There are few people who have never heard of goji berries. The last few years, the attractive advertising for this “miracle from the East” has been crowded with sites on the Internet. Goji is often offered as a “magical” natural remedy for weight loss, but it is also known about the content in this plant of many priceless microelements that are beneficial to the human body.
But is it really necessary to eat goji berries, to constantly buy them for decent money? After all, the conditions for growing this miracle plant can be created in Russia. Anyone who wants to try goji as a means of losing weight, looking for a source of microelements and vitamins, or just wanting to diversify the dacha with some unusual plant will certainly be interested to know what a goji berry is, planting, growing and caring for which on Russian soil.
Homeland miracle berries and the area where they first learned about its usefulness, is considered Tibet. In China, the history of the use of goji in food is estimated in tens of thousands of years. Since the last century, goji has gained incredible popularity in many countries around the world. For the healing properties of goji berry is rightly recognized as one of the most useful natural herbal remedies. The shrub with oblong bright red fruits has many names: common Dereza, Tibetan (or Chinese) barberry, wolfberry, wolfberry, Chinese Dereza ...
Dereza belongs to the family Solanaceae. Of the more than 40 species of plants bearing the scientific name “Dereza”, it is usually common Dereza that is grown outside China. Due to its simplicity and relative ease of care, this plant is very popular and beautifully cultivated in Asia, Africa, the Caucasus, Ukraine, Primorye, as well as in central Russia.
The benefits of goji berries for humans
Goji berry, planting and caring for which in the Chinese provinces have already acquired industrial proportions, is incredibly valued in traditional medicine of China and Tibet.
The properties of these "magic" berries can not be overestimated. Goji is an invaluable source of more than twenty mineral substances, a set of natural vegetable fats and carbohydrates, 18 rare amino acids, linoleic acid, proteins, fatty acids, fiber, essential vitamins C, E and group B.
Of course, the goji berry, which is planted and cared for in the territory of Russia, is noticeably inferior in terms of the amount of minerals and vitamins to similar fruits grown in the mountains of Tibet or in China. But even “goji from the dacha” can provide the human body with the daily norm of all the substances listed above.
In addition to using these berries for the most publicized goal of weight loss, goji consumption solves many medical and physiological problems: improves metabolism and skin condition, reduces blood sugar levels, regulates melatonin levels, helps against depression and sleep disorders, improves immunity and promote rejuvenation. organism. There is an opinion that it is the use of goji - the secret of the success of athletes from the Middle Kingdom, the reason for their incredible endurance.
Climatic conditions and soil for growing goji
Externally common wormwood is a tall shrub with small leaves and thin flexible, rather prickly branches. The flowering shrub is covered with delicate lilac flowers, and the wolfberry fruit, known as goji berry, is oblong, medium-sized, bright red in color. The ability of woodwort to grow and bear fruit in the harsh mountainous climate of the Himalayas suggests that the plant is highly viable and can withstand frosts down to –15 degrees.
“The berry of happiness and longevity” feels great in the Russian temperate climate, in a place where there is a lot of sunshine and average humidity. The soil on which tree bark is grown can be any, so the plant is very unpretentious. Goji berry, planting and care for which are discussed in the article, can be successfully grown in the suburbs at the dacha.
Goji saplings from cuttings
How to grow goji berries in the area of their own cottages? To grow a seedling tree can be from seeds or from cuttings.
Cuttings can be obtained by slips. To do this, in the middle of summer, on an already existing bush at least three years old, they bend down to the ground and strong branches are dropped in it. Before the first frosts, the branch is cut and spread.
Cuttings can be cut separately. Cuttings about 10 cm long are carefully cut from the mother bush, and be sure to cut them so that at least 1 cm is “old” wood. The edge is treated with a root, and the cuttings are planted in the greenhouse. In winter, suitable for this and insulated balcony.
How to grow seedlings from seed
If it is not possible to obtain cuttings, then one can grow a sapling of barley from seeds extracted from ripe goji berries. Planting and care of seeds is somewhat different from the "cuttings".
Seeds are extracted from fully ripe goji berries. They do not need to be germinated before planting, it is recommended just soak them for a couple of hours in an immune system stimulator - zircon or epine. Seeds are placed in a medium drained neutral soil mixture containing compost and sand. Seeds are planted close together in a greenhouse or other fairly bright place with a consistently warm temperature and covered with a film. Watering is carried out using a spray gun.
After the appearance of two leaves on a bush, the plants are seated in deep containers, and the tops pinch. In hothouse conditions, woods are kept for at least a year, and then planted in the ground.
Planting in open ground
The next important stage in the cultivation of goji is planting and caring for seedlings. It is best to plant wood wreck in the spring. Since this plant is cross-pollination, it is necessary to plant at least two shrubs next to it.
Sapling tree trunks planted in the hole about 40 cm in depth and about 50 cm in width. The distance between each bush of the goji berry must be at least 1.5 meters. The land intended for filling the plant is mixed with a large amount of compost, about 8-10 kg (peat or humus will do) with the addition of 200 g of superphosphate and 40 grams of wood ash or potassium sulphate. Sapling should be slightly buried, densely sprinkle with prepared soil, it is good to water. Cover the ground around the seedling with a protective film or straw.
And valuable information for those who do not have a summer house, but I want to have their own goji berry. Planting and caring for this plant are possible in the conditions of the house. To grow healthy berries at home you need a large pot so that the powerful goji roots can grow freely. To create a favorable environment, it will be necessary to provide a goji bush berries with plenty of light. The place where goji berries will grow, planting and care for at home should be located where the plant is not exposed to cold running air from a window or door and excessively high temperatures, for example, from a heating radiator or stove. The rules for regular care of such indoor plants are simple: do not add mineral supplements at the same time as organic supplements, ensure constant, but not too strong, watering. And it will be comfortable to “winter” a bush of goji berries at a cool temperature. Of the minuses of the "home" goji - the nutrients in them will contain a minimum, much less than in the "summer" instance.
The main advantage that goji berry has - planting and caring for this plant is quite simple. Caring for shrub barbarum after planting is as follows:
- Watering as necessary, in dry time twice a week.
- You can feed the plant, but only during the growing season.
- If desired, to give an aesthetic look, you can cut the plant and cut branches.
- For the winter, goji can either be carefully covered with branches, or transplanted into a deep container and sent to "winter" in the basement.
As you can see, just grow goji. Berry, planting and care in the suburbs for which are described in the article, is becoming increasingly popular among gardeners.
No less important information than the cultivation of goji berries, planting, care - how to collect ripe bright berries correctly. There is a feature here. A shrub grown from seed yields goji berries only in the third or even fourth year after planting.
You only need to pick ripe berries when it has acquired a bright red shade! Berries that are not ripe on the branch, categorically can not be eaten, as they can cause poisoning.
In addition, you should avoid contact with fresh goji with open skin. If you pick berries with your bare hands, the juice on the skin can cause irritation and color when you oxidize your hands in a dark color. The most traditional way to harvest is to shake berries from branches on spreading fabric. If necessary, further processing of fresh berries hands better protect gloves.
How to store and eat ripe berries
How can you save a crop of goji berries taken from a bush? The most common way to eat goji berries is in dried form, which is exactly how most sellers in our country sell them.
To preserve useful elements in a ripe berry, it should be dried only naturally, without separating the stem, spreading the berries in the shade. Both the use of preservatives and the effect of kiln drying or direct sunlight will adversely affect the quality of dried fruits.
A sign that the berry is dried to the desired state - peeling of the skin. After this, goji must be separated from the stalk and placed in a storage container, then kept in a dark, dry place.
It is important to remember that it is not safe to eat large quantities of goji berries right away - the body has to get used to them. "Overdose" can turn into dehydration and kidney problems. A safe daily dose of this herbal remedy is one tablespoon for an adult.
Goji berries can be consumed in any form. The easiest way is to brew berries in the proportion of 1 tablespoon per 150 ml of boiling water. After 30 minutes, the drink is ready to be consumed, it should be taken along with the brewed berries.
Also, goji will be an excellent addition to any dishes: soups, desserts, cereals, salads, sauces ... In addition to berries, dried bark of common wormwood and dried leaves of this shrub are used for medicinal and tonic tinctures and tea. Despite the miraculous properties of goji, you should remember about the precautions, and before you start to use the berries of this plant, consult a doctor and familiarize yourself with the existing contraindications.
What does a plant look like?
Goji is a shrub type treegrowing up to 3 meters in height. Its branches are thin, drooping, studded with spines, yellowish shoots. The leaves have the shape of an ellipse, they are short sitting, alternately arranged. On top of the foliage is green, and the lower part of the leaves - bluish.
Flowers wolfberry bell-shaped, pink-lilac. The fruits are the same goji berries - orange-red, bright. They resemble the appearance of sea buckthorn, only elongated shape. The plant looks great in the form of a hedge. It can be planted not only along the fence, but also for the purpose of dividing the suburban area into zones. Dereza perfectly tolerates a haircut.
Goji berry benefits
Goji is valued not only for decoration. The healing properties of this plant are known for more than one century and are used in the treatment of various diseases. Dereza gives for the season not a single crop, as the fruiting lasts from May to October. The most useful are berries that grew in August.
For medicinal purposes, the berries are used for:
- diabetes mellitus
- vision problems
- sleep disorders.
It is believed that the fruits of this shrub rejuvenate the body, strengthen the immune system, relieve the effects of stress. Athletes take drugs based on them to recuperate and increase endurance. Fresh berries are not consumed, they are poisonous. Pre-harvest harvested from the shrub must be dried.
This method is suitable for those who has dried goji berries. If the drying was carried out according to the correct technology, at a temperature not higher than 50 ° C, then the seeds retain their germination. In one berry can be up to 30 seeds. On a plant planted in such a way, individual berries will appear in a year. Giving abundant crops when growing goji from seed bush can for 4-5 years.
- If you have fresh berries at your disposal, then the seeds of them must be removed in gloves, otherwise you can get irritation on the skin from the burning juice. It is better to put dried berries in advance for 1-2 hours in warm water. After taking the seeds out of the berries, wrap them overnight in a damp cloth, and immediately before planting, place them in a growth stimulator solution for 4 hours.
- The soil for germination should have an average density and neutral acid-base reaction. If you make the soil mixture yourself, then take 2 parts of loam into 2 parts of loam. The seeds are laid out on the surface and only slightly pressed into the soil, so that they are at a depth of 2-3 mm, otherwise it will be difficult for them to germinate.
- After planting, a container of seeds is sprayed with water and covered with a film, creating a greenhouse effect. Daily landing air, raising shelter. Germination occurs at ordinary room temperature. After the emergence of shoots film open up on one side. The soil is periodically gently moistened with a spray. A week later, the shelter is removed completely.
- Seedlings dive into separate pots after the appearance of two pairs of leaves. In mid-May, mature plants are planted in the garden. Some leave a wank for home keeping. In this case, you will need a bigger pot. Shrubs need to provide a bright place in the house and a cold wintering at a temperature of + 10 ° C. As a top dressing use humus and complex mineral fertilizer.
Reproduction by cuttings
Probably, someone will offer you cuttings of woodworm, for example, your neighbors in the country who have pruned. In this case, you can root the plant and eventually get a full-fledged adult shrub with healing berries. The best time for harvesting cuttings - mid spring and late summer.
- Semi-woody shoots 10-12 cm in size are cut from the bush.
- The cuttings are soaked in water for a while, then they are dipped in sections of the “Kornevin” and planted for rooting in the greenhouse.
- The emergence of the roots you notice by the appearance of new leaves, if the plant went into growth, then rooting was successful.
- When young plants get stronger, they are transplanted to a permanent place.
In the first months after planting the bush grows slowly - this is normal. The first wintering of wolfberry should go under the cover of spruce branches. This plant will begin to bear fruit for 2-3 years of life.
Planting purchased seedlings
If you have purchased goji berry seedlings, planting and care in the Moscow region are quite possible and are no longer surprising. Planting pit for seedlings must be prepared in advance. 2 weeks prior to planting, they dig a hole half a meter deep and about 40 cm in diameter. In the same way, they prepare a landing site for those plants that are planted in a permanent place, having previously grown a seedling from seed at home.
In regions with a cold climate, seedlings are planted in the spring, so that they grow stronger over the summer and well endure wintering. In warm terrain landing can be carried out in the fall. It is better to acquire a two-year sapling, it will begin to bear fruit faster.
Landing is as follows:
- The bottom of the landing pit is covered with a layer of sand.
- Then lay half the volume of soil consisting of fertile soil, mixed with humus in equal proportions.
- Fertilizers are applied to the earth in the form of 150 grams. double superphosphate and glass ash wood. They are thoroughly mixed with the soil.
- A sapling is installed vertically on the prepared ground, covered with the remaining earth and compacted. The root neck is left at ground level.
- The seedling is plentifully watered and mulch the surface around the peat.
- If several plants are planted, a distance of 2 meters is maintained between them.
Care for common tree
After landing on a permanent place, the care of a goji bush is reduced to regular watering in dry weather, weeding, and periodic fertilization. Pristvolny circle needs loosening to air freely to the roots.
Pruning bushes with goji berries produce for their own convenience. Harvest easier to collect with low instances. Yes, and berries on compact plants grow larger. With the harvest is in no hurry. Ягодки должны хорошо вызреть и обрести ярко-красный цвет, ведь незрелыми плодами можно отравиться.
Сбор и сушка ягод годжи
Тем, кто выращивает на участке дерезу обыкновенную, советуют собирать урожай расстелив под кустом ткань. The plant should be shaken to ripen berries. It is better to protect the skin with gloves with possible berry juice from burns. At home, it is desirable to dry the crop in a natural way, without using a stove for drying.
It is best to dry under a canopy in the shade.in a well ventilated area. The berries are laid out in a thin layer and turned over from time to time. The readiness of the raw material is determined by the fact that the skin begins to flake off. The dry berries remove the stem. Ready raw materials are stored in fabric or paper bags, cardboard boxes.
The question immediately arises, where goji berries grow and what it generally is. The plant is a deciduous shrub that belongs to the family Solanaceae. Also, the plant is called wolf berry (popularly, although it has nothing to do with them), red medlar, Chinese dereza, Chinese wolfberry, common dereza, zamaniha, Tibetan barberry. Homeland - Ningxia Hui (Tibet), China. The distribution area covers the Southeast and Central Asia, the Caucasus, Primorye, central Russia, Ukraine.
In the adult state, the height of the plant reaches 3 m, and the crown - 6 m in diameter (photos of goji shrubs are presented). The branches are drooping and prickly, having small foliage, painted on top of light green and on the bottom a gray shade. The root is very powerful, growing in the ground, and not on its surface.
Flowering occurs in June and continues through October with the blooming of purple, pink, brown-purple buds with a pleasant aroma.
At the end of flowering, oblong berries of crimson-red or orange color are formed.
Eating fresh fruit is categorically impossible, because they contain poisonous components. But after drying, the berries can be put into use.
The plant grows very quickly and at the same time has a well-developed root system. It should be planted either in areas devoid of vegetation, or along supports, to create a hedge.
When choosing a place, you need to be extremely careful, because dereza can "crush" nearby plants.
It is best to pick up sunny areas or located in a small shade. Also note that the height of the plant reaches three meters - take care of a reliable support.
Temperature, humidity and soil requirements
As it was said, dereza is frost resistant and can withstand temperatures in the range from -26 to + 40ºС. There are no special requirements for humidity. Calmly endures drought.
The shrub is not capricious to the soil. Favorite are alkaline and neutral substrates. In acidic, you can also plant a plant, but there it will develop somewhat worse.
The only thing that does not tolerate a wedge is water stagnation. Therefore, you should be very careful when watering and do not plant the plant in areas with a stony substrate.
Watering and feeding
Tibetan barberry is watered depending on age. In the first year, watering should be no more than twice a week. When the plant grows up, it will be possible to water less frequently and regulate according to weather and aridity.
Fertilize only the young. For these purposes, use superphosphate or humus. After growing into an adult plant, it is not necessary to feed. This is because dereza feels fine even on very poor lands.
For breeding using three methods.
Seeds are taken from pre-dried berries. To obtain the seed, take dry fruits, soak them in water and, when they are soft, pull out the seeds. In order for them to grow well, you need to endure in a growth stimulator. After they are sown in a container with a mixture of ordinary earth and peat in a ratio of 1: 2, they are buried by 2-3 mm in the substrate.
To maintain the right conditions for germination, the container is covered with a film and sent to a warm place inaccessible to light. When sprouts come, the box is brought to the light and protected from cold and drafts. Watering is done from the spray. After a week, the film can be removed, and when 3-4 sheets are formed, pick picking (transfer) of seedlings into separate pots (deep).
Constantly in open ground, the obtained goji seedlings grown from seeds at home are planted in the spring, when there is confidence that the frosts will not return, or already at the beginning of summer.
This option is acceptable if you managed to buy home-grown goji seedlings, or you purchased the planting material from your hands.
With this method, two weeks before disembarking, holes should be made, 40-50 cm in size. If for the southern regions “harvesting” is done in the autumn, then for colder ones - in the spring. This will allow the plants to tolerate frost well.
Coarse sand is poured into each well, and half of it is covered with a substrate consisting of humus and fertile soil, 8 kg each. 30 g of potassium sulphate is added there (it can be replaced with a glass of wood ash), 0.15 kg of double superphosphate, mixed directly in a pit and a sapling is planted, covered with fertile soil, and then watered. Pristvolny circle must be mulched using humus or peat.
The distance between the specimens must be at least 2 m.
And now tell you how to grow a goji from cuttings. From an adult plant cuttings are cut in lengths of 10-12 cm each. Then they are placed in a root-forming solution and planted for rooting in the constructed greenhouse and put it in a warm place. It is best to carry out the landing of the material in late July - early August. In the spring, the root will grow enough to plant a goji in open ground. Caring for a young plant is not particularly different from an adult.
a brief description of
Goji in Chinese means “dereza”, as they are called by the people. The plant belongs to the family Solanaceae. Dereza is a richly growing shrub that grows up to 3 m in height.
The branches of the bush are prickly with small leaves growing on them. The rhizome grows powerful shoots deep underground.
If you start to grow goji berries at home, then over time they will become more decorative: the branches will become a more pleasant yellowish tinge, the leaves will become green above and gray-blue below.
Blossoming wankers admire from June to October. The flowers take on a shade of pink to dark purple and have a delicate, pleasant scent.
When the berries ripen, they completely envelop the branch, have an elongated shape and bright red color. The average length of the fruit is about 2 cm. The plant begins to bear fruit three years after planting.
How to choose seedlings when buying
Always carefully choose seedlings for the future of the plant, because your choice will affect the entire harvest in the next few years.
Follow these guidelines:
- Trust only trusted sellers, and better - buy seedlings in nurseries. So you will be completely confident in the quality of the variety.
- An important aspect is the presence of a special tag with the name of the variety attached to the seedling itself.
- Sapling tree trunks need to buy without leaves. Although it seems that a small bush with green leaves is better to choose, it’s still an erroneous opinion, and such a seedling will live for a very short time.
- Be sure to pay attention to the roots, they in no case can not be dry. The plant is best bought with a small lump of earth.
- Check goji seedlings for traces of pests or diseases.
Selection and preparation of the site
Goji berries are best suited alkaline soil, but they can grow with any soil composition. Choose a place where a large amount of sunlight gets, and the water does not stagnate.
To prepare a place for planting a seedling, dig a hole 50–60 cm wide and 40 cm deep. When planting several bushes, place the holes 1.5–2 meters apart from each other.
For better growth and development of the plant, pour about 200 g of superphosphate, as well as 9–10 kg of humus and 40 g of wood ash into the pit, mix it all up.
Step-by-Step Instruction Landing
If you are interested in how the goji berries are grown, and you want to do this in the Moscow region, then the detailed instructions for planting this shrub are described below.
Seedlings can both be purchased in the store, and grow yourself. Goji seeds sprout fairly quickly and do not need treatment. Soak them before landing in a solution of "Zircon" or "Appin" and wait a couple of hours. Pick a medium soil, preferably neutral acidity.
For seedlings, choose a well-lit warm place where it is easy to maintain the necessary humidity and temperature. Avoid drafts or overheating from various sources of heat.
When the seedlings have sprouted, put them in a slightly darkened place, and after the appearance of several green leaves you can plant them in different pots about 7 cm deep. So it will be more convenient for the roots because of their rapid growth.
When the seedling is ready to be planted in the ground, properly prepare a hole for it, as described above. Dig in the ready bush when planting, pour water well and grumble with peat. If you grow goji berries from seeds, they will bloom in the second year, but they will give fruit in the third or fourth.
It is best to plant seedlings in the spring when the air temperature is above 20 ° C; in the fall, this is not recommended, as there is a high risk of plant death in winter.
Given the climatic conditions of the Moscow region, it is recommended to plant a bush first in a greenhouse, in which it should be kept for 6 months.
In the first months after planting, there is a very slow development of the seedling. Externally, the plant is similar to a tomato bush, but gradually grows faster, and the height is about 80 cm.
As it develops, green leaves appear, flowering begins in the form of small purple and white flowers that hold until the first frost.
How to care
The most important care for goji berries in their first year of life. It is during this period that the plant is most vulnerable and exposed to various environmental threats.
The first two years for the plant are decisive for him. So take it seriously.
You can use the shelter trunks special film during prolonged frosts or rains. In adulthood, shrub is resistant to both drought and rainfall. Additionally, you need to water only during the dry season, if the plant is located under direct sunlight.
In order to grow a healthy shrub, fertilize the soil before planting seedlings in it. After that, every spring in the spring period, apply compost and special organic fertilizers with a high content of potassium, nitrogen and phosphorus.
If you are a novice gardener, you can purchase ready-made mixtures for fertilizer in a specialized store. Compost and other mineral supplements can be prepared by yourself.
The growth of wolfberry occurs at a fairly rapid pace, and soon the plant can reach a height of 3-4 meters. Pruning the bush is carried out in order to increase yields and improve appearance.
To do this, remove the extra skeletal branches, leave the strongest. The formation of fruit shoulders occurs on them, and then fruit branches form on the shoulders themselves. To stimulate their growth, make annual pruning of the branches, as a result of which leave no more than four buds on each. It will also be useful to build a special support structure for the bush so that its shoots do not spread along the ground.
Experienced gardeners recommend regular pruning of the bush, so it will be much easier to care for it. This, of course, will affect the amount of the harvest, but the berries in this case will be much larger. From this increases the content of useful nutrients.
Goji berries are sufficiently winter resistant and able to withstand temperatures down to –25 ° C. However, for this wreck it is necessary to provide good shelter using a sponge or non-woven material.
In principle, light frostbite for a plant is not particularly dangerous, as it is able to recover quickly with the help of young shoots. If you are still afraid of frost damage to the bush, plant the plant in deep containers and store them in basements until the very spring.
Disease and pest prevention
As well as any plant, wood bark is also subject to attack by pests and various diseases. It can suffer from the harmful effects of aphids, the Colorado potato beetle, the caterpillars of the winter moth. When fighting with these parasites will help you infusion of wormwood.
To avoid their manifestation, take care of this from the very beginning of cultivation. Use only alkaline soil and conduct timely thinning of the plantings.
Cultivation of common chunks at home is a fairly common occupation among residents of the Moscow region. The climate of this area is optimal for the growth and development of berries, which in the future will be an excellent helper and doctor for you.
However, it should be remembered that the concentration of useful substances in such plants is very small. And if you do use them in order to improve your health, then it is advisable to purchase real goji berries grown in their native land in compliance with all the necessary conditions.
What it is
Chinese goji berries - it is nothing like dereza, or rather the fruits of this tree. In the people they are known as wolf berries. Those who can not eat, so as not to get poisoned. It turns out that everything is not so scary. After all, this name gave our people many plants that may not be poisonous. Like it is with goji berries.
Attention! Goji berries are sometimes called “Tibetan barberries” and unscrupulous vendors may try to sell barberry seedlings or its fruits instead of wolfberry. But these are completely different plants.
The homeland of this plant is Tibet. There he began to use it, recognizing the sea of its useful properties. Perhaps it is with the help of goji berries that Tibetan monks acquire legendary health and longevity. Today it is grown in almost any part of Asia, in Ukraine, in the Kuban, the Caucasus, and even in the suburbs. It is on the region that the month of fruiting barley depends: from May to September. The plant gives the most useful berries in August.
Externally dereza has the shape of a bush, whose height reaches 3 m. Its hanging branches have thin spiky thorns and small leaves. The crown of the plant is very voluminous - up to 6 m. The root system is also strong. Goji berries are bright orange and look like sea buckthorn, only they are larger - 1.2 cm in length.
Why grow them
Firstly, shrub barbarians - very beautiful and decorative. It can be a great decoration for any infield. It can be used as a hedge, because it is quite thick. In addition, this shrub can be trimmed, giving it any desired shape.
But the main advantage of this plant in benefits for the body. It’s not for nothing that in Tibet his name is: “A cure for 1000 diseases”. Waters is just a small list of problems that goji berries can handle:
- sexual dysfunction in men
- poor eyesight,
- nasopharyngeal inflammation,
- lymph node inflammation
- high blood cholesterol
- dysfunction of the brain or spinal cord,
- stress, neurosis, depression.
In addition, they give strength and increase endurance, help to maintain youth for a long time.
Benefits can bring not only berries. So a decoction of the dried root of this plant helps to fight cough and fever. It has a diuretic and laxative effect. But the wolfberry leaves invigorate no worse than coffee beans.
How to multiply them
You can propagate woodcuts as seeds, and with the help of cuttings. The second (vegetative) method is simpler, but the first (seed) method is more effective.
Goji berries with seeds inside must be dried at a temperature not exceeding 50 ° C in order to preserve the viability of seeds inside the fruit. Each berry - about 50 seeds. After this, the berries are soaked again and take out the seeds.
Tip The juice of fresh berries can cause burns on the skin of the hands. Therefore, those who want to extract seeds from fresh fruit may suffer. You can use household or medical rubber gloves to avoid this.
When the seeds are removed from the fruit, they should be put on a damp cloth for 4 hours for better growth. While the seeds are saturated with moisture, you need to prepare the soil, consisting of 2 parts loam and 1 part peat. The soil is loosened, drained and seeds are sown there. They do not need to be deepened, 2-3 mm is enough. The box with the future seedlings is covered with a film and placed in a room with a temperature of 20-25 ° C. After a week, the film can be removed and the soil moistened with a spray bottle. In spring, willow seedlings can be transferred to open ground in weakly acidic or strongly alkaline soil.
Propagation by cuttings occurs in July or August as follows. From an adult plant you need to cut off a process of 10 cm or slightly more. At the same time on the handle must be a piece of old wood, otherwise it will not take root. The process of cutting must be dipped in the root and planted in the greenhouse.
How to care for them
To care for shrub woodworms is not at all difficult. The main thing is to cut and cover the culture from frost in time. Still, it is a heat-loving oriental plant.
- Watering rule. First you need to look at how dry the summer is. Most often enough root watering twice a week.
- The rule of feeding. Рожденная на Тибете дереза неприхотлива по части грунта. Для нее подойдет даже бедная почва.Although more fruits can be collected on a plant planted in the soil of medium fertility. You need to feed only a young plant during the growing season. An adult plant does not need additional support.
- The rule of trimming. Dereza tolerates pruning. This can be done to free the shrub from the old wood and make it decorative. It is not necessary to be afraid of this, because at the place of pruning new shoots will quickly appear. Only need to use special garden shears.
- Wintering rule. Of course, you can hope for a warm winter and not protect a goji bush. But it is better not to risk it. In winter, the plant should be transplanted into a deep container and put in the basement. If this is not possible, you need to try to wrap the shrub with film or spruce.
How to harvest and dry the crop
Collect goji berries in gloves. Or you can spread the fabric on the ground, and rub the bush. If you do it with bare hands, you can get burned. Dry the berries in the shade, without using the oven. They will be ready when the skin begins to peel off on its own.
It is easy to grow goji berries, but you need to cook and use them with great care. Then they will not harm, but will greatly benefit the human body.
Trimming and wintering
The shrub needs a regular haircut. In the first years of growth, 3-6 strongest branches are planned. They are taken as a basis and have a haircut around them. Then, on these basic skeletal branches, shoots capable of fruiting will form.
If the tree is grown for decorative purposes, then choose one main shoot, drive a long peg, and then carry out a "haircut", trying to form a tree. The procedure is done as soon as numerous fruit-bearing shoots appear and the total height of the plant exceeds 1.2 m.
To prevent freezing of the root system in winter, the shrub should be tucked up and promulcated 10-15 cm. The branches are protected with non-woven material (for example, agrofibre, lutrasil), folded in several layers, or sacking. It is possible and to be reinsured, additionally threw a lap branches on the landing, and, as soon as the snow falls, make big drifts.
The plant perfectly protects itself from pests. However, for preventive purposes, one should regularly inspect wolfberry for any signs of disease or pests. If there is one, they do pruning of the affected parts and, if necessary, spraying with insecticidal preparations, spreading them in the amount indicated by the manufacturer on the package. Do not forget that the treatment is not done once, especially if the invasion of pests is huge.
Application and storage
Harvested fruit should be stored in a dry, light-free place. If an infusion is prepared, it should be kept only in a cool place and not more than 2 days.
Goji berries are used not only for weight loss, but also as an ingredient in the preparation of wines, fruit puree, desserts, soups, pastries, yoghurts, tea, juices, cereals. Seeds go for oil production. To taste fresh berries have a hint of melon. But as soon as the fruits freeze or dry, the taste disappears, and the berries acquire a taste similar to dried apricots.
In the garden wench mainly planted for a healthy harvest, as well as plant hedges. The plant is unpretentious and will not die if you have not watered or introduced fertilizer. But if you are going to plant goji berries on a plot, you should consider all varieties in advance and select the most suitable ones.
Widely used berries and medicine. So, they are taken for: pain in the back, diabetes, insomnia, anemia, obesity, excess cholesterol, problems with adenoids, vision problems, athletes thus restore their strength, etc.
As you can see, goji berries are an exotic shrub, but you don’t need to go to overseas countries or buy at a fabulous price. It is enough to observe some nuances, and you can easily grow a plant on your site and collect a very considerable harvest.
Cultivation in the suburbs
A real advertising boom around Goji berries turned the fruit of the bush into an expensive and salable product. Goji fruits are actively sold in online stores, however, it is often possible to evaluate the quality of a purchase only after the fact of using the product for its intended purpose. In order to save their own time and money, advanced gardeners and gardeners set about growing Dereza ordinary - this is how the shrub is born in Russia, bearing truly golden fruits.
In the climatic conditions of the middle zone and the Moscow region shrub feels great and produces a wonderful crop. Its use is possible both for obtaining unusual berries, and for decorative design of the site. The crown of the shrub is capable of reaching a height of 5 meters, responds well to pruning and the formation of a convenient form. Small-leaved plant has frequent, sharp thorns, which allows the use of bushes as a hedge.
You can get Dereza shrub for your own summer cottage in two ways - by germinating seeds and grafting. Both ways of getting a seedling are good - the first is efficiency, the second is speed. Purchase of planting material should be made exclusively in specialized farms and nurseries, otherwise there is a great chance to undergo a common method of fraud, in which the seller sells barberries instead of Dereza seeds and saplings, and these are completely different plants.
Selection of planting material
Previously, only a few varieties were known, conventionally considered Goji berries. Now with this issue is somewhat simpler, because, thanks to the work of breeders, today we can talk about many varieties and hybrids of Warthog, some of which are perfect for growing in the suburbs.
- “New Big” is a unique, large-fruited variety Dereza, bred in Poland. The variety is aimed at the amount of the final harvest, and its main feature is the size of the berry, twice the size of the fruits of the wild growing brother. In addition, the bush has good immunity to fungal diseases and resistance to temperature and humidity levels.
- “Goji Lhasa” is the most common early-maturing variety for planting in the Moscow region, the fruits of which almost completely correspond to the Tibetan counterpart in chemical composition and nutritional value.
- “NF1 Lifeberry”, specially created for growing on the territory of Russia, is a hybrid with large berries with high sugar content.
As with any hybrid, it is unacceptable to seed multiplication, since the seeds do not have the property of transmitting the varietal characteristics of the mother plant. Vegetative reproduction allows for renewal and reproduction.
Preparing for landing
Planting seedlings Dereza can be made both in spring and autumn. However, given the instability of the climate of the middle zone, it is recommended to make a spring planting, which allows the shrub to get stronger and prepare for its first wintering season.
Given the cross-pollination method inherent in this plant, it is worth taking care of planting two or more shrubs.
To think about the place of growth, and the quality of the soil must be in advance. Pits harvested two weeks before the proposed day of landing.
The width and depth of the pits should be 50 cm. The distance between the landing pits can withstand at least 2 meters.
For owners of heavy, clayey soil, it is necessary to drain the bottom of the planting hole with coarse sand in advance. Also in the prepared well make 8 - 10 kg of humus. 70 g of superphosphate and a glass of ash are added to the fertile soil, taken when digging a hole. After placing the seedling in the hole, this fertile layer is filled with free space around the seedling. Plentifully watered and mulch the upper layer, which will allow the earth to maintain the moisture level for a longer period.
The first month after planting seedlings should pay close attention to the condition of the soil, preventing it from drying out. Watering is done as needed. Best of all, if the water temperature during irrigation will correspond to the atmospheric temperature. It is also necessary to produce loosening, which helps the fragile root system of the seedling to obtain the required amount of oxygen.
After confident planting of a sapling in a new place, watering loses its frequent necessity, since the adult Dereza shrub is resistant to summer drought conditions.
Pruning and the formation of the crown begin in the second year of life of the plant in a permanent place. In addition to the decorative effect, this measure allows you to monitor the condition of the shrub, in time to destroy old and diseased branches.
Wintering in the open ground for the bush is dangerous. It withstands temperatures up to -15 degrees. Since it is not possible to predict the conditions of the Russian winter, the plant can be preserved in the winter period in two ways:
- Low shrubs, with a pre-cut crown, are dug up with a clod of earth and placed in a container. Further winter storage is performed in the basement or cellar.
- If the transfer of the plant is impossible, then the bush is simply trying to wrap up as efficiently as possible. Garden films, thick polyethylene, remnants of covering materials and other available materials may be used.
Pests and diseases
Like wild growers, the air-conditioned varieties of Dereza vulgaris are practically not exposed to the harmful effects of common plant diseases. Even powdery mildew, extremely dangerous for garden dwellers, is not capable of bringing any significant harm.
Do not frighten the plant and the appearance of insect pests. A shrub can attract certain types of aphids and caterpillars that can distort the decorative appearance of a plant. In order to avoid such consequences, spring treatment of the bush should be made with a strong decoction of wormwood.
The ripening period of the berries in each variety Dereza your. However, the onset of maturity is also influenced by the climatic features of the growing place. On average, ripeness occurs in the beginning - mid-August.
Harvesting should begin in dry, windless weather.
On the issue of harvesting berries Goji should be given special attention. Since the fresh berry contains irritating skin and mucous juice, the collection must be done with gloves. It is best to churn the overripe fruit from the shrub to the previously prepared flooring.
Signs of maturity of the berries are bright red and weak stem. Trying to taste fresh berries is not recommended - they contain toxins that can cause a person's mild poisoning.
Since the berries are not consumed fresh, dried ones are stored. Dry them in specialized dryers or ovens, not exceeding the temperature regime of 50 degrees. When dried, the benefits of the fruit are preserved almost in full.
The dried crop is stored in dark, cool places with moderate humidity. Capacity can serve as canvas bags, or tight-fitting glass containers. With proper drying and storage, berries can be stored for up to 1 year.