Nasturtium appeared in Europe thanks to Jesuit monks in the middle of the 16th century, and already in the 18th century, the Europeans knew not only about the beautiful decorative, but also about the excellent taste and medicinal properties of this plant. The name comes from the Latin word ‘small trophy’ because of the helmet shape of some parts of the flower.
The name Capuchin stuck in Germany: the peculiar form of the spur was the basis for this. The hood and capuchin are word brothers. In our gardens, it appeared simultaneously with potatoes and corn, has long been the leader in popularity among garden flowers for many decades. Nasturtium pleased its flowering even our grandmothers and great-grandmothers. She is happy to plant in kindergartens and schools, because it is an unpretentious flower, so care does not present any difficulties and is minimized, even a schoolboy is available.
Nasturtium - a bright palette of colors in your garden
Nasturtium, Capuchin (Tropaeolum) - this genus includes about 90 species of herbaceous perennial plants, originally from Central and South America, the Mediterranean. Plants unpretentious, with magnificent flowers of various shades from yellow to red, are grown as annuals in the form of compact bushes or vines. Stalk creeping or climbing length of up to 3 m. The root system of the rod, is located in the upper layers of the soil.
The leaves are large, alternate, thyroid or palmate, succulent on long petioles, green or red. The flowers are large, solitary, bisexual, on long pedicels, located in the axils of the leaves. It blooms from late June to the first frost. The fruit is three-celled, consists of single-seeded fruitlets with a hilly surface and a spongy light yellow-green shell.
Cultivation and care of nasturtium in open ground
Nasturtiums are grown outdoors in pots, flower girls, in flowerbeds. Curly and creeping species - in hanging baskets, on supports. It grows very quickly - the hedge from nasturtium serves as an excellent screen all summer. Prefers well-lit drained areas, loamy soil.
On over-fertilized lands it develops powerful stems and leaves to the detriment of flowering. During flowering regular watering is mandatory. With a lack of moisture it grows poorly, does not bloom for a long time. Feed every 3 weeks a moderate amount of complex mineral fertilizers. The culture does not tolerate fresh organic fertilizers, lime, excess nitrogen fertilizers, or overmoistening.
Remove wilted flowers, damaged and diseased plants in a timely manner. This stimulates the formation of new buds. Not resistant to low temperatures: the flowers can not stand even light frosts.
Planting nasturtium seeds in the ground
Annual species are grown from seed. They can be sown in open and protected ground from the end of March to the beginning of April. They prepare a bed, properly loosening the ground and fill the furrows in 20-25 cm. Planted rather large seeds of nasturtium to a depth of 2-3 cm and close the furrows with the back side of the rake. The distance between the seeds should be at least 8-10 cm to get a full-fledged seedlings for planting on a permanent place.
After sowing, it will not be superfluous to cover the garden bed with a film, placing arcs, or build an earthen shaft around the perimeter, pressing the film with stone or brick to the ground. At emergence of shoots it will be necessary to watch that the temperature inside the greenhouse does not rise above 25 ° С, to water in time. Because high temperatures, burning sunlight and lack of moisture are no less destructive than negative temperatures. When warm days come, the film is removed during the day, protecting plants only at night in case of sudden frosts.
Nasturtium seed cultivation when planting seedlings
You can land a nasturtium in the ground immediately to a permanent place, hoping that the distance between the bushes should be left decent: about 40-50 cm. Do not spare the place, otherwise the plants will oppress each other, become poorly developed and have little decorative. Planting nasturtiums in open ground immediately in a flower bed is carried out only when night frosts recede: the seeds will quickly ascend and will be damaged by frost if they are not protected. Depending on the region, it may be the end of May - the beginning of June.
Growing nasturtium seed from seedlings at home
How to plant nasturtium seeds on seedlings photo
Nasturtium seedlings sown with the onset of April 1-2 seeds per peat pots or tablets. You can use loose soil for flower plants, poured them the usual cups for seedlings. The seeding depth is 1 cm. After planting, be sure to water, put up cups on the south window, where there will be enough light and heat. You can cover the seeds with a film to create greenhouse conditions, but when shoots appear, it should be removed. Shoots appear in 10-12 days. If planted in two seeds, choose a more powerful sprout, and a weak plant is cut. The grown plants are planted in May in fertile, well loosened and watered soil, without disturbing the earthy coma, at a distance of 40-50 cm.
Curly varieties can be planted a little more often - up to 35 cm, but that is if they grow on a vertical support. Directly in open ground, seeds are sown previously soaked during the day from mid-May. Cooling is detrimental to the nasturtium, so it is better to cover the plants for the first time with a film or nonwoven fabric.
How to collect nasturtium seeds
Nasturtium usually gives abundant self-seeding, which under favorable conditions will sprout the next year. Seeds are collected after flowering, they remain viable for at least 4 years. They are removed from the most liked copies. Mature seeds are brown in color. After collection, they are dried, stored in paper bags. Perennial species are planted in the spring (5-7 plants per 30-45 cm container at a distance of 15-20 cm from each other) and put on a well-lit window sill.
Wintering of many years of nasturtium and storage of tubers
Preparation of winter nasturtium tubers photo
Autumn bushes pruned to the ground. And in a cold climate, the tubers are dug and stored in a cool place in a box with dry peat.
Reproduction of nasturtium tubers photo
Perennial species are propagated by dividing the tubers in March. After that, they are laid out for germination or immediately planted in pots with nutritious soil, and after the onset of warm days they are taken out onto the street. Perennial species of this tropical beauty just started to conquer the market, while little known.
Reproduction of nasturtium cuttings
Cutting nasturtium photo
Nasturtium can be grafted. This method is used in breeding terry varieties. The cuttings are rooted in wet sand or a glass of water, after being treated with a root. Put on a cutting in a glass, when transplanting into open ground do not break the earthy coma. The main method of reproduction of nasturtium - still seed. It is the simplest, most accessible, and widely used.
Pests and diseases
It is affected by gray rot, rot, mosaic. If you see changes in the form of a mosaic pattern, the withering of the lower leaves, small brown specks, you should remove the damaged parts of the plant.
It will not be superfluous to additionally handle plantings with special preparations. Usually, diseases develop actively in wet weather and in thickened, poorly ventilated plantings. Observe the recommended distance when sowing. This is one of those cases when it is better to plant less often, and then your illness will not be afraid of many diseases.
Nasturtium pests are aphid, spider mite and cruciferous flea. Chemicals can be used to combat them. If you eat the plant, use folk methods - daily pollination of plants with a mixture of ash and tobacco dust or spraying vinegar (1 cup of 9% vinegar or 2 tablespoons of vinegar essence in a bucket of water). Ash can be scattered around the bushes.
Nasturtium helps increase the yield of vegetables. It distracts insect pests, who willingly choose capuchin to lay their eggs. Therefore, growing nasturtium near vegetable beds, you protect them from the whitefly, cabbage butterfly, the Colorado potato beetle. You can combine planting, placing the nasturtium interspersed with vegetable crops or make decorative curtains of it. Nasturtium - one of the most sought after flowers of many gardeners. Unpretentious, blooms for a long time and pleases the eye with a magnificent outfit, serves as protection from many insects.
Useful properties of nasturtium
Nasturtium is successfully used in folk medicine for the expansion of blood vessels, in order to improve the blood supply to the heart muscle, as an antitussive, as an antiseptic for diseases of the genitourinary system, as normalizing metabolic processes. It is useful for older people. Due to the content in it of carotene and sulfur, which are prophylactic substances for sclerosis. It is used in food as a source of vitamins, increasing the biological value of ordinary dishes.
Leaves, buds, flowers and unripe fruits have a pleasant spicy taste, reminiscent of watercress. Leaves and flowers are used in salads, sandwiches, in the preparation of soups, sauces, side dishes. Unripe fruits, buds pickled individually or mixed with other vegetables. An unpretentious flower has long won the hearts of amateur cetovods. It does not require special care, it grows quickly and flowers for a long time, it can turn even the most dreary corners of the garden into a colorful landscape.
The variety of colors, availability of planting material will satisfy the needs of any gardener. Curly forms serve as an excellent decoration of hedges, courtyards, as well as those places that need to be hidden from prying eyes. Bush forms are suitable for decoration of beds, borders, mixborders. The complexity of breeding available most inexperienced growers. Landing and caring for nasturtium can be trusted even to a child.
Types of nasturtiums with a description and photo
There are varieties of nasturtiums with bush and climbing forms, with simple, double, semi-double flowers. There are variegated varieties. Used as a decorative flower crop for carpet plantings, for vertical gardening. Leaves, buds, unripe fruits are used as an aromatic additive in cooking.
Nasturtium large Tropaeolum majus
Nasturtium large Tropaeolum majus photo
Annual, curly, ascending look. It is characterized by thyroid light green, red or yellow flowers with spur. Leaves are long, rounded, unequal, green or purple tinged. Most often bred species ли Glim ’with semi-double flowers, painted in orange tones. On the basis of this species, many varieties bred in home gardens are bred.
Nasturtium foreign Tropaeolum peregrinum
Foreign Nasturtium Tropaeolum peregrinum photo
Curly nasturtium from the Canary Islands, a perennial form with irregular yellow flowers with a fringed edge and thyroid leaves. If the winter is warm, it will winter well in the open field.
Nasturtium tuberous Tropaeolum tuberosum
Nasturtium tuberosum photo Tropaeolum tuberosum
Tuberous climbing plant with bluish-green five-blade leaves, which is grown in the mountainous regions of Peru, Chile, Bolivia. In the absence of support forms a soil cover. It has large pear-shaped tubers, being an important starch-bearing product.
It has been cultivated since ancient times by the Indians. Yellow-orange flowers 4-5 cm long with a red spur appear later than in other species. Tubers are large, yellow with a marble pattern. Cultivated as an annual. In the fall, the tubers are removed from the ground, ventilated in the open air, laid for storage like dahlias.
Flower nasturtium description, characteristics
South America, the slopes of the Andes Mountains since ancient times is considered the birthplace of nasturtium. In these places, it grows like a perennial plant. Nasturtium, loving light and warm, drought-resistant and unpretentious, cannot winter in our latitudes, therefore it is cultivated mainly as an annual plant.
Flowers brought from Holland to Russia look very much like a hood, so they were called Capuchins for a long time. The Latin name of this plant Tropaeolum was invented by Karl Linnae, which means “little trophy”. The great French painter Claude Monet not only depicted this very beautiful flower on his brilliant canvases, but also donated vast areas for growing this plant in his garden near Paris.
Currently, there are more than 90 types of nasturtium. The main plant species are creepers with beautiful and succulent shoots, as well as subshrubs with a varied crown.
Leaves in the form of a shield or with separate fingers, rounded shape, with lobes and solid edges. Flowers with a pleasant characteristic aroma, bisexual, simple or with several rows of double or semi-double petals. Petals can be five or more, as well as sepals with a tube, funnel-shaped, where nectar is located. Flowers are painted in yellow, orange, cream, salmon, crimson or red. The fruit has three reniform, wrinkled lobes, in which the seeds of a reniform, rounded shape ripen.
Scientists have proved that nasturtium is rich in natural healing properties: anti-inflammatory, diuretic, expectorant, antiseptic, laxatives. These properties of the plant acquired, due to the large content in its composition ascorbic acid, potassium, phosphorus, iodine, carotene, thiamine, phytoncide and herbal antibiotic.
Parts of nasturtium widely used in cooking for the preparation of salads, rich in nutrients, as well as various savory seasonings. Medical cosmetologists strongly recommend that people who suffer from boils and acne be wiped with tincture prepared from the succulent nasturtium leaves. And to strengthen the hair of the same tincture is very useful to rub into the roots of the follicles of hair.
The smell of nasturtium, planted at the dacha, has a deterring effect on many pests - the Colorado potato beetle, cabbage caterpillars, aphids, nematodes, and various rodents.
Types and varieties of flower nasturtium
For growing nasturtium in open ground in the regions of central Russia, the following varieties are very popular:
- Big nasturtium. The most popular type of capuchins among amateur gardeners, having branched, fragile, bare stems up to 2–2.5 meters long. The bush of compact form reaches a height of 65–70 cm. Large leaves of oval shape with a diameter of 7.5–8 cm are decorated with long petioles of this plant. Of the many varieties of large nasturtium I want to highlight: King Theodore - ruby-red, Pitch Melba - cream-colored with a red core, ladybug - apricot color with crimson spots in the middle.
- Foreign Nasturtium. This is a type of South American creeper, which is capable of braiding an arch or an arbor for a short period of time. It has shoots of light green color up to 3.5 meters long. The small flowers of this plant are painted in a light yellow color, and the spur in green. This species of capuchin blooms from mid-July to mid-autumn.
- Cultural nasturtium. A variety of plants consisting of hybrid varieties of nasturtium large and shield-bearing. This variety of capuchins can have both a bush form and a creeping one. The best varieties are: Moonlight - a pale yellow variety of pale yellow color, Gleming Makhagoni - a variety of bush form, terry with red flowers, Golden Good - a compact variety with double flowers, golden-yellow color.
- Thyroid nasturtium. Creeping varieties, shrub with long shoots up to 3.5-4 meters. The color of the flowers is juicy, bright. The most popular variety is Lucifer (orange-red).
- Small nasturtium. Plants of this species have thin shoots and small flowers 2.5–3 cm in size. The variety is undersized up to 35 cm in height. The most famous are: Cherry rose with bright red terry flowers, Black lady has a dark maroon color.
Nasturtium: planting and care in the open field
Reproduction of nasturtium is done in three ways:
Direct sowing of nasturtium seeds in open ground is the easiest way to propagate this plant. But such sowing will be problematic if the spring is cool, so it is better to grow nasturtium seedlings at home, and then plant a strong plant in the open ground. This type of planting capuchins reduces the time to flowering.
Planting seeds at home is recommended from the end of March to the beginning of April. In central Russia, due to the cool climate, these periods are shifted to mid-April. To preserve varietal (species) quality of flowers as much as possible, they can be propagated by cuttings. At the same time, cuttings of new and terry varieties must first be rooted in moist sand or water.
Поскольку для эффективного выращивания настурции необходимо наличие света и тепла, то при определении места для посадки, нужно выбирать участки, максимально освещённые лучами солнца and хорошо защищёнными от порывистого холодного ветра. In general, in the shadow of the nasturtium will feel relatively good, but the flowering will be faded and scarce, but a good gardener can not afford this.
The soil at the site of planting should be light, fairly nutritious, but not oversaturated with organic matter, so that the plant could not grow excessively thick foliage, and the flowering will be reduced. On the poor ground, on the contrary, the leaves grow quite small in size, so the flowering will not be so attractive. Capuchins should not be planted in wetlands, as in the soil that is too moist, the plant's root system can rapidly rot.
For this purpose it is best to use biohumus, pressed forms in granules, cups which have a bottom is removed, peat pots or tablets.
2-3 seeds of a plant are planted to a depth of 1.5–2 cm in each individual container. Since the root system of nasturtium is rather fragile and weak, picking her categorically contraindicated, then with the appearance of two main leaves the plant is planted directly in peat tanks in open ground.
If the seed is planted in a common box, then 10-15 cm distance should be left between the holes in order to capture a large lump of earth with each plant, while avoiding damage to the roots. The seed container is watered abundantly and placed in a warm place, preferably on the window sill. If the temperature in the room is kept at + 20–22 ℃, sprouts can already appear 10–12 days after planting. A few days before disembarking, in warm weather, the seedlings for 2-4 hours into open space. This operation allows the hardening of seedlings.
Caring for this beautiful plant is not much different from the main activities that every amateur gardener holds on his site. With regular implementation of some recommendations and agrotechnical measures, the nasturtium will feel comfortable:
- The main condition for proper care is considered conducting a competent regime of soil moisture. At first, the flower requires a large presence of moisture, but with the beginning of flowering, watering should be carried out as the soil dries. Because of the constantly wet soil, the nasturtium is well green, but the flowering is getting worse.
- Weekly before the start of budding need feed the plantusing potash and phosphate fertilizers. The culture does not need nitrogen fertilizing, as it improves the growth of leaves, but flowering weakens.
- Periodically during cultivation is necessary examine the plantto reveal faded flowers, dead stalks and leaves. Finding the affected parts of the nasturtium, you need to remove them using a sharp knife or pruner, while leaving a few ovaries on the seed.
Conducting such a simple care will be quite enough to ensure good flowering of this culture.
Diseases and pests
Nasturtium - a beautiful honey plant. Therefore, it is often possible to see insect pollinators in its flowers, but such harmful inhabitants of the garden as the whitefly, aphid, cabbage soup, the Colorado potato beetle cannot stand the smell of its flowering buds and prefer not to visit this plant.
However, nasturtium can often suffer from other diseases:
- Gray decay - with this disease appear brown dry spots on the leaf plates.
- Bacterial wilt - the lower leaves of a plant may wither and weaken in this disease, which can kill the whole shrub.
- Mosaic - may appear on the plant variegated, bright divorces, which are also considered to be a flower disease.
- Rust - the appearance on the plant dirty brown or black spots.
Having found the first signs of disease, it is necessary to remove the bush together with the root and burn it. The place where the diseased plant was planted should be plentifully shed with a hot solution of potassium permanganate, and the neighboring plants should be treated with a strong fungicidal agent.
Remember that spraying a plant from above causes him harm and leads to his illness. But loosening and weeding the soil can eliminate the possibility of plant contamination and contributes to the preservation of planting.
Actions after flowering
As it became clear from the article, in conditions of natural distribution, nasturtium is a perennial plant, but in latitudes with a temperate climate it does not tolerate the winter and is considered one-year. Therefore, before the onset of cold weather, it is necessary to collect ripe seeds, while it should be done before they fall on the ground.
Only foreign nasturtium seeds do not have time to ripen in natural conditions, and this process occurs to the end at home on the windowsill. Then all the collected seeds are sorted, cleaned of garbage and packed up in paper bags. Store them at room temperature in a dry place until next season.
After collecting the seed, the shriveled and withered tops of the plants are removed from the bed and burned. And the soil needs to be dug up.
In landscape design, nasturtium looks very beautiful both alone and in compositions with other plants. Brilliantly nasturtium looks on the background of annual dahlias and marigolds. Types of nasturtiums with long stems are perfect for decorating walls of buildings, arches, arbors. A low-growing plants can serve as a border on the tracks of your site.
What time to plant
The planting of nasturtium seedlings in open soil is made in the first decade of June. For planting you need to choose a sunny area that has reliable protection from cold winds. If this flower culture is grown in a shaded place, then its flowering will not be so lush and spectacular. The soil needs a light nutrient, slightly acidic, and well-drained. If there is too much organic matter in the soil, the greens in the bushes will grow very intensively, but they will not bloom. When growing nasturtium on an excessively depleted soil, the leaf plates of it become small, because of which the shoots look bare, and the flowering loses its high decorative effect. If you choose to plant a stagnant moist soil, the plant will rot.
Nasturtium seeds are large, germinate quickly, seedlings intensively gain green mass, so there is no great need for growing seedlings. Flowers are recommended to sow directly into the soil.
The dates of sowing are calculated based on the time of seed germination (12-14 days) and the disappearance of the threat of recurrent night frosts. In the middle lane it is the second half of May.
A bed is loosened, too poor soil is filled with compost at the rate of 1 bucket / m². If you know that there will be no time for feeding, the bed can be filled with long-acting fertilizers. These are capsules that will dissolve gradually under the influence of rain and watering.
Before sowing, seeds are recommended to soak for a day. They are planted in a nesting way - 2–3 pieces per well, and a distance of 25–30 cm is left between the holes. The seeding depth is 2–3 cm.
To speed up the germination of nasturtium, planting is recommended to cover with agrofiber - the material retains heat and does not interfere with the care of seedlings.
How to achieve abundant flowering?
Nasturtium loves loosening, but since it lags along the ground, it is extremely inconvenient to do. As a way out, we can offer mulching of the soil in the projection of a bush - these can be rotted sawdust, bark, or decorative clay.
If the soil when planting refilled normally, during the summer nasturtium can not feed. The exception is ampelous varieties growing in a small volume of soil. They need to be watered with a nutrient solution every 1.5–2 weeks, reducing the recommended dose of fertilizer by half.
Planting nasturtiums in flower beds can also be fed 2-3 times per summer. To do this, prepare a liquid solution or use granular fertilizer (pinch under the bush).
If you do not plan to collect the seeds, immediately after the flower withers, remove the ovary. The plant spends up to a third of nutrients on the formation and maturation of seeds - let them better go for flowering.
Popular Nasturtium Varieties
- Nasturtium Vesuvius - Erect shrub up to 30 cm tall, as it grows it becomes semi-creeping. The leaves are large, rounded, dark green. The flowers are simple up to 5 cm in diameter, salmon-pink with an orange tinge, on the top two petals there is a dark red spot with strokes around. Calyx yellow.
- Nasturtium Garnet Jam (Garnet Gem) - Bush upright, compact, up to 30 cm tall. The leaves are large, round, light green. Terry flowers, rather large, up to 6 cm in diameter, pomegranate-red with an orange tinge. On the top two petals brown strokes. Calyx is bright yellow.
- Nasturtium Golden Globe (Golden Globe) - Bush is compact, spherical, upright, 25 cm tall, up to 40 cm in diameter. The leaves are round, light green. The flowers are double, large, up to 6.5 cm in diameter, golden-yellow, without spots. Calyx yellow.
- Nasturtium Globe of Fire (Globe of Fire) - Bush upright to 45 cm tall. The leaves are light green. The flowers are double, large, up to 7 cm in diameter, bright orange. On the top two petals are dark brown strokes. Calyx dark yellow.
- Nasturtium Kaiserin von India (Kaiserin von Indien) - Bush upright, 20-25 cm tall, compact, spherical. The leaves are small, dark green with a purple bloom, gray-gray on the underside. The flowers are simple, up to 4.5 cm in diameter, dark red with brown-red strokes at the base of the two upper petals. Calyx outside is orange-red.
- Nasturtium Foyeoglants (Feuerglanz) - Bush creeping up to 25 cm tall. The leaves are large, light green. The flowers are large, up to 6 cm in diameter, double, fiery orange with dark red strokes on the top two petals. Calyx orange-red.
The use of nasturtium in cooking
In ordinary garden nasturtium edible all parts of the plant, except the roots. Fresh young leaves and stems rich in vitamin C add some spice to salads and sandwiches, extracts from flowers are introduced into cheeses and butter, vinegar is drawn on nasturtium flowers, stuffed with various fillings, and also used as an edible decoration in salads, soups and drinks. And finally, dried, peeled and ground seeds have a spicy pepper taste and are used as a seasoning for a wide variety of dishes (it is said that in many countries they rather actively used ground nasturtium seeds instead of black pepper during the Second World War).
Nasturtium unpretentious to the conditions of detention. She also does not require much strength and attention. But you need to know the rules of care. The plant can not grow without the help of a gardener. It is also necessary to take into account natural conditions, as in regions where the cold season prevails, it will be useless to grow this flower.
Lighting and temperature
Lighting is an important factor in which it will be clear whether there will be a lush bloom. Nasturtium loves light. The site should be well lit. In the penumbra, it will grow and let the leaves, but flowering may not be at all, so this factor should be taken into account.
Temperature control is very important for any plant. Including for nasturtium. She loves heat and therefore feels good in spring and summer, at a temperature of about 25 degrees. Frosts are not acceptable for her. It is poorly adapted to the Russian winter, and therefore grows as an annual. But in the warm regions of the country can grow it more than one year.
Watering should be regular, depends on the full development of the plant. It is not recommended to overmoisten the soil.since the root system can start to rot. Dry land also provokes various diseases. In all things you need to keep a balance. During the flowering period, watering is done only when the soil looks dry. In the usual time, water is watered once for 3-4 days. When it rains seasonally, it is not necessary to water.
Soil and top dressing
The soil should be fertile, with a low level of acidity. It is also better to choose a light soil with drainage properties. Nasturtium does not like heavily fertilized with organic fertilizer soil. She will not bloom, and her appearance will be completely dull and colorful. It is recommended to beware and too poor on fertilizer soils. In them, the flower will lose all its properties, the leaves will become very small, and the stems will remain almost bare. In heavy soil, the root system begins to rot, diseases appear. This leads to death.
Fertilizers are very important.despite all the fertility of the soil. It is necessary to know that their excess also adversely affects the entire flower system. Feed it only during the vegetative period. Not any fertilizer is used for this, but potash or phosphorus only. Mineral feeding is made no more than once a month.
Organic fertilizers are not acceptable. They can not be laid in the soil and long before planting. In this ground nasturtium will not live at all.
Landing in the open ground
Planting is done in early summer. Before this you need to choose a place that will be protected from winds and drafts.
Before planting, prepare seedlings. If planted in this way, you can achieve early flowering. Seeds are laid in special peat cups or other convenient capacity. The bottom must be extended. Already in mid-spring, the seeds are laid in the soil to a depth of two centimeters. In one glass planted a couple of pieces of seeds. Temperature conditions must be respected. The temperature in the room should not be lower or higher than 20-25 degrees Celsius. The first shoots will appear in a few weeks. The seedlings themselves do not dive later, transplanted together with a small lump of earth, in a glass.
With the advent of the first well-established warm summer days, seedlings begin to plant. The distance between the holes should be from 20 cm to 50 cm. At night, young plants are covered. Flowering can be observed in a month.
If you follow all the rules and recommendations, the landing will take place without much effort. Even a beginner gardener can handle it. Do not be afraid of anything.
Nasturtium is propagated in several ways: by seeds and cuttings. Both are quite simple and do not require special skills and time and effort.
Seed propagation fairly simple way. Under normal weather conditions and proper care, the plant leaves many seeds that overwinter in the ground. They themselves are quite large and have a protective sheath. Each seed ripens in its time, at the same time can not all ripen. It depends on the duration of flowering. Germination lasts for many years.
Already ripe seeds fall away. They should be removed only when they are easily separated from the base and have a slightly whitish color.
In open ground, seeds are planted in late spring. Before that, they are soaked for a day in ordinary water. Several pieces are put into each well, the distance between them should be about 30 cm. After a couple of weeks, the first signs of life appear. Flowering begins a few months after that. Prior to this, young plants are fed with a complex of feedings, about once a week.
For early flowering grown seedlings. Planted in the middle of spring in pots. The first shoots appear after a few weeks, depending on the light and temperature. In early summer, the pots are transplanted in open ground.
Propagation by cuttings - a method that is very popular among gardeners. To do this, separate the cuttings and plant them in pots or open ground. Some varieties even overwinter on balconies and delight gardeners. The cuttings are usually propagated in spring, when warm weather has settled. In general, the method of planting does not differ from that used in seed propagation.
Application in landscape design
Depending on the variety, nasturtium is actively used in landscape design. Mostly designers like to decorate front gardens with undersized varieties. They are grown in pots near the borders. Varieties with long stems are used for landscaping the site. They are planted along fences. Over time, they grow and can cover the entire area of the fence, thus becoming a kind of hedge. You can also successfully combine plants with different shades of inflorescences. For example, bright combine with more subdued.
Some designers recommend making a composition of nasturtium and other flowers that are grown in flower beds. For example, it will be well combined with vervain, yarrow and viol. Bright flowers will be a great accent.
The most popular types and varieties
There are many types of nasturtium. Some of them are grown in Russia.
- Large capuchin - a species that lives only one year. It can be successfully grown in a temperate climate. Used for decorating plots. The shape of the stem curly. It can grow up to two meters. It usually reproduces by self-sowing and does not require much attention. Flowers solitary, bright red hues. There are such varieties: "King Theodore" and "Salmon Baby."
- Thyroid nasturtium - Another common type. It is characterized by dark green leaves and bright flowers. It is a creeping shrub whose stems can be up to four meters long. One of the most famous varieties is "Lucifer".
- Small nasturtium - a type that is often grown in open ground. It does not grow large, reaches only 30 cm in height. У него очень мелкие листья, соцветия красных или оранжевых оттенков. Сорт «Черри роуз» и «Джаст Пичи» являются одними из популярных.
- Настурция - an amazing flower, for which you need to follow, but at the same time it does not require very much attention to itself. It is suitable for those gardeners who regularly monitor their flowers. Despite everything, with proper care, you can grow a very beautiful plant that will adorn the front garden.
Description and types of nasturtiums
Nasturtium in the form of creepers or half-shrub is distinguished by a succulent stem, lobed thyroid, palchaerazdelnymi or entire-edged leaves and irregularly shaped flowers.
Yellow or red flowers may be terry semi-double or simple. They consist of a funnel-shaped tube, five or more sepals and petals. The fruit formed after flowering of nasturtium consists of three kidney-shaped, wrinkled lobes with round-bud-shaped seeds.
A distinctive feature of the nasturtium is that its stems and flowers are of interest to chefs and have healing properties.
Tropical beauty in their homeland is growing as a perennial plant. But nasturtium does not tolerate sub-zero temperatures, so it grows in our gardens as an annual. Among gardeners, the five most popular plant species are most popular.
A 35 cm tall branchy plant with thin stems, very long petioles and rounded leaves is covered with small flowers, the diameter of which is about 3 cm.
Yellow flowers with dark spots are different. curved cylindrical spurs and pointed to the edge of velvety petals. Small nasturtium blooms from June to October. The most common varieties:
- "Black Velveteen" - a variety of plants with simple flowers, the diameter of which is not more than 6 cm. Their dark burgundy color may seem almost black.
- "Cherry Rose" different double flowers bright red color.
This type of plant combines the nasturtium hybrids large and shield-bearing. They vary in height and shape. It can be dwarf varieties, growing only up to 15−20 cm, or high compact bushes up to 50 cm in height.
Some varieties of cultural nasturtium are creeping plantswhose length of stems can be up to 4 meters. The most popular varieties are:
- "Moonlight" - grows up to two meters in length and blooms with pale yellow flowers.
- "Golden Globe" is a bush in the shape of a ball, whose height reaches only 25 cm. The plant is covered with light green, large, round leaves, reaching 6.5 cm in diameter. The terry flowers of this variety have a golden-yellow color.
- "Gleming Mahagani" differs terry red flowers and grows up to 37 cm.
The plant is a creeping shrub, fragile, juicy, dark green shoots that grow to four meters. They contain dark green thyroid leaves and juicy dark red flowers.
Nasturtium shield-bearing blooms from June to October. The most popular type among gardeners: “Lucifer” - the plant is erect shrubs and grows up to 25 cm.
Its dark green large leaves have a dark red tint. Simple red-orange flowers, 6 cm in diameter, bloom on light green shoots.
Nasturtium foreign or Canarian. Growing up to 350 cm vine quickly able to braid trellis and gazebos. It is distinguished by five - or semi-divided medium-sized leaves and bright yellow small flowers.
Canarian nasturtium flowers consist of green spur and corrugated petals. It blooms from mid-summer to frost.
When to plant nasturtium in open ground
The seeds of the plant remain viable for 4–5 years, so they can be harvested and stored for a long time.
In open ground, seeds can be sown in the end of May. To do this, they are pre-soaked in water with a temperature of 50-60 degrees. Due to this, the seed coat softens and they bite faster.
Next, you need dig up, loosen and fertilize the soil. It is recommended to add a little compost, wood ash and superphosphate to the soil.
The distance between the holes should be from 25 to 30 cm. In each well is sown. two or three seedswhich are deepened by 2−3 cm
The first seedlings should appear in two weeks. The nasturtium sown in open ground will bloom in 40–50 days.
Growing nasturtium seeds from home
The plant is propagated by seeds in two ways: by sowing seeds directly into the open ground, by growing seedlings at home.
To get early flowering bushes, it is recommended to grow nasturtium seedlings from seeds. At home, sowing is done in late March - early April. For this you can take peat or plastic pots 9 cm in diameter
In each pot filled with soil, three seeds are buried. Rassadnye containers covered with glass or cellophane and put in a warm place.
When the first seedlings appear, the glass is removed and the pots are removed. rearranged to a bright place. Caring for seedlings is their timely watering. Dive nasturtium is not recommended, because the tender root system of the plant does not tolerate transplantation.
The seedlings are planted in open ground after the frosts end. This should be done carefully, with a big lump of earth. Two to three days before planting young plants during the day in warm weather take out into the streetto temper.
Seedlings are planted in the hole, the distance between which should be 20−25 cm for compact varieties, and not less than 40 cm for climbers. Next to tall varieties of nasturtium, supports are installed immediately upon planting.
Growing seedlings is troublesome, but as a result you can get an early flowering of the plant, which quickly grows and decorates the plot.
Fight against diseases and pests
The plant has a peculiar smell that repels many pests. But sometimes it can be affected by the cabbage whitefish, the fly mining, spider mite.
The fight against these pests is in the treatment of bushes with insecticides system action. Sometimes the plant is affected by disease. Most often it can be:
- gray rot, in which dry leaves of brown color appear on the leaves,
- bacterial wilt, which at the first stage is manifested by weakening of the lower leaves, and then withering of the whole bush,
- rust and mosaic are diseases in which black and brown spots appear on the leaves.
The fight against these diseases is in processing plants special chemical and bacteriological preparations. Damaged leaves are collected and burned.
In order to prevent the spread of pests on the nasturtium bushes and not to start the disease, the leaves of the plant should be regularly inspected. The affected leaves are immediately removed, and the bush for preventive purposes sprayed with a solution of alcohol with liquid soap.
Grown from seeds and planted in an open ground nasturtium with proper care will please you with its beautiful flowering and shock of leaves until the frosts.
Her stunted varieties can be planted along the tracks, or used as a curb plant. Fences, walls of the building, balconies, and terraces are decorated with tall bushes.
Nasturtium is a perennial or annual plant. Often it is a vine with succulent shoots, less common shrubs. Often the leaf plates are alternately lobed, entire, thyroid, or palchatologic. Fragrant flowers can be terry, simple or semi-double. They are zygamorphic, irregular, axial and bisexual. They contain 5 petals (in some cases more), the same number of sepals, as well as a funnel-shaped tube, inside which is nectar. The flowers are most often colored yellow or red. The structure of the fruit includes 3 reniform wrinkled lobes, and in each of them ripen seeds are round-reniform form.
The shoots and flowers of this plant are different healing properties, and they are also used in the preparation of various dishes by cooks.
It is also possible to grow the nasturtium through seedlings, in this case the flowering will come sooner than when sowing seeds in open soil. For planting need to use cups with retractable bottom or peat. Seeding is done in April or May; they are buried in the substrate by 20 mm, while 2 or 3 seeds are placed in 1 cup. Then the cups are rearranged in a cool (from 20 to 22 degrees) place. The first seedlings seem after about 15 days. Emerging plants should be provided with good lighting so that they do not stretch, otherwise after transplanting into open ground they will be sick for a long time and not bloom. Since the root system of nasturtium is quite fragile and weak, and the leaf surface is large, they do not pick the seedlings, and seedlings are planted in open soil right in cups, without disturbing the integrity of the earthy coma.
As mentioned above, planting seedlings in open soil is produced in the first days of June. A plant is planted together with peat cups or with a clod of earth, and you should be extremely careful, because the seedling's root system can be easily injured. The distance between the plants directly depends on their variety and type, and it can vary from 0.2 to 0.4 m. At first, it will be necessary to cover the plant for the night. Flowering will begin after 4-6 weeks.
Caring for nasturtiums is very simple. They need timely watering and weeding. If, however, after the seedlings were planted on the plot, you covered it with a layer of mulch, then this will avoid a debilitating struggle with weeds. At the very beginning of active growth, special attention should be paid to systematic watering, which should be abundant. After the flowering begins, watering should be arranged only when the ground dries, if it is constantly moist, it will negatively affect the flowering splendor, but greens will grow wildly. It is also very important in time to pick off flowers that have started to fade. If you want to collect seeds, leave only a few ovaries for this.
Prior to flowering, regular fertilizing of this plant with potassium phosphate fertilizer is carried out with frequent 1 time in 7 days. Nitrogen fertilizers this culture is not fed.
Diseases and pests
This plant is very beautiful and incredibly useful. In addition, it repels whiteflies, cabbage, Colorado beetles, aphids and other pests.
However, nasturtium can still get sick. For example, it is affected by bacterial wilt. In the affected specimen, the lower leaf plates first weaken, and then the whole shrub begins to fade. And it can also become sick with gray rot, due to which dry specks of brown color are formed on the leaf plates. Also on the surface of the foliage sometimes you can see motley mosaic stains or black or brown specks of rust. When symptoms of these diseases occur, the affected bushes must be excavated and destroyed. At the same time, the remaining healthy flowers are sprayed with a special agent that can destroy the causative agents of the disease.
Nasturtium after flowering
When flowering is over, the bushes should be watered less and less each time until it stops completely. In mid-latitudes, as a rule, this plant is cultivated as an annual, therefore, in the autumn time, it should be treated as an annual. Or rather, clean the area from plant residues that must be destroyed. The site itself should be dug up. Remember to collect the seeds first, if needed.
Types and varieties of nasturtium with photos and names
Nasturtium growing under natural conditions is a perennial plant. However, in the mid-latitude gardens, this flower can be grown only as an annual, because it is not able to survive the winter in the open field. The most popular among gardeners enjoy the cultural types of nasturtiums, which will be described below.
Nasturtium foreign, or Canarian
The homeland of this creeper is South America. The length of green shoots can reach 3.5 m, while they are relatively quickly braided trellis and arbors. Flowering begins in mid-summer, and ends with the onset of frost. Small flowers of rich yellow color have corrugated petals, as well as green spurs. Small leaf plates can be five- or semi-separable. In mid-latitudes, seeds do not have time to ripen.
Nasturtium, or Capuchin, is a member of a genus of herbaceous plants, in which there are more than 90 species. The plant belongs to the Nasturtium family, and its homeland is considered to be South and Central America. But despite this, it has long been growing in temperate latitudes, feeling excellent.
Nasturtium was brought to Europe from India, so the inhabitants of European countries called it “Indian watercress”. When the flower was brought to Russia from Holland, he became the owner of the name "Capuchin". The reason for this name was his form, which resembled the hood of monks from the Order of the Capuchins. Nowadays, a culture filled with grace can often be found in park areas, front gardens and even on window sills.
Agrotechnical requirements for growing
Many experienced gardeners are aware of the unpretentiousness of capuchin to growing conditions. But despite this, if the goal is getting lush bloom, then you need to take care of compliance with several simple requirements.
The best option for growing representative nasturtium will be light and moderately fertile soil with high-quality drainage system. The decision to grow capuchin on a site rich in organic matter will not lead to the achievement of such a goal as rapid flowering. This is due primarily to the fact that in such a situation, the plant, due to the abundance of organic fertilizers, will form only excellent shoots.
Choosing a place where there are mostly marginal soils will also not be a good solution. In conditions of poor soil, almost the entire season, the stems will be bare, forming only small leaves. And the attempt to grow a culture on heavy ground will not be crowned with success: it will be affected by various diseases, which often leads to its complete destruction.
Lighting and windiness
Taking into account that the nasturtium is a heat and light-loving culture, optimal conditions for its growth can be created only in areas where there is open access for the sun's rays. Planting a capuchin in a semi-shaded spot will bring nothing but strong stems and thick green foliage throughout the season. When choosing a place, you should also take into account that drafts harm it. Consequently, the area where this flower will grow should be windless.
Watering and weeding
Nasturtium is in dire need of watering and systematic weeding.
- Watering - the peak of the need for flowers in water falls on a phase of intensive growth: after its completion, the culture begins to bloom. The timing of watering depends on the condition of the top soil layer. But do not forget that it is impossible to water the Capuchin too often: overmoistening of the soil causes the formation of pale inflorescences in it.
- Weeding - the main objectives of this procedure are to reduce the evaporation of moisture and improve air circulation. In the absence of free time, you can mulch the soil in the root zone of the plant, which will reduce the amount of weed.
Protection against diseases and pests
Nasturtium - a flower that has not only aesthetic beauty, but also useful properties. In addition, it frightens off such pests as the Colorado potato beetle, whitefly, aphid, cabbage soup, from itself and the planting of other plants nearby.
But the disease is susceptible to Capuchin:
- Bacterial wilt - the disease manifests itself by loosening the lower leaves, and then completely wilting the flower.
- Gray rot - a distinctive feature is the formation of dry brown spots on the leaves.
- Rust - the result of this disease is the appearance on the plant of small brown or black spot.
- Mosaic is another kind of blotch that damages the attractiveness of a flower.
In the case of the above manifestations, the affected specimens should be eliminated and healthy plants treated with fungicides.
If, after the pleasure obtained from the blossoming beauty, a desire has arisen to acquire flower seeds, then it is only necessary to select the appropriate moment for this. In the case where the florist has the opportunity to conduct constant monitoring of the seeds of flowers, it is easiest to do this. Noting that they are beginning to mature and have already acquired a whitish hue, you can start collecting. However, it should be borne in mind that this procedure is carried out before they fall off, otherwise capuchin self-reproduction will occur in places that were not intended for this.
When growing nasturtium curly one must take into account that, unlike other varieties, in this species the seeds do not reach full maturity.
This unique plant propagates with the help of seeds in two ways:
- Безрассадный метод — перед высевом семена капуцина на 20 минут следует поместить в емкость с горячей водой, имеющей температуру от +40 до +50°C, а затем замочить на сутки. Growing capuchin by the seedless method has its advantages: growing plants in a permanent place makes it possible to prevent their disease, which often happens with seedlings. However, there is also a minus: the culture blooms later.
- The seedling method - due to the fact that Capuchin has a rather weak root system with a significant leaf surface, it does not tolerate even minor damage to the roots. Therefore, in order to prevent them, the seedlings should be grown in separate tanks and planted with an earthen clod without picking. The best time for sowing seeds in order to obtain seedlings is April-May.
Reproduction by cuttings
Capuchin reproduction is possible by cuttings that have the ability to root rooted in water and in wet sand. This technique is used, as a rule, in the reproduction of new, and in particular, terry varieties. Since nasturtium refers to perennials, it is possible for the winter period to leave the most prominent specimens in a container in a well-lit, cool window with minimized watering, and in the spring hold their raskorchevku.
Place of nasturtium in landscape design
Often, flower culture is used in modern landscape design, which is due to its characteristic long-lasting and attractive flowering. And also, when it is necessary to divert attention from an ugly fence on a personal plot or to decorate a summerhouse, the use of a representative of nasturtium ones will be very useful. A plant with a lot of contrasting colors and an abundance of green leaves looks charming and spectacular. Rapid growth, abundant flowering and unpretentiousness led to an increase in its popularity even among novice growers.
With regard to the use of species composition, the stunted varieties of nasturtiums have been used for vases, borders, flower beds in the form of wide ribbons. Varieties with long shoots are used as ampelous or ground cover plants.
- Garnet Jem,
- Golden Globe,
- Globe of Fire,
- Kaiserin Von Indien,
So, from the above, it is clear that planting nasturtiums and caring for flowers are not labor-intensive activities. And the correctly chosen area and favorable conditions will become the basic components for obtaining lush flowering, pleasing the grower.