Lychnis is a perennial shrub belonging to the genus of the carnation family. The inflorescences of this beautiful flower are visible from afar and are able to decorate any flower bed. For this particular feature of the plant, the people received the nickname "Dawn" or "Adonis".
There are white, pink and red shades of flowers. Stems of upright, erect, even and depending on the species reach heights from half a meter to one meter, and have a rather unusual light ash tint. The leaves are lanceolate and there are very few of them on the stem.
Another characteristic feature of this plant is the fact that the petals (as well as the rhizome) are capable of washing. For this unusual ability Lychnis received another name "soap".
Varieties and types
Lychnis Chalcedony - is an erect stem, stretching to a height of one meter, having many lanceolate leaves and small hairs along the entire length.
Inflorescences, in turn, delight the eye with a scattering of small red, white or pink flowers (0.5-1 cm in diameter of each flower) gathered at the top of the shoot in the form of a cap.
Lychnis koronchaty - has a steel densely branched stem, up to a meter in height, and the flowers are represented by fabulously bright shades of pink, rich crimson and white. Flowers solitary and not collected in inflorescences. Flowering begins in early summer and ends closer to the fall.
Alpine Lychnis - perennial shrub, representative of a low-growing species, up to 20 cm tall. The most popular variety among gardeners is considered to be the variety "Lara», Which is famous for its delicate pink buds. It should be noted that when taking care of this kind of lichen, the use of acidic soils is unacceptable.
Lychnis Wiscaria - has dark purple stems, towering one meter up. Inflorescences are also not the same as in other species, have paniculate form with a scattering of double flowers (white, pink or crimson). It blooms about two months (June, July).
Lichnis Haage - medium-sized bush (up to 40-50 cm), considered a garden hybrid. Inflorescences are painted in bright red or orange tones. The flowers are collected in a neat brush.
The brightest variety of this species is the variety "Hot lava, Which received its name due to the bright bloody tones of the inflorescences.
Lychnis Jupiter - presented in the form of a loose bush up to 70-80 cm high. It has pubescence in the form of white hairs. The flowers are light purple.
Camping planting and care in the open field
A flower can grow in a well-lit vengeance, and in partial shade, but if you compare, then the specimen that is planted in an open sunny place, has large sizes of flowers and inflorescences and more saturated colors.
Ground for groundstone
For healthy plant growth, the soil for planting should be well hydrated, drained, contain sand and fertilizers. The amount of sand is taken from the calculation that for one square meter of land for planting, you need one bucket of sand.
Preparation of the land begins about a month before planting: dig a plot and make about 40 g of potassium magnesia, 50 g of superphosphate and 10 kg of humus, and all this is based on one square meter. Do not forget about good drainage under each bush (for example, small pebbles, pebbles).
Fertilizer for Lichen
Feeding is carried out several times. The first time mineral fertilizer is applied in a volume of three liters per square meter, before flowering: dissolve in 10 liters of water in a tablespoon of superphosphate, potassium sulfate and urea.
The second and third fertilizing is carried out during and after flowering with another solution of five liters per square meter of plant plot: dilute 10 l of water with one tablespoon of superphosphate, potassium sulfate and Agricola7.
Lychnis loves moisture, but does not tolerate stagnant water and waterlogging, this can lead to rotting of the roots. Therefore, watering is carried out only as the soil dries out and in small portions.
In the summer season, watering is intensified (in particularly dry days, but not overwetted), in spring and autumn - moderate. Once a week is enough. The important point is that watering is best done in the morning. After all, the plant actively absorbs moisture only in the sunny time of the day, and if it is watered in the evening, the roots may freeze or get wet overnight (after all, at night the temperature drops significantly). With such a constant violation will cause decay and other diseases and damage by various pests.
Campion seed cultivation
When the blooming period of Lichnis ends, it remains only to wait for the seeds to ripen, and this happens in the autumn period when the inflorescences begin to dry. With proper storage (dry, dark place), the seeds can be stored for four years. Seeds are sown directly in the ground on the site (in the garden) in the period from April to July.
The first shoots will appear already after three weeks under the condition that the day-time air temperature is not lower than 18 ° С, if the young shoots have sprouted too close to each other, then thinning is necessary. This procedure is carried out in order to ensure free and full growth of sprouts.
After they get stronger and there will be full leaves, transplantation is carried out. Each shoot is planted in a separate hole at a distance of 25-30 cm from each other, taking into account the expansion of the bush in breadth.
Reproduction of spurs by dividing the bush
With this breeding method, a bush is chosen that is at least five years old and, depending on the density of the rhizome, is divided into several parts, so that each division has its own point of growth.
Planted each of the parts in the ground, at a distance of 25-30 cm, in spring or autumn.
Lychnis breeding cuttings
This method is best suited for breeding varieties with double flowers. At the beginning of summer, it is necessary to cut cuttings 20-25 cm long and plant them in the ground (or in boxes) and create a greenhouse with a can.
Closer to autumn, the cuttings will take root and they can be transplanted to a permanent place. Maintaining the distance between them.
Diseases and pests
If you adhere to the rules of caring for the disease and carry out preventive measures to protect the plant, then he will not be afraid of any adversity. If we assume, for example, waterlogging of the soil, then this will most likely lead to infection by such diseases as root rot, rust and spotting. For prophylaxis, it is recommended to treat the soil with copper-containing preparations before planting.
Among pests, litnis may be attacked. aphids, butterfly slobbering and leafworm. If any of the listed parasites were noticed in small quantities on a bush, then you can try to treat the plant with decoction of tobacco, tops from tomatoes or other plants belonging to the insecticidal group.
In the case of a strong injury, only chemical insecticides (aktara, karbofos, etc.) can help. To prevent the emergence of aphids, it is worth processing the bush along the foliage before flowering; otherwise, then this small parasite can destroy the bush (it will not die, but it will not bloom).
Campion is used by landscape designers in the preparation of flower beds and mixborders. Ideal for stony hills.
Another camp is often planted along the banks of garden ponds and even lakes. Tall species are suitable for decorating walls, fences and gazebos in the summer.
Alchnia alpine is planted in sunny areas mainly in rock gardens. Bright flowers look great on the background of plants with yellow buds.
It is possible to make bouquet compositions from Lichnis, but unfortunately they do not stand for a long time. Therefore, the best use of this bright plant is flower gardens and rock gardens.
It is in such places you can live to enjoy the rich colors of this amazing flower.
Perennial lichen; photos, description, types
Bright flower lithnis immediately noticeable in any flowerbed. The plant is characterized by numerous upright stems, at the top of which are spherical inflorescences. The flower stems are covered with oblong-lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate leaves. Quite large bright flowers decorate the garden during the month. Of these, by the end of the summer ripen dark brown kidney seeds.
Popular types of lichen
The plant has about thirty species, among which only a few of them are very common in landscape design.
Lychnis Chalcedony or "Dawn". A perennial herbaceous plant with a height of 80-100 cm, its second name "Dawn" received for fiery red inflorescences. Each flower consists of notched or two-lobed petals and reaches 3 cm in diameter. The flowers themselves are collected in corymbiform inflorescences with a length of up to 10 cm in diameter. The flowers of Chalcedony bloom in July and August. Its garden forms are distinguished by simple white and pink flowers, and double pink flowers, with a red peephole in the middle.
Lychnis koronchaty. Perennial is a plant with dark, ash-gray densely branched stems. In late spring, single racemes of white, pink or bright crimson color are formed on the stems. Flowering of crown spruce continues until autumn.
Lychnis "Jupiter". Loose bushes up to 80 cm in height are distinguished by densely leafy branched stems and lanceolate-oval leaves. It blooms in mid-summer with light purple flowers with a diameter of 3 cm. It is desirable to rejuvenate the plant of this species every 3-4 years.
Lychnis "Haage." Herbaceous perennial plant up to 40-45 cm high is a garden hybrid. The species differs in oblong-ovate leaves and racemes, consisting of 3-7 orange-red flowers. Their petals have deeply incised limbs and a narrow long tooth. Flowering begins in late June and lasts for one and a half months.
Campion sparkling. The plant with straight stems 40-60 cm tall has light green oval-lanceolate or oblong-ovate leaves. The capitate-inflorescences consist of fiery-red flowers with four-part petals. Buds are formed in July and bloom until the end of August.
Lychnis "Wiscaria". Perennial with purple stems in height reaches one meter. Its paniculate inflorescences can be pink, bright crimson or crystal white. Blooms in late spring and pleases with its extraordinary flowers throughout June and July.
Lychnis alpine. Grassy shrub 10-20 cm tall is distinguished by flowering stems, basal rosettes and opposite linear leaves. Paniculate inflorescences consist of crimson or pink-red flowers, blooming in June. View is used for registration rockeries and alpine slides.
Planting LOVE in open ground
Successful cultivation and a beautiful, long flowering plants depends on proper planting and the implementation of all recommendations for the care.
When choosing a place is important consider the following factors:
- For almost all flower varieties, it is necessary to choose well-lit areas. In the shade, only a lithnis can grow and bloom.
- The plant requires fertile, moist, well-drained soil.
Soil for planting is prepared in about a month. The soil is dug, loosened and fertilized. For each square meter you need to make:
- humus or compost - 10 kg,
- superphosphate - 50 g,
- Kalimagneziya - 40 g
In the spring or autumn, the bushes are planted in prepared by the size of rhizomes of the hole at a distance of 25 cm from each other and well watered.
Features of care for Lichnis
Undemanding in the care of the plant does not like abundant moisture, so it is watered only as the soil dries. Otherwise, the roots will begin to rot, and the flower will die.
During the season, the soil in the flower bed, where they grow lihnnisy, it is necessary to remove weeds, loosen and mulch the soil. To prolong flowering, flowering and puffy buds are regularly removed, and dried shoots are pruned.
When caring for lindens, fertilizer is applied 2-3 times for the entire season. The first feeding before flowering in the period of active growth is made with a solution that is prepared from the following mineral substances:
Each ingredient must be taken one tablespoon and diluted in a bucket of water. Each square meter of soil is fertilized with three liters of the prepared solution.
The second time during flowering shrubs fertilized with another solution. For its preparation in 10 liters of water is diluted one tablespoon:
- drug "Agricola"
- potassium sulfate,
On one square meter consumed 5 liters of fertilizer. With the same solution, they are fed after blooming in autumn.
Propagation of spawn
Perennials breed easily cuttings, dividing the bush and seeds:
- Shrubs are divided in spring or autumn into separate delenki, which immediately land on a new permanent place.
- Cuttings harvested from young shoots in early summer. Each stalk should have a length of 20-25 cm. The segments are planted on a seedling bed under the film, and after rooting and the beginning of the growth of new shoots, they are seated in permanent places.
- Seeds in open ground are sown in spring. Before sowing, river sand and humus are introduced into the soil. Planted in moist soil seeds covered with foil. At a temperature of + 18- + 20C, seedlings will sprout approximately three weeks after planting. After the appearance of 3-4 leaves, seedlings are seated on their permanent place. Blossom grown from the seeds of lihnisa will only next year.
All the beauty of Lichnis disclosed in group plantings. They can be planted separately or combined with chrysanthemums, asters or perennial carnations. With proper planting and care, perennials will look spectacular and will decorate every corner of the garden with their long flowering.
Lychnis koronchaty. External description A photo
Lychnis is a biennial plant of the carnation family. The bush is lush and thick, grows from 40 to 80 cm. The leaves are silver-green, oblong, oval, lanceolate, a leaf rosette is in the root zone. Stems are silvery, felt, branched and curved. The flowers are bright pink, crimson. The form of flowers is round; it has 5 large petals, which turn out and fall downwards during the flowering period. The middle is light pink or white. Through the efforts of breeders simple white flowers and bright terry crimson and even two-color terry flowers were bred.
Flowering begins in June and lasts until late autumn. With the onset of cold weather, flowering fades and decreases in volume, but everything is just as bright and beautiful. By the way, Lychnis koronchaty has nothing to do with Lichnis of Chalcedony. During the summer, the flower has time to grow a considerable shape, by the autumn the bush becomes much more luxuriant and thicker, with a lot of new shoots. With careful care will be pleased with bright lights all summer.
Using a crown flower in garden design
A beautiful flower very well coexists with many plants, and especially harmoniously combined with such:
- Lobelia and others
Also lithnis is used to decorate rocky decor, pond, alpine slide, flower beds, mixborders and as an independent planting.
In addition to the main species, Lychnis koronchaty has several varieties and hybrids. Consider the most popular ones:
Plant height reaches 60 cm. The flowers are white, but when the bud dissolves the middle one begins to turn pink. This flower is extremely beautiful and decorative, however, poor quality seeds can fail and not give the expected result.
Domestic variety, blooming bright pink, raspberry flowers, in diameter up to 5 cm. Leaves and stems pubescent plants, silvery. Perennial shrub can grow in one place for more than four years, it does not need special care. Frost-resistant
European terry variety. Blooms full and double flowers of bright crimson color. Very beautiful and decorative.
Beautiful dawn, as lihnnis Hantsedonian breeds seeds: self-sowing or seedling, as well as dividing the bush. When seeds germinate from self seeding, seedlings thin out, leaving the strongest and strongest sprouts. Care as usual: water, feed and remove weeds.
When breeding seedlings, seeds are sown in early March in special boxes with fertile soil, covered with foil and left in a warm, well-lit room for germination. Every day, the film is lifted to remove condensation and ventilation, and with the appearance of the first shoots it is completely removed. Further, care is watering and lighting, and with a growth of 3-4 cm, weeding is carried out, removing weak and sluggish sprouts. When the growth of the shoot reaches 7 cm, the seedlings swoop into separate pots or cups. With the onset of heat, sprouts are planted in open ground.
With dense thickets, you can “clean”. Dig up a few plants from the root and divide them to plant on a new place.
Site selection and optimum soil composition
For transplanting, first pick up a placeon which the bright dawn will grow. Lychnis light and sun, поэтому ем отводят открытую солнечную поляну, кстати, растение не боится ни дождей, ни сильного ветра. В полутени цветок может потерять свою декоративность, бутонов будет мало, а листьев много. Choose a place for a long stay of the plant, because in one place the flower can grow up to 5 years without a transplant and can withstand even extreme cold!
Priming. Lychnis flower is unusual, unlike the rest of it does not like too greasy and fertile soil, in such areas it feeds and allows for lush leaf formation, and there are few buds. Try not to add mineral and nitrogen fertilizers to the soil, but apply sand and fertilizing with reduced amount of nitrogen. For full growth and prevent rotting of the roots, the flower is planted in drained soils or make drainage during planting.
Optimal before landing top dressing will be:
Prepare the soil for about 3-4 weeks before planting seeds or seedlings, so that the fertilizers have time to decompose, put the "juices" and mix with the ground. The plot is dug up, fertilizers and sand are applied. During planting, dig pits at the bottom of which drain drainage from gravel or rubble, sprinkle a little bit of soil and plant the roots, gently spreading it in the hole. We can not allow the roots sticking out of the ground. After landing, the well is sprinkled with earth and slightly tamped. Watered.
As well as lithnis of Chalcedony, the red dawn requires moderate watering and does not like stagnant water in the soil. In hot weather, plants are watered in the evening or in the early morning.
It is necessary to remove weeds in a timely manner so that they do not interfere with the growth of the handsome red and do not violate the floral idyll. Faded buds are also removed, new ones grow in their place, and so bloom lasts until late autumn.
Loosening the soil is carried out as it hardens, 1 time per week.
Pests and diseases
When water stagnates in the ground, the roots of the bush rot. It is possible to eliminate this by stopping watering for the period of drying the soil and treating the roots with special preparations that remove fungi. If the plant cannot be helped, it can no longer be removed.
Koronchatomnuyu khonnisu, as well as Chalcedony peculiar spotting and rust on the leaves, which is eliminated by the treatment of the soil with copper-containing preparations.
From pests and insects, litnis can affect:
It is possible to relieve the plant from the attack of pests with the help of preparations with which it is necessary to spray the leaves, the stems and the soil around, the solution of tobacco and the infusion of tomato tops also help. If folk methods do not help, the plant is treated with insecticides, carbafoss or aktar.
Cultivation does not require special skills or specific care, but the results will pay for themselves and your garden will be filled with red, crimson or bright pink lights, and terry varieties will add a zest and decorative effect to the garden design. Considering the frost-resistance of lichenia, the beauty of its flowers will repeat from year to year and bloom all summer.
Types of juniper
To date, about fifty species of this plant are known, the most common and suitable for cultivation in household plots are chalcedony lichnis and linnis crown.
Chalcedony lithnis belongs to tall perennial plants, its stalks are slender, strong, dark green color. Inflorescences of chalcedony lichen can be white or have a pronounced red hue. Plants with white flowers, develop well in rocky areas. Flower heads of white limestone reach in diameter from eight to ten centimeters. In height, an adult plant can grow up to half a meter. White Chalcedony lihnis blooms in June, and flowering continues until the very end of summer. The red flowers represent fairly large flower bushes, an adult plant can reach a height of one meter. Bright inflorescences are collected in peculiar heads up to ten centimeters in diameter. The blooming period of red lichenis also runs throughout the summer.
Description of Lychnis: varieties and varieties
Adonis, dawn - folk names Lichnis, very accurately conveying the main feature of this flower. Lichnis is immediately noticeable in any flowerbed: a bright flower just catches the eye. Stems of Lychnis are straight, from 30 cm to 1 m in height, depending on the plant variety, of an unusual ash color with few lantice-shaped leaves. Inflorescences are usually white, pink or red tones.
Perennial bloom lasts about a month, and if you remove dried flowers in time, you can lengthen the specified period for another few weeks. Another feature of the plant is soapy (rhizome, petals can be washed), so lihnis is also popularly called “Tatar soap” or “soap”.
Camping, planting and caring for him are not particularly difficult, so the flower is recommended as one of the first to be grown by inexperienced gardeners.
The genus Lychnis contains more than 30 species of plants, both annual and perennial, but the most widespread in landscape design are 10 species, including Lychnis koronchaty, chalcedony, alpine, Viscaria.
Chalcedony Lichnis - perennial up to 1 meter high with a straight stem. The leaves are oval or lanceolate, dotted with the smallest hairs. The flowers are small (up to 1 cm), unite into inflorescences in the form of a cap, white, red or pink.
Crown spell - perennial with densely branched stems of dark ash-gray color. It reaches a height of 80-90 cm. It blooms in late spring - early summer and blooms until late autumn. Inflorescence racemes pink, white or bright crimson hues. Inflorescences are single, on the stems are quite densely. Most often in the open ground are "Angela Blanche" (a bush with large purple-crimson, white, dark pink inflorescences), "Mysterious Island" (in flowers the edges are white, the core is pinkish).
Unlike the two previous species, Lychnis Alpine - low (up to 20 cm) shrub, often used in landscape design for the design of rocky hills, rockeries. This kind of hardwood is quite simple in planting and care, but it should be remembered that it is characterized by intolerance to acidic soil. Propagated by seeds. In gardening, the Lara variety is grown in the open field with soft pink buds.
Lychnis Wiscaria grows in height up to one meter, it is distinguished by a special shade of stems - they are purple. Panicle-shaped inflorescence with crystal-white, bright crimson or pinkish petals. Blooms in spring (late May) and blooms throughout June and July. Cultivation of Vishkaria is recommended on loose, moist soils. The photo looks spectacular variety "Rosetta" with bright crimson terry inflorescences.
Lichnis Haage - compact bush, grows up to 40-50 cm, bred as a garden hybrid. Differs in bright red or bright orange buds collected in the brush. The petals of the sort “Hot Lava” are painted in bright bloody colors.
Lychnis Jupiter forms loose bushes, the height of the stems is about 80 cm, pubescent with white hairs. Inflorescences are light purple. It is desirable to rejuvenate the bush every 4 years.
Lychnis, like many other perennials, is quite easy to maintain. It is necessary to water it in time to measure, mulch, fertilize, feed, trim dried inflorescences and shoots.
In the autumn of lithnis should be cut off (all stems are almost at the root). Covering for the winter perennial is not necessary. Every 5 years the shrub needs a transplant.
Fertilizer and dressing
Cultivation of Lichnis is not difficult, but the plant should be provided with the necessary minerals, making mineral fertilizers 2-3 times during the growing season. The first time perennial should be fed in the period of active growth, but before flowering, preparing a solution of potassium sulfate, urea, superphosphate (take one tablespoon per bucket of water). Water the plant at the rate of 3 liters of solution per 1 square meter of area.
During flowering, a different solution is used for fertilizer, which includes superphosphate, potassium sulfate, the drug Agricola 7, all in 1 tablespoon. Dilute in 10 liters of clean water and water, consuming up to 5 liters of fertilizer per square meter of spawn. The same solution should be fed perennial in the fall after the end of flowering.
It is possible to propagate litnis by the vegetative method (by dividing a bush, by cuttings) or by seeds.
- Reproduction by seeds. Camping trees, unlike other shrubs, reproduce fairly well with seeds that have excellent germination, some species and varieties can reproduce even by self-sowing. In order to grow cornflower from seeds, they should be sown in spring (April-May) in open ground. The most suitable temperature for their germination is about 18-20 ° C, the time of emergence of seedlings is 3 weeks after sowing. To improve the conditions for seed germination, you can cover crops with film or agrofibre. After germination, shoots need to swoop down and land on a permanent place. Lychnis, grown from seeds in open ground, will bloom no earlier than next year. More dense germination of seeds is possible with their stratification (change of temperature).
- Reproduction by cuttings produced in early summer. To do this, cut the young shoots of plants up to 20-25 cm, planted in the greenhouse or under the film, waiting for rooting and transplanted to a permanent place in early autumn.
- Reproduction by dividing the bush. From the mother bush along with the rhizome, the part containing the young shoots is separated and transplanted to a new place.
Campion in landscape design
Campion in landscape design is used in flower beds, group plantings, mixborders. It is good for stony hills, rockeries. Also, they do not need to design the shores of decorative garden ponds and lakes. Tall perennials can be used for summer decoration of fences, walls, gazebos (combining, for example, with clematis).
This plant is mainly planted to make certain color accents, giving the flower garden brightness, focus on bright spots. Alchnia alpine is used in rock gardens in sunny areas, they also decorate stone flower walls. It is especially effective in group plantings among yellow flowers.
Lychnis is bright in bouquets in a cut, but, unfortunately, it does not last long. Therefore, grow it in areas, decorate stone walls, plant it in a flower garden and rock gardens and admire the vibrant colors of this flower.
Everyone knows the "dawn" or as it is also popularly called the "adonis" - from the family of Carnations, a native of southern Europe. Lychnis coronaria - the botanical name "lihnis" or "lamp", is quite justified. Its flowers literally "burn" with shades of silver - gray color. On curved shoots grow graceful inflorescences:
The plant pleases with its grace for a long time, because refers to perennial plants. However, depending on the territory and conditions, for example, in the middle lane, its status may change for two years.
Despite the small growth of the bush - 40-90 cm., It is rich in leaves and shoots, which for the whole summer, from June until the autumn, do not cease to branch. The leaves have an oval oblong shape. Below, at the very roots, there is a silver plating that gives a special mood to the lights, like lanterns, of flowers. And even autumn is not able to stop the flowering of linchis, and in autumn it continues to bloom and please the eye.
How to fertilize the soil?
To ensure the duration of flowering of Lychnis Koronchaty, you need to choose poor, not fertile soil. To stimulate flowering plants need fertilizers containing a limited amount of nitrogen. To feed the plant to the period of flowering and in the midst of flowering. Both times feeding is made with different solutions. For the first time a solution is prepared from:
- Potassium sulfate.
per 10 liters of water, one tablespoon of each ingredient. And the second time, when the plant is already flowering, the shrub is watered with a solution that is prepared from the drug Agricole, potassium sulfate and superphosphate at the rate of one tablespoon of each ingredient per 10 liters of water. For one square meter used 5 liters of solution.
As mentioned above, Lychnis blooms when sand prevails in the soil, hence it needs little water for irrigation. If you awaken a plant, it will soon rot out of dampness and may develop fungal diseases from dampness, which obviously will not make you happy.
For bright velvety flowers, our hero - Lichnis was called “ardent love”. And in the old days there was such a custom, in the garden of a girl a young man planted a flower - a light, i.e. Lychnis, than expressed his love.
No one will deny the fact that flowers have always been a symbol of beauty. And the man decorated his home with flowers, which was associated with well-arranged life. Therefore, if you have conceived to acquire a new plant, but do not know which one, then you will definitely purchase this particular flower, it certainly will not upset you, but will give you beauty and comfort.