The yield of potatoes depends on many factors. It is important to choose a good variety, to water, loosen and fertilize the soil in a timely manner. No less significant event that may have an impact on the crop - preparing potatoes for planting.
What is included in the presowing preparation
The complex of agrotechnical techniques that are usually performed before planting is called vernalization. Preplant preparation includes:
- sorting and warming potatoes,
- protection of tubers from diseases and pests,
- root crops treatment with growth stimulants,
- sprouting potatoes in the light.
These activities are inexpensive and simple, but effective. The use of preplant preparation will increase the volume of the crop and the quality of the root crops.
The treatment of tubers before germination plays an important role in obtaining a decent harvest of potatoes
Video: useful tips on culling potatoes before germination
The most common potato disease is late blight. This is a fungal disease that affects late varieties of potatoes. This usually happens closer to autumn, when the difference between day and night temperatures becomes significant. The disease manifests itself as dark brown spots on the leaves and tubers. When storing such potatoes rot.
Common scab is a fungal disease that affects only potato tubers. Infection occurs in the soil, and during storage unfavorable conditions are created for the fungus (low temperature). The development of the disease contributes to the introduction of fresh manure into the soil and higher doses of lime fertilizers.
Fusarium on the stems occurs during the flowering of potatoes. The upper leaves turn yellow and wither, the stems are covered with a pink bloom and die. Infection of tubers occurs during storage.
Rhizoctoniosis is a fungal disease that affects all parts of a plant. On the potatoes appear black spots, similar to growths. The tubers affected by the disease rot during storage. Such potatoes can not be planted, as other plants and soil can become infected.
What is the need to process tubers and potato seeds
Many gardeners, wanting to save time and money, do not process the tubers and seeds of potatoes before planting. Of course, no one wants to mess around with the solution of copper sulfate in the hottest landing period. But, if you don't process potatoes from diseases and pests, seeds and tubers can die without sprouting. Proper processing - reliable protection against such unpleasant surprises.
Potatoes must be prepared for planting, because:
- Processing of tubers and seeds is the best prevention of fungus and the omnipresent phytophthora,
- Preliminary preparation of the material helps to protect the crop from the wireworm and the Colorado potato beetle,
- Seeds and tubers, well prepared for planting, sprout faster and develop better,
- Experts say that potatoes grown from pre-treated seed have good yields and excellent taste.
Basic processing methods
To reliably protect the seed from fungal infections and the harmful Colorado potato beetle, there are many different ways. Most often gardeners use The following methods of preparing material for planting in open ground:
- Seed stratification. Stratification is the process of preparing seeds for planting, based on the alternating effects of moisture and cold,
- Disinfection of potato tubers, aimed at the prevention of fungus,
- Treatment of tubers with insecticides of both organic origin and industrial production,
- Soaking seeds in special solutions that stimulate intensive growth and development of the first shoots.
Which method should be chosen depends on the specific situation. For example, if the soil is poor in microelements, there is washed away to stratify the seeds or artificially stimulate plant growth. If potatoes are grown in lowlands, where there is a high humidity of soil and air, you should use fungicides, for example, phytosporin, to prevent fungal infections and late blight.
And if the beetle has bred on the plot, it is necessary to resort to the help of insecticides. Each gardener chooses the method of preparing the seed independently. The main thing - do not be lazy in this hot time and give the processing of potatoes due attention. Then, after a few months, you do not have to clutch at your head and think: “Why were fifty tubers planted, and the entire harvest was the same?”.
Colorado potato beetle processing
It is one of the most dangerous pests of plants of the nightshade family. Contrary to popular belief, the beetle eats not only potatoes. The cunning beetle will enjoy eating eggplants, bell peppers, and tomatoes with pleasure. Many gardeners complain that there is no life on the site from the Colorado potato beetle.
This harmful bug is called "Colorado" because it was first discovered by entomologists from the US state of Colorado. This agricultural pest came to Russia relatively recently, in the second half of the twentieth century, and not from America at all. The beetle was brought to Russia along with a batch of potatoes from Poland. It is known that in the northern regions of the beetle is much smaller than in the southern. The habitat of the beetle can be recognized by the following distinctive features:
- The presence of large insects with black-and-white striped wings on potato leaves and potato stalks,
- Bright red larvae, shaped like small drops,
- Eggs are yellow-orange. Their beetle usually lays on the back of potato leaves,
- The plants on which this pest inhabits usually have gnawed and withered leaves.
Almost no one succeeds in completely removing the beetle from the dacha. Therefore, if a gardener takes potato tubers for planting from his own seed fund, these tubers are already infected with a bug. In this case, pretreatment of potatoes is a necessary condition for its full growth and development. In order to protect young potatoes from the invasion of the Colorado potato beetle, the tubers can be treated with solutions of insecticides of industrial production. Also experienced gardeners claim that copper sulfate, killing fungus also significantly reduces the activity of the beetle.
If you do not be lazy and process the seed in a timely manner, the dangerous pest will not disappear completely, but it will become much smaller. If you hope for “chance” and skip this stage of the sowing campaign, the beetle will begin to multiply rapidly. However, if an inexperienced gardener has forgotten about processing, you should not panic. New potatoes can be periodically sprayed with insecticides.
The most common and effective means against the industrial beetle are considered to be the drug with the saying name "Fas" and the means "Regent". They do not adversely affect the taste and chemical composition of potato tubers, and therefore are ideal for periodic spraying several times per season. Periodically, the funds need to be changed, as the Colorado potato beetle easily gets used to them and develops strong immunity.
It is possible to treat both tubers and potato seeds with insecticides before planting. But most often the treatment of the beetle is used for tubers. A dangerous pest lives in the ground, so the infection begins with the tubers and the root system.
Preparation of potato tubers for planting consists of several successive procedures. It begins with a careful selection of seed. The main requirement here is health, although the shape and size of potatoes also matter. Sort tubers conveniently on the table. Potatoes that are rotten and diseased of fungal or bacterial nature are immediately discarded. They should not come into contact with healthy tubers. The infection may be hidden. To identify it, the selected seed is heated (at 14-18 ° C). If the potatoes have been infected, by the time they are planted they show signs of illness, and they will be easy to sort.
Externally healthy tubers are checked for yield. They are immersed in a solution of urea. Prepare it by stirring 1.5 kg of the substance in 10 liters of water. Suitable for planting tubers are dense and heavy, they sink to the bottom. Inexhausted ones will float to the surface. The same fate befalls sick potatoes.
When selecting tubers, pay attention to their size. Good results are obtained by planting medium-sized potatoes (weighing 50-80 g). But there are no strict restrictions. A high yield can also be obtained by using smaller ones weighing 30 grams or larger tubers, the weight of which exceeds 100 g. If the potatoes are very different in size, they are laid out in 3 piles. Sorted by size, the tubers are planted in different beds. So you can achieve a uniform emergence of seedlings: the term germination of potatoes is largely determined by their size. In the future, having the same height of bushes will be easier to care for.
Landscaping or sprouting?
Potatoes are usually prepared for planting in one of the following ways:
- through his landscaping,
- sprouting method.
Each method has its own merits. With gardening it is better to hurry. Spend it in the fall, digging the crop. Selected for planting potatoes laid out in 2-3 layers in a bright, well-ventilated place. The direct rays of the sun should not fall on them. After 10 days, the tubers are removed in containers in which they will be stored until spring.
In the world, solanine is actively formed in potatoes - a toxic substance that performs the function of a natural fungicide and insecticide. In addition to protection from diseases and pests, he participates in wound healing processes, accelerating them. Planting seed tubers helps to retain the moisture needed by potato sprouts at the beginning of their development. They cannot get it from the soil because of insufficiently developed root system. If in the fall the tubers fail to ground, it can be done in the spring, by combining the procedure with germination.
Most gardeners prefer to plant potatoes with these shoots. He quickly produces seedlings that grow better and eventually produce a rich harvest. It is impossible to avoid such preparation if the soil at the site is heavy, containing a lot of clay or peat.
Sprouting potatoes before planting is carried out in a warm room with high humidity. Under these conditions, thin tubers laid out in boxes are usually kept for 3-4 weeks. Periodically (once in 7-10 days) they are turned over. This should be done carefully so as not to damage the sprouts. Peeling the tubers, they are inspected again, discarding the weak and infected with diseases.
Temperature is important for the awakening of the kidneys. Potatoes should be warm during the daytime (12-18 ° C). At night, it is desirable to lower the temperature to 6 ° C. Long sprouts when planting easily break. To avoid pulling them, seed in the first week is kept in a room where the air is heated to 20-22 ° C. Further germination of tubers is carried out in coolness - at a temperature of about 7-8 ° C.
Humidity in the room should be 85-95%. In order to successfully germinate seed potatoes, it is periodically sprayed with clean water. Ready for planting tubers will be in 20-25 days. Potatoes are placed on the beds with powerful sprouts reaching a length of 1 cm and having the beginnings of roots in their lower part.
Before planting, the tubers are sorted again. For her unsuitable for those who:
- have only 1 sprout,
- did not sprout
- formed weak filamentous sprouts.
Experienced gardeners practice sprouting potatoes before planting in the greenhouse. It is easiest to provide the tubers with the optimum temperature and humidity.
If it is not possible to germinate planting material in the light, warm it up. It requires a dark room and a constant temperature in the range of 18-20 ° C. This technique reduces the time to prepare potatoes to 8-10 days. Since the result of warming gives quickly, it is advisable to start it shortly before the planned landing. If the tubers are still warm and dark longer than the recommended period, the shoots will be long and fragile. In most potato varieties, breaking them causes a significant decrease in the yield of the bush. Some types of culture after it can not climb at all.
It is better to plant tubers with dormant buds than to germinate them and then damage. If you can not avoid pulling sprouts, they are not interrupted. Carefully removing the potatoes from the box, put them in the hole or furrow and carefully sprinkle with soil. The first shoots have increased vitality.
On the surface of tubers may be pathogens of dangerous diseases. To prevent plant contamination, planted potatoes are treated with biological fungicides.
The timing of the procedure depends on the drug:
- Planriz is used 7 days before the tubers are placed in the ground,
- "Albit" - 24 hours before landing,
- "Fitosporin", "Baksis", "Arilin" - right in front of her,
- Binoram and Agat-25K are used twice: before planting and 5 days before it.
Popular methods of planting material disinfection are also widely practiced - ashes, copper sulphate, potassium permanganate. They are simple, gentle and effective. For processing seed potatoes, copper sulphate (1 tsp) is dissolved in water (3 l). The resulting mixture can be sprayed tubers, but the result will be better if you immerse them in it for a short time (maximum 2 minutes). The potatoes extracted from the solution are dried and left for 2-3 days. Then they can be further processed with a growth stimulator. Such preparation will protect the future harvest from the wireworm. The larvae of the click beetle do not like blue vitriol. If there is a lot of wireworm at the site of the proposed planting of potatoes, in the fall you can water the area with a solution or scatter the substance over the soil surface.
It is impossible to prepare a solution of copper sulfate in metal containers. It is recommended to use glass, wooden or enameled ware. You can do without it, digging a hole in the area and covering it with a strong film.
A disinfecting solution of potassium permanganate is made at the rate of 1 g of substance per 1 l of water. Tubers are placed in it for 30 minutes. You can add to this amount of potassium permanganate copper sulfate (10 g) and boric acid (20 g). They are thoroughly stirred in 10 liters of water. After keeping the seed tubers in the resulting composition for half an hour, they are dried and planted in the ground. Potassium permanganate is also effective for tillage. To destroy the wireworm, before planting, the wells under the potatoes are watered with a solution (3-4 g per 10 liters of water). But this method is suitable only for neutral and alkaline soils. If the soil in the area is acidic, an excess of manganese, along with getting rid of the wireworm, can lead to plant burns.
In this case, it is better to treat the tubers and soil with ashes. It will serve as a fertilizer for potatoes. After preparing a nutrient solution from it (1 kg of substance per 1 bucket of water), seed tubers are immersed in it. You can do this without removing them from the grid. There is another way - slightly soaked potatoes, roll them in fertilizer. Put them right away. Ash scares the wireworm. It is brought into the soil in the fall, before the autumn digging. You can do this when planting, adding fertilizer to each well. Some summer residents protect plants from the wireworm all summer, periodically scattering ashes near plantings and loosening the soil.
Avoiding the invasion of voracious insects and minimize damage to the crop will help the processing of potatoes before planting from the Colorado potato beetle. Conduct its special preparations-fungicides. The following remedies are popular with summer residents.
- "Matador Grand." It protects potatoes from the wireworm, crunches, whitefly, aphids, fleas, moths, cicadas, late blight, peronosporoza, rhizoctoniosis and a number of other diseases. Processing tubers they spend "on the tables." Expanding them in 1 layer, they are sprayed with a solution of the drug. After drying, the potatoes turn over and process the other side. The solution is prepared at the rate of 30 ml of the preparation per 200 ml of water. When the potatoes are completely dry, they can be planted,
- “Prestige” (100 ml) in combination with “Maxim” (70 ml). This dosage is treated with 100 potatoes.
Both methods are not suitable for the protection of early varieties of culture. They have a long-lasting effect, remaining in tubers up to 60-70 days and making their consumption undesirable. Early ripened varieties of potatoes are best treated from the Colorado potato beetle with Taboo (it will also help get rid of wireworms and aphids), Cruiser, or the like. Their action is limited to 45 days.
There are several ways to protect the crop from the wireworm with the Taboo preparation:
- sprinkle them on the tables,
- process the soil - the bottom of the planting hole or furrow. Per 1 hectare spend 1-2 liters of a solution of fungicide.
There are a lot of chemical compounds, the use of which on seed tubers will not be afraid of the wireworm: “Prestige”, “Commander”, “Nuprid 600”, “Pikus”, “Imidor”. Они оказывают комплексное защитное действие, повышая иммунитет растений и предохраняя будущий урожай от грибковых заболеваний и целого спектра вредителей: ложнопроволочника, медведки, тли, хруща, совки.
Стимулирование роста и питание
Shoots will appear faster, and potato bushes will be more powerful and lush if you treat the tubers with a growth stimulator. Do it for 1-2 days before they are placed in the ground. Most often, to increase the germination of eyes on tubers, gardeners use the drug Poteytin. Dissolving it in 1 liter of water, they are sprayed with potatoes. Means are spent economically: 1 ampoules will be enough to process 60 kg of a landing material. The drug strengthens the immune system of plants, makes them more resistant to changing weather conditions, increases yield.
Other means are also popular:
- “Mikon”, which contains many important for the culture of trace elements,
- “Epin”, which increases potato yield by 2 times, improves its keeping quality and accelerates ripening for 2 weeks,
- "Bioglobin" that causes active cell division and an increase in the root system of the hive.
Seed tubers can be processed with nutrient composition. For its preparation use "Nitrophoska" or "Mortar". 1 tsp of the drug is stirred in 3 liters of water. By the time they are placed in the ground, the tubers are treated 3 times, repeating the spraying every 10 days.
The question of how to prepare potatoes for planting is one of the most important in agrotechnology of culture. Proper processing of seed tubers will save forces in the struggle for the safety of the crop and increase its size. It can be done in different ways, based on personal preferences and abilities, the conditions for growing a crop, the amount of time remaining before planting, and the availability of certain drugs on the farm. You can use all known agrotechnical methods or limit to a few of them.
The use of these substances allows you to get the maximum yield. This is achieved by:
- the rapid development of the root system
- early shoots
- waking up "sleeping" eyes,
- protection against infections and high resistance to adverse weather conditions.
In addition, the potato becomes more nutritious, because it increases the content of starch and vitamins.
Growth stimulants promise high yields
This is one of the most famous drugs. Active ingredients - a complex of 2,6-dimethylpyridin-1-oxide with succinic acid.
When using it:
- shoots appear 5–6 days ahead of time,
- the stems develop thicker,
- the plant tolerates the damage caused by the Colorado potato beetle more easily
- culture gets late blight resistance.
The producer promises to harvest 24% higher than usual.
More information about how to grow a good harvest of potatoes can be found in our article.
The active substances of the agent are modified humic acids, for which the acidity of the soil does not matter. The formula also contains polyhydric alcohols, carboxylic acids derived from natural products.
Stimulation of growth is achieved by increasing the biological activity of intracellular water, accelerating cell division and regulating the intensity of mineral nutrition. The drug works in the following areas:
- increases the access of oxygen,
- increases the synthesis of the main energetic substance ATP,
- accelerates the absorption of nutrients from the soil,
- improves carbohydrate metabolism, promotes the formation of sugars,
- increases resistance to frost and heat,
- helps to increase the volume of the root system by 60%, leaf mass - by 35%.
Growth stimulator "Vympel"
The drug also enhances the plant immunity, reduces susceptibility to diseases by 1.5 - 2 times. The consumption of fungicides is reduced by 2 times by reducing the frequency of treatment area.
"Pennant 2" increases the volume of root excretions, increases the activity of microorganisms inhabiting the soil, promotes the growth of their numbers and thereby stimulates the accumulation of humus. This creates conditions for optimal mineral nutrition of the crop and reduces the use of mineral fertilizers by up to 70%.
So called the larva of the click beetle. From the pest using the tool "Kruiser" on the basis of thiamethoxam. It is a ready-to-use product or is available as a concentrate. It also contains a polymer adhesive and a red dye, which will come to the processed tubers with a bright color. The drug is compatible with fungicidal disinfectants manufacturer Syngenta. "Kruiser" is less toxic than its counterparts. But despite this, it requires certain precautions when working with him.
Treatment with phytophthora
The first signs of the disease can appear already in the period of germination. The use of special preparations against infection at the planting stage also allows for the effective protection of the plant.
Phytophthora on potatoes
This is a combined agent based on three substances, two of which are with antifungal activity. Fludioxonil comes from a new chemical class of phenylpyrroles. This is an analogue of a natural antibiotic that prevents the development of infection on the surface of the root. It suppresses the livelihoods of spores and sprouted hyphae of fungi before they penetrate into the parent tuber.
Difenoconazole is a substance of systemic action against pathogens of fungal infections on planting material and on the soil. This allows you to keep healthy and seeds, and seedlings.
The third component of the tool is insecticide thiamethoxam. Thanks to him, the product fights soil pests. In addition, it provides up to 100 days of protection against the Colorado potato beetle.
Combined drug "Celeste Top"
This is a fludioxonil-based fungicidal disinfectant. Substances have a different mechanism of action than other chemical groups.
The tool protects crops from infections caused by ascomycetes, basidiomycetes, and imperfect fungi. The product has a selective mechanism of action and does not destroy good bacteria. The composition includes a signal dye that allows you to control the completeness of the pickle. “Maxim” also makes the plant resistant to many diseases of the growing season.
"Maxim" and "Celeste Top" delay the appearance of blight for 2 weeks. And with the preparations “Kvadris” and “Uniform”, which are applied directly to the soil, they prolong the protection for 3-4 weeks.
The bacteria Pseudomonas fluorescens and biologically active substances, which are produced during cultivation, fight against late blight. Microorganisms colonize the roots of the plant and produce enzymes and antibacterial substances that prevent the occurrence of rot. In addition, this product is a growth promoter. Planters "Planriz-Bio" are treated for 1-2 days before planting or on the same day.
Drug "Planriz Bio"
Of the most familiar and affordable tools use an aqueous solution of copper sulphate. It protects against fungal infections:
- alternarioz and others.
This remedy is effective against all Colorado potato beetles at any stage of pest development.
Copper sulfate powder
For dressing maternal tubers are mixed such ingredients:
- copper sulphate - 20 g (matchbox without top),
- potassium permanganate - 1 g.
The mixture is diluted in 10 liters of water (t ° 40 ... 50 ° C). Metal containers without enamel coating are not suitable for preparing solutions. The active substances react with the metal, and copper precipitates. Then the tool loses the properties necessary for the gardener.
The liquid is filtered and sprayed on potatoes. If seed tubers are divided, then the blade of the knife in front of each cut immerses the diluted vitriol.
Attention! Copper sulfate is not compatible with organophosphate pesticides and substances that decompose in an alkaline environment.
Bordeaux and Burgundian mixtures - two more long-standing tools used by summer residents. But they are also based on blue vitriol.
Table 1. Bordeaux and Burgundian mix.
To protect before or during planting in the soil using such preparations for processing potatoes:
- - Maxim fungicide, which delays the development of phytosporosis, protects potato seedlings from rhizoctoniosis and reduces the damage to culture with common and silver scab,
- - a systemic insecticide Kruiser, which protects tubers from a complex of land and soil pests - wireworms, aphids and Colorado beetles,
- - systemic fungicide Quadris, which guarantees protection against silver scab, rhizoctoniosis and other diseases, as well as contributing to the improvement of quality and increase in potato yield,
- - insectofungicide Celeste Top, with high efficiency protects potatoes from land and soil pests, as well as from fungal diseases affecting tops, roots and tubers of potatoes,
- - the two-component insecticide Volia Fleksi, which protects potatoes from damage by sucking pests, as well as Colorado beetles and wireworms,
- - Force insecticide, which causes the death of wireworms before they damage potato tubers,
- - insecticide Aktara, guaranteeing the protection of potatoes from pests for at least two months,
- - Prestige, which protects late potato varieties from rhizoctoniosis, wet rot, scab and Colorado potato beetle and improves germination, sprouting and growth of potato vegetative mass.
In addition to these drugs, Imidor, Commodore, Agrovital, Imidalit, Nuprid 600, Taboo showed good results in the fight against pests and diseases of potatoes.
Processing potatoes from the Colorado potato beetle.
For many years, the Colorado potato beetle has been a serious problem for everyone who grows potatoes. There are many drugs that destroy the Colorado potato beetle on potato bushes, but What are the tools for processing potatoes before planting?
We suggest that you use in this capacity a triple-action systemic fungicide, Matador Grand, which protects potatoes from the Colorado potato beetle, crunches, wireworms, whitefly, moths, flea beetles, tsitadok, aphids, and also from diseases such as late blight, Alternaria, peronosporoz, macrospory, rhizoctonia, and others. The consumption of the drug is calculated as follows: 30 ml of the drug must be dissolved in 200 ml of water to process 30 tubers. Enumerated planting material laid out in one layer and sprayed with a solution of Matador Grand, then allow the tubers to dry, turn them over and sprayed on the other side. After drying, the potatoes are ready for planting. This method is called "on the tables".
Good results are obtained by preplant treatment of potatoes from a beetle with a mixture of 100 ml of Prestige and 70 ml of Maxim - this amount should be sufficient for processing 100 tubers. However, you should be aware that Prestige is not used for processing early potato varieties, since it is stored in tubers for 60-70 days, and early varieties ripen in mid-summer, and you risk eating along with mashed potatoes and Prestige for processing potatoes from pests and diseases. The same can be said about the drug Matador Grand.
For the treatment of early varieties of potatoes from the Colorado potato beetles, you can use drugs with a shorter duration - for example, Tabu, which is valid for no more than 45 days, Cruiser, the consumption rate for which is 7 ml per 10 kg of tubers, and others.
Processing potatoes from wireworm.
Wireworms are the larvae of click beetles making moves in a potato. This is a real misfortune, because such a tuber is easier to throw away than clean. In the fight against this insect, many tools are used. For example, the drug Taboo for processing potatoes, the Russian equivalent of Prestige, successfully destroying not only the wireworms, but also the aphids, and the Colorado beetles. There are different ways of processing potatoes before planting: you can treat potatoes "on the tables" with this remedy, as they are treated with Prestige, for example, or spray the bottom of the hole or furrow with the preparation before planting. Consumption of the drug Taboo 1-2 liters per hundred.
In addition to the taboo, Commodore, Imidor, Nuprid 600, Pikus, Kruiser and the same indispensable Prestige are successfully used in the fight against wireworms. These drugs destroy not only the larvae of the click beetles, but also other soil pests - false-wireworm, bruises, carrots, nematodes, scoop scoops, and also protect the tubers from fungal diseases.
Processing potatoes for aphids.
To combat this omnipresent pest, no special means are needed. To protect potatoes from aphids, and at the same time from moths, you can use all the same preparations that we have already mentioned and which are used to combat the Colorado potato beetle and soil pests - Kruiser, Tabu, Picos, Commodore, Imidor, and also Celeste Top, Prestige and Matador Grand. If you carry out pre-treatment of potatoes with these drugs, then protect it from all types of pests, and at the same time strengthen its immunity to fight fungi.
Pre-treatment of potatoes for diseases
Preparation of potatoes for planting requires pretreatment of tubers from fungal diseases. To do this, use a solution of blue vitriol: a teaspoon of the product is diluted in three liters of water. Tubers are not sprayed with mortar, but immersed in it for two minutes. Then the potatoes are dried and after two or three days, they start planting.
Another way to prevent potato disease from fungal diseases is to treat tubers before planting with Fitosporin-M fungicide. Prepare the drug solution in accordance with the instructions and put the tubers in it for 15 minutes. After processing, dry the potatoes.
Against pathogenic fungi, tubers are treated with drugs Maxim, Prestige, Kvadris, Kolfugo super in strict accordance with the instructions.
Potato processing - folk remedies
As for the Colorado potato beetle, there is hardly a folk remedy that could rid your potato of it, but there are ways that can prevent its reproduction. For example, during planting, you can throw a pinch of ash into the hole or plant bush beans or coriander with a strong smell along with the tuber. Dill, basil, calendula and tansy are suitable for this role.
Processing potato tubers before planting with potassium permanganate is also a very effective way. Pre-germinated tubers are poured with potassium permanganate solution for half an hour. The consumption of the drug for the solution is one gram per liter of water. You can prepare a combined solution: in 10 liters of water add 10 g of copper sulphate, 1 g of potassium permanganate, 20 g of boric acid and mix thoroughly. After treatment with this solution, the tubers are dried.
Dusting with ashes: a kilogram of ash is dissolved in a bucket of water and potatoes are placed in it right in the net. This method, in addition to protecting the tubers from diseases, allows them to be saturated with potassium, without which the growth and formation of new tubers will be incomplete.
The main way to protect potatoes from diseases and pests is still to observe crop rotation and agricultural culture.
What to process potatoes before planting in open ground
In the process of growth and development, potatoes undergo many trials. Adverse weather conditions, various pests and diseases attack it almost constantly, trying to negate all hopes of gardeners for a good harvest. Proper and timely processing of potatoes before planting helps to solve all or part of many of these problems before they appear.
With pre-treatment, you can:
- To increase the resistance of potato plantations from diseases
- Protect potatoes from pests
- Increase yield
- Improve the quality of tubers
Experienced gardeners know many ways to preplant potatoes. Some of them are better to spend in the fall, some - just before planting potatoes in the ground. But one thing unites them all: simplicity in execution and high efficiency of protecting potato plantations from diseases and pests.
Usually, pre-processing of potatoes implies treatment with special preparations - chemical and biological preparations, growth stimulants. But you can and even need to make the most of the hidden reserves of the potato itself. This can be done by simply planting the tubers.
Tubers need to be expanded in the light in one layer, and when one flank acquires a dark green color, then turn all the tubers over with another flank to complete landscaping. The longer the tubers remain in the light, the more intense the green color will appear.
To blame for this reaction to daylight, solanine that accumulates under the skin of a potato is a toxic substance that in small doses has a therapeutic effect on the human body, and in large doses it can cause serious harm to health.
Planting potatoes allows you to decontaminate the tubers from pathogens, improve their keeping quality. And all this can be achieved in a natural way, without the use of chemicals. In addition, green tubers are practically not damaged by small rodents.
Therefore, it is desirable to carry out landscaping in the autumn, before laying the planting material for storage. But if this was not done in the fall, then it must be done in the spring, before germination, or just before the germination of potatoes.
Processing potato tuber from phytophthora
Phytophthora is the scourge of all solanaceous crops. Поэтому от этой напасти следует обязательно защищать клубни перед посадкой. Против фитофторы часто используют различные фунгициды, но применяют и более безопасные вещества – такие как «Эпин», «Потейтин», «Биоглобин» и им подобные.Such substances are also called adaptogenic agents, that is, mobilizing and strengthening the immune system of potatoes already at the tuber stage.
"Epinom", usually treated potatoes about 24 hours before planting in the ground. Ampoules of one milliliter will be enough for processing about 50 tubers. The drug "Potytin" is also permissible to handle tubers 24 hours before planting. In "Bioglobin" the tubers are soaked for 30 minutes. Also, it is permissible to wake the "Bioglobin" and wake up the potatoes firmly, soaking them in it for one hour.
Potato processing "Fitosporin". This biological product very effectively fights against the fungal infection and can even prevent the development of a bacterial infection. "Fitosporin" can protect the potato tubers after entering the soil from scab, rot, and the above-ground part from powdery mildew and phytophthora.
In addition, any biological substances, including Fitosporin, contribute to improving the stress resistance of plants.
"Fitosporin" tubers permissible to spray as before the emergence of sprouts, in order to activate their germination, and before planting them in the soil, in about 1.5-2.5 hours. You can immerse the tubers in the solution "Fitosporina." Usually, this drug is sold in bags of 10 g. Half of such a bag is dissolved in a liter of water and 30-35 tubers are sprayed with this amount.
Treatment of potato tubers from diseases and pests
Processing of potatoes before planting is aimed mainly at protecting the future crop from diseases and pests. There are many preparations for such preplanting treatment of potato planting material, both chemical reagents and old folk remedies.
Chemicals provide tubers with a longer and more effective protection compared to traditional folk methods. The list of chemical means of protecting potatoes is huge. The most popular of them are:
For those who are wary of chemicals, we can recommend traditional folk methods:
- Bordeaux mixture
- Burgundy mix
- Manganese solution
- Dusting ash
This is not a complete list. Gardeners are simply a huge selection of tools for preplant processing of potato tubers, so there is an opportunity to choose the method that best suits your needs.
Chemicals for potato processing
Chemical means of preplanting potatoes in many gardeners causes concern that they can get into new tubers from old potatoes. The absurdity of such fears is obvious, it is simply biologically impossible.
The convenience of chemical preparations for processing potatoes before planting is that they are produced in convenient packaging, and each preparation is accompanied by detailed instructions for their use.
A systemic insecticide of contact intestinal action for preplant treatment of potato tubers before planting. Protects the planting of potatoes from soil pests throughout the growing season - adults and the larvae of the Colorado potato beetle, the wireworm, the larvae of the May beetle, the larvae gnawing scoop.
"Matador" is characterized by a low consumption rate: 1 g per 1 kg of tubers. Tubers are processed immediately before planting. The drug is diluted with water according to the instructions, and this solution is processed potatoes.
The drug that protects the planting of potatoes from rhizoctoniosis, wet rot, scab, Colorado potato beetle, wireworms, larvae of the May beetle, tsikadok, aphids, moths.
The drug has an "anti-stress" effect and improves the germination, spine formation and growth of the vegetative mass of potatoes. “Prestige” is diluted with water according to the instructions, and tubers are processed with this solution immediately before planting. Consumption rate - 1 gr. per 1 kg of planting material. Read more about the product HERE.
Contact fungicide that protects planting potatoes from the development of dangerous diseases: phytosporosis, rhizoctoniosis, fusarium, common and silver scab. For greater efficiency, it can be used in conjunction with other insecticides, for example, the "Cruiser".
Systemic insecticide that protects tubers from a complex of land and soil pests - wireworms, aphids and Colorado beetles. Use of the drug in conjunction with fungicides is allowed.
Systemic fungicide that protects potato planting from silver scab, rhizoctoniosis and other diseases, as well as improving quality and increasing potato yield.
One of the very first drugs to protect potato plantations from diseases: rot, scab, powdery mildew, Fusarium. The drug can be used as a preplant treatment of tubers, and spray them planting potatoes during the growing season. Read more about the product HERE.
For preplant processing of potatoes, a 1% Borodossky mix is prepared. In separate containers, 100 g of copper sulphate and the same amount of lime are diluted in warm water. 10 liters of water are divided into two equal parts of 5 liters. As a result, a finished lime milk is obtained in one vessel, and a blue solution in the other.
Then the blue solution is poured in a thin stream into the lime milk (it cannot be poured in the opposite way - the milk into the copper sulphate solution). Potato tubers are laid out in 1 layer on film and sprayed with the prepared solution.
This helps to protect them from blackleg, black scab, fungal diseases, and the Colorado beetles and wireworms almost never touch potatoes treated with Bordeaux mixture.
Because of its toxicity and the emergence of new safe drugs, this tool is almost never used today. But to protect against most diseases of potatoes, it can not worse than other folk remedies.
To prepare the Burgundy liquid, you need to take 100 grams of copper sulfate powder, 90 grams of soda ash and 40 grams of laundry soap per 10 liters of water. Since soda ash fumes are toxic, it is imperative that you work in protective clothing and a respirator.
Like the Bordeaux, Burgundy mixture was originally prepared in two different containers. Water is divided into two equal parts of 5 l. In one, the vitriol powder is diluted, and soda and soap are dissolved in the other. Then the solution of vitriol slowly poured into a container of soda.
Potassium permanganate solution
One of the oldest and most effective folk methods of processing tubers before planting. First, prepare a pink solution of potassium permanganate, strictly observing the proportions, 1 g manganese per 1 liter of water. Potato tubers are dipped in this solution for 25-30 minutes, after which they are removed, dried and planted in the ground.
Shoots after such treatment are friendly, strong, they stand green for a long time and give a wonderful harvest.
Dusting wood ash
Another long-standing method of preparing potatoes for planting. Woody ash is rich in potassium, without which a good crop of potatoes is unthinkable. For processing, you can prepare a solution by diluting 1 kg of ash in a bucket of water.
In this solution, tubers are sown in a grid and kept for about an hour, after which they are immediately planted. But I’m more of a supporter to bring 2-3 tablespoons of ash into each hole when planting potatoes - the problems are smaller, and the effect is even better, the ash feeds the potatoes during the whole growing season.
Processing of potato tubers with growth stimulants
Many gardeners, in addition to processing potato tubers to protect against diseases and pests, additionally process them before planting with growth stimulants.
This procedure allows you to accelerate the germination of eyes, increase the number of sprouts on potatoes, thereby increasing the future harvest by 20-25%. Processing stimulants spend 1-2 days before planting potatoes in the ground.
One of the most popular potato stimulants is "Poteytin". 1 ampoule of the drug is dissolved in 1 liter of water, and this solution is processed 60-70 kg. potatoes
«Mikon"- another popular growth stimulator, the use of which allows you to provide potato plantings with a supply of such trace elements as manganese, boron, zinc, etc.
There are other growth stimulants that can be used for preplant processing of potatoes: GUM, Planriz, Potassium Gumate, etc.
Properly and in full, the processing of potato tubers before planting allows us to achieve a significant increase in the yield of potato beds. It happens as by increasing the number of shoots from planting material. So also due to reliable protection of potato plantations from diseases and pests.
In many cases, this increase is up to 50% of the total yield. And this is an indicator for the sake of which it is worth to work a little before planting.
Where to buy seeds and seedlings with delivery
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The association uses the most advanced technology, created a unique laboratory of microclonal propagation of plants.
The main task of the NGO “Gardens of Russia” is to provide gardeners with quality planting material of popular varieties of various garden plants and new products of world selection. Delivery of planting material (seeds, bulbs, seedlings) is carried out by Russian Post.
We are waiting for you for shopping in the “Gardens of Russia”.
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Calibration of potato tubers before planting
The first operation to prepare the potato tubers for planting is to calibrate them and at the same time inspect for rot or other damage. So, if the potato tuber began to rot, then this part needs to be cut and burned, and the bare core is sprinkled with wood soot, ideally, but it can also be covered with wood ash. Some are treated with a weak, pinkish solution of potassium permanganate, can be treated with a 1% solution of Bordeaux mixture or copper sulphate, it is permissible to spray with a solution of Appin or Zircon, and then allow the cut part to dry to form a crust. If this is not done, then a part of the potato may rot in the soil, especially if there is a rainy summer.
Next comes the calibration - the tubers are usually divided into those that are more than a hundred grams, such when planting is better to cut in half, having done all the above procedures, then there are those that weigh about 60 to 90 grams, they can be planted whole and tubers less than forty grams, it is better to plant them in a separate plot, and if the crop is weak there, they can go to feed the cattle or for other types of processing.
When cutting large potatoes, remember that it is best not to cut it across, but along, thus, on the one and the other side, the tuber will have approximately the same number of sprouts. Put the split tuber into the soil with the cut down part.
Planting potato tubers before planting
The second stage of preplant treatment of potato tubers is their landscaping. There is nothing difficult in this, they just need to be spread out in the light in one layer, and when one flank acquires a dark green color, then turn all the tubers into another flank to complete landscaping. These tubers accumulate a lot of solanine, they can not be eaten, but they sprout faster and shoots, as a rule, more friendly and strong.
Sprouting and gardening potato tubers. © Terese
Sprouting potato tubers before planting
The next stage is the germination of potatoes. A good owner of seed potatoes lies in the bins and does not form sprouts until the very moment when the owner of the seed potatoes does not begin to germinate, this is also a guarantee of high yields. Sometimes the whole secret lies in the fact that potatoes intended for sowing, that is, seed is stored in a separate bins or even in a separate room at a constant temperature of four degrees above zero. At this temperature, the tubers "sleep" and growth processes do not occur in them.
Terms of sprouting potato tubers
Usually from the bins where the seed potatoes are stored, to obtain sprouts, that is, to germinate, tubers are extracted approximately 15 days before planting in the ground. This time is usually enough to form full-fledged shoots, reaching a length of about a centimeter. Sprouts may be less, it will slightly postpone the seedlings, but if they are larger, this can lead to their breaking off during planting, then the emergence of the seedlings will be delayed for a long time, this should not be allowed, therefore, it is not worth hurrying with the tuber.
Potato sprouting conditions
In order for the tubers to sprout faster, they must be placed in a place lit by the sun and kept on the floor, covered with sacking for a week at 19-21 degrees above zero. As soon as sprouts began to appear, the potatoes must be very carefully transferred to a cooler place, where the temperature is within 11-14 degrees above zero. It is in such conditions that one should wait for the appearance of sprouts.
It is quite permissible to germinate potatoes and in ordinary wooden boxes - this is done when there is no place to scatter potatoes in an even layer. The temperature conditions are the same, only it will be more difficult to keep track of the length of sprouts.
What to do if potato tubers sprouted ahead of time?
It happens that the gardener opens the door, and the seed potatoes have already sprouted, and before planting there is still quite a lot of time, what to do? There are three options - either to break off all the sprouts and wait for seedlings after planting (only at a later date), or cut off all the sprouts so that their parts are centimeter-long, and cut the ends of the slices with wood soot, or buy a new seed, because hopes to get a quality crop with such tubers will be less than with normal ones. You can plant sprouted potatoes "as is" and wait for what happens.
Processing of potato tubers before planting
Treatment of tubers from wireworm and Colorado potato beetle
The wireworm and the Colorado potato beetle cause irreparable harm to the potato, these two pests can completely destroy the crop, therefore, the treatment of tubers against the wireworm and against the Colorado potato beetle is necessary before planting. It is acceptable to use insecticides allowed in the current season against these pests and strictly follow the instructions, not exceeding the dosages and working in protective clothing for the clothing - a robe, respirator and protective long rubber gloves.
Against the wireworm and the Colorado potato beetle, potato tubers can be treated with drugs such as Taboo and Prestige, these drugs are quite capable of protecting the tubers and seedlings from the wireworm during the entire growing season.
As for the Colorado potato beetle, Taboo usually protects plants for a month after the emergence of potato shoots above the soil surface. This is sometimes enough for the seedlings to become as strong as possible and to be able to resist the Colorado potato beetle on their own.
After this period, you can re-process the potatoes with the preparation, diluting it in strict accordance with the instructions on the package. They can handle both the plants themselves and the soil beneath them. Remember that the solution for the treatment of tubers, and for the treatment of plants is stored all day. Usually gardeners plant one gram of the drug in a bucket of water, this amount is enough to treat a hundred of the land with transplanted plants.
Tubers of potatoes before planting can be treated with complex preparations, that is, having both insecticidal and fungicidal properties, for example, Prestige has such an effect. This preparation is usually diluted 1 to 20 and they are sprayed with potatoes from all sides from a spray bottle. A solution from one package is enough to process ten kilograms of potatoes or a little more. After processing, you should not immediately plant the potatoes, it should be allowed to dry for a couple of hours, and then it can be planted in the soil.
It is noticed that Prestige not bad protects the tubers and the aerial part of the potato plant from thrips, various harmful beetles, wireworms, leaflets, and sawflies, fights against such fungal diseases as scab, rot and powdery mildew.
For those who do not accept the use of chemistry, it is advisable to try to plant on the borders of the site where the potatoes, mustard and any legumes will be planted. This can save potatoes from both pests.
Tuber treatments to protect against phytophthora
Phytophthora is the scourge of solanaceous crops; therefore, it is necessary to protect the tubers from it when landing. Various fungicides are often used against phytophthora, but they also use safer substances, such as Appin, Poteitin, Bioglobin, and the like. Such substances are also called adaptogenic agents, that is, mobilizing and strengthening the immune system of potatoes already at the tuber stage.
Epinay usually treated potatoes about 24 hours before planting in the ground. Ampoules of one milliliter will be enough for processing about 50 tubers. The drug Potytin, - it is also permissible for them to process tubers 24 hours before planting. Биоглобин, – им клубни не обрабатывают, обычно в нем их замачивают минут за 30. Также Биоглобином допустимо разбудить и накрепко уснувшие картофелины, замочив их в нем на один час.
Обработка Фитоспорином. Не стоит бояться названия, Фитоспорин – это биопрепарат, он весьма эффективно борется с грибной инфекцией и даже может воспрепятствовать развитию бактериальной инфекции. Фитоспорин может защитить клубни картофеля уже после попадания в грунт от парши, гнили, а надземную часть от мучнистой росы и фитофторы. In addition, any biological substances, including Fitosporin contribute to improving the stress resistance of plants.
It is permissible to spray the phytosporin tubers as before the emergence of sprouts in order to activate their germination, and before planting them in the soil, in about 1.5-2.5 hours. You can immerse the tubers in a solution of Fitosporin. Phytosporin is usually sold in sachets, so half a bag is most often dissolved in a liter of water and 30-35 tubers are sprayed with this amount.
Here are all the techniques that you should know and carry out before planting potato tubers in the ground, they will allow you to get the highest yields of this crop.
Despite the abundance of tools for processing seed sold in specialized stores, many gardeners continue to prepare potatoes for planting in the old “grandmother's” ways. Most often, adherents of time-tested methods use for this purpose a solution of blue vitriol, a solution of potassium permanganate (known to ordinary people as “potassium permanganate”) and ash diluted with water. Each of these methods has its own characteristics.
Copper sulphate perfectly protects potatoes from fungus and late blight. Late blight is a dangerous disease that most often occurs with high humidity of the soil and air. It affects not only the roots, but also tomatoes. The causative agent of late blight is a phytophthora microorganism that develops rapidly and multiplies in a humid microclimate. Copper sulfate kills phytophtora, and also significantly slows down its reproduction.
Potassium permanganate, which can be purchased at any pharmacy, is usually used for soaking seeds. This substance has a bactericidal effect. and kills pathogens on the surface of potato seeds.
Water-diluted ash is commonly used to process tubers. Ash has a lot of useful properties. First, it enriches the soil with potassium and promotes the intensive growth of new potatoes. Secondly, the ash successfully fights fungi and viruses. And, thirdly, it scares away beetle and wireworm potatoes. The wireworm is also a dangerous pest of potatoes. The wireworm larva looks like a thin crooked wire (hence the name of the insect). Gardeners often notice that potatoes dug out of the ground are splashed with deep grooves. The wireworm gnaws through these grooves - the same voracious and dangerous insect as the Colorado potato beetle.
Phytosporin and other industrial products
Of course, the "grandmother's" means their advantage. They do not contain "chemistry"safe for health. When working with them there is no risk of getting burned, poisoning, or an allergic reaction. However, in modern conditions, in connection with the development of scientific and technological progress, the range of garden and garden chemistry of industrial production has expanded significantly. Therefore, those who trust the domestic chemical industry usually use factory-made products to prepare seed. The adherents of such products most often use the following products for processing potatoes:
- Fitosporin is a drug with a bactericidal and fungicidal effect,
- Seed growth stimulants,
- Insecticide solutions.
The most popular among experienced tributaries is a drug called "phytosporin". As the name implies, it is used for the prevention of late blight and other dangerous infections of potatoes.
Growth stimulants are used for soaking potato seeds before planting in open ground. Their help is usually resorted to when the potato does not grow well on poor soil or in a cold climate. They are also often used when seeds of early potatoes are prepared for planting.
Industrial insecticides are used to control the wireworm and Colorado potato beetle larvae. If we treat the tubers before planting with modern effective insecticides, the pests will be much less. Insecticides of the new generation are environmentally safe, so you can safely use them.
There are a huge number of ways to treat seeds and tubers before planting in open ground. Each of these methods has its pros and cons. Before choosing the most suitable method of preparing the planting material, you need to soberly assess the situation on the site, weigh the pros and cons and conclude which method of processing tubers and seeds is best. Selecting the desired method, you can start processing. It should be carried out annually, regardless of the composition of the soil, potato variety, weather, and other important factors affecting crop yield.