Every owner of a garden or a vegetable garden knows that even the most fertile soils after growing various crops on them are depleted after some time and require fertilization. This should be done annually, otherwise there will be no good harvest on poor soil. But before you start feeding the soil, you should familiarize yourself with the types of fertilizers for the garden and garden and learn how to use them properly.
For fertilizing the soil in the garden or in the garden there are several types of fertilizers, each of which has its own advantages, disadvantages and features of use.
Organic supplements are the result of vital activity of birds., animals and plants. These include:
- Sheep, pork, cow or horse dung. Popular organic fertilizer, which is not recommended for fresh use. Before use, cow dung is covered with a layer of peat and kept during the summer, and horse manure is no more than three weeks. Manure is applied to the soil in spring and autumn, adding 2 kg of superphosphate to 100 kg of organic matter.
- Bird droppings contain many nutrients. Gardeners and gardeners prefer to use chicken manure, which includes many biologically active substances and minerals. In the case of spring or autumn digging, 250 grams of litter are introduced per square meter of land. When stored for long periods, bird droppings lose their properties, therefore it is recommended to dry or compost it.
- Wood ash retains its beneficial properties for many years. It has many minerals that are easily absorbed by plants. The ashes are mixed with manure or compost and fertilized with a mixture of beds or holes in which plants are planted.
- Lowland peat contains humus and minerals in the form of nitrogen. It improves the physical properties of the soil, however, it is poorly absorbed by plants. Therefore, along with peat, it is necessary to use other feedings. If acidic soil is necessary for any crop, it is diluted with high-moor peat.
- Deciduous and turfy land is rich in nutrients. Hardwood can be used in the same way as peat, and turf contains a lot of nitrogen.
As organic fertilizers, gardeners often use rotted sawdust or grass, potato stones and egg shells.
Advantages of organic:
- in the soil increases the amount of humus,
- the soil is saturated with natural macroelements,
- the soil on the plot becomes light and loose,
- after the introduction of organic matter, the soil becomes more nutritious and plants do not need additional feeding for a long time.
Despite the fact that organic is a natural product, it has its drawbacks:
- Peculiar smell.
- Fresh bird droppings and manure can “burn” the roots of plants that die.
- Composts, and especially manure, may contain weed seeds and pest larvae.
- If the site does not contain animals and birds, and there are no farms nearby, then manure or humus will have to be bought and brought to the site. This requires financial costs and physical effort.
A good harvest of vegetables, herbs and berries can be obtained only if the plants are provided with minerals in the form of nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus. Mineral dressings in granules are sold and introduced into the ground in spring when digging.
At the same time it is necessary to strictly observe the dosage, which is recommended by the manufacturer. The granules are buried in the soil for about 20 centimeters, after which the bed is watered.
As a result, the granules will gradually dissolve and provide plants with minerals through the roots.
Nitrogen is found in azophoska, urea, sodium, potassium, ammonium and calcium nitrate. They can be used both in dry and in liquid form. Nitrogen stimulates the rapid growth of shoots and foliage. In the dry form of the beds or under the bushes make it in early spring and early summer. Seedlings are fed with a solution of ammonium nitrate (10 liters of water - 10 grams of nitrate). Using a spray dispenser, the leaves of young bushes are sprayed with a solution. Ammonium sulfate is introduced into clay soil, and calcium and sodium nitrate is introduced into acid soil.
Phosphorus contributes to the development of the root system, the formation of buds and fruits. Experienced gardeners use phosphate rock and superphosphate in liquid form. Superphosphate is applied during planting and budding plants.
Potassium enhances the immunity of plants and strengthens their tissues, due to which vegetables, flowers, shrubs and trees become more resistant to pests and diseases, more easily tolerate drought and frost. Potassium fertilizers are quickly washed out when watering and rains, so they should be made regularly.
Advantages of mineral dressings:
- can be used on any soil
- a small amount is required,
- with proper use - getting a high yield.
- An accurate dose is required, otherwise all planted plants may die.
- Minerals pellets need to be applied regularly.
- The price of mineral supplements can be quite high.
In specialized stores you can see the complex feeding, which consist of trace elements and other necessary for the growth and development of cultures of substances. The most popular of them are:
- potassium nitrate,
Nitrophoska is produced in granules and contains potassium, phosphorus, and nitrogen. You can make it in neutral and acidic soil in liquid or dry form. Application rates:
- For young trees - 200 grams, for adults - 400 grams.
- Under shrubs - 50 grams.
- Before planting seedlings and potatoes, each well is fertilized with five grams of nitrophoska.
- Before sowing seeds, one to five square meters of granules fall into one square meter of bed.
You can use nitrophoska during the vegetative season..
Ammophos contains potassium and phosphorus in its composition, is well absorbed by plants, and is mainly used for fertilizing garden crops. The feed contains more phosphorus, so it is used for seedlings, which still have a weak root system. Ammophos stimulates the development of roots, increases the resistance of crops to disease and resistance to drought. Granules are introduced under shrubs, fruit trees and crops in spring and autumn:
- under each tree - 300 grams,
- per hectare of area when sowing crops - from 60 to 90 grams.
Potassium nitrate contains potassium and nitrogen in the form of oxides. It is used for feeding ornamental plants, flowers, shrubs and trees, vegetables and berries. Complex fertilizer has a positive effect on the taste and size of fruits, improves plant immunity against pests and diseases, and protects crops from nitrogen oversupply. Potassium nitrate is diluted in water before use. In 10 liters of water is diluted:
- 250 grams of fertilizer for watering fruit trees (from 2 to 8 liters under each tree),
- 150 grams - for berry and ornamental shrubs (one and a half liters under each bush),
- 100 grams - for flowers and vegetables (one liter per 10 square meters of garden beds).
These solutions are fertilized twice a month.
Nitroammofoska contains potassium, phosphorus, nitrogen and some sulfur. Complex fertilizer is well absorbed by plants. Its use increases crop growth, yield and disease resistance. Nitroammofosku can be brought into the ground both in spring and in autumn:
- 30−40 grams of granules under each bush,
- 450 grams under fruit trees,
- 20 grams per square meter of bed before planting vegetables.
Before making the pellets the soil should be watered.
What fertilizers are needed in the spring for the garden and garden?
When spring comes, and gardeners start planting vegetables, when digging beds, it is necessary to make organic and mineral fertilizers.
Mineral supplements for every ten square meters of soil contribute:
- potassium substances - 200 grams (can be replaced with wood ash),
- phosphate fertilizers - 250 grams,
- nitrogen supplements - from 300 to 350 grams.
Organic fertilizer for the garden
Organics contribute when digging beds or during planting seedlings:
- Tomatoes are grown in beds that consist of loamy soil and peat. The mixture is mixed with rotted manure and mineral supplements are added.
- For cucumbers make warm high beds for which you can use fresh manure or humus and dry straw. Organics are covered with a layer of soil, in which seedlings are planted or seeds are sown. Humus or manure will begin to sing and heat the garden bed.
- Beets, garlic, onions and carrots are planted in the beds, which are prepared two days before sowing. To do this, scatter organic matter over the bed and dig with the ground.
- Potatoes are planted in holes, which are fertilized with wood ash (¼ shovels) and humus (½ shovels). You can not make organic in each well, and scatter it before digging around the site.
Spring garden fertilizer
In early spring, the snow has not yet melted, the bushes and trees are fed with organic and mineral fertilizers, which are applied to tree trunks.
Gooseberries, currants and raspberries are fertilized with organic matter and nitrogen. For each bush will need about 10 pounds of humus. If during planting seedlings fertilizers were made in the hole, then the feeding of shrubs is carried out only in a year.
Pears and apple trees in the spring need nitrogen, which stimulates the growth of new shoots and old branches. In the tree trunk circle each tree is entered:
- 5 buckets of humus,
- on 30 grams of nitrofoski and ammonium nitrate,
- 500 grams of urea.
Plums and cherries should be fed three years after planting. From mineral fertilizers, ammonium nitrate or urea is used as a top dressing every spring. Five liters of a solution prepared from 10 liters of water and 30 grams of ammonium nitrate or 20 grams of urea are poured under each tree. Once every three or four years, trees are fertilized with rotted manure or humus.
Strawberries on one plot grows over three years, so every spring they need mineral and organic supplements. After the snow melts, the bed is cleared of old foliage, loosened and watered first with water, and then with a solution of fertilizers. A nutrient solution is prepared from 10 liters of water, ½ liter of mullein and a tablespoon of ammonium sulphate. A few days later, around the bushes of strawberries scatter dry humus, which is mixed with the ground.
A large role in obtaining a good harvest is feeding plants. For each crop, certain fertilizers are selected, which should be applied strictly according to the instructions. Otherwise, you can not only wait for the harvest, but also destroy the planted vegetables, flowers and shrubs.
When to make?
According to experts, it is best to fertilize the area for planting on it in the spring. In this case, previously prepared organic supplements are used, as well as strictly dosed mineral complex products. You can start fertilizing the land immediately after the snow melts. Some amateur gardeners fertilize the area on top of the snow, but the effectiveness of this method is low, because together with the melted snow, the introduced substances can easily “float away” from the land plot.
In order not to forget about what and where you need to make fertilizer, it is best to make a kind of plan. So all cultures are guaranteed to receive the proper amount of nutrients in the recommended amount.
What to fertilize?
In the spring, the development of plant crops is just beginning, so they absorb nutrients and substances from the ground as much as possible. Accordingly, their growth will be significantly slowed down if the land is depleted, and a number of varieties do not bear fruit in such conditions.
If fertilizers are applied to the cottage in spring, it is possible not only to improve the growth of garden residents, but also to significantly increase the level of their productivity. There will also be a noticeable improvement in the quality of the growing fruits. Fertilizers are divided into two main types: organic and mineral. We will analyze each of them.
Organic fertilizers are of two types: vegetable origin and animal. Vegetable fertilizer is peat and compost, animal - bird droppings and manure. If you fertilize the soil with organic matter, then, among other things, you can also significantly improve its structure, which will contribute to the formation and reproduction of organisms that will be useful to both the soil and the plants.
There are also disadvantages. In particular, there may be an imbalance of nutrients. Also in this form of fertilizing can be weed seeds, and even organic can sometimes cause diseases of plant crops and be a kind of magnet for toxins. However, organic fertilizers do not lose their popularity, because the benefits of them are much more than harm.
When choosing organics it is highly recommended to use compost. Any gardener can prepare it. To do this, on a plot of 10 square meters. m. should be scattered straw, the thickness of the layer should be about 15 cm. On top of it lay a layer of manure 20 cm thick, and at the end - a 20-centimeter layer of peat.
You can sprinkle all this with lime and phosphate flour, at the rate of 55–60 g of the mixture per 1 square meter. m. On top you need to once again lay out a layer of manure and cover all layers with a thin ball of soil. After 7–8 months, an effective organic fertilizer will be ready for use.
It is known that in organics only a small part of nitrogen is soluble. After the compost is placed in the ground, it is attacked by myriads of the inhabitants of the earth, who eat it, transforming the compost and decomposing it. It is thanks to such actions of microorganisms that the nitrogen from the insoluble form becomes soluble, after which everything depends on the growth of the ground part of the plant culture. For example, potatoes rather quickly absorb nitrogen, which was prepared for it by microorganisms, which cannot be said about carrots. At first it grows slowly, and only in the middle of July does its rapid leafy growth begin. Based on such data, and you need to build a chart feeding.
With mineral fertilizers it is usually much easier to work than with organic ones. They are on sale immediately in a finished, concentrated form. In addition, the package always has instructions, where there are useful recommendations on the use of the drug and the exact dosage. However, care must be taken here. It should focus on the needs of the garden crop, as well as on the features of the site itself.
Some gardeners are very critical of mineral fertilizers, based on the fact that this is “chemistry” and only the harm to the site and crops. One cannot but agree that the structure of the soil is really not improved from minerals, only organic is needed here. But a significant advantage of the mineral type of fertilizer is that the plants will have direct access to the group of all necessary substances, nitrogen and phosphorus in particular.
What kind of mineral fertilizers summer residents bring in the spring depends on the type of site and the varieties of crops that will be planted there. Complex preparations are presented for sale in the form of a liquid and in the form of granules. It is necessary to use the granulated means, precisely observing a dosage.
Usually on a plot of 10 square meters. m. should be applied 300-350 g of nitrogen supplements (urea, ammonium nitrate), you also need to make about 250 g of phosphate fertilizer and 200 g of potash fertilizer. The latter, by the way, is quite acceptable to replace with ordinary wood ash.
Superphosphate in granules is a universal phosphorus-nitrogen fertilizer that can be applied to almost all types of soil and provide food for the garden of any summer resident.
Mineral fertilizers should be applied to the soil every year. One cannot but agree that it will be necessary to allocate certain funds from the family budget for this, but the returns from such financial and labor investments will not have to wait long. After all, in the fall the garden plot will please the owner with a rich and high-quality harvest.
Signs of fertilizer shortages
It is quite difficult for novice gardeners to determine which fertilizers plants lack. To help give a number of signs by which you can understand what kind of dressing should further enrich the soil.
- If the foliage of plants is pale, begins to turn yellow, and sometimes even acquire a pinkish color, this may indicate a shortage nitrogen. Such a plant grows slowly, does not bloom, the leaves can curl and fall off.
- If the leaves of plant culture are bent upwards, become purple or bluish, the soil should be enriched. phosphorus.
- Soil deficiency indicator potassium there will be peculiar burns at the edges of the leaflets. The leaves in this case gradually frown and wrap down. In such conditions, the culture may bloom, but the flowers quickly fall off, resulting in very little fruit.
- If the leaves began to turn yellow at the edges, then the ground should be fertilized. magnesium.
- Мелкие, удлиненные, заостренные листочки, которые покрываются темными пятнами, — это явный сигнал о нехватке в почве zinc. Листва некоторых сортов огородных культур может вначале желтеть, а со временем приобретать коричневый окрас.
- Белые кончики листьев — признак недостатка меди.
Disadvantages of organic fertilizer for the garden and vegetable garden.
- Some types of organic garden fertilizers are too concentrated, for example, bird droppings, and if they are applied to the excess, they burn the roots of plants.
- Top dressing of the garden in spring takes time and a lot of strength. Carry a cart with manure or humus around the garden plot and scatter it to the garden plot only by men.
- It is problematic with the acquisition - it is not always possible to find exactly the fertilizer that you want.
- Unpleasant aroma from fresh manure or freshly prepared herbal tinctures.
Mineral fertilizers are sold in any specialty store. It’s easier to work with them. The only negative is that you need to carefully monitor the dosage for each culture. Every gardener uses what he believes. Someone prefers only organic, while others do not have the desire to mess with it and choose mineral fertilizers.
With the onset of a warm summer period - feeding is repeated, only the dosage for any plant is reduced three times.
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