buds on such stems are removed. Such activities will give the plant the opportunity to plant flower and vegetative buds and form thin roots on the lower part of the stems. At the end of August, the land around the shoots is carefully raked, separated from the mother plant and transplanted into a box or greenhouse. In the winter they are covered with mulch (straw, peat). They are planted on flowerbeds in a year.
Cuttings breed rare varieties. In this case, with one plant you can get a lot of planting material (15-35 cuttings). Harvesting is carried out with the bushes older than 4 years for 10-15 days before the start of flowering. The optimal period for grafting is the end of May - the middle of June. Each cutting should have 2 internodes.
Scheme cutting cuttings of peony stalks
For better rooting, the cuttings are kept for 7-8 hours in a solution of heteroauxin or root, and then planted obliquely into a greenhouse at a depth of 3-4 cm and at a distance of 7-10 cm from each other. The first 10-15 days they are sprayed 3 times a day. Rooting occurs in 1.5-2 months. Before hibernation, the seedlings are mulched with peat, sawdust, shavings, and cut straw.
Dividing bush - the simplest and most effective method of breeding pions. The best period for this is from August 15 to September 10. Divide the bushes that grow in one place for more than 8 years. This procedure also rejuvenates them.
The selected plant is digging up from all sides with garden forks (the trauma of the roots will be the least than with a shovel) and carefully pull the bush out of the ground. From the rhizomes shake off the ground, and its remnants are washed off with water from a watering can or hose. After that, the dug bush is left to dry in a dry place for 3-5 hours. Before dividing the tops pruned to 10-15 cm.
The rhizome is divided into parts so that each of them has 2-3 buds of growth on the root collar and at least 15 cm long roots. The incisions on the roots are powdered with charcoal powder and left to dry. Then they are planted in a prepared place.
Peony bush division
Care for peonies in the open field (photo)
Even a novice in floriculture can take care of peonies. In the period of active growth in spring, budding and flowering peonies need constant abundant watering. At one bush spend 1-2 buckets of water at a time. Peonies are watered every 10 days until the end of summer. After watering the ground in pristvolny circles loosened.
Peonies love good nutrition, which differs according to the age of the plants.
Young peonies (up to 3 years) when planting which nutrients were added to the landing pits, do not need additional root feeding. To increase the leaf mass in the spring during the emergence of shoots can be sprayed with a solution of complex fertilizers. After 2 weeks, repeat.
If the planting technology has been violated, then feeding will have to start in the first year of the growing season. In April, planting pions is watered with a solution of mullein (1:10) with the addition of 200 g of superphosphate and 300 g of wood ash. Instead of this "cocktail" you can use nitrophoska (100g / m2). The second feeding is carried out in mid-May. For the third time (in mid-June) phosphorus and potassium-containing preparations are introduced.
In adults, flowering peonies nutritional need is different. In the spring they need nitrogen and potassium. As such substances, ammonium nitrate and potassium sulphate (60g / m2) can be scattered around bushes. The second time the plants are fed in the period of budding with complex fertilizers (Kemira-Universal, Agricola, etc.). After flowering, peonies are watered with a solution of phosphorus-potassium fertilizers.
Important!All additional feeding is done after watering the plants (with the exception of those scattered over the snow).
Peduncles peonies have several buds. To achieve larger flowers, side buds are plucked out. Due to this, the central flower will be large. Often the stems do not withstand the weight of the blossomed inflorescences and lean to the ground. Therefore, it is necessary to install a circular support around the bush in order to avoid its collapse.
Example of circular support for peony bushes
Periodically remove faded flower heads.
After the plant has completely faded and loses its decorative effect, it would not be desirable, but it is not necessary to cut the tops. During this period, the pions begin laying new buds, and the presence of leaves for photosynthesis is very important at this time.
Only in the fall, when there will be a massive yellowing of the ground part of the bush, it is cut to 10-15 cm from the ground level.
After that, young plants are mulched with peat or chopped straw. Adult plants do not need shelter.
Planting and caring for peonies (in brief)
- Landing: in late August or early September.
- Bloom: May.
- Lighting: bright sunlight in the morning, then bright diffused light or light partial shade.
- The soil: loam acid reaction.
- Watering: infrequent, but plentiful: 2-3 buckets of water for each adult bush.
- Top dressing: первая подкормка проводится ранней весной, а со второй недели мая пионы каждый месяц обрабатывают по листьям раствором минерального или органического удобрения.
- Reproduction: корневыми черенками и семенами (редко).
- Pests: bronze beetles, sod ants, gall nematodes.
- Diseases: gray rot, rust, brown spot, septoria, root rot, viral mosaic.
Flowers peonies - description
Peonies are herbaceous, semi-shrubs (tree-like peonies) or shrubby plants reaching a height of 1 m. The rhizome is large, the roots are cone-shaped, powerful. There are several stems; the trifoliate or the unparalleled pinion-separated leaves of all shades of green, gray-blue or dark-purple color are alternately arranged on the stems. Peony flowers are solitary, fragrant, reaching a diameter of 15-20 cm in diameter, they are good both on the bush and in the cut. Peony is unpretentious, its agricultural technology is not difficult, so it has always been valued by gardeners: even when the flowers wither, the bushes of peonies with lush foliage remain attractive until the autumn. Peonies - long-lived, in one place they can grow more than a dozen years. Breeders also showed interest in this garden plant, and to date, over five thousand varieties of peonies have been registered, mainly derived from such species as the flower-growing peony and the medicinal peony. The varieties of peonies differ in color of flowers, their size, timing of flowering, outlines and height of the bush.
How to plant peonies.
Growing pions does not require you much time or excessive effort. The most important thing is to choose the right site for pions, because they will grow on it for many years. The root system in adult plants reaches a depth of 70-90 cm, so the transplant of a bush that has reached 4-5 years of age is not easy. Peonies prefer to grow in well-lit areas, very desirable solar lighting for 5-6 hours in the morning. But peonies are afraid of drafts, so it would be nice if they were under the protection of tall bushes or trees. Do not plant peonies in lowlands: rhizomes can rot from stagnant water.
As for the choice of soil, it is best suited for peonies loam with an acidity of 6-6.6 pH. In too clayy soil will need to make humus, sand and peat. In the sand - peat, clay and humus. Sand, wood ash and organic matter are added to peat soils.
Landing peonies in the spring.
In fact, peonies are not planted in the spring. But it happens that in the spring you got the planting material you dreamed of. and what to do? Experts suggest in this case plant peonies in a 2-3-liter pot and keep them before planting in the ground in a cool dark room - basement or cellar, keeping the soil moist. To do this, put snow on top of the ground or pieces of ice that, having melted, will moisten the soil in the pot. At the end of April or May, the peony is carried into the garden and buried in the ground right with the pot, where it will stay until the autumn transplant into the prepared pit, carried out by the method of transshipment, that is, together with the earthy clod in which the rhizome was located.
Care for peonies in the fall.
In the autumn, as already mentioned, time to plant and transplant peonies. Peonies are not planted every year, and if you don’t have plans to breed them this year, caring for peonies in the autumn comes down to pruning faded stems and leaves, which then need to be burned to destroy viruses, bacteria and pests that may settled in them. The remnants of the stems on the bushes should be sprinkled with ash at the rate of 2-3 handfuls per bush. That's all that should be done in the fall. Now we will tell how to care for peonies in the spring.
Care for spring peonies.
Watering the peonies requires infrequent, but abundant - 2-3 buckets under each adult shrub, so that the soil gets wet to the depth of the roots. Plants are especially in need of moisture in early spring, during the growth period, as well as during the budding and flowering period and in August-September, when the pions have new buds. After watering, it is imperative to loosen the soil around the bushes and remove weeds, if any. Make sure that when watering the water falls under the bush, and not on the leaves.
As soon as the snow melts, the earth around the bushes is watered with a solution of potassium permanganate at the rate of 2-3 g per 10 liters of water for two peony bushes. When the shoots begin to grow, you need to feed the plants with ammonium nitrate at the rate of 15 g of nitrate per 10 liters of water. Starting from the second week of May, young plants are watered once a month on the leaves of a watering can with a sieve with a solution of complete mineral fertilizer at the recommended concentration. Add detergent to the solution at the rate of 1 tablespoon per 10 liters of water - this will not allow the solution to simply drain on the leaves into the ground. Top dressing is made in the evening or on an overcast day. During the budding and flowering period, it is necessary to mineralize the soil with such a solution: 10 g of superphosphate, 7.5 g of ammonium nitrate, 5 g of potassium salt per 10 liters of water. Two weeks after the end of flowering, you need to feed the peonies with a solution of 10 g of superphosphate and 5 g of potassium salt to 10 liters of water. You can alternate between mineral fertilizers and organic fertilizers, and instead of a solution, sprinkle dry fertilizers along the groove around the bush, followed by moistening and embedding in the soil.
Peonies care in summer, after the pions have bloomed, consists in timely watering, feeding after flowering, weeding and loosening the plot.
When to trim the peonies? Full pruning of peonies is done in late autumn when frosts set in. But if it becomes necessary to do this earlier, then try to cut the stems not too low, leaving shoots above the ground with three or four leaves. The fact is that at the end of the summer peonies lay down their replacement buds, and the success of this process directly depends on the presence of leaves on the bush. Therefore, by the way, when cutting flowers, this rule must be observed: cut the peduncle not very close to the root, leave a part of the stem with several leaves on the bush.
When to transplant peonies.
Wild peonies grow in one place for up to fifty years and even more. Hybrid varieties that have evolved from the medicinal pion can grow without transplant in the same area for no more than ten years, after this period the bush needs to be divided and transplanted to another location. In addition, the division and seating of the bush is the easiest and most reliable method of breeding pions. But for this purpose, 4-5-year-old bushes are used, which have already fully blossomed once or twice. The fact is that the root system of peonies grows strongly over the years, so it is easier to cope with a younger rhizome than with an old one, so in order for the quality of flowering of your pions not to diminish, it will be better to divide and seat the bushes every three to four years. . Peonies are transplanted in September.
Transplantation of peonies in the fall.
How to transplant peonies? In the autumn, the bush is dug in at a distance of 25 cm from the rhizome, then carefully loosen it with forks and remove it from the ground. The rhizome is peeled off the soil, then washed with a not very strong stream of water so as not to damage the fragile peony eyes. The ground part is cut almost to the root. The washed rhizome is left in the fresh air to make the glass water, and the roots are slightly dried up and become more elastic. Then the old thick roots are cut to a length of 10-15 cm at an angle of 45º. Inspect the root carefully and only then proceed to the division. If the bush is old, then it is most convenient to drive a wedge into the middle of it, which will split the rhizome into several parts. Often in the middle of the old rhizomes there are voids and rotted areas that need to be cleaned, sanitized with a strong solution of potassium permanganate, and then powdered sections with a fungicide. Delenki should consist of a part of the root collar with well developed 3-4 ocelli and several roots. It is necessary to try to divide the rhizome into approximately equal parts so that there are neither too large delenok that will hurt for a long time after transplantation, nor too small ones that can die.
How to transplant peonies.
Plant delenki in the ground need in the way that has already been described. The area with transplanted plants for the winter is necessary to mulch seven centimeter layer of peat, you can remove the mulch when in spring the reddish sprouts of peonies break through it. In the first two years after transplantation, peonies should build up the root system, so be patient and do not let the young plants bloom. In the first year, pinch off all the emerging buds, the next - leave only one bud on the bush and, when it bursts, cut it as short as possible and consider how the flower fits its variety. If the match is incomplete, you will have to pinch the buds for another year, leaving only one until the flower fully corresponds to its variety. This can happen in the third year, and maybe in the fifth.
Propagation of pions by seeds.
With vegetative reproduction of peonies by dividing the bush you are already familiar. Peonies are bred in other ways, such as seed. But it should be remembered that the seeds of peonies do not always preserve varietal qualities, therefore, as a rule, it is used only by breeders. Yes, and plants grown from seed bloom only in the fourth or fifth year. But if you want to try to bring a new variety, then sow the freshly harvested seeds in August directly into loose soil, and they will germinate next spring.
Peonies bloomed - what to do?
Peonies bloom in late May or early June. Remove all wilted flowers, after two weeks, spend the third fertilizing with phosphate and potash fertilizers and continue to water the plants regularly. In August, watering should become more abundant, since the period begins when the replacement buds are laid, and the plant will need moisture.
Preparation of peonies for the winter.
When the leaves and stems of peonies begin to turn yellow, watering should be gradually reduced, and when frost occurs, the ground part of the bush should be cut almost to the level of the soil. If in the fall you planted old peonies or planted new ones, you will have to cover this area with peat mulch in a layer of 5-7 cm so that the weak peonies after the transplant in winter feel comfortable. In the spring, when peony shoots appear, the mulch layer can be removed.
Types and varieties of peonies
According to the structure of the flower, peonies are divided into 7 groups:
- non-curvedwhich have one or two rows of petals. The flowers are large, in the center of the flower are numerous stamens, the leaves are sometimes corrugated (for example, Golden Glow, Nadia varieties),
- semi-double - very large light flowers, stamens located either in the center of the flower, or between the petals. The flower usually consists of seven rows of petals. Varieties: Miss America is a medium early variety, a pink flower of 25 cm in diameter becomes white after disclosure, and the stamens are bright yellow. Anne Berry Causens - an early variety of coral-pink color, flower cupped 17 cm in diameter, bush up to 65 cm tall,
- Japanese - Modified stamens in the center of the flower form a pompom, the petals in the flowers can be in one or in several rows. Varieties: Carrara - medium-flowering white variety 16 cm in diameter, bush height - 80 cm. Hot Chocolet - medium-early maroon peony 16 cm in diameter height - up to 80 cm,
- anemone - transitional form from Japanese pions to the group of terry pions. The lower petals are wide, rounded, arranged in two rows, the central petals, shorter, form a ball. Varieties: Rhapsody - medium early variety, marginal petals pink, central, forming a ball - yellow-cream, flower diameter - 16 cm, bush height - 70 cm. Snow Mountain - early cream peony color 17 cm in diameter, height - 75 cm,
- terry hemispherical, bomb-shaped, spherical - flower petals are collected in a hemisphere, in full disclosure form a ball. Varieties: Pink Cameo - medium late variety of cream-pink color, 16 cm in diameter, bush 80 cm in height. Monsieur Jules Ely - early fragrant variety of lilac-pink color, diameter - 20 cm, height - 90 cm,
- rose-like - the petals of a flower, very similar in structure to a rose, are the same in size, rounded, wide, large. Varieties: Solange - late creamy white peony 17 cm in diameter, the height of heavy stems that need support, reaches 70 cm. Henry Boxstax - an early variety of bright red color 16 cm in diameter, bush 90 cm tall. In the group of pink peonies, there is a subgroup of semi-like peonies, which are distinguished by the presence of stamens in the middle of the flower. Grades: Goody - medium early, bright crimson, 16 cm in diameter, height - 70 cm. Ballerina - an early white-cream-green variety, bush is powerful, diameter of flowers is 18 cm,
- coronary hemispherical and spherical - petals of flowers are located in three tiers: the upper tier is a ring of petals, the middle one consists of narrower petals than on the upper and lower tiers. As a rule, the upper and lower rows of the same color, the middle row may differ in color. Varieties: Nancy - an early variety of pink and peach color 17 cm in diameter, bush up to 80 cm tall. Aritina Nosen Gloria - a very early variety of pink-lilac shade, bush height - 70 cm, flower diameter - 20 cm.
Description: varieties and varieties of peony
Familiar to all the luxurious peonies with great aroma bloom in spring. Usually bloom coincides with graduation parties in schools. The last school hours are saturated with sadness and piercing, intoxicating aroma of these beautiful plants.
Famous flowers are grassy varieties, which are divided in turn:
- Deviating peonies - this group includes marin root.
- Medicinal peonies. The varieties of this group of species are semi-shrub plants and Leohans peonies, which belong to tree peonies.
- Belotsvetkovye (terry and non-terry forms, Japanese, anemone).
- Terry (crown, rose-shaped, spherical, hemispherical, etc.).
Planting a plant
Planting peonies in the open field is most favorable in early autumn. During the growing season, peonies have grown stronger, the plant has formed many new roots, which increases the chances of shrubs survival.
Peony transplantation in the fall. For peonies suitable open, sunny place. Given that the plant has been developing in one place for many years, a sufficient distance between the bushes should be provided. Wetlands or areas with high groundwater levels are not suitable for planting crops.
Planting plant produced in a pre-cooked pit. For this garden soil is required to choose a depth of 1-2 bayonet spade. The pit needs to be filled with fertile land mixture: peat, humus, sod land and sand are mixed in equal parts. In the mixture for planting pions is added 1 cup of double superphosphate, 0.5 liters of ash and iron sulphate (1 tbsp).
For a better survival of peony bushes, it is required to treat the roots of the plants with a special clay mash, which consists of natural clay, 2 tablets of heteroauxin and copper sulfate. Liquid clay dough is kneaded into which the pion delicions are dipped into the root system when planted in open ground. This operation increases the survival rate of young peony plants in a new place.
Young plants are not buried - the upper buds are filled with soil by only 3-5 cm. The first watering of the planted districts should be abundant. The top of the landing pit is mulched with peat chips or garden soil - it is important to preserve the soil moisture for better root survival.
Planting peonies in spring - will not cause problems when following the rules.
Argued that planting peonies in the open ground in spring is fraught with difficulties and setbacks. Plants that begin to grow sick longer, often death of transplanted plants occurs.
Important! A spring transplant culture should be planned as early as possible. Peony transplantation in spring should be carried out in early April, immediately after the snow melts.
Before planting, holes are dug up, the depth of which is not less than 70 cm, and the diameter is more than 0.5 m. A drainage from fine gravel and coarse sand is laid at the bottom of the pit. The pit is filled with fertile nutrient mixture with the addition of fertilizers. The plant is dug out with a lump of earth, located in a pit strictly vertically. Upper buds are not allowed to fall asleep soil over a distance of more than 10 cm.
If the rules of spring transplantation are observed, the plants start to grow in unison, grow well in summer and begin to bloom next year.
Care for peonies is reduced to regular watering, loosening the soil under the bushes and timely feeding.
Peonies require sunlight at least 5 hours a day. When shading, they bloom poorly, lag behind in growth and are ill, therefore it is necessary to monitor the growth of nearby plants, the shadow of which can interfere with the growing season of peony bushes.
You can not grow a culture in one place over 10 years. Peonies become smaller, flowering decreases and the development of diseases is observed.
To preserve the decorativeness of the peony bush, it is necessary to periodically remove faded flower stalks and damaged leaves.
To increase flower size, it is useful to leave one central bud on the peduncle, plucking the rest.
The reproduction of peony bushes is allowed to produce vegetatively (by dividing the bush, by cuttings, layering, grafting) and by seeds.
Each method has its positive and negative sides. So, reproduction by grafting is justified on rare, expensive varieties of tree peonies.
Наиболее простой способ получения новых растений — деление кустов пионов. При этом следует помнить, что хороший посадочный материал получается при делении здоровых, вызревших кустов, старше 5 лет.
Размножение древовидного пиона отводками позволяет быстро получить молодые растения, соответствующие сорту. A mature and sturdy sprout with several buds is selected on the layers. Rooting is carried out in wet moss, sand or soil, sometimes it is useful to use a greenhouse.
Seed propagation is most common in breeding and breeding new varieties.
Fertilizer and peony feeding
Growing lush peony bushes, pleasing the eye with annual violent flowering, directly depends on the kind of care provided by the plant. One of the necessary measures to preserve the health and full flowering of the plant, is the introduction of supplements, which are divided into two types: foliar and root.
Foliar top dressing of peonies
Fertilization of crops with foliar feeding is carried out by spraying the nutrient solution on the green mass of the plant. The greatest effect of this procedure is observed when spraying plants in the early morning hours or in cloudy weather.
During the summer period, three foliar feeding of pions with various fertilizers is carried out:
- The 1st feeding is carried out by spraying the plants with a solution of urea,
- 2nd dressing is carried out using urea mixed with mineral fertilizers,
- The third feeding of peonies is carried out with a solution of mineral fertilizers.
Organic fertilizers: mullein (1:10 dilution) or bird death (1: 25 dilution), are used for adult plants during the period of bud formation.
Basal dressing of peonies
The introduction of nutrients under peony bushes during the growing season is done 3 times:
- During March-April, the pion planting fertilizer is carried out by applying mineral fertilizers (scattered over the top layer of soil). Melt snow water gradually dissolves fertilizer granules, which slowly penetrate through the soil to the roots.
- Summer top dressing of bushes is carried out 2 times per season, while dry fertilizer is scattered on the ground under the bushes and is watered abundantly.
Peonies: combination with other plants
Taking into account that a peony is a perennial plant, the root system of which is rather tender, it should be considered when planting in the open field with suitable perennials. Companion flowers should be in harmony with peonies in color. So, lilac veronica, sage oakwood, catnip, lieutenant or cuff will suit to white or pale pink peonies. The perfect combination is achieved when peonies are planted next to miniature conifers. Growing perennial plants near peony bushes should not inhibit the bushes and interfere with the formation of the root system.
The perfect combination is achieved by planting pions near the hosts, but remember that the host does not tolerate long-term exposure to sunlight. Such a neighborhood is possible with light shading, on the east side of the plot.
Peonies in landscape design
Peonies are so decorative that single planting delights the eye by themselves. Landscaping peony bushes on emerald lawn is appropriate in landscape design. Peonies look great next to perennial shrubs.
Registration of territories should take into account the short period of flowering of peonies, provide for planting bright, flowering summer crops next to bushes. Growing peonies is an exciting and affordable occupation even for a novice grower.