Every owner of a private house wants a beautiful and fruitful garden, as well as a thick, juicy lawn, which will remain in the memory of guests for a long time. To achieve this, you have to work hard, because even the grass needs constant care. What it will be - depends on what grows on the site. Without something you can not do, so it is without watering. The first few years after acquiring a site and organizing a garden on it, people usually enjoy hand watering the plants. However, this pleasure quickly disappears, especially when the family has many other concerns.
The lawn needs regular watering. Otherwise, it quickly loses its attractiveness and may even dry out with an insufficient amount of precipitation. If the owners of the site do not have time for watering the lawn, this does not mean that they need to abandon this fashionable and attractive attribute of modern landscape design. In this case, automatic irrigation systems come to the rescue. They save a lot of time. Today we will learn how to organize automatic lawn watering with your own hands.
What is included in the irrigation system
Installation of an automatic lawn irrigation system is a very time consuming process. However, it does not require any specific knowledge and experience. For those who like to create something with their own hands, this procedure may seem very interesting and exciting. The rest is recommended to suffer a little. In the end, all efforts will pay off with interest.
So, the irrigation system consists of:
- Pumping station.
- Pressure regulators.
Pumping station. This installation is responsible for providing the system with water by increasing the pressure. The need for it is due to the fact that the central water supply cannot always provide sufficient pressure to supply water to all the organs of the irrigation system. Pump selection depends on the needs of the irrigation system. Well, the amount of water for irrigation, in turn, depends on the area of the territory.
Capacity. Water is pumped into the tank from the well, which will be pumped into the pipeline of the irrigation system using a pump. For these purposes, plastic tanks are usually used, which may differ in volume, color and shape. Colored containers (except black) are recommended to be covered with black film to prevent water from blooming inside them and, as a result, the formation of algae, which will constantly clog filters and valves. The volume of the tank should be equal to 70% of the water consumption for one lawn watering cycle. 30% remains in reserve, in case more water is needed. To maintain the level of liquid in the tank yourself, you can install a float valve in it.
Filters. Regardless of the source from which water is supplied to the automatic lawn watering system, without prior cleaning, it will quickly clog the thin sprinkler nozzles, as a result of which they can fail. Therefore, the use of filters is a prerequisite for the installation of irrigation systems.
Pipes. They are used to transport water from the pumping station to the irrigation heads. In one lawn irrigation system, pipes of different diameters can be used. They are wide near the pumping station (in order to provide greater water abstraction), and near the sprinklers they are narrow. Pipes made of any material can cope with this task, but the most convenient way is to work with plastic.
Controllers. These devices are designed to monitor the operation of the entire system. They allow you to track consumption figures, valve positions and other details.
Pressure regulators. They are used to distribute pressure between the pipes of the system. They are especially necessary when sprinklers of different diameters are used in the system. The fact is that each irrigation head has its own working pressure, therefore, in order for irrigation to work properly, it is necessary to adjust the water pressure under each of the nozzles.
Valves. Solenoid valves work together with controllers. They are needed in the case when there is a need for watering a certain zone, and not the entire territory. For example, if the site is large, and the pumping station has weak power, it would be advisable to irrigate the lawn in several stages. Using the controllers, you can set the opening and closing times of each valve.
Sprinklers. They are irrigation heads or nozzles. They are simple devices that directly spray water on the site. According to the configuration, lawn sprinklers for watering the lawn vary. The most popular models that are hiding under the ground, and at the time of irrigation rise. Such nozzles do not spoil the appearance of the lawn and, by virtue of their inaccessibility for dogs and curious children, they serve longer. In terms of coverage, sprinklers are divided into rotor and static. The first ones rotate around their axis, watering a whole circle, the radius of which is equal to the distance of the spray device. Well, the latter, respectively, irrigate only one direction. Having considered the device and equipment for automatic watering the lawn, go directly to his organization.
The first thing to do when starting to organize an automatic lawn watering system is to make a plan of the site. First you need to mark all the buildings and paths on it. Then the plan is applied to the layout of pipes and sprinklers. Also on the scheme you must specify the location / places of water intake. If there are several of them, preference should be given to the one that is closer to the center of the site so that less pressure is needed to deliver water. The most convenient way to draw a plot plan on a scale of 1: 100.
Particular attention should be paid to the placement of sprinklers. By and large, it is for this purpose that the plan is drawn up. Marking on it the place of installation of the sprayer, with the help of compasses, you need to draw the zone of its action. This will allow you to effectively distribute the territory.
Design is carried out in this order:
- First of all, in the corners of the plot, devices that spray water within a radius of 90 degrees are laid out.
- Then dispensers are laid out, which will be installed along the fence or at home. The radius of their action, respectively, should be equal to 180 degrees.
- Now you need to install sprayers on the corners of buildings. They will work at 270 degrees.
- It remains only to place the sprinklers on the free area of the lawn, spraying water in a radius of 360 degrees.
When placing the spray nozzles, it is worth remembering that the areas of their work should intersect in order for the irrigation to be of the highest quality and efficient. This simple way of locating sprinklers works on sections of any configuration.
Water amount calculation
For normal operation, each type of sprinkler requires a certain amount of water and a certain pressure. Depending on the pressure that sprayers are able to withstand, their number is calculated on one line of the system. Based on this, the number of lines needed to supply water to all sprinklers indicated on the plan is calculated.
Choosing sprayers, it is necessary to take into account the ability of the point of intake. If the total pressure of all sprinklers exceeds them, you will need to either buy a more powerful pump, or divide the watering into two stages. The second option is more economical. You can adjust the watering stage using the controller and valves.
Installation of an automatic lawn irrigation system is rather complicated, so it’s worth taking a very careful look at it.
The process is divided into the following stages:
- Installation of the pump and water tank.
- Digging trenches under the pipe.
- Pre-laying the pipeline.
- Pipe connection and connection to the pumping station.
- Joining sprinklers.
- Installation of filters, valves and controllers.
- System check.
- Burying trenches.
Before proceeding to earthworks, the site should be marked in accordance with the plan. It is most convenient to do this with the help of a cord and pegs. The cord must be tensioned so that it does not sag. When marking the site should be borne in mind that the excavation of trenches is not done directly under the markup (this is quite inconvenient), but to the side of it. Sometimes in the process of work there may be obstacles in the form of stones, roots and other things. In this case, you need to either eliminate them, or adjust the pipeline layout.
When the plot is new and the lawn is not growing on it, digging trenches is not at all difficult. The earth in this case simply leans to the side. If the site already has a lawn, you need to try not to harm him. Throwing the earth directly on the grass is undesirable. To avoid this, it is recommended that the polyethylene be drilled along the trench. You can safely pour the earth on it, and after the completion of the laying of pipes to return it back. One way or another, it’s not worth it to keep the lawn away from the air and the sun for a long time, so the installation of the pipeline must be done quickly.
To protect the lawn directly at the point of digging, it needs to be cut into cubes with a shovel and put aside with the top layer of soil. After the trench is instilled, the cubes will simply need to be put in place.
Digging trenches under the pipeline is the most time-consuming procedure in installing a lawn irrigation system. In order to make life easier for themselves, many make ditches with a depth of one bayonet, forgetting that the liquid in pipes can freeze at such depths in the winter. When changing the aggregate state of water its volume changes, which can lead to pipe deformation.
It is recommended to make trenches with a depth of 1 meter. Then there should be no problems with freezing water. Nevertheless, there is a simpler way to protect the pipes from deformation in the winter. When digging them into a small depth (up to 30 cm), the entire system should be bent. In the lower points it is worthwhile to install bends, with the help of which it will be possible to simply drain the liquid from the system before the onset of frost.
Another important point regarding the installation of the system is leak testing. Before digging in the pipes it is imperative to make sure that the lawn irrigation system does not leak. Leakage can adversely affect pressure and spray quality. In addition, because of it can significantly increase water consumption for irrigation.
Drain water before winter
Those who do not want to dig a deep trench, you need to take care of the possibility of draining the liquid from the system before winter. Just draining the water from the bottom point of the inclined tubes is not enough. In the joints of the pipes, and especially where sprinklers join the pipe, the water will still remain. To get rid of it, you just need to flush the system with compressed air. It is worth blowing until the water stops flowing.
With the arrival of spring, before turning on automatic lawn watering, it is necessary to check the entire system, clean the sprinklers, change filters and, if necessary, adjust the radius of the water supply.
To the equipment for watering the lawn did not fail and lasted longer, it should be looked after.
Care of the system consists of simple procedures:
- Check filters 2 times a month. Forgotten filters must be cleaned or replaced.
- Check sprinklers. Clogged slots for water supply should be cleaned with a soft brush. If it does not help, it is worth applying a needle.
- Dismantling the sensors before the onset of cold weather. Store them preferably in a warm place.
- Drain water for the winter.
Lawn irrigation rates
Competent watering - the key to proper and healthy growth of the garden. Each plant has its own water use norms, and one who complies with them can claim to have a gorgeous lawn and luxurious flower beds. As for the lawn, when it is watered two aspects should be taken into account: the regime and the amount of water.
Like the rest of the vegetation, the lawn should be watered in the morning or in the evening, during the hours when the sun is inactive. The fact is that when exposed to direct sunlight on a wet plant, burns may appear on it. Water droplets in this case act as lenses that enhance the effect of radiation. In addition, if you water the grass during the day, the water will evaporate quickly, without saturating the soil properly.
As for the volume of water, it is considered that 10 l per 1 m 2 of territory is necessary for good growth of the lawn. With this watering, the soil will be soaked with moisture by about 10 cm, and the roots do not go deeper than 15 cm. Watering the lawn in a smaller volume is almost meaningless, since the moisture must reach the roots. In addition, with small irrigations, a crust forms on the surface of the ground, which prevents the normal flow of air into the ground.
How often to water the lawn? In the absence of precipitation, this should be done once a day. During the heatwave period, additional refreshing irrigations can be produced, but it is important not to abuse them. Watering the lawn after planting can be done twice a day (morning and evening) to accelerate the growth of grass.
As the equipment for watering the lawn is installed for many years, it is recommended not to save on it. Most of the system is hiding under the ground, so in the event of a pipe break, it will not be easy to detect a leak. At best, a puddle that protrudes on the surface of the earth will point to the point of breakdown, and at worst, it will be necessary to dig all the pipes. Therefore, the choice of pipes, their installation and discharge of water for the winter should be treated with special responsibility.
If, in addition to the lawn, it is planned to water other plants that have a different need for water, then those plants whose requirements are similar should be combined into one watering line. It is also not recommended to connect sprinklers with different flow rates to one line.
Irrigation system design
The irrigation system is made specifically for multifunctional watering the lawn by sprinkling. Moistening of the soil happens evenly at the expense of special sprays. Top fertile layer is not washed out. The roots get maximum moisture, and the grass remains juicy and fresh all season. The automatic lawn watering system consists of the following components:
- Water spraying sprinklers.
- Pumping station. Responsible for maintaining a stable pressure.
- Fine filters. They catch extraneous inclusions.
- Pressure Regulators Find application for installations of various types, level a pressure.
- Electromagnetic valves. Start and shut off the water supply to certain groups.
- HDPE pipes required to connect key system components.
- Controllers. They work according to the set programs and control the system as a whole.
Varieties of sprinklers
Sprinklers are otherwise called sprinklers. This is a device that distributes the water that flows through the pipes. As a result, it is distributed in the form of small droplets. Inoperative to notice the device is almost impossible. They protrude slightly above the surface of the lawn. When is the moment of water supplythese items rise. Sprinklers can be:
- Static. The direction, as well as the angle of spraying, is always strictly defined.
- Rotary. Their water jet moves through the internal turbine.
- Pulsed. The fluid rotates in the form of a jet due to the built-in ratchet mechanism.
Static sprinklers are mounted where the spray angle must be strictly defined. These are usually zones along buildings, along the edges of the lawn, near paths and fences. Pulse and rotor modifications have a fixed spraying radius. They are placed in the central part so that there are no not watered sites.
To ensure that the entire surface of the lawn is evenly watered, sprinklers with different spray radii are used. Connect them through individual pressure regulators. At the water source have a pumping station. Its role is performed by a well, water supply or a well. The capacity and power of the pumping station is selected in accordance with the size of the lawn and the required amount of watering. The station must be equipped with a fine filter. Due to this, it is possible to avoid the ingress of rust, sand, and small debris into the system.
Splinker on large areas
If the area is large, it is advisable to divide the sprinklers into separate groups. They are subsequently included alternately. Due to this, it is possible to reduce the required power of pumping equipment for lawn irrigation. Costs are also reduced. for the purchase of all necessary equipment. In this case, the solenoid valves allow you to include a group of sprinklers. They, in turn, are controlled by the controller.
The controller and the control unit are mounted in a convenient location, connected to the mains and connected to it a pumping station along with solenoid valves. Control cables must be buried underground. Before that, they are laid out in a corrugated metal pipe. В роли трубопроводов используются пластиковые трубы ПНД и соединительные фитинги с резьбой. Их сборка осуществляется быстро.It does not require the use of complex equipment. They do not rot and are resistant to low temperatures.
The diameter of the pipe is determined, in accordance with the capacity of the calculation. When the pipes are laid at a shallow depth, in the freezing layer of soil, drainage wells and drain valves form at the end of the branches of the system. All this is required for draining the system and conservation for the period of winter. It is important to provide convenient and easy access to the drainage wells.
The system has the ability to connect pristvolny irrigation. It is necessary for shrubs and trees. Drip system is designed for flower beds and flower beds. This option involves connecting through a water-reducing gear. To prevent the system from working in rainy weather, a rain sensor is provided. It is placed in an open place and connected to the controller. The choice of the main components for the irrigation system is made after the calculation and the formation of the sketch.
Design and Sketch Features
Before starting the direct work, it is necessary to draw up an exact plan of the site and designate the size of the objects located on its territory. It is important to indicate recreation areas, paths, places where buildings will stand. The latter should not pass through the watering area. If automatic irrigation of the combined type is intended, Need to mark empty flower beds, large trees. They will be brought to the radical irrigation. There are several stages of drafting:
- Arrangement of irrigation zones. If the lawn is divided by a playground or paths, the total area is divided into separate zones. Water jets during irrigation should not fall on them.
- Pipe diameter, throughput. In this case, it is necessary to determine the capacity of the pipeline branches. It is necessary to identify the maximum mark and the one that is optimal.
First, the diameter of the supply pipe is detected where it is connected to the pumping station and the water supply. If the lawn is divided into separate territories, branching is performed according to the collector scheme. Due to this, the pressure on all branches of the pipeline becomes uniform. The diameter of the main pipe to the collector should not exceed the same parameter for the supply pipe. The same can be said with respect to the diameter of the branches with respect to the trunk zone. The following steps:
- Selection of the number of sprinklers. First determine the installation location of static sprinklers with a limited angle of irrigation. They are mounted at the corners of the lawn along objects, including tracks. The contour of the spray on the lawn while directing. It is very convenient to make any marks by compass. Sprinklers with radial irrigation are distributed in the central zone. The same goes for rotating and static devices. The irrigation zone of each sprinkler is outlined on the plan with a compass. Sprinklers can have a different radius of watering.
- Selection of sprinklers. According to the sketch, pick up a suitable sprinkler. Take into account the angle of irrigation, the diameter of the thread and the radius of movement of water flows. The error can vary from 10 to 15%. That is why it is better to select sprinklers with a stock.
- Determination of the location of controllers and EM-valves. Separately, the solenoid valve is mounted on each branch of irrigation connected separately. They can be put in one place (even better). At the expense of it the maximum convenience of service is provided. The control controller is located in a special protected place. At the same time it is necessary to take care of convenient access for programming and further control.
- The location of the pipes. Pipe laying lines are marked on the plan, selecting the number of turns and the minimum length. Branching is necessary to copy as much as possible. The diameter of the pipes is coordinated with the thread diameter of the sprinklers. Mark them along with all the necessary fittings in the diagram.
- Determination of pump performance. Installing a pumping station, it is necessary to achieve its compliance in terms of performance and water flow for irrigation. Fixed total consumption for all sprinklers operating at a time. Potential losses must be taken into account. They can sometimes go as high as 20%.
- Arrangement of a drainage well. They are in the amount of several pieces put on the lower zones of the site. In the well is carried out several branches of the pipeline. The location of these components of the system must be chosen so that they are not conspicuous. Serviceability is also important.
- The use of auxiliary equipment. This refers to filters and valves. They are purchased in accordance with the parameters of the pipeline, not forgetting to put marks on the plan, indicating their location.
Design the installation of sensors for rain and soil moisture. To make the drawing of the irrigation zone easy to read, you can select certain areas with different colors and indicate the designation with conventional signs. For convenience, together with the plan and make up the specification. It reflects the characteristics of the selected system components and their number.
DIY equipment installation
For self-installation of watering systems, you must have certain skills. They relate to work with plumbing and electrical installations. If they are not, it is better to seek the help of professionals. How to install the system step by step:
- Marking on the lawn. To do this, use eco-friendly paint or chalk dumping. Designate the place of laying of pipes, placement of drainage wells and all necessary equipment, in accordance with the scheme. If the system is installed before laying the lawn, the markings are made with pegs, signal tape or twine.
- Preparation of trenches for pipe laying. Dig longitudinal pits required depth in accordance with the markup. The system, which has a drain, involves laying pipes at the level of soil freezing. Depth is up to 1 meter. For a system with the ability to drain water, a depth of no more than 40 cm is sufficient. It is important to ensure a slope of 3 degrees and equip all branches with a drainage well at least one meter deep. Its diameter varies from 0.3 to 0.4 m.
- When the system is mounted on an existing lawn, carefully clean the grass in layers or rolls before excavating, and then lay it in a separate place. Layers and rolls should be regularly moistened. The soil from the trench is removed in layers. For this is suitable shovel. It can be set aside separately on film so as not to damage the rest of the lawn surface.
- Pipe connection. Lay out the product of the selected diameter dug trenches. The linear dimensions of the HDPE pipes are modified if temperature drops are noted. Therefore, the installation should be done without tension with a margin of 5 to 10%. This feature is taken into account when cutting. Pipeline fragments are connected by fittings. Put the pipes on the bottom of the trench with a slight slope. To fix the pipeline, it is filled with a small amount of soil at selected points.
- Construction of drainage wells. Here are the use of pipes with a diameter of 0.4 m and special containers. The pipe should have a length of 1 meter. It is driven in vertically, but at the same time, it is poured with rubble 40 cm. Pipes go out into the well. With the help of a shut-off valve to block them. The top of the well is covered with a lid.
Installation of valves and manifold
The next step is the installation of electromagnetic valves and manifold. The branch pipe connected through the solenoid valves of the manifold. They are installed near the pumping station and equipped with protective boxes.
The controller is responsible for controlling the valves. It can be put in a convenient place to manage. It is necessary to lay a cable here, which is subsequently closed with a corrugated metal sleeve.
Pumping station connection
Such equipment is installed at the point of connection to the water supply system or well. It is closed with a caisson or a protective box. Alternatively you can place it inside the building. The pump is sometimes equipped with automatic control systems.. It is necessary for the prevention of unauthorized turning on of pumps in the dry running mode. She also controls many working moments. The automation unit can be placed separately in control boxes or placed directly on the pump housing.
A branch of the irrigation system is connected to the solenoid valves. They are mounted on the collector. Connect the station for pumping water and the main pipeline to the collector through a fine filter. After that, it is necessary to conduct a test and test run the system To this end, the valves located on the drainage wells, overlap.
Fixes the required pressure in the hydroaccumulator. Open the valve on the trunk pipe. They open the solenoid valves in turn from the control unit. Check for tightness all connections on each of the branches. During the test, the water passes through the system and is cleaned from foreign inclusions that got inside during installation. During the test run, it is necessary to lower the pressure from the station for pumping water to the minimum value specified in the passport.
The next step is to attach the sprinklers. Connect them to the pipeline according to the scheme. For static sprinklers, the direction of spraying must be observed. After this, the turf layers are restarted and placed in a separate place, watered, and firmly pressed. If necessary, sow lawn grass.
It is customary to include sensors that indicate the direction of the wind, and equipment that records the degree of soil moisture, the presence of rain. These devices are connected to special sockets of the controller by means of low-voltage cables. Installed sensors in an open area. They should not be protected from wind and precipitation. Sometimes it makes sense to put a weather station. This is a complex of several sensors in a single package.
Weather sensors are present in fully automated systems. They produce watering, in accordance with the indications of the sensors. In programmable systems set duration and time of watering a separate area. The following rules are taken into account:
- 12 to 15 liters of water is required for every square meter of lawn,
- 20 cm to moisten the soil during watering,
- at least once every three days you should water the lawn, provided that it is fair weather.
How long to water? To determine this point, it is necessary to calculate the need for a lawn in water and divide the resulting value by the hourly water consumption in a separate zone.
The lawn irrigation system at the site significantly saves the time it takes to care for the site. Modern control systems provide on and off equipment, in accordance with external conditions. That is why timely watering even in hot weather is ensured without delays in timing. With such a system for a long time the lawn pleases with bright thick grass and a neat appearance.
Regulatory requirements for lawn watering
For high-quality automatic irrigation, you need to consider the necessary water flow, temperature, frequency of the procedure and time. The ideal conditions for the irrigation system are those that are as close as possible to the natural environment. For lawn grass undesirable exposure to cold water, the temperature should not be below 10 degrees Celsius. It is recommended to water the lawns with water at a temperature of +18 or +20 degrees, in this case the root system of the grass and leaves will not be damaged.
Heat water for automatic irrigation directly from the wells using storage tanks. With automatic drip irrigation lawn moisture instantly heats up in air.
The frequency of irrigation will vary depending on weather conditions. On cloudy days, it is enough to use an automatic lawn irrigation system once or twice a week. But in the dry season, daily irrigation will be necessary. The most effective will be morning or evening watering. During the day, irrigate the lawn is not necessary, so as not to leave burns from moisture on herbal shoots.
Water consumption for irrigation system The lawn will depend on several factors:
- soil type
- lawn accommodations
- varieties of grass sown,
Lawns on soils with a heavy structure, clay or loam are watered less, since such a soil holds moisture well. Sand base irrigate more often. The generally accepted standard for watering a lawn is the consumption of 10 to 20 liters of water per 1 square meter. meter. This irrigation impregnates the soil approximately 20 cm deep, which is basically enough for grass cover.
Shade lawnswatered less frequently than areas in open areas. For a lot of trees or other vegetation moisture will need more. The basic rule of high-quality lawn watering is better less often, but rather more abundant.
Choosing a place for water intake
As a source of water for an automatic irrigation system, the use of a central water supply system, a well, an open reservoir, and an excavated well is perfect. Applying the central water supply, it is necessary to take into account the heavy loads on the water supply network. An automatic system requires a pressure of at least 3 atmospheres. Therefore, it is advisable to carry out the connection in bypassing the house water conduit, and to regulate the differences by completing the equipment with an expansion tank with water.
The pump maintains the water pressure provided it is used as a well or well source. Using a reservoir, don't forget about sewage treatmentso that the nozzles do not clog.
How to choose an automatic lawn watering system
There are several types of automatic watering. When choosing, be sure to take into account the type of sprinklers, as well as the method of controlling the entire installed system.
There are two main methods of automatic lawn irrigation:
With sprinkler irrigation implies the use of sprinklers - distributing the entire pipeline across the territory of a lawn covering. At some points, sprayers are installed on the surface with which the grass is watered from above.
When using lawn drip-type automatic watering, perforated hoses are installed throughout the site, which are connected to a water intake source. Irrigation is carried out through the holes made to the plants without strong pressure. Tubes for drip irrigation are very elastic, so they often use underground technology for automatic irrigation, when wiring flexible hoses are carried out underground. To prevent holes from clogging with soil, it is recommended to use agrofibre.
Automatic irrigation management
A special controller regulates the lawn watering system, making the settings of the device according to its own preferences. In terms of timer and microcomputer, special valves open and close. In a quality system, there are also sensors.k, measuring soil moisture.
It is possible to start the installation as directly only according to the readings of the built-in sensor, as well as by combining automatic and manual settings. There are systems that cover several lawns at once, regulating several programs for irrigating the territory.
Device for automatic lawn irrigation
The purpose of a full-fledged irrigation system is high-quality watering of the lawn by sprinkling. Installing sprayers, evenly moisten the soil. The fertile topsoil is not eroded, the necessary amount of moisture is supplied to the plant roots, and as a result - a fresh and juicy grass covering is round season.
Components of the automatic lawn irrigation system:
- Sprinklers (sprinklers) for spraying water.
- Pumping station to ensure stable pressure throughout the autonomous system.
- Fine filters for retention of impurities and particles.
- System pressure regulators. They are needed to install different types of sprinklers to equalize the water pressure.
- Valves (electromagnetic). Provide water supply to sprinklers.
- Pipes for connecting parts of an autonomous system.
- Controllers designed to control the installation.
With a properly equipped system, high-quality lawn watering will be carried out.
In another way, sprinklers are also called sprinklers. These devices spray the water supplied through the installed pipes in the form of droplets.. When applying moistureand devices move up. There are several types of sprinklers:
- static instruments with a defined direction and spray angle,
- impulse devices with ratchet built-in mechanism,
- rotary dozhdevatel with the built-in turbine for rotation of a water stream.
Static devices are mounted along the edges of lawns, along various buildings, fences, paths, that is, where strictly defined spraying is necessary.
Rotary devices and impulse sprinklers with a certain spraying radius are placed in the center in order to cover all necessary areas with irrigation.
For uniform watering газона по всей территории устанавливают спринклеры с разным радиусом действия. Подключают их с помощью индивидуальных радиаторов давления.
Суть системы автополива
Система автоматического полива газона обычно монтируется специализированными фирмами. But not all gardeners can pay a tangible amount of money for the purchase of the system, its design. A more economical option is to install the automatic irrigation system. Despite the complexity, the cost of buying parts and time spent, a homemade lawn watering system is cheaper than ready.
Automatic watering the lawn can be of 2 types:
- Sprinkler. This is a pipeline layout with sprinklers. Watering is done from above, according to the principle of natural rain.
- Drip. These are flexible, perforated hoses with holes, connected to a water intake point. Most often they are located underground. Watering is done directly to the roots of plants.
Sprinkler irrigation is perfect for lawns, moistening not only the soil but also the air. This is the most affordable method of watering.
Device irrigation system
For self-installation of a lawn irrigation system you will need to purchase a number of necessary equipment items:
- Pumping station. The device provides the necessary pressure. The choice of performance is based on the design and calculation of the required water consumption.
- Pressure Regulators Needed if the system provides sprinklers that require different water pressure.
- Fine filters. They protect the sprinklers from clogging and failure.
- Electromagnetic valves and controllers for system control.
- HDPE pipes. Create a transport highway.
- Adapters, tees, squares for connecting pipes.
- Sprinklers (sprayers, sprinklers). They can be non-retractable or retractable. The first type is fixed above the ground surface. Sprinklers of the second type are located in the soil, the sliding mechanism lifts them up by 15-20 cm during watering, then lowers them down again.
Structural scheme of the automatic watering system ALCO
Types of sprinklers
Retractable lawn sprinklers:
- Rotary irrigator has a stable base and a rotating head. Able to rotate around its axis and capture a radius of 5 to 25 m.
- The static (fan-shaped) sprinkler is immobile and functions within a radius of 5 m according to the principle of the fountain. Some models can be adjusted to irrigate, according to the configuration of the lawn, 25-360 degrees.
- Oscillating type is convenient for a rectangular lawn. This is a perforated tube moving along a specific path.
- Pulse dozhdevatel carries out portion water supply.
- The hose sprinkler in the form of a flexible pipe with holes irrigates planting in all directions at once.
- Circular spray evenly irrigates radius from 3 to 10 m.
Water intake can be made from several sources:
- central water supply,
- open pond.
At a flow rate of 20 liters of water for each square meter of lawn, 200 liters will be needed at a time for a plot of 10 m2. The water intake from the central water supply system puts a heavy load on the entire water supply network, since the working range for the sprinklers is from 2 to 4 atmospheres.
Tip! It is recommended to make a connection to bypass the water supply at home. Pressure drops are leveled by installing an expansion tank. Water for watering the lawn can also be supplied from a well or a well. It will take 2 pumps. The first one will pump water into the tank, the second one will supply water to the system.
It is possible to install a pumping station with a hydroaccumulator. The choice of power stations, pumps, capacity is carried out on the basis of calculations of water consumption. With simultaneous watering, you can add up the performance of all sprinklers. The pumping station should have a slightly higher capacity (by 10-15%). If this parameter is insufficient for watering the entire area of the lawn, then the process is divided into 2-3 stages.
Design and sketch
Designing an automatic irrigation system begins with drawing up an accurate lawn drawing on graph paper. The diagram indicates the lawn area, bushes and trees, recreation areas, buildings. The result should be some rectangles.
The next step is to calculate the capacity of the pipeline, since the resource intake point has a limit. It is necessary to measure the diameter of the pipe source of water supply and find out its capacity from the table on the Internet. This parameter should then be determined in practice. After overlapping all the branches you need to calculate the number of liters of water per minute. So it turns out the appropriate diameter of the pipeline.
Schematic rainwater system
To find out the optimal mode of simultaneous operation of irrigation lines, you need to find out the area of the splinkters. Usually for lawn irrigation used sprinklers static (fan) and rotor (rotating) type. For a large lawn static sprinklers will need more, which would entail the purchase of a larger number of pipes. Rotary and static sprinklers should be installed on different lines.
A suitable sprinkler is selected, depending on the size and shape of the lawn. It remains to decide how many sprinklers will be needed for the entire lawn. The number of sprinklers is determined based on the water consumption for one sprinkler, pumping station capacity, the number of lawn sectors for irrigation.
Polymer lawn rationally placed on the plan. To do this, draw with a compass circles, reflecting the range of the selected sprinklers. Irrigated areas should be fully covered. Arrangement of lawn sprinklers begin with the corner points of lawns.
Important! A necessary condition for the rational placement of sprinklers is that sprinklers with the same capacity should be connected to each water line.
This will ensure a constant, uniform watering of the lawn. Sprinklers installed at the end of the line irrigate a somewhat smaller radius due to the pressure drop in the pipes.
To facilitate the maintenance of automation, pipeline branching sites need to be concentrated in one place. The valve should be located close to each other. On the plan you need to mark points with simultaneously working sprinklers. One valve will be connected to each of these sections.
Having decided on the placement of all sprinklers, you should develop a water supply scheme. It is necessary to calculate the capacity of water intake. The larger the area of action of the splinter, the greater the need for water. Algorithm for the measurement:
- the hose connects to the water intake point
- put a bucket with a volume of 10 liters, and recorded the time of its filling,
- the distance from the water intake point to the most distant point of the site is measured,
- every 15 m require the addition of 1 s.
The capacity of the water intake should be higher than the total demand of the connected and simultaneously operating devices. The places of laying the main pipe and branches should be drawn so that they have the minimum number of bends, they are directed to the sprinklers along the shortest path. The diameter of the branches must be less than the diameter of the main pipe.
Note! Incorrectly created grid of the pipeline will lead to pressure losses, material consumption, inefficient lawn watering.
If it is impossible to start the entire system at the same time, it will be necessary to divide it into several branches and cut it off by means of valves. On the basis of the created documents, you can make an estimate for calculating the cost of materials.
Independent installation of the irrigation system
The technology of installation of the system of automatic watering is carried out, according to the developed plan. To begin with, the lawn area is marked. To do this, use the pegs and rope. The installation of the necessary equipment. The water filter is installed at the outlet of the feed pump.
Then the channels for the pipeline are excavated, leveling the bottom. The diameter of the main pipes is 32-40 mm, for the distribution line - 25-32 mm. When cutting, leave a small margin of length. The cross section of the pipes directly at the sprinklers should be the smallest.
Lawn irrigation lines are recruited, starting with the branch furthest from the water intake. For connections use adapters, tees, squares. A depth of about 1 m is recommended, below the ground freezing level. You can reduce the complexity of the work and make a depth of about 30 cm. But then a slight bias is required, drainage valves are needed at the lowest points to drain the water before the winter period.
Clean valve - the key to quality watering
After connecting the entire pipeline and valves are laying in a trench. Before you fill the lawn irrigation system with soil, you need to check for leaks. The valves alternately open and close. All faults are eliminated.
If the testing of the system after the water supply is successful, you can drill holes for the end branches and sprinklers, wind them up and cover the trenches with earth. To connect the sprinkler with the main pipe, you will need a cutting nozzle. Splincters should be located above ground level (with the exception of underground models).
Note! The valves are used for alternately watering certain sectors, regulate each branch of the lawn irrigation system. They are combined in groups and placed in special boxes of 4 pieces. The solenoid valves are connected to the sensors and the controller. Valves are connected to pipes by means of special seats and compression couplings. At installation it is necessary to observe tightness.
Electromagnetic programmable valves operate according to the settings of the microcomputer and the timer. They are equipped with a battery so that when the power is turned off, the program is not erased. You can achieve full automation of the irrigation regime by installing 2 sensors: soil moisture on lawns and rain (it is placed away from the sprinklers). If the soil is wet after rain, or rain falls, then water will not flow.
Pump station with cleaning filter
One of the main elements of automatic lawn irrigation should be installed directly at the water source. The power of the pumping station used and its throughput depends on the size of the lawn you are pouring in, the amount of moisture supply.
Components of the pumping station:
- connecting pipes
- pressure switch.
Be sure to install dA fine filter should be equipped to prevent sand, rust, various minor impurities from entering the automatic system. The pressure switch is mounted to the hydroaccumulator, and is connected to the leading irrigation pipe and to the pump, which, in turn, is connected by pipes with a water source.
If the lawn size is large enough, it is recommended to divide all sprinklers into groups, and turn them on one by one, as a result, to reduce the capacity of the necessary installation in the system, to save a lot. Include separate groups of sprinklersusing solenoid valves that regulate with controllers.
The pumping station as well as the necessary solenoid valves are supplied from the control unit with the controller. Place it in a convenient location, connect to the power grid, while laying underground control cables, placing them in a corrugated metal pipe.
HDPE pipes and threaded connecting fittings are used as pipelines. Gather them quickly, pick up the diameterconsidering the calculated required throughput.
In order to efficiently drain the automatic system and preserve it for the winter, it is necessary to install drainage wells with drain valves. It is advisable to install them at a shallow depth at the end of the pipeline, providing convenient access to them in this way.
An automatic system is often connected to pristvolny irrigation, suitable for trees and various shrubs. For beds connect drip irrigation. It is connected via a gearbox.By lowering the flow of water in this way. To turn off the lawn irrigation system in rainy weather, a special sensor is installed in the mounted circuit, which must be carefully connected to the controller, and installed in an open place for accuracy.
It is necessary to choose components and necessary units for automatic watering only after all calculations have been made and a schematic illustration has been performed.
Installing a lawn watering system do it yourself
To independently install the automatic installation for irrigation, you will need skills in plumbing and electrical work. In the absence of them at a professional level, it is better to contact immediately the installation specialists of such systems. Before you begin work, make an exact plan of the site, mark all objects and their sizes. It is necessary to indicate those buildings, plant crops, decorative elements that should not fall into the irrigation zone. Together with the sketch make up the specificationwhere the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of all equipment are entered.
The instructions for installing and properly connecting the automatic irrigation include several steps:
- Marking an existing lawn cover. The marks are made according to the sketch made beforehand, with the chalk dumping or with environmental paint the locations of all elements of the system are applied. Before laying the lawn markings can easily be done with pegs, signal tapes, bright twine.
- Construction of trenches for the pipeline. Pipes in the system without draining lay about a meter deep (below the level of soil freezing). When there is a drain, trenches should be dug under a slope of 1 to 3 degrees to a depth of only 30 or 40 cm. Pipeline branches must be equipped with drainage wells (diameter 30 or 40 cm), the depth of which is at least 1 meter. Mounting the system, the coating is removed carefully layers, the soil is removed on film.
- Pipe connection with fittings. To fix, hoses sprinkle with soil. In the trench lay pipes at an angle without tension with a margin of 10%.
- Vertical mount drainage wells. They poured rubble to the bottom to a height of 20-40 cm. The pipes are brought directly into the well, they are blocked off with the help of a stop valve. The top of the water intake must be closed.
- Mounting the manifold assembly and solenoid valves. The valves are placed in a special protective box, and placed next to the pumping station. By means of solenoid valves, all laid pipelines are carefully connected to the collector assembly. The valves are controlled by the controller installed in a special box. When installing such a control device in a more convenient place, it is imperative to lay a cable in a corrugated metal sleeve or in a protective pipe to the duct in the ground.
- Connecting the pumping station. All equipment must be placed in a protective box according to safety regulations. The automatic unit may be on the pump casing or in a separate container - a control box.
- Connection irrigation system. The branches are connected to the solenoid valves installed in the manifold. The main water supply system is connected to the installed pump station and the collector using a cleaning filter.
- Check and test run the mounted system. Carefully close the valves installed on the drainage wells. Start the pump station, gaining pressure in the battery required for operation, and then open the valve located on the main pipe. Make a tightness check connections. To do this, using the control unit tear off the solenoid valves on each branch. For a test run, it is recommended to reduce the pressure coming from the pumping station to the minimum value (passport). Checking the tightness, simultaneously flush the system from impurities and particles trapped in the installation.
- Sprinkler fastening. Installation is done according to the sketch. Mounting static sprinklers, take into account the direction of spraying. After installation, be sure to restart the system, checking its work.
- Adding soil and laying lawn cover. Be sure to take into account the slope of the pipe, the soil layers rammed. The top layer before laying the lawn is fertilized. After laying you can podseyat grass.
- Installation of weather sensors. Sensors determine the wind, humidity, rain connected to the controller (in the nest) using low-voltage cables, taking into account safety.
Using modern systems automatic irrigation, you can significantly save on the cost of caring for the green cover, and make the lawn rich and bright, with thick grass, effectively groomed.
Ways to supply water for the harmonious growth of lawn grass
You can maintain optimum moisture manually or automatically. As a rule, irrigation is carried out using:
- watering cans
- pump and hose
- automatic irrigation system.
If the area is small and it is easy for you to water the lawn with your own hands, then you can do with a regular watering can. But what to do when you need to take care of the lawn, which has a size of several hundred square meters? In this case, you can use the pump and irrigate with a hose. Если насос работает, создавая хорошее давление, то этот процесс у вас будет занимать около часа.
Для больших территорий рекомендуется использовать насосные станции
Все значительно сложнее, когда на эту процедуру не хватает времени или если нужно ухаживать за достаточно большим участком. In this case, you need to organize automatic watering of the lawn, which will help in a timely manner to supply water to the grass cover in the required quantity without any effort and time on your part.
It is advisable to install such a complex of equipment before arranging grass cover so as not to dig trenches over the ready-made sod.
VIDEO: Lawn Grass Tips
What is automatic irrigation?
Automatic watering is a single system of channels and sprays through which water flows and spreads evenly over the entire surface of the lawn. To create channels, pipes (PND) of a certain section are used. Their diameter is selected taking into account the required water-carrying capacity:
- if the size of the grass cover is in the range of 14-18 acres, choose pipes with a diameter of 25 and 32 mm,
- for large areas, pipes with a cross section of 25 and 40 mm are used.
Sprinklers are used as sprays. They are equipped with nozzles or nozzles. Pipes are laid from a water source from which water is supplied and maintained along the sprinkler placement line.
Assortment of sprinklers for watering lawn grass
Also included in the system:
- a pump that causes fluid to move through the pipeline,
- solenoid valves to supply water to the desired area,
- controller for regulating the duration of the water supply and time management
- weather sensors that respond to weather conditions and change the intensity of irrigation,
- pressure regulators, if the equipment consists of various types of sprinklers.
Water supply by means of the pump from pipelines to sprinklers is carried out at the expense of programs that are laid by the user in the minicomputer. Thanks to this element, it is possible to program the schedule of the complex for several days in advance. With the help of a garden computer you can install watering in the late afternoon or in the morning. He is able to collect information about changes in the weather, which will stop watering during rain.
The automatic irrigation complex must include special fine filters. They are necessary so that small grains of sand falling from the well do not clog the sprinklers and do not cause them to fail prematurely.
Such a lawn watering system may include a reservoir for storing water. In it, the cold fluid from the well will be preheated. This measure also allows you to smooth the lack of pressure from the water supply. The size of the tank can be 1-6 cubic meters, depending on the size of the site and climatic conditions.
On average, for a territory of 18-20 acres, there should be enough capacity for 3 cubes.
Selection of sprinklers
One of the most important moments in the formation of automatic irrigation is the selection of sprinklers. To choose these elements correctly, it is necessary to consider the following factors:
- soil type
- pressure in the water supply system,
- area and shape of the site,
- type of vegetation.
The correct choice of sprinklers will provide the necessary intensity of irrigation, as well as provide an opportunity to cover those areas that need to be watered, and to bypass areas where water ingress is undesirable. The number of sprinklers on one line should coincide with the required water flow on the site. However, the total flow rate from all devices should not exceed the pump capacity:
- devices with an angle of 90 ° are placed at the corners of the lawn area,
- devices with a 180 ° coverage area - along the sides,
- 270 ° sprinklers - near the house and near the terrace.
On narrow grass paths, drip lines can be used instead of sprinklers.
Benefits of irrigation automation
When choosing the automatic method of water supply for lawn grass, you will win in many respects. In this case, the greens will be provided with the optimal amount of moisture, which will give it a healthy and green look. In addition, you will save a significant amount of water resources, time and effort.
Many believe that the installation of automation is only suitable for large areas. However, even for a territory of 10 square meters, you can provide automatic irrigation, which will remove from you all the questions on irrigation of the site.
Automatic lawn irrigation system is very convenient to use. It is enough for a person to make a certain program that will turn on the necessary mode at a certain time, and that’s all. Even in the absence of owners for a certain time, the lawn will not be threatened by drying out.
Among other advantages it should be noted:
With the right arrangement of spraying devices, the soil will be equally well irrigated over the entire surface. In this case, no stretch of grass will remain dry.
The main advantage of such a system is the complete seizure of the territory.
- Adjusting the intensity of water supply to certain areas
For areas that are longer under the influence of direct sunlight, you can set a more intense flow of water. It is possible to change the flow rate for shrubs, flower beds or trees that grow on the border with the lawn or directly within it.
- Water flow direction adjustment
This option allows you to limit or not allow the flow of the jet to various objects. This may be a garden path, benches, a gazebo or a flower bed, where plants grow that must be protected from excess moisture.
Modern lawn irrigation system is invisible in the territory. All pipes are underground, and working devices are being pushed out only during the irrigation period. At the end of the working session, they hide in the holes below the level of the lawn cover.
Scope of use
Automatic watering the lawn can be used in almost all areas. It may be:
- park area
- landscaped area,
- summer cottage or area near a private house,
- area near an office building or any other room
- football fields or tennis courts,
- sports grounds.
VIDEO: How to make a drop watering with your own hands from A to Z
Features of design and installation
The irrigation complex may consist of simple and complex elements. It can be supplemented with new components to increase functionality. Before you purchase equipment and upgrade the system, you first need to create a technical project for a specific territory. During the design it is necessary to accurately determine the amount of water needed for each individual section. On the basis of these data, all the equipment will be procured, which requires an accurate calculation from the designer. Every mistake here can be expensive.
Automatic irrigation system diagram
You can use the services of specialists or create an automatic watering the lawn with your own hands. If you do not have any experience in this matter, but you are very willing to do all the work yourself, it is advisable to first get advice from a professional. It is convenient to create a lawn irrigation project on graph paper with a certain scale. It displays the entire area with paths, decorative elements, flower beds or plants. This will allow you to accurately display the angle and area of irrigation, which will be the key to the correct placement of sprinklers.
Examples of sprinklers
Installation of a water supply system consists of several stages:
- arrangement of trenches
- installation of pipes and their connection to the pumping station,
- installation of sprinklers
- installation of controllers, filters, electromagnetic valves and other elements,
- connection of all elements to the garden computer,
- commissioning works,
- powder trenches primer.
If the laying of the pipeline is assumed in the territory where the grass is already growing, then you can carefully remove the top layer of soil along with the turf. After installation, this layer is laid back. After a time, it will completely overgrow and there will be no traces on the cut.
Popular organization chart
Installation of pipes should take place under a slight slope. This is necessary in order to drain all the water from the system after the end of the season.
It is more convenient to connect pipes to each other and connect devices to them on the ground surface. Then the entire finished system fits into dug trenches.
Another convenient pipe layout
When and how much to water
To irrigate the grass is necessary when the top layer of earth 10 cm left without moisture. However, checking the condition of the soil is always impractical. Easier to focus on the color of grass. Watering is necessary when the grass surface begins to lose elasticity, has acquired a dull color or in some places began to appear areas with a gray tint. Particularly careful to apply to the turf, which has only recently been laid on the surface of the soil. Initially, its root system may suffer from a lack of moisture. If you do not water the grass in a timely manner, it can quickly acquire a yellow color.
The frequency of irrigation depends on the following factors:
- weather factors
- soil type
- lawn grass species.
If the street is a relatively warm climate with variable cloudiness, then the irrigation system can be used every 6-7 days. In the hot period, when precipitation and clouds are completely absent, watering should be organized every day. On cold days, when the air temperature reaches below 10 ° C, watering is not recommended.
For one square meter of lawn you need about 12-15 liters of water. In the dry season, this figure can reach up to 20 liters. Clay soils retain moisture well, so the rate of water supply to them can be reduced. On the sandy and loose soils, on the contrary, the norm should be increased. During watering on the surface of the lawn should not form puddles.
VIDEO: Automatic watering system - installation and assembly
Benefits of autowatering
The owners of large households will appreciate the system of automatic irrigation, which is typical for:
- setting a fixed time for daily irrigation of the green zone,
- selection of the automatic watering interval and setting the optimal water supply volume, depending on the type and age of plants,
- wetting even the most remote areas with proper design of the irrigation system,
- economical water consumption - when drip irrigation consumes 2 times less water.
- effective moistening of the earth, contributing to the free circulation of oxygen - after drying on the ground does not form a crust.
It is also characterized by durability and reliability, simplicity and ease of management. Its only drawback of the automatic irrigation system is the high cost of the turnkey works and the components themselves.
Types of automatic lawn irrigation systems
The following types of autowatering systems are distinguished:
- Drip irrigation of plants. It is used for watering in greenhouses, along hedges, on curtains. Usually laid under the mulch layer. It is controlled by the automation system.
- Subsoil irrigation. Usually used for watering football fields, green play areas with a high degree of exploitation. The system of such irrigation is similar to drip, but the pipes are laid in the thickness of the soil.
- Rain watering. The most common type of automatic watering.
Sprinklers (sprinklers) are used for irrigation of lawns and plants, which, depending on the tasks, are of several types:
- Bubblers. Used for watering individual trees, shrubs, flower beds, pots.
- Sprinklers. Together with the nozzles, with the help of which the radius and irrigation sector is established, they irrigate lawns, shrubs, etc. In turn, the sprinklers, depending on the tasks, are pulsed and rotary or static. For watering large areas used water cannon rotary type.
1. Irrigation system with sprinklers
Installation of a lawn irrigation system equipped with sprinklers implies the execution of works according to a certain plan. First of all, you need to make a project: draw a plan of the site, marking on it the zones that need irrigation. In accordance with the irrigation area and the shape of the lawn, the required number of sprinklers is calculated, their type and brand, the layout of their placement is applied to the plan. The next step is to determine the location of the power supply of the system and the water intake (water supply, well or well).
The principle of operation of the system is as follows: a pump or pumping station is connected to the water intake point, which supplies water through the filter and electromagnetic traps through the pipeline to the sprinklers. If not enough debit rate (capacity) water intake points or pressure water, the water is first pumped into the storage tank, and from it is fed into the irrigation system. Water supply pipes are laid in trenches. For automatic control, the system is connected to the controller.
Lawn watering equipment
1. Pump or pumping station.
Via pump or pumping station water is delivered from the water intake point (well, well, water supply system) to the irrigation zone. For the system to work correctly, it is important not to make a mistake with the power of the equipment.
First we define the necessary water flow on watering the lawn.
Water consumption per sprinkler per minute multiplied by the number of sprinklers. For example, 2 l / min * 10 pcs. = 20 l / min consumption of all sprinklers of the system or 20 * 60 = 1200 l per hour = 1.2 cubic meters per hour.
To sprinklers work, water pressure the system must meet the requirements of the manufacturer (this value can be found in the instructions). In this case, the radius of the watered sector depends on the pressure.
For example, Hunter PGJ-12 rotary sprinkler:
- recommended range pressure: from 1.7 to 3.8 bar,
- consumption water: 2.2 - 20.5 l / min,
with a minimal irrigation sector, water consumption per hour 10 sprinklers will be 2.2 * 10 * 60 = 1320 l / hour = 1.3 cubic meters per hour
The instruction to the pump usually indicates its capacity (cubic meter / hour) and pressure (in meters). 10 meters are approximately equal to 1 bar.
For example, pumping station Jilex Jumbo 50/28 H-14:
- performance 3 cubic meters per hour
- pressure 28 meters = 2.8 bar
It should be borne in mind that when water passes through the pipes, part of the pressure is lost. This loss is approximately 1-1.5 bar per 100 meters.
As a result of the calculation, we found that the power of this pumping station with a reserve covers the needs of automatic irrigation of 10 sprinklers. (Note that more powerful equipment costs more.)
If the system of automatic watering is connected directly to the water supply system, it is necessary to measure the water pressure in it with a pressure gauge. Measurements are made twice - with one faucet turned on, which provides only an irrigation system and with two or three faucets turned on. Next, we determine the flow rate per minute using a stopwatch and a container with a known volume (for example, a 10-liter bucket).
If the water supply will be provided with water from the well, it is necessary to take into account its flow rate (indicated in the passport of the well). If there is no passport of the well, measurements are carried out as in the case of water supply.
Calculate the required daily volume of water, based on the rate of watering the lawn. The rate of watering the lawn - 10 liters per square. meter, respectively:
S (lawn area) sq. M. * 0.01 cubic meter / sq.m. = daily volume of water for irrigation m.
Divide the daily volume at the time of irrigation (no more than 6 hours). The result should not exceed the maximum flow rate. If the flow rate is not enough even with an increase in irrigation time, it is necessary to establish a storage tank. Capacity should have time to accumulate over the time between waterings.
What pump is needed for an automatic lawn watering system?
The most suitable for the organization of automatic watering are centrifugal pumps. Such pumps are characterized by ease of operation, the ability to maintain a constant pressure for a long time, reliability.
For proper operation, the pump tank must be filled with water before switching on.
The pump can be submersible and superficial.
When irrigating from a well or well, micro-pollution can get into the system - particles of soil, silt, sand. To avoid clogging of the sprinkler nozzles and prolong their service life, it is necessary to install a filter.
3. Pressure regulator.
If the pressure in the system is not constant, then a special regulator is necessary for the correct operation of the automatic watering system, which maintains the preset water pressure at the outlet.
The pipeline consists of two parts:
- a main pipe that connects the water supply to the solenoid valves, and
- sections of pipe through which water is supplied to the sprinklers.
It is necessary to lay pipes as straight as possible, avoiding unnecessary turns and ramifications, since there is a great loss of water pressure in these areas.
The pressure with which water will be supplied to the sprinklers and its volume depends on the correct choice of the pipe diameter. Also, this parameter is consistent with the outlet at the pump - if the diameter of the outlet is 1 inch, then the pipe of the central line is taken as 25 mm or 32 mm. In the secondary sections (branches), the pipe diameter is consistent with the diameter of the outlet of the solenoid valve. To maintain pressure on the branches, pipes of smaller diameter than the main pipe can be used.
Фитинги для автополива нужны для создания разветвлений и поворотных участков, соединения труб, перехода от одного диаметра трубы к другому.
6. Электромагнитные клапаны.
Клапаны открывают и закрывают поступление воды на участки полива. Размеры клапанов подбираются с учетом расхода воды. They are located in the ground, in special plastic boxes with an opening top lid for maintenance. Valves are controlled by the controller.
7. The controller.
A device that is installed to control the entire irrigation system. The entire automatic system is controlled by a program that opens and closes the solenoid valves at a certain time, provides watering according to a predetermined schedule. Weather sensors that signal rain can be connected to the controller. While it is raining - watering does not work, as soon as the rain stops - the program returns to the mode of water supply for watering.
8. Sprinklers (other names: sprinkler, sprayer, irrigator, sprinkler)
There are two types of used sprinklers for lawn irrigation: rotary and fan (static). Fan sprinklers spray water 360 degrees. The radius of their watering can reach 6 meters. Some fan sprinklers are equipped with removable (replaceable) nozzles.
Rotary sprinklers rotate, gradually watering certain areas. For advanced models, the irrigation angle is adjustable.
The use of different types of sprinklers in one irrigation zone is undesirable. Fan irrigators are more often used for small lawns, while even golf courses are watered with rotary ones.
The main rule of sprinklers location is that the irrigation zones overlap. When choosing their location, it is necessary to ensure that stationary objects are not watered for which humidity is undesirable - a house, a fence, walkways, and also take into account the placement of trees and shrubs that will prevent proper spraying and may be affected by high humidity.
9. Water inlets.
This is a convenient additional option of the automatic irrigation system. Water inlets are installed on the main part of the lawn irrigation system and are always under pressure. They are intended for temporary connection of hoses for a specific purpose, for example: watering trees or shrubs, replenishing the pond with water, washing the car or tracks.
The division into watering zones
Sometimes the flow rate of the water intake source may not be enough to simultaneously water a large area of the lawn. Then from the main pipe, several layers are made, creating separate irrigation zones. Before each tap, a solenoid valve is installed. The controller regulates the sequence of watering zones. Also, separate irrigation zones should be arranged if part of the lawn is on the sunny side, and some in the shade. In the shade the lawn is watered less often.
The lawn irrigation system is not dismantled for the winter, so it is necessary to prepare it for the winter. Water may remain in the pipes, which will damage them if they freeze. To drain the water at the lowest point of the system, install a special tap or valve (or several of these). If it is not possible to drain all the water, it is necessary to flush the system with compressed air.
2. Drip irrigation
The drip irrigation system is laid on the surface of the lawn and does not require penetration into the ground, so it is easy to organize it on an adult lawn. Typically, such a system is used on small or narrow lawns, where it is inconvenient or impractical to install a system with sprinklers. Basically, drip irrigation is used to irrigate shrubs, flower beds and vegetable gardens (including greenhouses).
The equipment for drip irrigation is needed the same as for the automatic irrigation system with sprinklers, with the exception of the pipes and the sprinklers themselves. Instead, special hoses or drip irrigation tapes are laid. The most modern are the tapes with emitters. Emitters are droppers of a complex device, which are located inside the hose at a certain distance from each other.
Advantages of the drip irrigation system:
- Digging trenches for pipe laying is not required.
- The irrigation zone is regulated more clearly and simply, in contrast to irrigation by sprinklers.
- In the irrigation zone can be included those plants for which sprinkling can be harmful: flowers, vegetable beds, shrubs.
- The effect of wind is eliminated.
Cons drip irrigation:
- The fragility of the tape.
- The need to dismantle all the equipment for the winter.
- There is a risk of damage to the system by animals.
The drip irrigation system can be connected to an irrigation system with sprinklers through a special gearbox, which reduces pressure.