Echinacea is a perennial garden culture belonging to the Compositae family. The birthplace of the flower is considered the eastern part of North America. It is a famous medicinal plant. It is used to raise the tone of the body and strengthen the immune system.
Medicinal properties are not the only advantage of this plant. Depending on the variety of its flowers have a different color. They look like pompons and huge daisies. If you plant together different varieties, you can create floral fireworks that decorate any garden.
Echinacea varieties with photos and titles
Sort Echinacea purpurea Magnus - This plant reaches 1.5 meters in height. It has large flowers with a diameter of up to twelve centimeters. The central part is colored brownish yellow. Along the edges are petals of violet-purple hue. Flowers are held on hard and rough stems.
Echinacea Butterfly Kisses - a perennial variety that reaches a height of 40 cm. It has bright pink flowers with a pink-brown center. The plant grows into a dense shrub, the diameter of which exceeds half a meter.
Echinacea Cherry Flaff - This is a perennial dwarf variety. An adult plant reaches a height of 45 cm. It has flowers of delicate color. Petals are white and slightly lowered. The center is painted in several shades that smoothly change from one to another. The lower part of the light pink turns to cream, and then to a lime color.
Echinacea Lemon Drop - a perennial variety that grows up to 50 cm. The plant has beautiful yellow flowers, which consist of dipped petals and a velvety, spherical center. It blooms throughout the summer, perfectly tolerates the heat under the scorching rays of the sun.
Echinacea Green Twister - this variety grows to 60 cm. It has large flowers, painted in several shades. The central part of the flower is maroon, and on the edges are yellow-pink petals. The plant grows into a wide and dense shrub.
A perennial plant that reaches 60 cm in height. It has large inflorescences, consisting of a spherical, terry center and lowered petals. Young flowers are painted in a fiery orange hue, and after flowering they change color to bright red. This variety needs fertile soils and regular watering.
Echinacea Supreme Flamingo - perennial, growing to 70 cm. It has large flowers with a terry orange-red center, framed by a skirt of petals of red-violet hue. The plant grows into curtains with a diameter of half a meter.
Echinacea Supreme Cantaloupe - a perennial variety, the stems of which grow up to 75 cm. It has large flowers consisting of a terry pompon of brown color and orange-yellow petals. The plant forms a dense shrub that grows well in the shade and in the sun.
Echinacea Summer Salsa - The general height of a plant reaches 80 cm. On strong stalks terry inflorescences of a red-orange shade grow. This variety is not whimsical in cultivation. It blooms beautifully in moderately acidic soil in an open sunny area. Does not like abundant watering.
Echinacea Greenline - a beautiful perennial variety. Its flowers reach a diameter of 8 cm. Consist of a terry pompon of lime color and lower petals of white color. The adult shrub grows to 70 cm. It loves nutritious soil and moderate watering. It tolerates cold winters without shelter.
Echinacea Blackberry Truffle - perennial, growing to 80 cm. Mature inflorescences reach 10 cm in diameter. They have a pink pompon with a brown top and delicate purple petals. Flowers clearly stand out against the background of brown stems and green foliage. One shrub gives up to thirty inflorescences.
Echinacea Marmalade - a beautiful perennial variety, reaching 60 cm. The flowers are large with a diameter of 10 cm. Consist of a terry pompon of yellow-orange hue with raspberry inlays and green-yellow petals. Resistant to drought and does not like frequent watering.
Echinacea Double Decker - a decorative variety that grows up to 50 cm. Unique in that it has inflorescences of unusual shape. It looks like a daisy, but as it matures, another flower with pink petals appears on the terry center.
This is the common name for all perennial varieties that have flowers in the form of a fluffy ball. At the bottom of the pompon is framed by delicate petals. There are a variety of colors - white, red, pink, green, orange. Terry varieties can be painted in one color or in several shades.
Echinacea Red Hat - a perennial variety of purple echinacea. Shrub reaches one meter in height. It has large inflorescences similar to daisies with a diameter of up to 12 cm. The plant tolerates cold winters well, but needs shelter for the first year.
Echinacea Hot Papaya - perennial, reaching 90 cm in height. It has large flowers with a terry pompon of red-orange color. Starts to bloom from July to September. Forms thick bushes. Loves sunny areas and minimal watering.
Echinacea Meteor Red - this grade has large and terry inflorescences. They consist of a red pom-pom with a green center and lowered petals of an orange-yellow shade. It blooms long and in large batches. In height, the shrub grows to 30 cm.
Echinacea Cherry Fluf - dwarf variety that grows no more than 45 cm. In its terry flower there are lime, pink and cream and white tones. It grows rapidly into lush bushes with a diameter of 40 cm. It begins to bloom in August and stops at the end of September.
Echinacea Milkshiek - is another variety of Echinacea purpurea. Young flowers have a lush light green pompon with an orange center. It is surrounded by white petals. Flowers keep such decorative effect for two months. The shrub can grow up to 1.5 meters.
Echinacea officinalis - these varieties include Bolero and Tanya. They were created by breeders specifically for the pharmaceutical industry, so they are not sold as seed in stores. Among the medicinal species on sale you can find Echinacea purpurea seedlings: Mustang, Livadia, Red Umbrella and Red Hat.
Echinacea perennial planting and care
This plant reproduces by itself. The period of seedlings reset occurs in autumn, and the first shoots appear in spring. If you decide to plant the seeds immediately in open ground, do the same. But this method does not guarantee that all the shoots will sprout in the spring. You may get caught with weak seed that will simply die.
To get a lot of shoots, plant seeds in cups with nutritious soil. This should be done not in the autumn, but at the end of February. In the spring the seedlings will be ready for transplanting to a permanent place in the garden.
If the seedlings are planted immediately in the ground, they will germinate in 2-4 weeks, but they may not grow at all. To ensure seedlings are guaranteed, the seed need to be prepared.
To do this, wrap the grain in gauze or cotton and soak with water. Keep the bundle wet and the roots will appear in a few days.
When the seedlings hatch, they can be transplanted into the ground. As a nutrient medium will suit any floral soil purchased in the store. For planting seedlings is convenient to use cups or cassettes. The temperature in the room should be from +15 ° С to + 20 ° С.
Fill the cells with soil and make small indentations with a stick. Plant the seeds in these grooves spine down so that the heads were visible. Then pour heavily. A few days later the sprouts will sprout, dropping the seed coat. Maintain moderate soil moisture.
Transplantation of seedlings in open ground
Echinacea loves to grow in slightly acidic or neutral soils. In a soil with high acidity, add a wood hall or slaked lime. Add black soil or humus to the sandy soil.
Transplant seedlings in May, when it is warm outside and the soil is warm. Choose open areas with good lighting. To properly plant the plants, dig holes at a distance of 30 cm between them. The depth of the pits make the size of the rhizome. After transplantation, monitor soil moisture and remove weeds regularly.
Santolina is also a member of the Compositae family. Grown when planting and care in the open field without much hassle, if you follow the rules of agricultural engineering. All the necessary recommendations for growing and care can be found in this article.
The plant needs frequent watering, but in moderate volume. On hot days, water every day after sunset. In cloudy days, pour water as the soil dries.
Water seedlings under the root, and mature can be sprayed on top.
Fertilizer for Echinacea
The plant, planted in fertile soil, does not need feeding. But depleted soil needs to be fertilized. Do this in the spring using fertilizers that contain nitrogen: mullein, saltpeter, urea.
Re-feed during flowering. For this fit any complex fertilizers containing potassium phosphate. If you plan to grow echinacea to create drugs, any feeding is contraindicated.
This plant is a perennial crop. In the first year of planting, it has only short stalks and dense foliage. Internodes and petioles during this period are underdeveloped.
Flowers appear in the second year after planting. Flowering lasts from July to early October.
How to collect Echinacea seeds
Make seed stock at the end of the season. To do this, choose dried and blackened heads. They look like spiky balls.
Cut off these bolls with short stalks. Then fold in the bag and store in a dark place until next year. During this time they will dry out well and will be ready for planting.
Remove ripe flowers that begin to dry. So you save the decorativeness of the bush and help you quickly appear new inflorescences.
You must also prune the plant in the fall to prepare it for wintering. To do this, cut off all the stems with foliage.
Echinacea winter preparations
It is a winter-hardy plant, but it is better to help it survive the frost. After autumn pruning, gurgle the root of the cervix with compost and cover with a layer of dry leaves.
This procedure is primarily necessary for one-year shrubs. Sheltered for the winter, they will easily survive the cold, and will grow back in the spring and will delight with their first flowering.
Echinacea seed growing
This method helps to grow a lot of new bushes and varieties. Seedlings can be planted in spring and autumn both in open ground and in containers. Spring sowing should be early so that the plant has time to form and grow strong until frost.
In the fall, gardeners prefer to plant in open ground before the onset of cold weather. The healthiest seeds survive the cold and spring to germinate.
Reproduction of echinacea by dividing the bush
This is the easiest and fastest way to propagate a plant. You can divide the bushes that have reached the age of three or four years. This procedure is carried out in May or April.
To do this, carefully dig up the bush and divide the rhizome. To ensure that roots take root faster in a new place, before planting, treat them with a growth stimulator.
Echinacea reproduction by cuttings
This is a difficult method to propagate a plant that is not always successful. Often, experiments end with drying of the cuttings. But if you decide to try to propagate the plant by cutting, then do it in June. Choose healthy and strong stems.
Cut the cuttings so that each leaves two leaves. Wet slices with a root growth stimulator. Then plant the cuttings in a nutrient and moist soil. The temperature in the room should be between +22 ° C and + 25 ° C.
If new leaves began to appear on them, it means that the roots were formed. In two months, the cuttings will finally take root and become full-fledged plants. Replant them in open ground to a permanent place.
Diseases and pests of echinacea
Fusarium - the cause of this disease is a fungus that is in the soil. It penetrates the plant and causes the roots and base of the stems to rot. To stop the infection, you need to pull out the affected plant and burn it. Spray the neighboring bushes with basezol.
Mealy dew - it is a mold fungus, which manifests itself in the form of white bloom on the surface of leaves and shoots. The cause of contamination is soil moisture. Spray bordeaux affected bushes with liquid and allow the soil to dry.
White fly - These are small white winged insects. Colonies of these pests stick leaves on the back side, and suck the juice. The plant begins to dry out gradually. An effective method of combating parasites is spraying with insecticides "Aktara" or "Confidor".
Slugs - These slippery parasites eat the leaves of plants. It is difficult to catch them, because they are active only at night, and during the day they hide in the soil. Very fond of wet and warm soils. To defeat the pest, sprinkle superphosphate or granular metaldehyde around bushes. Also stop watering until the earth dries out.
Echinacea medicinal properties and contraindications
In folk medicine, echinacea is used to prepare medicinal decoctions and tinctures that help to cope with the flu and the common cold, diseases of the liver and bladder.
Make compresses and lotions to accelerate the healing of wounds and burns, to recover from urticaria and herpes. To create drugs using foliage, young shoots, flowers and roots. These parts are consumed fresh or dried.
Echinacea in suppressive situations has a positive effect on the body. But there are categories of people who are strictly forbidden to use drugs based on this flower.
Such categories include children up to three years old, HIV-infected, people with autoimmune diseases, suffering from insomnia, sore throat and hypertension.
Folk recipes from Echinacea
Echinacea broth from the flu: You will need six flowers, pounded roots and leaves of one tablespoon. Mix them in a saucepan and cover with three glasses of boiling water. Leave the broth for forty minutes. Take one glass three times a day.
Tincture of Echinacea for Depression: take 10 gr. pounded root and pour it with alcohol 100 ml. Let the medicine stand for a day. Take twenty drops three times a day.
Tea with echinacea to strengthen the immune system: torn leaves, dry and chop. You will also need fresh flowers. Put 4 teaspoons of crushed leaves into the teapot and add 6 flowers. Fill the mixture with three circles of boiling water. Brew tea for 40 minutes. Take the medicine three times a day.
Planting and maintenance of echinacea (in brief)
- Landing: spring or autumn.
- Bloom: from July to September.
- Lighting: bright sunlight.
- The soil: dryish, nutritious, well-processed, containing a small amount of lime.
- Watering: frequent and plentiful, in the evening.
- Top dressing: rotted compost with ash twice a season: in spring and autumn.
- Reproduction: dividing the bush in April or during the fall of the leaves. Species Echinacea can be propagated by seed.
- Pests: bedbugs, slobbery pennies and slugs.
- Diseases: powdery mildew, chalcosporosis, septoriosis, viral infections.
Echinacea flower - description
Echinacea - perennial herbaceous rhizomatous plants with straight, rough stems, reaching a height of 1-1.5 m. Basal wide oval leaves of Echinacea, serrated on the edges, are located on long petioles, and the stem - lanceolate, alternate, sessile or almost sessile. The inflorescences consist of large baskets, which in turn are composed of marginal reed flowers of red, white or pink color and median tubular flowers, red-brown or dark red. Echinacea is a tetrahedral achene.
When to plant echinacea.
Planting echinacea is carried out both in spring and autumn. A process is usually preceded by a procedure such as dividing an echinacea bush. It is possible, of course, to grow a plant from seeds, but the generative method of reproduction is used exclusively for growing species Echinacea, hybrid varieties propagate vegetatively. So, find a brightly lit place for Echinacea with fertile, deeply treated neutral or slightly alkaline soil - too wet or light sandy soils of Echinacea will not work. If the soil is acidic, you will have to add lime to it.
How to plant Echinacea.
Echinacea holes are dug 5 cm deep at a distance of 30 cm from each other - this is for planting seedlings, and for delenok, the depth of the fossa should be slightly larger than the root system of the seedling. At the bottom of the dimples, put a little compost, and only then plant echinacea. After planting the site watered. If your planting material is in a container, the hole should be larger, about 40 cm. Fill it with a third with a mixture of sand, compost and garden soil in equal proportions, and then carefully transfer the seedling into the hole along with the earth clod, fixing it at that depth on which he grew up in a container.
How to care for echinacea.
Growing echinacea is not at all tedious, but it still requires attention. First, Echinacea needs to be watered often and plentifully, and do it better in the evening. Но важнее всего поддерживать на участке чистоту – удалять сорняки сразу после их появления.From the second year of life, Echinacea needs fertilizing with rotted compost with ashes - this will enable it to bloom more magnificently. Fertilizers are applied twice per season: in spring and after flowering. If you do not need seeds, cut off faded inflorescences with part of the stem to the first green leaf.
Reproduction of echinacea.
Most often, Echinacea is propagated by dividing the bush, especially since it can be done both in the spring in April and in the fall during the leaf fall. The first time it is possible to divide an echinacea bush when it is 4-5 years old. Carefully dig the plant to not damage the rhizome, then the bush is divided so that in each part there are 3-4 buds of renewal. Landing delenok carried out in the same manner and according to the same rules as the primary landing.
Species Echinacea, as already mentioned, propagated by the seminal method. Large echinacea seeds are sown in the spring in the open ground, because they germinate best at 13 ºC. After sowing, the seeds are lightly sprinkled with a thin layer of garden soil. But it is better to grow seedlings from seeds, since barely sprouted shoots of Echinacea are too tender and fragile for unstable spring weather. In February-March, the seeds are sown in boxes or containers to a depth of half a centimeter, lightly sprinkled on top of them and moisten the sowing from the sprayer. Even at optimum temperature for echinacea, germination will have to wait for a long time, sometimes up to a month and a half, but when the seedlings appear, grow and mature, they are planted in open ground, after which care for them consists in watering, weeding and loosening the soil in the plot. In the first year, echinacea grown from seeds will not bloom, it will only grow a rosette of leaves 15–20 cm high, but next season you will surely see a charming flowering and hear the pleasant aroma of echinacea exuded by its inflorescences.
Pests and Diseases of Echinacea.
Sick plant rarely, and all his troubles usually occur due to improper care. In hot summers with frequent rains and fluctuations in temperature, as well as from too abundant nitrogen supplements, echinacea can get powdery mildew - a dangerous whitish coating appears on the shoots, leaves and flowers. You can kill the fungus by treating echinacea with colloidal sulfur or bordeaux liquid. Echinacea sometimes suffers from fungal diseases of septoria and cercosporosis, which appear as spots on the leaves, weakening the plant and leading it to death. If the disease is detected at an early stage, you can save Echinacea by removing the affected areas, but if the disease entered into force, you will have to resort to treating the plant with fungicides. It happens that echinacea is affected by viral diseases, from which the flower stalks are deformed, the leaves of the plant turn yellow and dry. Patients must urgently be removed from the site and burned, and the place where they grew should be disinfected with a strong solution of potassium permanganate. There is no cure for viral diseases.
Sometimes echinacea is harmed by bugs, slugs and slobbering pennitsa. It is better to collect slugs with your hands, and as a preventive measure you can sprinkle a nutshell on the plot, which will prevent the gastropods from moving. Insects are destroyed by insecticides - Aktellik or Karbofos. All these troubles are very easy to avoid if you strictly comply with the agronomic conditions of the plant, especially since planting and caring for echinacea in the open field is not so burdensome.
How and when to collect echinacea seeds.
Echinacea seeds are harvested at the end of the season when they ripen on the bushes. However, they do not ripen all at once, so the seeds are collected gradually. When you see that the middle of the flower has darkened, put a glove on your hand and collect the seeds from the center of the basket, then clean them from the remnants of tubular flowers and dry them. Echinacea seeds quickly lose their germination, so sowing them is better immediately.
Preparation of echinacea for winter.
Echinacea is a fairly cold-resistant plant, but it can freeze out in a frosty and snowless winter. Colds are especially dangerous for plants of the first year of life. To prevent Echinacea from dying, at the end of October, cut off all the stems from it, root the back of the neck with compost, and then cover the area with Echinacea with dry leaves or spruce leaves.
Echinacea purpurea (Echinacea purpurea)
- perennial plant, reaching a height of 100 cm. The stems of it are straight, rough, basal leaves are wide oval, sharply tapering to long winged petioles, collected in the outlet, stem leaves are also rough, lanceolate, alternate, sessile. The inflorescences-baskets consist of purple-pink reed flowers up to 4 cm long, pointed to the top, tubular flowers located in the middle, red-brown color. Top grades:
- – Granatshtern - Echinacea up to 130 cm high with baskets with a diameter of 13 cm with slightly lowered purple reed flowers with two teeth on the top and brown tubular flowers forming a convex hemisphere up to 4 cm in diameter,
- – Sonnenlach - the height of this plant is about 140 cm, baskets up to 10 cm in diameter consist of dark red lanceolate reed flowers up to 3.5 cm long, culminating in two or three teeth, and a convex brown hemisphere of tubular flowers.
Echinacea is a herbaceous perennial of the Astrov family. Depending on the type, the size can be from several tens of centimeters to two or more meters. The broad leaves are oval in shape and notched along the edges. Daisy-like flowers of white, pink, purple, yellow, crimson, orange, salmon and even greenish colors appear around mid-July and delight in bright hues until mid-September.
In the genus Echinacea about 10 species of plants. Most often in the suburban areas grown the following 3 species.
- Echinacea (rudbeckia) purple - the owner of large flowers with a diameter of about 12 cm. This perennial plant has a large number of terry and simple varieties of different colors. Some representatives reach a height of 2 m 20 cm, there are babies no more than 45 cm tall.
- Echinacea strange (paradoxical) attracts attention with bright yellow flowers. It can reach 80 cm, is actively used in landscape design.
- Sunset is a hybrid of purple and paradoxical echinacea with large fragrant flowers of exquisite colors and a strong branching stem.
New varieties of Echinacea are gaining popularity. You can find drought-resistant variants, copies of an interesting purple color or with flowers that look like shaggy hemispheres.
The plant contains a large amount of essential oils, tannins, macro-and micronutrients. Echinacea purpure and tincture have antiviral and wound-healing effect. Juice, obtained from flowers, in folk medicine treats wounds, decoction of roots is used for chronic fatigue and colds, and tincture of fresh flowers is used to combat depression and overwork. The pharmaceutical industry produces drugs based on Echinacea purpurea.
Echinacea-based drugs are not recommended for pregnant and lactating mothers who are prone to allergies, as well as in the presence of certain diseases.
It is possible to receive young copies as a seed, and a vegetative way.
The flower can be grown in one place for up to 5 years, then it is transplanted. At this time, overgrown bushes perennial Echinacea, it is desirable to divide. Work is best done in April, at the beginning of the growing season, in instances older than 4-5 years. You can perform the separation of a large bush of Echinacea in the fall, during the fall of the leaves. In this case, it is better not to delay the procedure, so that the young specimens can take root before the frost.
Scrub carefully dug. Echinacea cleavages with 3-4 kidney renewals are detached from the uterine bush and planted in a new area. When planting do not deepen the root neck, it should not be below ground level.
- Seed breeding method.
You can sow Echinacea seeds immediately in open ground or pre-grow seedlings.
Sowing directly on the flower garden is carried out not earlier than mid-April, when the temperature reaches +13 degrees. In the southern regions you can sow Echinacea late in the fall, then the seedlings will appear in early spring. Large seeds are placed in moist soil to a depth of about 0.5 cm and lightly sprinkled with soil.
Because of the unstable spring weather, it is safer to first grow seedlings, and then transplant strong plants to the street. This option is especially relevant in areas with cold spring and short summer.
For seedlings, seeds are sown in February or March in boxes or containers to a depth of about 0.5 cm. A substrate is prepared from sand, compost and garden soil in a ratio of 1: 1: 2. It is better not to use ready-made soil mixture on the basis of peat for echinacea: it inhibits the germination of seed material. Seeds deepen to 0.5 cm in the ground, lightly sprinkled with soil and moistened with a spray bottle. Containers contain at a temperature of about +13 degrees.
Young shoots germinate long enough, even at the optimum temperature, you need to wait 1-1.5 months. Landings are regularly watered and loosened. Strengthened seedlings are transferred to open ground at the end of May, pre-hardened seedlings.
Features of growing
The vagaries of nature rarely harm the health and appearance of the plant, and you can get gorgeous flowers while observing the minimum rules of care.
- Echinacea - the flower of the sun. She will like the light area, light partial shade is permissible. When cultivated on shaded areas, the flowers become smaller, they can disappear.
- Prefers neutral or slightly alkaline acidity of the soil. The composition of the soil Echinacea is not too demanding, but it does not fit areas with light sandy soil. Organics are added to such land, because only on fertile soil, Echinacea can show all its beauty.
- This is a moisture-loving plant. Needs abundant and frequent watering, especially in the heat. They are best spent in the evening. In rainy weather with a large amount of precipitation it is not necessary to irrigate. When the temperature drops, the amount of watering is reduced.
- Echinacea is administered twice a season: at the beginning of the growing season and during the budding period. Organic fertilizers are used in the spring, for example humus or compost. Before flowering, pour a solution of mineral supplements.
- Weeds are regularly removed, loosening at the site.
- Around the end of October, the stems are pruned. Before the cold, slightly mulch the root neck of Echinacea with compost, and cover it with a layer of dry leaves. This will save the plant from freezing. A flower without protection may die in regions with low temperatures in winter or in the absence of snow cover.
You can spend the cultivation of echinacea from seeds collected independently. For reproduction choose beautiful inflorescences, located on healthy specimens. Collect seeds from both varieties of simple echinacea and terry varieties. In the second case, usually in the first generation, the plants have all the properties of the queen cell, but in the future they may lose their terry and other features.
The collection is carried out in parts, when the core darkens in the inflorescence. Seeds are cleaned of flower residues after ripening, dried and placed in paper or cloth bags. They try not to keep for a long time, because the seeds of Echinacea soon lose their germination.
In the absence of the need to collect seeds, the inflorescence with a part of the stem to the first leaf is cut off after flowering. This keeps the plant strong and allows it to bloom more magnificently.
Plant rhizomatous. Its height is 1-1.5 m. The stem is erect, rough. Bottom leaves are wide, oval-shaped with jagged edges, attached on long petioles. Stem leaves almost sessile or sessile, lanceolate, arranged alternately.
Inflorescences-baskets (characteristic of Compotent) large. Edge reed inflorescences (petals) are painted in white, pink, red. The core has a dark red, red-brown color. The fruit is tetrahedral achene. It blooms from about mid-summer to late September.
Sowing in open ground
How to sow echinacea in the ground photo
- In open ground, echinacea seeds are sown in early spring or late autumn.
- Dig up the soil, level the bed, make shallow grooves (seeding depth 1-2 cm) at a distance of 20-25 cm, sow less often the seeds, sprinkle with a thin layer of soil, pour.
- The first shoots are thinned to a distance of 7-8 cm, then - 10-15, as a result, the bushes are left at a distance of 25-30 cm for low-growing varieties and 40-50 cm for powerful plants. excess plants can simply be transplanted to a new place as seedlings.
- In the first year, Echinacea increases the root system, and flowering will occur next season.
Sowing seedlings at home
Echinacea of seeds at home photo shoots
To get ready seedlings spring planting is necessary to grow seedlings.
Remember, the seeds have a hard shell, so before planting they should be soaked in warm water, and better - in a growth stimulator. Even in this case, germination takes about 1 month.
- Sowing seeds of echinacea on seedlings spend in late February. Sow in wooden boxes, containers or individual cups - at your discretion.
- The soil should be light, permeable to water and air.
- Deepen seeds 5-10 mm.
- The distance between the seeds is 5-7 cm.
- Moisten crops, cover with a film, place in a bright place, maintain the air temperature of 13-15 ºC.
- At emergence of shoots remove a film. Maintain moderate soil moisture.
- In early May, begin to harden, leaving the street, starting with a couple of hours, and gradually increase the time to full days.
- Planted plants planted in open ground in May, when the soil is already heated and the threat of return frost is over.
Planting echinacea in open ground
How to plant echinacea in open ground photo
It grows best in areas with bright sunlight.
The soil requires a fertile, neutral or slightly alkaline reaction. Light sandy soils or too wet soils are categorically not suitable. If the soil is acidic, apply garden lime.
- For seedlings, dig holes with a depth of about 5 cm, for delenok, slightly larger than the size of the root system.
- Keep a distance of about 30 cm between plantings. Place a small amount of compost on the bottom of the landing pit.
If you have purchased a large seedling in a container, dig a hole about 40 cm deep. Fill it in a third with a mixture of garden soil, compost, sand in equal proportions. Pass the fathoms along with the earthy ball. The root neck should remain at the same level as when growing in a container.
How to collect Echinacea seeds photo
Seed ripening is uneven. When the center of the core darkens, these seeds can be harvested. Carefully remove them (it is better to wear a rag glove), clean off any remaining inflorescences, and dry. Seeds quickly lose their germination.
Echinacea purpurea Echinacea purpurea
Echinacea purpurea echinacea purpurea grade rubinstern photo
Plant height is about 1 m. Stems are upright. Bottom leaves are wide, oval-shaped, attached on long petioles, stem leaves are oblong, sessile. Reed flowers are about 4 cm long, have a purple-pink color, the heart of a red-brown shade.
Granatstem - plant height reaches 1.3 m. Reed flowers have bicuspid tops, are painted in a purple hue, the heart is brown. Inflorescence diameter - 13 cm.
Zonnenlach - reaches a height of 1.4, the basket diameter is 10 cm. The tops of the reed inflorescences are divided into 3 teeth, the color is dark red, the heart is brown.
Echinacea purple terry variety Cranberry Cupcake photo
Cranberry Cupcake is a very interesting variety. The core is massive, lush, consists of hundreds of small reeds, the color is dark pink, the petals are painted in light purple.
The King - the stem rises 2 m. Massive inflorescence reaches a diameter of 15 cm. The color is red-pink.
Echinacea purpurea white variety Echinacea purpurea White Swan photo
White Swan - inflorescences white color.
Indiaca - color range from pale pink to light brown color.
Echinacea purple variety Magnus Echinacea Purpurea ‘Magnus’ photo
Magnus - plant height is 1 m. Very popular variety. The core has a light brown color, petals pale pink.
Ruby star is Echinacea 70-80 cm high, basket diameter is about 14 cm. The heart is brown in color, and crimson petals.
Echinacea Sunset Echinacea x sunset
Echinacea Sunset Echinacea x sunset photo
A series of hybrids, bred by Richard Skol. They are remarkable large inflorescences. Reed inflorescences are curved, may have the color of mango, mustard, strawberry, peach, exude a wonderful aroma. Henna color core.
Julia (from the Kissing Butterflies series) - reaches a height of 45 cm. The flowers are bright orange.
Cleopatra - the diameter of the inflorescence is 7.5 cm. Petals are sunny yellow.
Echinacea Evening Glow Echinacea Evening Glow Photo
Evening Glow is a cone-shaped heart of dark color. Reed flowers yellow color with an orange stripe and pinkish tint.
Musk Melon - color corresponds to the name. Reed flowers are arranged in 2 rows, have a pink-orange shade, the core is shaggy, of a darker shade.
Echinacea Passion Flute Echinacea Passion Flute photo
Пэшн Флют – язычковые соцветия скручиваются в трубочку, окрашены в золотисто-желтый, сердцевина имеет зеленовато-горчичный оттенок.
Эхинацея махровая Дабл Скуп Крэнберри Echinacea Double Scoop Cranberry фото
Дабл Скуп Крэнберри – броская эхинацея клюквенного окраса.
Эхинацея в ландшафтном дизайне
Echinacea in landscape design photo with different colors
Echinacea is good in group plantings, as a decorative element of the back and middle plan in mixborders. It is combined with phlox, aster, monard, blackhead, geyher, antenaria, salvia, arunkus, hydrangea, lilies, astilba, fescue, Japanese spirea, bells, catnip, veronica, look great against the background of coniferous bushes and trees.
With what to plant Echinacea photo flower beds
An interesting combination of echinacea in group plantings with such colors as decorative yarrow, fizostegiya, olyholtny cell.
Echinacea Sunset (Echinacea x sunset)
- A series of hybrids between Echinacea purpurea and paradoxical, derived by Richard Skol. These hybrids combined all the best qualities of both species - large baskets, curved petals, strong branching stems, exquisite colors of mango, mustard, peach, strawberry, amazing aroma. Tubular petals have henna color.
As a result of intensive breeding work, varieties were bred from purple, white, orange, pink, yellow and reddish inflorescences. We offer you the most popular varieties of Echinacea garden:
- – Yuliya - refers to the “Butterfly Kisses” variety series. This dwarf echinacea, reaching a height of only 45 cm, has bright orange flowers, opening at the beginning of summer and not disappearing until the end of the season,
- – Cleopatra - the variety is named after bright yellow butterflies. This plant with baskets of bright yellow color with a diameter of 7.5 cm with horizontally arranged reed flowers - they look like the sun in a children's drawing,
- – Evann Glow - blooms with baskets with yellow reed flowers with an orange stripe with a pinkish tinge, the middle of tubular flowers protrudes as a dark cone,
- – Cantaloupe - has the color of this particular vegetable: a double row of reed petals looks like a pinkish-orange jabot, and darker tubular flowers form a shaggy hemisphere,
- – Passion Flute - an unusual Echinacea: reed flowers twisted in a tube of golden-yellow color, and a tubular middle of a greenish-mustard shade. This variety belongs to the Letts Buggy variety, it is drought-resistant and unpretentious to care,
- – Double Mean Cranberry - easy-to-care, drought-tolerant beauty of cranberry color, striking and attracting butterflies - it is incredibly good in a bouquet.
Medicinal properties of Echinacea
The rhizome contains essential and fatty oils, enzymes, resins, various trace elements (silver, selenium, manganese, zinc, calcium, potassium). The ground part is rich in polysaccharides, tannins, flavonoids, organic and hydroxy brown acids, essential oils, resins.
Preparations of echinacea (plant juice, decoction, tincture) have antiviral, antimicrobial, antifungal, wound-healing effect, strengthen the immune system.
Contraindications to use are individual intolerance, the period of pregnancy and lactation, diseases: leukemia, collagenosis, multiple sclerosis, progressive tuberculosis.
Useful properties of echinacea.
Echinacea grass contains polysaccharides, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, hydroxycinnamic and organic acids, phytosterols, resins and essential oils. The rhizome also contains essential and fatty oils, resins, enzymes, macronutrients in the form of potassium and calcium and trace elements selenium, silver, zinc, manganese, molybdenum and cobalt. Preparations of echinacea purpurea have antiviral, antimicrobial, wound healing and antifungal effects, strengthen the immune system, assist in physical and mental fatigue. Drugs include juice, decoctions, tinctures and extracts of Echinacea purpurea. Tincture, for example, has the property to heal burns and increases potency. In traditional medicine, the juice from fresh inflorescences of the plant heals wounds, and the use of the inside accelerates blood coagulation.
Echinacea purpurea is popular in many countries. In Germany, Echinacin is treated with tonsillitis, tonsillitis, chroniosepsis and other inflammatory diseases. In Russia, Professor S.А. became the popularizer of this valuable plant. Tomilin, who believed that the healing properties of echinacea are not inferior to the properties of ginseng. We offer you recipes of preparations of echinacea, which can be prepared independently.
Tincture: cut the echinacea flowers, fill them with a half-liter jar under the twist lid, fill them with vodka to the top, spin the jar and place it for 40 days in a dark place, then drain the contents and consume 15 drops to a third cup of water or tea half an hour before food for depression, overwork and infectious diseases.
Broth roots: tablespoon chopped roots pour water in an amount of 300 ml, boil in a water bath for half an hour, leave to brew until completely cooled, strain and take 1-2 tablespoon 3-4 times daily before meals for chronic fatigue, cold and acute infectious diseases.
Echinacea - contraindications.
Echinacea preparations in some people can cause allergies. It is not recommended to use them for pregnant and lactating breasts, as well as for those who have leukemia, multiple sclerosis, collagenosis, progressive tuberculosis or individual intolerance to drugs from the plant. For those who do not have such contraindications, we recommend that you consult with your doctor before using medications from Echinacea.
Description of perennial echinacea: varieties and varieties of culture
In Russia, Echinacea purpurea is most often cultivated in the open ground, and Tennessee and paradoxical Echinacea in the homeland of the plant, east of the USA, are also cultivated. On the basis of the last two, American breeders developed a group of compact, well-branched varieties with a good life expectancy with easy maintenance. In group and solitary plantings, the varieties and hybrids shown in the photo look great:
- Cleopatra - all inflorescence is sunny yellow, elegant, long staying fresh,
- Guava Ice - terry, similar to funny jellyfish inflorescences of salmon shades, has a gold medal at the international exhibition-fair "Plantarium 2010",
- Passion Flute is a very unpretentious variety in the care with a mustard cone and twisted golden edge flowers,
- Little Magnus - lilac inflorescences with a bronze cone,
- Pink Double Delight - a powerful pink terry cone in combination with long petals looks like a pompon on a winter hat, easy to breed and resistant to lodging.
Tip When cutting off withered plants in October, leave a few fruitful shoots - tits, oatmeal, greenfinchs will feed on their seeds.
Planting echinacea in the open field and seedlings
The only disadvantage of this plant is that seed buds wake up too long even with regular watering, seedlings may appear six weeks after sowing. Considering this circumstance, it is better to carry out sowing in the open ground in the autumn: for half a year spent in the soil, seed shells will have time to crack and begin to let water inside.
You can plant echinacea seedlings by starting work in February. This plant has no special requirements for the soil, therefore for growing seedlings they take a little garden soil or buy soil for perennials in the flower shop.
Seeds are presoaked for 1-2 hours in water, then in a stimulator solution (Zircon or Epin-Extra - 2 hours, Immunocytophyte - 24 hours). Then they are sown in the grooves with a depth of 5-8 mm, powdered, watering produced from the spray. Covered with glass containers with sowing sent to a warm place.
In open ground, seedlings moved after the appearance of three pairs of these leaves. By this time you need to choose a place for planting this large, spectacular plants.
Flowerbed Echinacea Care
In open ground, echinacea feels at ease with even minimal care. However, some agrotechnical measures should be carried out, otherwise even selection varieties will bloom no brighter than field daisies. Growing this plant involves:
- systematic watering with generous portions of water, preferably in the evening,
- fertilization twice per season,
- periodic weeding,
- in the fall, pruning to a stump of 1-2 cm in height and mulching of the shoots' remains with dry leaves.
Attention! Echinacea does not like shade, too acidic soil and significant impurities of sand in it.
Fertilizer and dressing - food for bright inflorescences
Echinacea is content with a small, but for the maximum number of peduncles, additional feeding is required. The first is carried out in the spring, as soon as the plant begins to grow. At this time, the soil around the hemp, greened with the first fresh leaves, is mulched with organic fertilizer: bottom peat, compost, rotted manure.
The second time Echinacea is fed when it starts to pour the buds. This is the time of the complex mineral fertilizer, in which all the micronutrients necessary for bright flowering will surely be found.
Echinacea perennial: reproduction culture
Beauty Echinacea is bred in two ways. To a greater degree it is inherent in the seed method of reproduction. For harvesting seeds in October, cut shoots are brought home, dried, and then gently shaken off on paper. Store seeds in a cool dry place until the end of winter. In February, they are sown on seedlings.
Faster, but also more painful for the plant method of reproduction - by dividing the bush in April. To make the delenki better, they are soaked in Epin-Extra or planted with Kornevin before planting. With good care (watering, feeding), delenki planted in spring will bloom in the same year.
Echinacea: combination with other plants
To echinacea impressed the viewer, it is planted in an amount of not less than five copies. As can be seen in the photo, in the flower beds she is given the second tier: the harmonious combination of most varieties with tall groundwort, fennel, burned red-leaved barberries looks stylish and noble. Designers recommend the cultivation of echinacea in contrast with astilbe, phlox and cereals.
Healing, honey and unusually expressive, Echinacea will be a worthy decoration of any garden. Find a well-lit corner for it and do not forget to water generously, plant nearby neighbors with vertical inflorescences - and enjoy its bright prickly nubs in the frame of drooping petals.
Planting and caring for echinacea perennial
To breed a flower, it is preferable to choose the most lighted areas where there is a lot of sun. The earth must be rich in nutrients. As for acidity, the indicator should be closer to neutral. If the soil has inflated numbers, then before using it, you need to make a small amount of lime.
Soil with a lot of sand is unsuitable for echinacea.
For purchased echinacea, the dimple depth should be at least 0.4 m. The third part of the dimple should be filled with a mixture of soil and river sand and humus. All components should be taken in the same volume.
Carefully remove the seedling from the pot, without destroying the earthy ball, and transfer it into the hole. It is recommended to dig the plant at the same level as in the pot.
This type of Echinacea belongs to the herbaceous plants of the aster family. The flower has a simple and erect stem, which can grow from 6 to 100 cm in height. If you create all the necessary conditions, then the plant stem can grow up to 1.5 meters. The root system of perennial Echinacea has many processes that penetrate the soil by 25 cm.
Stem leaves are short and petiolate, and basal leaves are long. The flowering period falls on summer. Toward the autumn brown fruit appears - seeds, which can reach a length of 5-6 cm.
Inflorescences have the form of baskets, and are located in the axils of the upper leaves. Flowers can be both dark and light purple.
About Echinacea on the European continent, they learned only after America was discovered. This is explained by habitat of this plant - prairies and sandy river banks in North America. The secondary areas of distribution of echinacea are located in the UK, Norway, Ukraine, Greece, Germany and France. Now this plant is also cultivated in Australia, Egypt, India, New Zealand and India.
Echinacea purpurea: cultivation
When planting this flower should pay attention to the fact that he likes the suntherefore a well-lit area should be chosen. At one place, without a transplant, perennial Echinacea can grow up to 5-6 years, depending on the quality of the soil and care.
This culture does not require any specific conditions for planting and growing. It is unpretentious to the soil, however, if there is sandstone at the landing site, then a bucket of garden soil and humus should be added to the composition of such soil.
How to plant the seeds?
Before planting seeds should germinate. In order to germinate the seeds, you need to put them on a damp napkin and cover something from above so that the moisture does not evaporate. The first shoots should appear within two weeks after soaking. The next stage consists in planting germinated grains in cups with soil. For planting, you can use a purchased or self-prepared substrate. Transplant cups should be selected from diameters from 8 to 10 cm. After transplantation, sprouts should be moistened with a sprayer, as it allows moistening the soil as evenly as possible.
Until the sprout germinates again, it should be kept under cover. The optimum temperature for the growth of seedlings is 13-15 ° C.
Echinacea: planting and care in the open field
Seedlings should be planted in mid-May.when the air temperature is consistently warm. The holes should be made deep approximately 10–15 cm; this is necessary in order for the root system to fit completely under the ground along with a clod of earth from the cup. At the bottom of the hole should be put a layer of compost with a small amount of wood ash. After planting flowers should be watered well. Regular watering should be carried out until the time until the plant is not sufficiently rooted.
In the first year may not be flowering, and this is normal. Often, Echinacea begins to delight in its flowering from mid-summer until the end of September.
Caring for Echinacea purpurea
Follow these guidelines:
- Moisturize the soil in moderation. The best solution is watering once every two weeks.
- Cut the sprouts immediately after flowering.
- Replant the plants every 2-3 years so that it does not lose its decorative properties.
- During the transplant divide the bushes into several small ones.
- In the autumn is not recommended to replant the plant.
Please note that this flower does not tolerate weeds, so you should immediately get rid of them.
In the second year after landing should be fertilized with complex fertilizers. For feeding you can also use rotten compost with ash. Fertilizers provide lush and abundant flowering.
The flowers of this plant can not change and multiply due to pollination, so different varieties can grow on the same bed.
How and when to collect echinacea?
The most useful is the juice of this plant.Therefore, it is necessary to prepare different medicinal infusions from fresh material. Leaves and flowers can be used to make tea. For the winter, the flowers should be cut in half-loosened condition.
Colored substances are also found in the roots of the plant. Dig them should be closer to the end of autumn, when frosts begin.
What diseases can affect Echinacea?
Despite the fact that echinacea is resistant to various diseases and pests, but sometimes all diseases occur.
The most common diseases include fungal diseasesthat may occur due to the high soil moisture. Such diseases manifest themselves as spots on the leaves, which weaken the plant and soon lead to the death of the flower. If the lesions were identified at an early stage, then the sheets can simply be removed. At a developed stage of the disease, the plant must be treated with a fungicide.
Viral diseases deform peduncles and provoke the drying of leaves. The infected plants should be immediately removed from the flower bed, only this way you will save other flowers from infection.
The following pests can attack echinacea:
To avoid such pests. should not overmoisten the soil. During prolonged rains, powdery mildew can attack the plant; if you notice it, the affected areas should be removed immediately. The main reason for the appearance of pests is non-compliance with the cultivation of Echinacea, the cultivation then goes wrong and the plant becomes very vulnerable.
To prevent the occurrence of diseases and pestsshould regularly remove weeds, which are the main carriers of viruses and fungi. Some pests may not harm the plant, but they can adversely affect the appearance of the flower.
How to use echinacea?
The popularity of echinacea is justified by the fact that it is available and contains a large number of useful elements. This flower can not only decorate a garden or a flower garden, it can also be used for medicinal purposes. Often пурпурная эхинацея используется для лечения следующих заболеваний:
- женские заболевания,
- воспаления в полости рта.
Обратите внимание на то, что эхинацея не вызывает привыкания и побочных эффектов. Такой цветок может использоваться в качестве составляющей отвара, масла или же настойки.
Отвары и настойки с эхинацеей can be used to treat colds. However, only those plants that grow for at least two years are suitable for the preparation of traditional medicine. It is possible to use not only the roots, but also the stems to a part of the raw material.
Preparations prepared on the basis of Echinacea, can be used not only inside, but also externally. They are great for treating skin diseases. Please note that before using the drug with this plant should consult with your doctor, as well as check for the presence of idiosyncrasy. Echinacea is prohibited to use for the treatment of pregnant and lactating women.
Medicines with this flower can also be used to treat an infection of the ear, mycosis, and sinusitis.
As a result, it should be noted that the cultivation of echinacea in the open field does not require much effort and careful maintenance. This flower is great for growing in a flower garden or garden, because this plant is not mutually pollinated and not prone to mutation. In addition to good decorative characteristics, this flower has good medicinal properties.