Onions - this is one of the first plants that people started to grow. He has about four thousand years since the reclamation and the beginning of cultivation.
No world cuisine can be imagined without this vegetable, because most dishes without its use seem bland and tasteless. There are a lot of varieties of bulb onion, and each has found its fans.
Each gardener has his own secrets for the good ripening of onions in the garden, but most importantly, adhere to the correct technology of agricultural technology, to get a big harvest, whether it be planted in the ridge or from seeds.
Basic requirements for growing onion seedlings
Not the most fastidious plant is considered cold resistant, grows well at a temperature of twelve to sixteen degrees of heat, the seeds germinate even at five degrees in the cold season. Sharp varieties tolerate frosts better, sweet varieties can die at open degrees at several degrees of frost.
Bow responds well to watering in the early stages of growth, in the future it needs dry soil in order to mature better. He needs more sunlight. Despite its small mass, onions require special attention to the soil composition. Soil on the bed should be quite loose and nutritious.
Weeding beds must be carried out regularly, as the culture does not tolerate proximity to weeds.
The right decision is to organize the onion beds and plant the vegetable in the places where they grew before. cucumbers, cabbage, tomatoes or potatoes. These are the vegetables for which organic matter is added to the soil.
It is not recommended to plant onions in the place where they were grown in the past year. Best of all, if you return to this site in five years.
The increased acidity of the soil is harmful to the plant, since it absorbs the nutrients worse and may be affected by downy mildew.
Before planting bow does not tolerate liming of soil compositionIt is recommended to apply wood ash.
Chinese way - how to plant technology in the ridges
This option may help increase yield. The main feature is the landing of onions on the ridges, and not in the beds themselves. Heads grown in this way are distinguished by flat shapes and large sizes. The tops of the vegetable are perfectly illuminated by sunlight, warm up, from this onion gets good protection from exposure to rot.
It should be added that it is better to loosen and water such beds, to remove weeds from them.
It is possible to sow at air temperature equal to 5 degrees. Planting material must be sorted out, smaller bulbs are allowed to be planted as the soil warms up. Larger ones should be held by May. Such a measure will give you the opportunity to harvest at one time.
After the bulkhead sevok for a couple of weeks before landing warms up. To do this, it is placed in a box and placed near the battery.
It is mandatory for each onion carefully trimmed tail, removed excess scales. If you have damaged the growth neck, you can put the material aside. For landing it is no longer suitable.
The soil for planting must be prepared in the fall. A spoon of superphosphate, a teaspoon of nitroammofosca, and two of dolomite flour are added to each square of the plot. In the spring, the bed must be re-dig, you can add a little manure, just not too fresh.
Combs are arranged, the height of which should be about fifteen centimeters, the interval between them is up to thirty. Sevok planted ten centimeters at a depth of three centimeters. Seeds should not be trampled, it would be better to sprinkle them lightly with earth.
In the first month of growth, if the weather is dry, the onions should be watered twice. But this is the case if it still rains between the irrigations.
You can feed three times. In mid-May, mullein is added. In June, it is the turn of potash salt, urea and phosphate fertilizers. The third time it is necessary to fertilize at the moment when the onion begins to form.
The peculiarity of the Chinese method lies in the fact that weed beds must be as weeds growthat happens quite rarely.
Copper sulfate is used as a protective measure against powdery mildew.
Method of planting and sowing seeds into the soil
This method of planting is recommended for the north-western regions and Belarus, when the onion is not able to fully ripen, which reduces its shelf life.
In mid-spring, the seed material is calibrated, more than large specimens. After sowing "dry" the first shoots will appear in three weeks. In order to give acceleration to the process, you can soak the seeds in potassium permanganate, and after a day, scatter on the fabric and leave it alone to make it pee. But it is necessary to observe that the planting material remains sufficiently moist.
Furrows do in the distance twenty centimeters. One gram of seed is enough for two meters of sowing, planting depth - up to three centimeters. For convenience, you can mix the seeds with sand, sprinkle the grooves after planting with dry earth.
Onion seeds are planted in the grooves
When planted in the garden
Landing time depends on weather conditions. If warm weather is established in the spring, then sowing can be done in the last days of April. Otherwise, you have to wait until the earth warms up.
Sevok lands in the first may decade. Residents of the north-western regions can orient themselves when planting onions in the flowering of the bird cherry tree.
For sub-winter sowing, beds are prepared in autumn. Landing is carried out in the second half of Novemberbefore frost.
Secrets of the right agrotechnology
It should not be allowed to form a crust or weed grass on the soil surface. To this end, the beds must more often loosen to a depth of five centimeters. Weed vegetation is best removed in the initial phase of growth, when the seedlings are still reddish.
After the start of the turnip formation - it must be opened by a third
It must be remembered that the bow loves to show off. When the turnip begins to form, it is necessary open to third, freeing the hanger. This technique helps the bulb to form well and fully mature.
Harvesting turnip and feathers and their storage
As soon as new feathers ceased to appear, and the bow acquired a characteristic shade, it can be removed. As a rule, it falls on mid-August - early September. If you skip the harvest time, the vegetable will start growing again and will be of little use for storage.
The collected bulbs are washed, cleaned of husks and dry feathers, trimmed roots. To dry it laid out in a single layer in the room, which is well ventilated. After a few weeks, new flakes of golden hue appear on the bulbs. This means that the vegetable is ready for long-term storage.
Before long storage, the bulbs are peeled and removed.
As a rule, gardeners prefer cultivation of onion with sevke, purchasing it in special stores. It can be planted in the winter, after preparing the garden bed.
But if you follow all the recommendations, then in the Chinese way you can get a good harvest of this beautiful vegetable.
When to plant?
Sevok can be planted in spring or autumn. And in fact, and in another case, you can get a rich harvest, if properly planted culture and care for it.
Planted sevok autumn or spring
When planting onions in the spring, further care is to feed, loosening the beds. If the sevok is planted in autumn, then it is important to prepare it for wintering. The future harvest depends on the correct process.
Culture should be planted in mid-October. After planting, the onions are covered with peat mixture. Immediately before the frosts, the vegetable is covered with a layer of peat or sawdust 3-4 cm thick. You can also use spruce branches, they also protect the culture from frost well. When snow falls, snow is spread over the beds.
In the spring, water should not be allowed to stand in the beds. Therefore, as soon as the snow has melted, it is necessary to remove the dressing. Remove it carefully, so as not to damage the landing of sevka.
If some seeds have not sprouted, then a new planting will be planted in their place. Conversely, if the seeds are planted too often, they are thinned.
Caring for sevke
Rules for planting and care for onions
To grow a rich harvest of onions, it is necessary to properly care for him. Proper care is to tillage, remove weeds and feed with various substances.
It is necessary to organize abundant watering of onions in the first half of summer. On average, 1 square. meter needs to spend 6-8 liters of water. Water the onions should be careful not to break the feather. You can use only warm water. Watering with cold water leads to the development of downy mildew. By the end of vegetative growth, watering should be reduced. At this time, no more water is needed. Three weeks before harvesting, watering is completely stopped.
The beds must be timely cleaned of weeds. It is worth noting that when the onion grows, then it must be processed very carefully. Culture feathers are fragile, can break from a minor impact. Weeds need to be removed regularly, as they contribute to the preservation of moisture on the surface. This, in turn, leads to a decrease in resistance to damage by various fungal diseases. In addition, the neck becomes juicy, which negatively affects the storage of the vegetable - the onion begins to rot.
Tool for weeding beds
Weeding is recommended to be accompanied by loosening the soil. This provides good air exchange, which has a positive effect on the growth of the vegetable.
Do not forget to loosen the bow
If the bow gave arrows, then they should be broken off. The sooner this is done, the better. Otherwise, the bulb will not grow to normal size, and it will not be stored for long.
For the entire season, there are several treatments. They enrich the soil with essential nutrients that promote healthy crop growth. More feeds are listed in Table 1.
Ways to grow onions
To date, several methods of growing this vegetable have spread:
- Grow sevok, planting it in the spring, and at the end of the summer and in the beginning of the autumn harvesting is done.
- Annual cultivation This vegetable sowing Sevka winter.
- Biennial growing cycle the vegetable, when planted sevok, clean it in the autumn, and the resulting seed is planted next spring and the bulbs are collected in the fall.
Common Onion Varieties
To date, tens, if not hundreds of different varieties of this vegetable, which differ in their taste qualities, have been bred.
Onion characterized by tubular leaves-feathers of bright green color, large bulbs with white, yellow and in rare cases with purple husks. The bulbs have a sharp taste and a pungent smell.
Onions are widely used in traditional medicine and cooking, and gardeners and gardeners appreciate him for his unpretentiousness in care.
Shallot has long narrow thick-walled leaves. The bulbs are small, round or oval in shape with white or pale purple color.
Greens have a pleasant taste with a delicate smell and a slightly pungent taste. Shallot onions are juicy and soft, which favorably distinguishes them from the bulb variety.
The bulbs contain carotene, various vitamins, iron, calcium and potassium. Shallot is cold-resistant, undemanding in care, which makes it popular with gardeners.
Batun - This is a perennial plant with a false stem and leaves, reaching up to half a meter in length. Onions start feathers from early spring to late autumn frosts. Batun leaves and false bulbs are rich in minerals, vitamins and salts. Due to the rapid growth of this variety, harvesting can be carried out three times in the summer season.
Leek - biennial plant, which is easy to grow and is widely used in cooking.
This variety is popular with gardeners, who can easily grow it with one- and two-year technology.
Choosing beds for growing onions
When choosing a place for beds, you should remember that this vegetable belongs to the light-lovingtherefore it is not recommended to plant it in lowlands and in areas with darkening. Experienced gardeners recommend to break narrow beds, which allows to simplify the care of plantings in the future.
It is best to grow onions moderately moist, fertile, not sour and breathable loams. This culture is extremely demanding on the content of organic matter in the soil, so it is necessary, first several months before planting, to add rotted manure or other organic matter to the soil.
Gardener must consider crop rotation rules.. Return to the previous place onions can be only after 3 years. The best predecessors for this vegetable crop will be tomatoes, cucumbers, rye, potatoes.
Preparing the soil for planting onions consists of digging it in the fall, applying fertilizer and removing weeds. In the spring, the gardener will only need to loosen the earth with a rake, while digging up and touching the structure of the lower layers of the earth is not recommended, since it adversely affects the retention of moisture in the soil.
Planting onions in garden beds
Planting seeds or onion seeds is necessary on carefully loosened and properly prepared beds. Planting is done in spring with a minimum distance of approximately 15 centimeters. If the bulbs are planted, the distance between plants should be at least 2 centimeters. Seeds and sevkah close up to a depth of 2 centimeters, the soil is plentifully watered, mulch with sawdust, straw, or covered with a dark film.
We grow onions on a feather
To grow onions on the feather can be of different varieties. When growing should provide the necessary number of landings of sunlightso you need to choose the right location of the beds. At the same time, the soils themselves must be able to retain moisture, otherwise the gardener will need to carry out frequent watering of the beds, which is not always possible.
If used for planting bulbs, it is necessary to soak them in warm water for several hours before planting.
For planting choose onion size of 3-7 centimeters, after which they cut off the top, which increases the pasture of greenery.
Also, when growing this vegetable on a feather, you can use ordinary purchased seeds, which will not require additional preparation before planting. Seeds are only soaked in warm water, and later onions will grow better.
Proper cultivation of onions
Soil for onions should be prepared in the autumn, digging the ground to the depth of a shovel and seizing up organic matter and other fertilizers. In the spring, harrowing is performed, which will exclude the rapid evaporation of water. Planting onions from sevka perform on the prepared garden in mid-April or early May. Onions are planted in rows, with a distance between bulbs of 10 centimeters, rows are located at a distance of 30 centimeters. Planting depth is about 4 centimeters.
Recommendations for the cultivation of onions
To improve the yield of grown vegetables, the following will be needed:
- It is recommended to use rotted manurewhich has already lain for several years.
- In addition, 40 grams of superphosphate and 40 grams of potassium are added to the ground for one square of bed.
- For landing should use only high quality onionsthat are pre-sorted.
- You should not plant onions deeply, since in the subsequent plants they spend a lot of effort on the emergence of seedlings.
Proper care of plantings
Onions - it is undemanding culture in the care, the cultivation of which is not difficult. The gardener will only need to do the following:
- Carry out regular feeding of the beds.
- Ensure timely watering.
- Weed beds from weeds.
- Loosen the surface layer of soil.
Garden beds should be regularly cleaned of weeds.. Such weeds can take food from the main vegetable crop and cause various diseases.
Regular loosening of the surface layer of the soil will improve the supply of ripening bulbs with oxygen, and, consequently, planting will grow better, improve the taste properties of the grown crop. Just remember that it is necessary to carry out such work as carefully as possible, so as not to damage the bulbs under the ground.
Proper watering and competent dressing
Onion is a moisture-loving culture.therefore, with a lack of moisture, not only is the general wilting of the plants, but the taste of the grown crop is significantly deteriorated. Determine the lack of moisture can be on the pen, which acquires a pronounced gray tint, and its tips dry up. В то же время лук не любит избытка влаги, что можно определить по бледному и тонкому перу. Поливать грядки в мае-июне лучше всего дважды в неделю, на один квадратный метр расходуя около ведра воды.
В последующем в июле-августе полив выполняется дважды в месяц.
В том случае, если отмечается медленный рост этой овощной культуры необходимо выполнить ее подкормку. Для удобрения необходимо приготовить следующий питательный состав:
- 15 grams of ammonium nitrate.
- 15 grams of potassium chloride.
- 30 grams of superphosphate.
- 10 liters of water.
The prepared fertilizer will be enough to feed one square meter of beds.
We collect the grown sevka and ripened bulbs
Terms of harvesting depend on the selected technology of cultivation. If the gardener practices a two-year cycle and grows seedlings initially, then the harvest is done in late August and early September. But if the gardener grows onions on the bulbs, then the harvest must be performed on the current state of the crops. As soon as the feather falls on the ground and starts to turn yellow, you can harvest.
Indicators of keeping quality of the harvested crop will largely depend on how correctly the harvested onion heads are dried. Such drying is carried out in three stages:
- On the beds, when the heads are not cleared from the ground.
- At the second stage, the onions are cleaned and dried in the open air.
- If necessary, a final harvest is carried out, which is carried out in plastic or wooden boxes at temperatures of about 30 degrees.
It is best to store the harvest in well-ventilated and dry rooms with temperatures ranging from 0 to 20 degrees. Optimum humidity indicators - 60-70%. It is possible to lay for prolonged storage only unripe onions, which do not exfoliate flakes and have no mechanical damage. Having stored high quality dried heads, they can be preserved for 6-8 months.
Onions are a popular vegetable crop of gardeners, which is widely used in cooking and is easy to maintain.
Currently, there are various varieties of onions, so every summer resident and gardener will be able to choose a variety of this vegetable that suits him in taste and cultivation technology of an agricultural crop.
In this article, we told you how to grow onions, which will allow you to get a great harvest in the garden.
How to grow large onions
To get a harvest from your garden, you need to plant a crop in time, in time to water and weed it. For any gardener, a good harvest is both a large fruit and a large quantity. But to achieve such a result can be, if only in a season to work very hard.
As far as is useful Onions for the human body - they know everything. Even buying it in a store or on the market, we choose only its large heads. But unfortunately, it is not always possible to grow large onion heads in your sector, no matter how hard you try.
Let's get acquainted with some subtleties and tricks that you need to know and take into account when growing plants.
How to prepare the ground for planting
Onion harvest on chernozem and humus - carbonate soils, as well as on alluvial soil, will be good.
Onion seeds germinate for a long time, so the soil is prepared in advance and carefully. In the autumn, you need to choose a site for planting a stitch and dig it up. Clear weeds and soil fertilizers, in the form of humus or peat compost. In no case can fresh soil be introduced into the soil, as pathogens and weed seeds can get into the soil with it.
If the soil is acidic, then it is necessary to conduct liming on it, and if the soil is saline, then it is gypsum. Processing and top dressing of the soil is carried out gradually. It is impossible to simultaneously conduct liming and fertilizing the soil with humus.
In the spring, when the sun begins to warm, the site for planting needs to be dug up and watered if the ground is dry. In addition, the soil is already mineral fertilizers that are distributed 2-3 times during the period of onion growth. Make such fertilizers in the soil need shallow.
How to get a good harvest of onions
Planting sevok possible both in spring and autumn. You can do this by seed or by small bulbs. To get green feathers in early spring, you need to plant sevok in the fall. In the spring it is grown for storage upon receipt of planting material.
You can grow onions a few in ways. Each of the methods is good in its own way, but with the observance of the elementary rules for the care of the plant, the harvest is good, regardless of the method of cultivation. The most common way to produce onions is from a set.
Sevok - These are small onions that were grown from seeds last year. Of them, this year, you can get larger onions, which are already used in food throughout the year. Planting sevok in open ground can be both in spring and autumn.
Plant out Sevok spring begin in late April - early May. The earth should dry up and warm up by this time. The first plants are the smallest onions, which are up to 1 cm in diameter. The distance from the onion to the onion is 4–5 cm. Next, larger bulbs are planted, at a distance of 8–10 cm from each other.
Previously, sevok needs to be processed. To do this, prepare a weak, hot pink solution of manganese, and onions are immersed in it. There he spends at least half an hour. Further, special grooves are made for the onions in the ground, and in them - holes. The distance between the rows can be 20–25 cm. Sevok needs to be planted into the ground to a depth of 2–3 cm, at the same time - sprinkling with earth and lightly clapping with the palm of your hand. If the ground is very dry, then watering is recommended.
First shoots green pen will be noticeable after 3-5 days. It is desirable to water a young onion now every evening. When the onion grows up, it is necessary to pile it up and remove the weeds. In order to get a large fruit as a result, as it grows up, it is necessary to produce hilling two more times.
This procedure should not be postponed until the appearance of greenery, you need to do this regularly, on time, before it appears. While the sevok is planted and watered abundantly, it is necessary to prevent the formation of a dense crust. Soil need to loosen regularly, and especially - after watering.
Weeding beds with vegetable crops is carried out as it grows over weed. Weeds damage seeding by increasing soil moisture. Because of this, the plant can be affected by fungal diseases. Moisture will be superfluous for the bulbs, which can cause it to spoil and rot during storage.
As mentioned above, at the initial stage of onion growth and development, it needs regular watering. As early as mid-July, when the bulbs begin to ripen, they do not need an excess of moisture. At this time, watering onions are reduced. Before harvesting the onions, for 2-3 weeks, you do not need to water the onions at all - it must stand in the ground, but without watering. The exception may be very hot and dry summers. To plant did not fall down and there was no delay in the growth of the bulb, you still need to water the family crop.
Summing up, you need to highlight a few points, thanks to which you can get a good the harvest Luke:
- top dressing
- prevention and treatment of diseases.
As for feeding, it plays an important role in obtaining high-quality, large harvest of onions. The first time feeding is done only 14 days after planting the set-down. This may be bird droppings or slurry. Litter should be 1 kg per 15 liters, and slush - 1 kg per 10 liters of water. Such a fertilizer is spent on 1 square meter. meter 10 liters of solution.
Three weeks after the first feeding, you need to make a second feeding.
If you prefer mineral fertilizers, first apply nitrogenousTo which ammonium nitrate belongs. Its consumption per 1 square. meter - 10-15 grams. And after three weeks - potash fertilizers in the same amount.
In the ground such fertilizers are made:
Dry fertilizers can be simply sprinkled on the bed before watering, or before the rain. You can fertilize in the usual way - dissolve them in water and pour over the beds with the resulting solution.
To cope with any disease, its easier warnthan to treat later. This applies to onions, which must be treated against fungal diseases and onion flies. You need to make the following solution: mix 1 tsp. copper sulphate or copper oxychloride and 1 tbsp. l liquid soap. Dilute the mixture in 10 liters of water and spray onion feathers.
This treatment should be done when the height of the feathers reaches 12-15 cm.
For prevention, it is possible to make dusting of plants and the ground beneath them with wood ash or tobacco dust. This procedure can be repeated only after 20 days.
Maturation onion depends on:
- landing time
- varieties of onions,
- climate features.
Winter onions first ripen. Harvesting takes place in July, when the plant's feathers begin to dry. This is a signal to harvest. During such a period, it is necessary to do exactly this work so that the plant does not start to re-release the roots.
Collection of onions, regardless of its grade, should be held in period between the appearance of the morning dew and the evening cold snap. The condition is important, it must be observed, otherwise the vegetables will be poorly stored.
The collected seed crop must be dried. For this, the selected bow unfolds in the sun. If it is overcast or it is raining, it is dried under a canopy. During this period, all the nutrients from the leaves enter the bulbs themselves.
When the crop dries, it cuts off the dried feathers and the remnants of the roots. Further, it is transferred to dry in a warm room, where the temperature will not be below 25 ° heat. There he is still 10 days, which makes it possible for it to dry even better, and at the same time - longer stored.
Dry onions different varieties are stored separately. Storage space may be:
- in canvas bags
- in wooden boxes
- in plastic boxes
- in wicker baskets,
- on armored nets from old beds.
The main thing that it was not right on the ground. It is advisable to put all these devices on a pallet so that the air under the storage container can circulate freely.
It is regularly necessary to carry out an inspection of vegetables in order to extract a spoiled or rotten product from the whole mass in time. Regardless of the grade of the product, it tends to deteriorate.
If the onion storage room is wet, then the situation can be saved with a tank of ash or lime - they are good absorb excess moisture.
If, turning over the onions, you do not cut off the dry onion feathers, then you can weave a braid out of them. In this form, onions of any kind can be stored not only in the pantry, but also in the house. Besides the fact that a useful product will always be at hand, it, in this form, will become an excellent interior detail, and will save the house from germs.
For planting onions in open ground, it is desirable to choose a sunny place, or light penumbra.
Place for planting vegetables should be changed every year. Repeatedly on a certain place it can be planted only after 3 years.
To accelerate the emergence of shoots, sevok, regardless of the variety, soaked 4 days before planting, then dried and immediately planted.
Planting sevok should not be deeper than 2-3 cm, since the bulb will change shape and ripening will be delayed. If the hole is made smaller, then the bulb will be bare and its growth will stop.
It will not be possible to store onions in plastic bags for a long time - he be rotten.