For the first time green basil was used in the preparation of oriental dishes. This spicy and fragrant spice relished the Europeans 2 centuries after it appeared in the culinary arsenal of many Asian chefs. At the end of the 16th century, basil becomes an expensive spice in dishes for meat, fish, salads and desserts.
Basilica has an abundance of varieties: 13 representatives. The leaf shape, size and color depend on the variety. Its color can be from pale green to deep purple hue. Due to its wide range of colors, some gardeners use basil as a decorative flower garden decoration. And when planting in the beds, he protects garden crops from many pests with his tart aroma.
The most popular varieties of green basil in our climate zone:
- Anise green basil with silver-green leaves. Got its name for a delicate sweetish aroma, reminiscent of anise. Very popular in traditional oriental cuisine and confectionery.
- Lemon is a fragrant green basil with delicate lemon notes. Used in beverages, desserts and as a seasoning for fish. Often used in cosmetology, perfume and aromatherapy.
- "Thai Queen" - due to its decorative appeal, it is often used in landscape design: against the background of bright abundant foliage in the center of the plant there is a rich purple inflorescence. Sharp and strong aroma gives characteristic oriental taste. Used in marinades, sauces and as a seasoning for meat.
Europeans call green types a sweet basil, as it has a smoother and milder taste, most often it is used in Mediterranean cuisine. Violet varieties have a sharper, spicy taste. Eastern nations call it fragrant basil.
Common varieties of purple basil:
- Purple - leaves characteristic burgundy and purple hues. It has a high yield due to the large foliage. Due to the pronounced spices often used in the manufacture of oils, sauce and vinegar. Serves as an ornament for salads.
- Camphor - the highest grade, reaches 60 centimeters. Got its name due to the extract of natural camphor from the plant. It has a specific aroma and serves as a therapeutic infusion. It is used in meat and vegetable dishes.
- "Ararat" - the fastest basil in time for maturation, from the beginning of germination to harvest passes from 30 to 40 days. Compact dimensions, up to 30 centimeters in height, purple hue, with a bitter-clove aroma. Used in dried form in broths, for meat and vegetables.
We considered only the most common varieties of basil green and purple, in fact they are much more. And they all have their own unique qualities, but they are united in their usefulness to human health.
Useful properties of green basil
Not only in cooking, basil has received its wide distribution, but also in traditional medicine, thanks to its healing properties. Due to the bright aroma, the plant was used to purify the air, get rid of headaches and relax the body in aromatherapy. And, according to old beliefs, basil helped young girls get married.
People suffering from diseases of the digestive system, the special properties of green basil helped get rid of the disease. After all, the essential oils contained in spices, do well with the breakdown of fatty foods.
What is part of the eastern spice
In order to answer the question, what is useful green basil, it is necessary to deal with its chemical composition. All the richness of the plant is contained in its leaves. They contain vitamins: A, B2, P, C, vegetable fats, simple sugars, rutin, carotene, phytoncides. Spice is given to the basil by the essential oils, which are contained in the amount of 1.5%, which is considered a high indicator. Volatile substances, which are also important components, contribute to the activation of the heart rhythm: linalool, camphor, eugenol and meilhavinol.
Thanks to all the above characteristics, it is possible to understand how extensive the use of basil and in medicine is: as an anti-inflammatory, disinfecting, wound-healing, immuno-strengthening agent. With bronchitis, viral respiratory diseases, asthma, this plant can come to the rescue.
Positively wags on the nervous system, digestive tract, strengthens the muscle tissue of internal organs and relieves spasms in the blood vessels and normalizes the urinary tract and intestines.
Who should not eat fragrant basil
Since basil activates heart activity, then in case of problems with the health of this organ, it is worth refraining from consuming this plant. Fragrant green basil also affects the blood vessels in the body, therefore, diseases of the veins of various etiologies and blood clotting are the rationale for abstaining from it. During pregnancy, feeding and diabetes, doctors also recommend to refrain from this spice in any form.
Choosing a landing site
Basil grows well in open, well-lit areas. Therefore, you should take care that the place was chosen correctly: away from buildings, casting a shadow. The soil must be prepared in such a way that it provides the necessary growth and development of the plant. This requires the planting site to be moistened with an agent containing potassium compounds (potassium chloride, potassium sulfate) and urea in the same proportions as water. The soil itself, in which basil will grow, should consist of humus, peat, compost and earth.
Growing green basil
Many gardeners can find basil next to parsley, dill or onion. The healing properties and taste of this plant attract lovers of healthy food. Grow it by seed in greenhouses or seedlings in the open field. The fact is that green basil is very gentle and thermophilic, at the slightest frosts the plant dies. Therefore, a seedling method of planting facilitates the process of leaving and contributes to the speedy yield from the garden.
The optimal time for sowing seeds is mid-March. A landing in the open ground is best done when it is already warm and the air warmed up to +20 - + 25C. Usually it begins to transplant in late May - early June.
Since it is very sensitive to transplanting, it is better to do this together with peat pots or in the phase of the first leaflet that has opened. This will reduce the loss of landing. The distance between the seedlings must be left at 20 centimeters. Below is a photo of green basil.
Eastern Spice Diseases
Basil is an annual plant, but planting it in the same place is not recommended earlier than in 5 years. The fact is that it is susceptible to fungal diseases that occur with improper care:
- annual landing in the same place
- overflow, as a result, water stagnation,
- lack of timely loosening the soil around the basil,
- improper weed removal.
If you find that basil is infected with a black leg, fusarium or gray rot, you should immediately remove the plant from the landing site along with the root system and the adjacent ground. But if basil is just starting to get sick, you can try to save it: prepare the decoction on the onion peel (in the ratio of 100 g of husk per 400 ml of boiling water, and leave to stand for a day) or a solution of blue vitriol (1 teaspoon of powder per 2 liters of water) and spray every day the diseased plant until full recovery.
Plant energy value
If you are a lover of Italian cuisine, then basil in the form of decorations on pasta or salad additions appears very often. Therefore, information about the caloric content of such an amazing spice can also be interesting. Per 100 grams of product in dried form accounts for 23-27 kcal (depending on the variety). The main component of the plant is water - 96%, fat in the basil is 0.65%, carbohydrates - 2.64%, proteins - 3.14%. From this data we can conclude that its caloric content is almost zero.
Basil as a means to lose weight
If you stick to a diet, green basil can help you out. The fact is that it is not only almost calorie-free, but also copes with the feeling of hunger. And also fills up reserves of vital trace elements and vitamins. When it is eaten, it will actively begin to burn fats and speed up metabolic processes in the body.
For example, if you add 2 tablespoons of basil to stewed vegetables, then you should know that you have received only 1 kilocalorie. All processes will proceed so efficiently that the body will only have nothing at all as an energy. You can add fish for a couple, then the dietary dish will sparkle with bright colors. Maximum benefits for your body.
The use of basil in cosmetology
We already know that green or purple basil is composed of many essential oils. For this reason, cosmetologists like to make oils from it, which come as an important useful component in creams, lotions and other means aimed at rejuvenation. Basil oil care products will be involved in the fight against skin fatigue, signs of wilting and acne. Antioxidant properties will help the skin to upgrade and get rid of the harmful effects of the environment.
Recipe for a classic basil salad
After all the above information about the beneficial properties of basil, its cultivation, use for medicinal purposes, and much more, you must complete the article with the classic recipe for a simple and tasty basil salad. This salad is included in the menu of most European restaurants.
Green or purple basil is used in cooking in various variations: plant leaves, shoots, in fresh and dried form, whole and crushed.
We will need the following products:
- mozzarella cheese - 120-130 g,
- Cherry tomatoes - 10 pieces (or ordinary tomatoes - 2 pieces),
- lettuce leaves - 5 pieces,
- basil leaves - 6 petals,
- bunch of dill,
- green onions (to taste),
- balsamic vinegar - 1 tablespoon,
- olive oil - 2 tablespoons,
- salt, pepper - to taste.
If you have stored cherry tomatoes, then after they have been washed, you need to cut it in half. If you have ordinary tomatoes, then cut them into cubes.
Mozzarella cheese should be removed from the package and rinsed with boiled water. When cheese is ready, cut it into cubes.
Go to the green: basil, you can just pick, leave whole or cut into slices (as you prefer). But it is considered that greenery, torn by hands, gives off more essential oils and gives a more saturated taste to the dish. With dill can do the same, but you can chop it, like green onions. The last ingredient is not a must-have ingredient in a classic basil salad. Therefore, leave the decision on its availability at its discretion.
To prepare the dressing, you need to mix balsamic vinegar and olive oil.
Now turn to the design of the salad: put sliced cherry tomatoes (or tomatoes) on a dish, add the greens. Pour the salad with the prepared dressing.
There is a final touch: lettuce can cut or pick pieces (as you prefer) and mix the finished mixture.
Purple basil: properties
Calories: 23 kcal.
The energy value of the product Basil Violet:
Protein: 3.14 g.
Fat: 0.65 g
Carbohydrates: 2.64 g.
Purple basil - spicy plant, one of the types of basil. The name of the plant was due to the purple color of the leaves. Basil is a member of the Sponge family. The plant belongs to the family of mint herbs. Violet basil is an annual plant that reaches 50 cm in height, with many leaves of a rich purple color (see photo).
The birthplace of the basil is considered to be South Asia. The pioneers of basil on the European continent are the Germans. In Germany, basil began to be cultivated since the 12th century. Back in the times of ancient civilizations, basil was widely used to make medicinal tinctures and decoctions. Purple basil is different from green in that it has a sharper smell. This type of basil is not particularly popular in the European culinary tradition, but Asian and Caucasian cuisine uses it very widely.
The best varieties of purple basil
Among the best and most sought-after varieties of purple basil are the following: "Thai", "Yerevan", "Opal", "Ararat", "Pepper flavor" and "Vanilla".
Violet basil variety
This variety of basil grows high bush, which is a little curly. Its flowers are painted in lilac color, and the leaves have a violet-green shade. The most important thing is that the leaves contain carotene and essential oils. Harvesting can be done two months after planting. Also, the Ararat variety is suitable for growing in flower pots. In cooking, such basil is added to various cheeses, vegetable salads, hot dishes (vegetable soup) or they simply sprinkle on top the finished hot product.
Basil varieties "Vanilla" - an annual herbaceous plant, in which the stem is branched and can reach forty centimeters in height. Its leaves are jagged at the edges and are painted in a rich purple hue, and the flowers are collected in spikelets. Since basil leaves are very tasty, they can be put even in fruit salads.
Rightfully occupies one of the leading places among the other varieties of basil, since it is used not only in cooking, but also in garden decor. This plant has purple leaves with a red tinge. During flowering of this variety of basil, its pink flowers completely cover the bush and exude a wonderful aroma. In addition, "Yerevan" basil is good because its leaves can be cut up to three times during the entire harvest season. Therefore, one square meter can collect up to three kilograms of basil leaves.
The basil bush is covered with purple leaves, and its flowers have a crimson color. However, with this sort of need to cut the flowers so that they do not interfere with the growth of the leaves. Since basil leaves have a peppery flavor with a slight clove odor, and they also taste good, they can be put in a variety of sauces, dressings, pickles, mixed with oils, vinegar, and added to salads. Over the entire period of yield, you can collect up to two kilograms of such leaves, and this is only from one planted square.
This type of basil is an annual, herbaceous plant with red leaves. They have a rich spicy smell and taste. Harvesting can be done twenty days after planting. The most common variety of basil "Pepper flavor" is added to various sauces, pickles instead of pepper.
This type of basil forms a compacted shrub with dark purple leaves that are notched along the edges, and their surface is smooth. The plant has a rich spicy aroma with a faint smell of cinnamon. Most often it is added to vegetable salads, marinades and pickles are prepared with it, and various meat and fish products are seasoned with it.
As you can see, there are a lot of varieties of purple basil, so you can try to plant all the varieties, and then choose the one that you like the most and the taste and flavor.
Below is a video about the beneficial properties of basil.
The beneficial properties of purple basil are not very different from its green variety. In Russia, the plant was known under the name of royal grass, so its medicinal properties were widely used by traditional healers. The plant effectively cleanses the body, can be used for inflammation of the bladder, gastric diseases.
Basil is rich in vitamins A, C, PP. This combination of vitamins helps to improve the elasticity of blood vessels, improves the appearance of the skin, strengthens the nails. Basil contains a large amount of essential oil, which gives the plant leaves a unique aroma, similar to the smell of allspice. Essential oil contains a huge amount of camphor. Basil oil has astringent, astringent properties. In connection with these properties infusion of basil treat flatulence.
Basil is attributed to the properties of radioprotector, he protects the human body from the damaging effects of radiation. Basil, like other medicinal herbs, has an antimicrobial effect, disinfects wounds, helps with diseases of internal organs. Basil favorably affects the state of the body in case of arthritis and rheumatism.
In India, it is believed that the use of basil enhances memory, improves brain function. Hindus worship basil as the second sacred plant after lotus. Basil considered aphrodosiac, he helps to tune in to the romantic mood of a man and a woman. Basil perfectly relaxes, increases the potency. Растение широко используют как натуральное средство от головной боли. Базилик помогает облегчить мигрень.In order to relax after a hard day, it is enough to take a warm bath with a few drops of basil oil, which must be mixed with honey or cream immediately before the procedure.
Basil leaves contain carotene, rutin, vitamins C, PP, B2. Basil juice is rich in phytoncides. Basil is used as an effective tonic, squeezing the juice out of fresh basil for this purpose. Basil oil is used for bloating, it is used as a natural antispasmodic. The plant oil can also be used for inhalations for colds and viral diseases, it has a bactericidal property, and contributes to the speedy recovery. Especially effective oil is different in the fight against fungal infections. Basil decoction is used inside, a bunch of basil is boiled for 20 minutes, then cooled and taken several times a day.
Basil juice is used to treat fungus, and decoctions for the treatment of intestinal colic, poisoning, gastritis. Basil juice is obtained from fresh leaves or flowers of the plant, they need to be collected before flowering. Juice irritates the gastric mucosa, so you need to drink it after meals, after diluting it with water. Basil is effective in diseases associated with digestion. Avicena recommended basil for the treatment and prevention of many diseases.
Use in cooking
In cooking, purple basil can easily replace green in many recipes. The aroma of purple basil is no less fragrant than that of green. Caucasian culinary tradition is not cooking meat dishes without adding basil. Purple basil in many regions is known by the names of Regan or Raykhon. Azerbaijani cuisine adds basil to dessert drinks. In Uzbekistan, it is added to tea drinks. Basil stains the liquid purple and when a lemon slice is added to the tea, the drink turns bright pink.
Basil in dried form is used as a spice. As a seasoning, purple basil is used to prepare vegetable dishes with eggplants, tomatoes, sweet peppers. Cooks recommend combining basil with other herbs, such as mint, parsley, marjoram. Not a good combination of basil with coriander is considered, since the dish will get an unpleasant taste. Spicy plants can be added to homemade sausages, canned food, meat dishes.
Fresh basil leaves are perfectly combined with all vegetables, suitable for cooking salads. Especially good basil in harmony with tomatoes, it will not replace when cooking tomato sauce. Green basil is one of the components of pesto sauce. In Mediterranean cuisine, this herb is used for cooking seafood. Also, young basil leaves are added to the pizza. Lamb, beef and other meats are also great with this spicy herb.
Basil can be used both in dried and in fresh form. The caloric value of the product is 23 calories per 100 grams. The relatively low calorie content of the herb, as well as its beneficial properties, allow us to recommend this plant for the prevention of many diseases. Basil has a beneficial effect on the digestive tract, contains a sufficient amount of fiber, which is essential for people who are on a diet.
The benefits of purple basil and treatment
The use of basil allows you to use it for medicinal purposes in the form of infusions, decoctions and tinctures. Basil is used to increase appetite. Infusion is prepared as follows: 1 tbsp. dried herbs pour boiling water, insist under the lid for 10 minutes. Then the mixture should be drained and taken several times a day, before eating.
Basil is taken as a decoction for the treatment of inflammatory processes. For this 4 tbsp. l pour boiling water and leave to infuse for half an hour. Infusion should be taken with diseases of the throat three times a day before meals. With increased excitability should often brew purple tea from basil. For one serving, 4 spoons of crushed basil leaves and flowers per cup of boiling water will be enough.
When otitis make a compress of basil leaves. A small amount of plants is poured boiling water, then brought to a boil. When the broth is ready to boil, it is removed from the heat and allowed to stand for about 30 minutes, a compress is made on both ears for 1-2 hours.
Harm of purple basil and contraindications
Basil may cause harm to the body during pregnancy. In moderate doses, purple basil is very useful, but in the form of decoctions it is undesirable to use it with high blood pressure, diabetes, pregnancy. The course of treatment with basil should not exceed three weeks. Any treatment should be carried out under the supervision of the attending physician, because this spicy herb has some contraindications to use.
Overview of basil varieties by various characteristics
The best varieties of basil have a bright taste and a unique aroma. It is the flavor that determines the culinary destination. Basilicas differ in the color of the stems and foliage - they are green or purple, and also demonstrate a variety of intermediate shades. For gardeners, plant readiness periods for cutting, their height, and the size of foliage are important.
The taste of basil harmoniously combines bitterness and sweetness, and the various proportions of essential oils give each grade a special smell. It defines the scope of culinary use. Small amounts of fresh or dried herbs are added to various dishes:
- meat, fish, seafood, vegetables and legumes (basil is NOT combined with fragrant mushrooms),
- cottage cheese,
- sausage smoked meats
- pickles, pickles, canned,
- vinegar, oil,
- different drinks
- culinary and pastry products, desserts,
- spice mixtures.
Basil for tea is chosen with lemon flavor or mint flavor, cinnamon smell is relevant for sweet pastries, and clove-pepper in the marinade is appropriate. Gardeners like a variety of smells: preferences depend on individual taste and habits.
Many gardeners love to experiment and annually experience new options: in terms of diversity, basil is a very fertile culture.
Range of aroma
- Anise: Anise delight, Ararat, Genoese (Genovese), Aniseed gourmet.
- Vanilla: Vanilla flavor.
- Clove: Valya, Delight, Alluring Handsome, Markus, Semko Moskvoretsky, Red Rubin, Robin Bobin, Sanka, Darkie, Perfection, Stella, Dark Night, Philosopher, Khaki, Shamun, Shuntuk.
- Caramel: Pet.
- Cinnamon: Karakum, Crimean purple.
- Laurel: Purple stars.
- Lime: Lime, Green Lime.
- Lemon: Lemon slices, Limoncello, Freshness.
- Muscat: Raspberry nutmeg.
- Mint (menthol): Velvet, Mint Gourmet.
- Pepper: Aramis, Compatto, Marian, Orion, Rosie, Ruby Bouquet, Emily.
- The smell of lilac: Pearl of the Moscow region.
- Clove-peppery: Basilisk, Gnome, Sultan's Dreams, Dark Opal, Dragon, Yerevan, Crimean, Legion, Opal, Tulasi, Dreamer, Black Prince.
- Camphor-clove: Violet shine.
- Caramelly Mint: Malachite.
- Caramel and fruity: Caramel.
- Cinnamon Anise: Thai Queen.
- Lemon Mint: Lemon Miracle.
- Muscat Pepper: Pomegranate Nutmeg.
- Peppermint: Greek.
Purple basil varieties are in demand in the Caucasus. They contain twice as much stuff as substances than green ones. Many of our gardeners prefer precisely the purple varieties, they are put in the first and second courses, sauces, salads, pickles.
Varieties of green basil, as a rule, have a more "soft" taste and aroma, are popular in Mediterranean cuisine.
Most varieties with a lemon, mint and aniseed smell have soft green foliage. But a direct relationship between color and smell is not observed.
It is convenient to play contrasts of colors for decorative purposes. Sometimes gardeners use flowering basilicas in garden design: they produce flower stalks of various shades - white, pink, purple.
The original varieties with light foliage and dark fluffy buds (Thai Queen).
Terms of ripening
There is no stable classification of vegetable basil by maturity: the characteristics often indicate the age of budding and flowering, but sometimes the collection of foliage starts earlier. For vegetable growers, the rate of increase of grass mass and accumulation of essential oils is important.
The earliest basilicas reach technical readiness within 2-3 weeks after germination.
Early (15-25 days): Delight, Dwarf, Dragon, Pearl of the Moscow Region, In Memory of Yury Fadeev, Pepper Flavor.
Middle Early: (30-45 dn.): Anise, Cinnamon Flavor, Vitamine Purple, Deli, Pomegranate Nutmeg, Yerevan, Karakum, Cinnamon, Cinnamon, Handsome, Lemon Miracle, Limoncello, Malachite, Raspberry Muscat, Marian, Marquis, Moskvoretsky Semko, Purple fireworks, Robin Bobin, Rosie, Rubra, Dark-skinned woman, Stella, Philosopher, Violet shine, Black Prince, Shalun, Emily.
Mid-Ripe: (50-65 dn.): Aniskin, Ararat, Velvet, Valya, Greek, Aniseed Gourmet, Clove Gourmet, Mint Gourmet, Sweet scented, Crimean, Legion, Lemon Slices, Pet, Marcus, Opal, Purple Zhodzy,,, etc. , Sanka, Freshness, Dark night, Naughty.
Middle late: (after 70 days): Bader, Violet, Dreamer.
According to gardeners, middle-late varieties are more suitable for the southern regions.
Superlow and supercompact (18-25 cm): Basilisk, Carnation aroma, Dwarf, Aniseed gourmet, Mint gourmet, Compatto, Malachite, Troll, Philosopher.
Low (25-45 cm): Aramis, Vanilla Flavor, Velvet, Sandwich Leaf, Dwarf, Limoncello, Moskvoretsky Semko, Russian Giant Purple, Freshness, Stella, Dark Night.
Sredneroslye (50-60 cm): Amigo, Aniskin, Anisovka, Anisovy delight, Ararat, Aroma of cinnamon, Aroma of lemon, Valya, Vitaminchik violet, Delight, Garnet muscat, Greek, Gourmet clove, Dragon, Yerevan, Karakum, Legion, Lemon miracle , Lemon fragrance, Pet, Orion, Pepper aroma, Purple stars, Ruby bouquet, Russian giant green, Dark complexion.
High (65 cm and more): Bugger, Pearl of the Moscow region, Crimean purple, Dreamer.
Under the varieties of large basil mean forms with wide and long leaf plates. Their size does not always depend on the height of the plant. It should be noted that not all gardeners like large-leaved varieties, many prefer small-leaved and narrow-leaved forms.
- With clove pepper smell: Tempter (green), Russian bogatyr (green or a mixture of varieties), Russian giant green, Russian giant purple, Broadleaf (green).
- With the scent of cinnamon: royal blood (green).
The aroma is clove-pepper. The variety is medium early, medium grown. Flowers lilac. The return of greens from the bush - up to 0.5 kg.
As practice has shown (many gardeners are divided into forums) - Yerevan basil often grows with dark green leaves. The green color in the basil is dominant, and often the purple varieties lose anthocyanin.
The smell of cinnamon. The flowers are purple. The height of the bush - the average. The weight of the grassy part is 250 g.
Green basil varieties
The smell of mint. Mid-season low grade. Recoil from the plant - 300 g
The aroma of caramel. The variety is middle-ripening, up to 0.5 m high. The yield is more than 400 g per bush.
Lemon Flavor Low bush, with a mass of green to 180 g. Ready to cut in the middle time.
For the northern regions
Many basilicas are suitable for open ground even in those regions where the climate is rather harsh, continental.
For the Central zone (including for the Moscow region), for the North-West of Russia, for Siberia and the Urals, cold-resistant and early varieties are selected (they can be sown in open ground), as well as middle-ripening and medium-early varieties, getting them through the seedlings.
Pearl of the Moscow region
New Russian variety up to 1.2 m high with a unique smell of blooming lilacs. Early (20-25 days), suitable for sowing in open ground. Stems are dark, green leaf with purple backlighting, numerous inflorescences, lilac-purple. It grows well even on poor soils, is not damaged by pests and diseases. Harvesting greenery from the bush - 370 g.
In memory of Yuri Fadeev
The latest Russian selection. The variety is very early (15-20 days), medium tall, powerfully increasing. Recoil from the bush to 0.4 kg per square meter - more than 5 kg. The fragrance is close to clove. The leaf is dark green, with a slight presence of purple hue. Flowers pinkish. Plants are hardy to disease, drought and damp. Can be grown in a seedless way.
Preparing to issue a patent for a grade.
Early (from 20 days), srednerosly. The foliage is purple.
Cold-resistant variety of Russian selection. Low (25 cm). Foliage green, small. Flowers are white, bloom 2 months after germination. The smell is clove-pepper. Recoil from the bush - 150 g.
For windowsill and balcony
Low-growing and compact varieties of basil are suitable for growing on a windowsill, including hydroponics. Some names of the varieties "speaking": Dwarf and Compatto (green clove-pepper), Ruby dwarf (not higher than 20 cm). The selection is rich in color and flavor.
Medium early. The foliage is small, greenish-blue, Shrub no higher than 30 cm, compressed, with a mass of green 20 g. The little flowers are purple. The smell is intense pepper.
Shade-tolerant compact variety. Mid-season. Leaflets and inflorescences are purple, may be dark green. Return from the bush for the summer season - 150
Sredneranny grade with a commodity weight of 300 g. Stems are violet, foliage is green. The smell is original - caramel-mint.
Bush up to 30 cm, compact, thick. Mid-season, green. The leaves are elongated, the flowers are white. Lemon flavor. Seasonal green output - 180 g
Thai Queen (equivalent - Siam Queen, Queen of Siam)
Compact, decorative variety with contrast of green foliage and purple-violet fluffy inflorescences. Flowering long. The aroma is cinnamon-anise.
Rare varieties of basil
Exotic lovers take the time to search for rare varieties of basil. Low distribution is associated either with the novelty of the variety, or with its poor adaptability to a cool climate.
New Dutch selection. Rapid (40 days) growth of thin oval leaflets. The plants are medium strong, pale green, with a distinct smell of lemon. Appointment: fish dishes, drinks, marinades. The output of green - 250 g from the bush.
Modern variety of German origin. Compact mid-early variety with rather large leaves and persistent spicy aroma. The color is dark purple. Commodity weight bush - a quarter kilogram.
New medium early (40 days) variety from the Netherlands. The foliage is green, large, pepper flavor. Green payoff - more than 3 kg per square meter.
Smell and taste
The taste of green basil is soft. This herb is suitable for making desserts, which is not the case for purple basil. His fragrance is also delicate. On the aroma can often be judged by the names of varieties. "Lemon" variety really has a lemon smell, it can be added to soft drinks. And the "caramel" variety has a pronounced smell of caramel.
Violet basil tastes spicy, therefore it is added mainly to meat dishes. Purple basil has a sharper smell that is felt from afar.
Scientists suggest that the historic birthplace of basil is Africa. It was brought to Europe by the soldiers of Alexander the Great. In Russia, it appeared in the 18th century and was used initially for medicinal purposes. According to other sources, the Germans were spread around Europe in the twelfth century by basil. There is no exact information about the difference in the history of the discovery of green and violet basilica.
Chemical composition and benefits
The chemical composition varies slightly in violet and green basil. The plant is rich in vitamins A, C, PP, essential oil, which gives basil such a smell, camphor.
Basil is actively used in traditional medicine, in Russia the plant was grown exclusively for medical purposes.
- Both green and purple basil have antibacterial properties and disinfect the wound.
- Violet basil helps with diseases of internal organs and flatulence.
- It is also recommended for people suffering from rheumatism and arthritis.
- Both types of basil are used as a cheap and natural remedy for headaches, in India it is believed that basil improves brain function and also contributes to memory improvement.
- Green basil is especially helpful in relieving stress and relieving stress.
- Basil is an aphrodisiac, it helps a lot to tune in the “right way” to both men and women, so eating with basil is a good option for a date.
- And to relax after a hard day’s work, fill the baths and pour into the water a mixture of cream, honey and a few drops of basil essential oil.
Contraindications to receiving purple and green basil do not differ or vary slightly. This plant should not be taken with blood clotting disorders, thrombophlebitis, thrombosis and other diseases of the cardiovascular system, especially if a person has suffered a stroke or heart attack.
What is the different scope?
As mentioned earlier, basil is actively used in cooking.
Green basil is added mainly to pastries, pastries and beverages. - tea and various lemonades. Из-за его сладкого запаха и мягкого вкуса его также можно добавлять в блюда, в которых нужен контраст соленого и сладкого.
Фиолетовый базилик острее, за что ценится на востоке. Его вкус напоминает вкус черного перца. Purple basil is seasoned with meat, fish, added to some salads and pastes. Purple basil tea will have a purple hue. If you add lemon, the tea will turn bright pink.
Can they be combined in dishes?
These types of basil can be combinedHowever, not the fact that this makes sense. Such a combination can be an interesting option for unusual dishes. This is a great scope for experiments!
We told you about the difference between green and purple types of basil, how to use them for culinary and medicinal purposes. We hope that our article will be useful for you. Bold you culinary experiments and success!
Basil: varieties and types
The varieties of this spicy seasoning are divided into two groups:
- red basil or purple basil.
Distinctive characteristics of basil green and purple are in the color of leaves, flavor and taste.
According to the classification, the plant is divided into 4 types:
- fine-leaved basil,
Important! There are many varieties of this spice. All types of basil differ from each other by stem height, color saturation, and period of growth.
At the expiration of 40 days after sowing can be taken for the harvest. This variety of clove flavor is used in the manufacture of various types of salads and meat dishes.
It looks like a ball, which is why it is often used as a decor. Because of its spicy flavor, it is added to a variety of sauces, salads and culinary products. Crop is heared in 2.5 months after disembarkation.
The height of the shoot reaches 25 cm. The crop is harvested 1.5 months after planting. As a seasoning added to sauces, salads, pasta. Gourmet leaves are often dried or frozen for the winter.
Bright green with lemon flavor. Lemon flavor grows until harvest time - about two and a half months after transplanting to the ground. Very popular with culinary.
The leaves of the Holy Basil bitterish, have the taste of cloves and pepper. Used in the preparation of spicy meat dishes, basil sauce, added to spicy vegetable salads.
Shoots have a dark purple color. Due to its juiciness, it contains a lot of essential oil. It is a diuretic and disinfectant. It is used fresh and as a seasoning for vegetables.
It is a tall, slightly winding shrub. The leaves are greenish-purple, and the flowers are purple. It is added to the first and second dishes, cheeses, vegetable salads.
Due to the variety of varietal accessories, fans to experiment with the taste of dishes can choose from a variety of varietal species the most suitable.
Basil green and purple: the difference
In the Caucasus and in the countries of Asia, purple basil most often grows, it has a harder taste than green. Eastern cuisine is not complete without this fragrant spice.
The inhabitants of the countries of Europe most appreciated green basil, due to the fact that its taste is softer, and the smell is more aromatic. It should be noted that this plant was only appreciated by Europeans after it managed to delight the people of France with its taste. Here they began to use it, preparing traditional dishes.
On a note! Basil green and red have flavor differences. Which one to choose depends on the buyer.
In the XVI century, this seasoning, in addition to being added to meat dishes, began to be used when making beverages and culinary products.
Green and Purple Basil
Red basil can begin to turn green if there is a lack of sunlight or air. Therefore, it is important when growing his house to put pots on the sunny side of the apartment, open the window during the day so that the plant breathes fresh air. There are also varieties of plants that have a unique color with a greenish and reddish tinge.
Green basil is an unpretentious plant that grows easily, both in the garden in the garden, and in pots on the windowsill of the apartment. Basil grown by your own hands will bring much more benefit than the one that was bought on the store counter.
In the open ground it is desirable to plant seedlings, so it will be possible to start harvesting earlier. They begin to cook it in April, planting it in special boxes with earth. In the presence of a greenhouse basil can be planted in it, a very favorable neighborhood for him are tomatoes. The essential oil of the plant effectively protects tomatoes from various diseases, scares insects.
It is worth noting! Basil can be planted immediately in open ground, without using seedlings, however, it will grow much slower, and the growth will not exceed 20 cm.
This seasoning does not require special care. It is necessary to observe the frequency of watering, not allowing the plant to wither from a strong drought or excessive moisture.
The first shoots of basil in the ground
Basil Varieties for Midland
Separate varieties for planting in the Middle Belt of the Russian Federation have not currently been bred. Therefore, for planting this spice it is necessary to carefully select the appropriate species for a particular region from the available varieties. According to the climatic features in the Central zone (and in the Moscow region), in the Urals, in Siberia, cold-resistant species grow best: Marquis, Moskvoretsky, Dragon, Basil anise flavor, Green fragrant, Zhigalo.
What is basil useful for?
Note! Essential oil is anti-inflammatory and antibacterial. When rinsing the mouth with this solution can cure stomatitis.
Also, thanks to the works of Avicenna, it was found that the plant has tonic, antispasmodic and relaxing properties.
Basil on the windowsill
Basil is used in the treatment of diseases such as:
- bladder disease
- stomach problems.
Broths effectively help from vomiting, otitis, nausea and flatulence. Bathing with infusion of basil will help to relax and strengthen the body.
In addition to the benefits, basil can also cause harm to human health. Due to the fact that it contains mercury, they should not be abused. He has some contraindications. It is recommended to refrain from consuming this spice to pregnant and lactating women, people with cardiovascular diseases.
Description of basil plant species
Other names: sweet basil, common basil, camphor basil, myatolian basil, green fragrant basil.
Shrub or herb from the family of Lambs. It happens to be perennial and annual.
In Greek it means “king”.
The plant blooms intermittent brush or spikelet. White, light pink or purple flowers are collected in whorls of 6-10 pieces.
The roots are superficial and branched, the stem is straight and branched, about 60-70 cm long.
The leaves, having an ovate oblong shape, are decorated with rare cloves and pubescent.
Basil: types and varieties
Achenes remain viable for about five years.
Wild basil can be found in the South and Central Asian regions, India, China, Africa, Iran, in the American tropics, as well as in the Caucasus.
Well-known camphor oil is produced from basil essential oils. The leaves of the plant have a salty and tart taste, which adds to meat and fish dishes, pasta and cheeses.
Basil's Historic Roots
As the story goes, it first appeared in the countries of the Middle East and India. In ancient times, healing broths and infusions were made of it.
- In European countries, they learned about him thanks to the Germans, in whose country basil was cultivated since the beginning of the 12th century.
- In the 16th century, the French and other Europeans began to add its greens to traditional dishes, especially meat, desserts, refreshing and warming drinks.
- In the 18th century, it also turned out to be in Russia, where at first this green was used as a medicine.
Now basil is cultivated all over the planet and is used mainly as an aromatic spice, rich in essential oils, vitamin C, PP and B2, as well as carotene, routine, camphor, etc.
Basil green and purple: the difference
Varieties of this plant - a great many, but the color of the leaves, they are all divided into two types: purple and green. We learn what their features are, and how green basil differs from violet.
Green basil has a mild flavor, and therefore is commonly used in European cooking. They prepare a lot of desserts with this plant, and for them the purple look is not suitable.
But the inhabitants of the Caucasus and the Asian people prefer it to the purple plant, appreciating its rich spicy flavor.
Green basil exudes a delicate aroma, especially lemon variety, used in the production of refreshing drinks.
In contrast, it is purple basil, it is red basil or black basil (with black and purple leaves), has a more pungent smell. It is enough to pass on the market past the tray with this view, and you immediately feel the characteristic harsh smell.
By the way, this greenery is the strongest, be it bush basil or herbaceous, it smells when it attains color.
History of basil
For a long time this aromatic herb was used in India and in the East as a spice, but in Europe its smell was considered too specific and was not popular in cooking for a long time. The first to try it out were the chefs of Italy, and gradually basil spread throughout Europe, and it was quite expensive, and was considered a symbol of wealth and well-being.
Already in the sixteenth century, purple basil became extremely popular in Europe and was used as a seasoning for salads, soups, hot main dishes, used in the preparation of desserts and teas. Infusions of this herb normalize digestion, increase immunity, relieve various inflammations. In Russia, purple basil appeared around the eighteenth century and was used as a remedy for colds and heat.
There are a lot of varieties of this plant, the main ones are green and purple, the rest are created by selection from these two. And here are the most popular:
- Greenhe is sweet. Since ancient times, known and widely used in Mediterranean cuisine. The color of leaves from emerald to rich green, has a delicate taste and aroma. Good for salads and main dishes. There are varieties of green basil, such as:
- Citric. Plant with green leaves, about sixty centimeters high. Spice has the aroma of lemon, so it is often used for the preparation of teas and desserts, fish dishes and various decoctions. With the help of lemon basil, you can aromatize the room, it is good as an additive to soap and other cosmetics.
- Italian. Popular variety with a strong smell of anise. Used in teas, salads, lemonades. Pesto sauce is simply impossible to imagine without this sort of basil. Heat-loving, grows well at home.
- Evenol. This variety comes from Africa, is quite high, up to one meter high, the leaves are large, the smell is complex - mint with a lemon shade, there is a note of pepper, bitter. Used as a seasoning for first and second courses.
- Broadleaf. Differs in juicy and large leaves, about three hundred grams can be collected from one plant. Contains a large amount of aromatic oils, good in marinades and salads.
- Violet. It has an extremely sharp taste and smell, there are two times more essential oils in it than in green. Popular in Asian cuisine, in Europe and America spread quite late, closer to the middle of the twentieth century. Used both fresh and as a seasoning. The suborbs of basil violet include:
- Ordinaryor Ocimum basilicum. A low variety, the plant reaches fifty centimeters up. It grows both in beds and flower pots in the apartment. Aroma pleasant, with a clove shade. It is used both in fresh and dried form for marinade, in the preparation of first courses and salads.
- Yerevan. Very popular and fruitful variety, for the season you can collect several harvests. The taste is tart, with a hint of allspice. Good for soups, main dishes, salads and sauces.
- Red. Bred by American breeders in the middle of the last century, suitable for planting in the ground and flower pots. The aroma is pronounced brightly. It is consumed fresh in a salad, in dried form - as an additive to oils and vinegar.
- Sacred. Extremely popular in Indian cuisine as a spice, as well as a necessary substance in the sacred rites, whence its name.
- Osmin. The plant is originally from India, is used as a spice and as a decorative ornament of the home garden. This basil loves heat, so it grows well in apartment conditions.
Benefit for health
In the leaves of the plant a lot flavonoids, that is, organic compounds that stabilize chromosomal cells and prevent their destruction or growth, thus, basil prevents the appearance of tumors.
Essential oils have bactericidal properties, positively affect the work of the gastrointestinal tract, and eugenol will help relieve spasms and calm the pain. Chewing fresh leaves will disinfect the mouth. A huge plus of greens - the presence in its composition of vitamin K, which is in such quantity not found in any other spicy grass.
This vitamin has a hemostatic effect, helps the bones to remain strong.
Basil is also good for cosmetic purposes. Masks from this plant will have both a nourishing and cleansing effect, and bactericidal properties will help problem skin.
Green leaves are saturated with magnesium, which soothes and fights depression.
Any basil varieties can be replaced with pepper or salt. The herb will give the dish a savory taste, but it will not cause an increase in appetite, which is important with diets. And the bactericidal properties of the plant will successfully replace chemical antibiotics. When a cold is very good decoction of basil leaves - it will lower the heat and relieve inflammation.
Another advantage of this unusual plant is that it is a natural aphrodisiac. Especially useful to use basil for men, because it will increase the potency and sexual desire. The plant will increase blood circulation, remove "harmful" cholesterol and excess sugar from the body, disinfect the urinary system. Regular consumption of this herb will prevent the manifestation of flatulence and constipation, will have a general tonic effect on the body. All this, in aggregate, has a positive effect directly on the potency. That is why basil should be an indispensable part of the diet of men.
Many are interested in the question of the possibility of consuming basil pregnant. This is a special question. It should be borne in mind that this plant increases the tone of the uterus, which is generally useful, but not in the first stages of pregnancy. Therefore, in the first months it will be better to give up. In later terms, the consumption of basil in small quantities is quite acceptable.
It is important to know that for people suffering from high blood pressure or unstable pressure, heart disease, diabetes, it is recommended to use the plant very, very moderately.
Cultivation in the ground
Sow basil seeds in seedlings follows closer to the end of March. To begin with preparing a nutrient soil, which can be purchased in the store for gardeners. The soil should be light, with good breathability. Seeds do not go deep, but only slightly sprinkled with soil, after which it is necessary to water carefully. Capacity should be covered with greenhouse film and cleaned in a warm place with good lighting. Seeds will germinate rather quickly, and, after the appearance of the first leaves, seedlings can be sowed. However, they can and just thin out.
To harden the seedlings for a short time are brought to fresh air, a balcony or terrace, and the greenhouse film is removed. Gradually, you can make basil for the whole day, cleaning the house at night. When establishing a constant warm weather, it can be planted in open soil. The place should be well lit, the side is sunny, south. In the harsh climate of basil planted in greenhouses. The distance between the bushes should be observed in about thirty centimeters. After planting the plant must be watered with separated warm water. For the first time, seedlings can be covered with greenhouse film.
Caring for seedlings is not too complicated. It is necessary to observe the correct mode of watering and regularly loosen the earth, you should also feed basil with fertilizer (about once a month). The inflorescences of the plants are removed - this will allow the bush to be more lush.
If you follow these simple rules, the plant will appreciate a good growth and abundant harvest of useful greens.
Basil fully justifies its name, which translates as "royal". After all, the use of this plant is difficult to overestimate. A huge amount of vitamins, essential elements and essential oils will bring great benefit to the human body and help to maintain health, and a beautiful and unusual appearance will decorate a flower bed and a flower garden. Именно поэтому каждому огороднику как начинающему, так и профессионалу, стоит вырастить такое царское растение, как базилик фиолетовый или зелёный базилик, на своем приусадебном участке.