author Lukshin AV, photo by Kuznetsova N., Ziborova E.Yu.
Winter-hardy almonds? Almonds cannot be grown in central Russia without shelter for the winter, you say. But still, there is winter-hardy almonds, which can be successfully cultivated in the middle lane and even to the north - to Vologda and St. Petersburg, in the steppe and forest-steppe parts of Siberia.
In nature, there are about 40 species of almond belonging to the family Rosaceae. And almost all of these species are thermophilic plants of dry subtropics. Among them stands out a very winter-hardy look - almond steppe or almond low. People call it “bobovnik”, “almond”, “wild almond”, and in Latin it is called Amygdalus nana.
The Latin name does not give repeated names, and in Russian another legume is known - anaagyrolistus, it is also “golden rain” (legume family) blooming with large (up to 2 cm) golden yellow flowers collected in long brushes (30 cm). Therefore, do not confuse these two different plants, which besides the same name have nothing in common anymore.
I'll tell the readers of Gardenia.ru about steppe almonds, about using this unpretentious, flowering plant in gardening and breeding.
Almond steppe in the garden
Almond low naturally grows in the steppe, it is found on the slopes of ravines, along the edges of coppices in Central and Southeastern Europe, Western Siberia, Central Asia. Recently, steppe almonds have become quite rare in nature. Yes, and in the gardens of this plant - is also a rare guest. But thanks to the efforts of man to reproduce and breed this beautiful shrub, steppe almonds have great prospects to settle in our gardens. After all, it is a very hardy and highly decorative plant that can decorate the sunny corners of the garden.
The steppe almond is a low, up to 1.5 meters, shrub with splayed erect branches and numerous shortened branches that form a magnificent crown of ovoid or spherical shape. The bark on the branches of the Leaf is brown or reddish-gray. The root system is loose, with brittle roots. Lancer leaves (6-8 cm long, up to 3 cm wide) with serrate edges, pointed at the top, shiny, leathery, on top they are dark green, on the bottom are lighter. And the main decoration of bobovnik is its flowers, appearing simultaneously with the blooming of leaves. This happens around May, simultaneously with the flowering of tulips.
Pink flowers in steppe almonds with a diameter of about 2-3cm, very attractive. The flowering plant looks amazingly beautiful: as if a delicate pink cloud fell on its fragile and thin twigs.
Almond blossoms are low for about a week and a half, depending on the weather. Its flowers are visited by bees, the plant is a good honey plant.
The main advantage of steppe almonds is its high decorativeness during the flowering period. Breeders have created flowering varieties of leaves: "Annie", "Dream", "Pink Mist", "White Sail", "Pink Flamingo". There are garden forms of bobster:
- white flowers (f. albiflora) with white flowers,
- Gessler (f. Gessleriana) - a relatively low bush with larger (with a diameter of up to 2.5 cm) bright pink flowers.
Fruits of almond steppe and their use
In addition to admiring the beauty of a flowering plant, you should pay special attention to the fruits of bovobnik.
The fruit of the steppe almond is a dry, ovoid drupe (up to 2 cm in length) with a hard, whitish-colored pericarp. Fruits ripen in September. And since this is the only fruiting type of almond, which grows and winters in our zone, these small nuts are also an advantage of bauber. Its fruits contain up to 50% of valuable vegetable oil, which is used as a substitute for almond.
Raw almond kernels contain amygdalin glycoside, which, when cleaved in the alimentary tract, releases dangerous hydrocyanic acid. But during heat treatment, the acid is destroyed, and then the kernel can be eaten. They are used as a spicy spice to rice, poultry, meat.
Almond seeds have long been used in medicine and cooking, for the preparation of healing almond oil, bitter-almond water, for the manufacture of cosmetics.
Reproduction and crossing of almond steppe
Canstock is easily propagated by numerous root suckers (but not aggressive), grafting, layering and seeds, cuttings root weakly.
Almond seeds sown better before winter, when spring sowing they need to be stratified (about 4 months).
When planting, the steppe offspring and layering of almonds begins to bear fruit from 3-4 years of life, and when grown from seed, a little later, usually from 5 years.
If, by selection, selection, we select the forms of a bovovnik with fruits without bitterness, then this plant can become a good nut crop.
In the photo: the bloom of a peach-hazel grove (hybrid Amygdalus nana x Amygdalus persica)
In the Botanical Garden of Samara there are several bushes of an interesting hybrid - a peach-monogram which bloom elegantly in May with large bright pink flowers, attracting many insects.
Although low almonds appeared in the culture for a very long time (since 1683), but since then no one has been systematically engaged in its crossing with other plants.
Only I. V. Michurin set himself the goal of attracting bovovnik to selection, in order to create with its help winter-hardy varieties of peach, almond. He bred a nut-fruit hybrid using a cannabis, crossing it with David's peach (originally from North America) and called it "Mediator". This is a more powerful plant with a height of over 2m, winter-hardy. Further, using the “Mediator” hybrid, using it in further breeding, Ivan Vasilyevich wanted to get winter-hardy peaches, but did not have time.
Amateur gardeners, growing on their site almonds steppe, can select the best forms themselves. According to the laws of genetics, among the bitter fruits, periodically, sweets must be regularly encountered, which may become a new promising variety.
Almond steppe does not cause much trouble in the garden. This beautiful plant deserves great attention of gardeners because of unpretentiousness (drought-salt-gas- and smoke-resistant), tolerates a haircut. Leaves are not exacting to the composition and fertility of the soil, resistant to pests and diseases. When frosting in severe winters with little snow, the plant quickly recovers.
Experts recommend trimming a bush of bobovnik immediately after flowering (branches are shortened to one third of the length). Such pruning contributes to the formation of a large number of young lateral shoots, on which numerous flower buds are laid - a pledge of abundant next year.
The peculiarity of the almond is the rather rapid extinction of the aging shoots and their replacement with new root suckers, with the result that the bush gradually grows. Therefore, the old naked trunks, which have already been replaced by young shoots, must be removed to maintain a neat plant appearance.
A beautifully shaped, compact almond bush of the steppe looks wonderful in the garden, it is decorative even without flowers. This plant is successfully used in group and in single plantings, it is pertinent on the alpine hill. And at the time of spring flowering, the rosebush of the bovobnik is simply fascinating!
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Many novice gardeners are interested in the question: is almond low a tree or shrub? Immediately dispel all doubts. This kind of almond is a shrub. It belongs to the family of pink flowers and with proper care it grows for many years. The bush can reach one and a half meters in height. The leaves are medium in size with an oblong, dark green color. When the flowering period begins in early spring, the bush is covered with small pink flowers. Despite the fact that this plant came to us from the south, it tolerates frost well and therefore immediately became a favorite with local flora lovers. Due to the fact that it is a southern plant, it also tolerates dry periods when there is no rain for a long time. This is mainly due to the special structure of the root system. The bush has main strong roots that go far into the ground and from there take moisture to feed the plant. There are also small branches of the roots, but the main function is still the main roots. The fruits of the bush appear in the middle of autumn in the form of nuts. The walnut is about six centimeters long, the nucleolus has a delicate aroma and pleasant taste.
Varieties and types
Almond low (bobovnik) has many different names, but they all refer to the same species: low, steppe, dwarf, bobovnik. But there are other types of almond, which I want to remember:
These species differ in that they grow not only in the form of bushes, but also grow into full-fledged trees, sometimes reaching three meters in height. Further, the shape and tone of the leaves, as well as the color of the buds, differ. Today we are interested in low almonds, and it is about him that we want to tell in detail. After all, in order for this shrub to grow and develop properly, you need to know everything about how to plant it, how to care for and deal with possible problems.
Almonds are low, the description of which is given here, prefers a place under direct sunlight or, in extreme cases, where there is a light shade. It is strictly impossible to plant a bush in a draft and in a place where the wind is constantly walking.
Choosing the right place for landing, take care of the preparation of the soil. The acidity level should be around 7.5. If you want to create the most favorable conditions for the bush, then make a mixture of such components as leaf earth (three parts), humus (two parts) and sand (one part). Next you need to add lime or dolomite flour at the rate of 300 grams per bush. When planting several bushes need to leave a distance of about one and a half meters so that the plants do not interfere with each other. In each pit, you need to create good drainage to avoid stagnation of water. This can be done with gravel or brick fragments, as well as sand. The whole process is as follows:
- We dig a hole so large that all the roots fit freely in it.
- First, we place a drainage layer on the bottom, which should be about twenty centimeters.
- Pour five centimeters of sand on the drainage layer.
- Pour the prepared soil and plant a bush there so that the root neck is above the ground.
Secrets of care
Dwarf almond requires attention and proper care from its owner, therefore we recommend following these tips.
- Watering the plants should be moderate. Most of the bush requires moisture during budding, but we can not allow stagnant water at the roots. If the soil where almonds grow is sandy, then water more often. In order to understand when you need to water the bush, assess the condition of the soil and the degree of dryness. After watering, be sure to loosen the ground for air access to the plant's root system.
- Do not forget that the plant needs strength to grow, which means that it needs to be given feed in the form of mineral and organic fertilizers. It is recommended to do this at the beginning of spring. Good for this purpose suitable mullein. Then, in the summer, you can add superphosphate. It has a good effect on the quality of wood and harvest. It is enough to take thirty grams for one bush. In the fall you can feed on fertilizers with potassium content.
- In early spring, it is imperative trim the shrub to maintain the correct shape. It helps to strengthen the roots and make the bush more lush. It is necessary to remove all unnecessary branches, including those that grow towards the center of the bush.
Low almonds can be propagated in the following ways:
- using shoots.
The first way is that the seeds are planted in the ground in early spring, before that they loosen the plot and add fertilizer there. This should be done when the weather is warm. In this case, you will quickly get strong seedlings.
With the cutting method in the middle of summer, the cutting with several nodules should be cut, placed for several hours in a solution that stimulates root growth. Next you need to plant it in the soil, leaving a couple of nodes above the ground. With the onset of cold stalks should be covered from the cold.
The last two methods are also quite simple. Escape from the root need to dig and move to a prepared place with the right soil. And for grafting, you need to take branches that have already matured well, and graft them into such trees as peach or plum.
The bush has an average immunity to the attacks of various insects, so it needs help. To do this, it is necessary to carefully monitor the condition of the almonds and at the first sign of the problem immediately begin the fight against the pest.
- Leaves began to curl up? So, you visited a leaflet. In this case, it is necessary to spray the shrub with a 2.5% solution of nitrophene, if the process started before the appearance of buds, and chlorophos with a concentration of not more than 0.3 percent will help to destroy the caterpillars.
- Aphid is a frequent visitor to the almond bush. It is necessary to fight it in a standard way, sprinkling the plant with a solution of household soap, making a mixture of 200 grams of soap per ten liters of water.
- Rescuing from the bark beetle lime layer on the trunk of a tree. It is recommended to add glue to the mixture in order to extend the service life of the protective agent.
Low almonds can also be affected by the disease. Gray mold removes all damaged branches. The rust leaves after processing of a bush with preparations of sulfur. A Bordeaux liquid will save from burns, if applied once every fortnight. All manipulations are reduced to seeing the problem in time and starting treatment immediately, otherwise there is a chance to lose the entire hive.
Almond steppe is attractive not only for culinary specialists with its fruits, but also for landscape designers, as well as for cosmetologists. The nuts themselves are used in food in different dishes. Walnut contains a large amount of vitamins, minerals and other beneficial substances. Moreover, it is just delicious. They also make various drugs in traditional medicine in the treatment of diabetes, asthma, anemia and other diseases. Almond oil is widely used in cosmetology in the composition of masks, creams, shampoos and gels. And in itself a beautiful bush is used in the design of private sites and public areas in combination with other bushes and flowers.
Low almonds are planted in late autumn after the leaves fall or in the spring, when warm weather is finally established. The plant loves direct sunlight or a slight shade. Shrubs can not be squeezed in open drafts and in areas where it will be constantly shaded by other trees. Landing begins with land preparation. Despite the fact that steppe almonds are unpretentious for planting and care, on rich soils it blooms brighter and more abundant. 3 parts of sheet soil are mixed with one part of humus and fine sand. Next, add lime (300 grams per bush). When planting several shrubs leave a distance of 1.5 meters, so that they do not interfere with each other's development.
Avoid stagnant moisture by preparing drainage:
- they dig a hole in which all the roots of the plant can fit,
- rubble mixed with brick fragments is placed on the bottom. The thickness of the drainage layer should be about 20 cm. Then it should be covered with sand by 5 cm.
- roots spread, straightened and covered with earth so that the root collar remained above the ground.
You can dig a wooden pole in the pit to support a young plant. After planting in the ground around the seedling poured a bucket of water. When it is completely absorbed into the soil, and the soil has settled a little, the seedling is tied to a support and the tree trunks are mulched with dry leaves, peat or earth. Mulching must be done carefully to avoid contact between the mulch and the radical neck.
Almond low is undemanding for leaving, and look after it, as for all decorative bushes and trees.
- Watering. It is important to prevent the soil from drying out, but excessive watering leads to rotting of the roots. Buckets of water poured under a bush once a week are enough to moisten. After that, the soil is loosened by 5-7 cm near the young and 8-10 near adult plants. As soon as weeds grow in the area of the circle of the trunk, they are pulled out. During the appearance of flowers, almonds require regular watering. From lack of water flowering can end prematurely.
- Top dressing. In the spring, mulching the pristvolny circle with manure or mullein mulch. Use and ammonium nitrate 20 g + urea 10 g, diluted in a bucket of raw water. In the fall make superphosphate and potassium sulfate (20 g.).
- Crop. Almond steppe needs sanitary and molding pruning. Sanitary conduct up to sap flow in early spring. Удаляют сухие, сломанные, обмороженные, больные побеги и ветви, загущающие крону. Если обе ветки растут близко и мешают друг другу, удаляют ту, что невыгодно расположена на кусте. Формирующую обрезку проводят после цветения.Low almonds tolerate a good haircut, and removing extra shoots improves flowering next year.
7 years after planting, remove old branches. They are replaced by young offspring, appearing at 3 years of age.
- Preparing for the winter. Almonds are cooked low to the cold, beginning in late summer. Well transfer frost plant will help pinching of the tops of the shoots, accelerating lignification. Youngsters cover with straw or dry foliage. Adult bushes overwinter without special shelter, and if shoots are touched by frosts, the plant is restored without any problems.
Pests and diseases
All diseases and unpleasant damage by pests occur due to non-observance of the elementary rules of agricultural engineering.
Almond steppe prone to scab, rust, moniliosis, klyasterproizu, gray rot.
- Scab affects leaves and buds, as well as shoots. As a disease prophylaxis, scab-resistant varieties are planted, they dig up the area after falling foliage and process the plant with Bordeaux mixture in spring and autumn. Affected branches are cut and burned. Fungicides do well with the disease.
- The rust is shown by small red spots on the front side of the leaves, and brown protrusions in the form of pads are formed below. Struggling with rusty disease, sulfuric colloidal suspension. For prevention in the fall, the foliage is dug up.
- Moniliosis (fruit rot) - the pathogen penetrates to the shoots and leaves through the pistil of the bud. Antifungal drugs cope well with the disease.
- Klesterosporiosis, called perforated spotting, infects all crops with stone fruit. Almond is no exception. Rapid defeat contributes to rainy weather and excessive watering. Spotting appears on the foliage, flowers, shoots and fruits in the form of small red, crimson, purple spots. They gradually spread over the surface, and the tissues in the center brighten and fall out. A distinctive dark spot border, which makes it difficult to confuse the disease with another disease, is considered to be a distinctive feature of klyasterosporiosis. Strongly affected areas of the shoot bark begin to exude gum. To fight using fungicides that spray the bushes at the beginning and after flowering.
- Gray rot is called botrytis. Manifested brown quickly sprawling spots on the foliage and shoots. With increased humidity, the infected plant is covered with a whitish fluffy patina consisting of fungal spores. It is rapidly spread by wind to healthy neighboring plants. Used for the treatment of fungicides. As a preventive measure, trees and shrubs are planted far from each other and avoid getting nitrogenous fertilizers on the leaves. When rot develops, the diseased parts are cut and burned immediately. Then almonds are treated with fungicidal preparations (Topaz, Kuproksat, Horus, Champion).
Among the harmful insects are dangerous to the plant: aphid, almond seed eater, spider mite.
- Aphid is a serious pest that eats young greens and is a carrier of viral diseases. For one season aphid gives nine generations. As a prophylaxis near the bush marigolds, fennel, garlic, dill are planted. Aphids are destroyed by infusions of herbs from wormwood, bitter pepper, dandelions, potato and tomato tops.
- Almond Semyaeda - wintering in the affected fruit of the plant. In autumn, the foliage must be removed from the bush and tree trunks. As a preventive measure, in spring and autumn the plant is sprayed with Bordeaux mixture.
- Spider mite infects the steppe almond during dry time. It multiplies rapidly. It feeds on juvenile juice and greens. They fight insects with acaricides and insectoacaricides.
Species almond steppe propagated by seeds. Varietal - only scions, inoculation and root shoots.
- Seeds. They are sown in the fall. Sowing in spring suggests stratification - holding in the fridge for 4 months. The cores are thrown into 8 centimeters indentations 10-12 centimeters apart from each other. When the seeds germinate, they are watered, loosen the soil, remove the weeds. After grafting, varietal cuttings are grafted onto them.
- Vaccination is carried out during sap flow in the spring. For this are suitable stocks of winter-hardy species. Almond grows well on plum, bird cherry, cherry plum. With a direct well-formed shoot with a kidney, the leaves are cleaned and the strip of bark with a thin layer of wood is cut off.
The stock is wiped with a rag from contamination and T-shaped incised with an inked knife. Graft cutting is placed in the incision, fix the place of vaccination with adhesive tape or plaster. The kidney remains on the surface is not closed. After 2 weeks, if it is green, the stalk will disappear. The latch is relaxed and left until next spring. For the winter, the seedling is spud, hiding the graft site under the ground.
- Cuttings. To this end, at the end of June, the apical cuttings that have not yet lignified are cut 15-20 cm., On which there are two nodes. Place in a growth stimulator for 16-17 hours. Rooting occurs in a cold greenhouse. In the substrate, including part of the sand and two parts of peat, planted cuttings. A month later he takes root. The survival rate of cuttings is 85%. When the roots are formed, they are transplanted for final rearing on a temporary bed.
The Latin name of the plant is Amygdalus nana, it is also known by the names of low almonds or cobweeds.
His homeland is the steppe, forest edges and ravine slopes of Siberia, Asia and Eastern Europe. Gradually from the wild rare beauty began to plant in the gardens.
- The height of the shrub is about 1.5 m. The crown is neat, egg-shaped or spherical in shape.
- The bark is brown, often with red hues.
- The root system is fragile.
- The leaves are long, but narrow, leathery, saturated green color.
- Flowers with a diameter of 2-3 cm, flowering tree lasts about a week. This almond resembles sakura.
- Fruits are egg-shaped up to 2 cm long, ripen by the beginning of autumn. The fruits are rich in vegetable oils, which are used for cosmetic purposes, and the kernels are added as a spice to meat dishes, but it is dangerous for health to eat them raw.
Eating the raw fruits of the steppe almond is hazardous to health.
Steppe almonds are suitable for cultivation on almost any, including very poor, soils, in cold or arid regions and in the territory of industrial cities.
Planting and care are activities for which any small thing is important. Almond steppe plant either in autumn or spring. The best site for growing shrubs is sunny and open, fertile soil is desirable, although it also grows on poor lands, only its flowering will be paler. Landing is carried out in several stages:
- Make a landing hole, the width and depth of which should fit the roots. Drive a pole for support.
- Cover the bottom with a thick drainage layer, and sprinkle it with a thin layer of sand on top.
- Carefully straighten the roots and place them in a hole, then cover them with earth to such a level that the neck remains outside.
- Moisten the ground abundantly with a bucket of water, and when it is absorbed and the soil settles, tie the almonds low to the support.
- Mulch dry leaves.
After the steppe almond planting activities have been carried out, the ground should be mulched with dry leaves
Low almond - a profitable investment for summer residents. Well-groomed shrubs with a pleasant aroma and pink foam of flowers will turn any area into a wonderful garden. Low almond or bobovnik unpretentious care and requires as much care as other garden plants.
- He needs moderate watering once a week, and on dry days and during the flowering period, he needs to be watered more often.
- Weeds will easily destroy the plant, so we need to weed it regularly.
- Top dressings in spring and autumn strengthen the health of the shrub, prepare it for wintering and support flowering.
- Overgrown crown prevents tree from enjoying the sunlight. Every spring, dry and frost-damaged branches are removed. The second pruning is carried out after flowering.
- When growing shrubs an important place is preparing for the winter. Young fragile plants are insulated with straw, and older trees easily survive frosts without shelter.
Diseases and pests
- Aphid is a pest that feeds on greens and infects shrubs with various sores. The insect reproduces quickly, so that measures against it must be taken immediately. Infusions made from dandelion or potato tops are excellent against aphids.
- Gray rot - a fungal disease that manifests itself in the form of brown spots on the leaves. After the rain, the spots are covered with white bloom - a cloud of spores that the wind quickly spreads throughout the garden and infects other trees in the area. Fungicides can help against the disease, which can be purchased in specialized shops for gardeners.
- Klesterosporiosis. The disease is activated and spreads faster in wet weather, and its symptoms - numerous spots on the leaves and fruits. Antifungal agents help to cope with phletosporia.
Preventive measures will protect the almonds from death: spraying Bordeaux fluid and cutting. The main cause of disease - in the wrong cultivation.
Abundant watering provoke the development of fungal diseases, so the bushes should not be watered too often. Spots, wilted leaves and other external symptoms may indicate a lack of nutrients in the soil.
The basic rules for the disease: pruning and destruction of affected branches, digging up the site, harvesting last year's foliage, in which pests could lurk.
Bogovnik: photo and description
Almond low (Amygdalus) - a plant from the Rosaceae family, its homeland is the Caucasus, Siberia, Central Europe, Asia Minor. The Latin scientific name for almond is derived from the Greek “amygdalos”, which most likely originated from the Syrian “al-mughdal”, which means “beautiful tree”.
In ancient times, thanks to tasty seeds, almonds began to be cultivated in the Mediterranean countries (in dry subtropical areas). In the south of Ukraine - mainly in the Crimea - almonds are bred as a fruit plant, in gardening it is also used as a peach stock. Almonds are also grown in Transcaucasia, Central Asia. Sweet almond varieties, including soft almonds (with a shell that can be peeled by hand), are cultivated in Italy, Spain, in the south of France. Wild almonds (bitter) can be found in the mountains of Kopetdag and southern Armenia, on the western spurs of Tien Shan, in Iran, on the southern fine-grained mountain slopes in the Balkans and Asia Minor, up to the western Mediterranean.
Due to the peculiarities of the structure of the fruit and the nature of its use, almonds are formally classified as nut-bearing - although, of course, this plant is not a nut. The most valuable part of the fruit is the core of the seed - the seed.
Low almond or bobovnik - small, deciduous, slow-growing, perennial shrub, growing in height up to half a meter, with a thick, spherical crown. Branches of red-gray color are branchy plants.
The leaves of the plant are linear-lanceolate, sometimes oval (depending on the species), up to 5 - 6 cm long, pointed to the top, light green in color from below and dark green from above.
The flowers of bobovnik are worthy of a special description - they are single, large, up to 2.5 cm in diameter, bright pink or white, with a subtle pleasant aroma, located on the growth of the last year. Flowers bloom only after the 3rd year of life and bloom simultaneously with the leaves, decorating the bush in abundance, while the flowering period itself is short and is about 10 days.
See photos of bobovnika (low almond) at the time of flowering:
The fruit is a drupe, ripens in September.
For the middle band, the following highly decorative types are of great interest:m. Ledebura (A. ledebouriana), m. three-bladed (A. triloba), Petunnikova metro station (A. petunnicowii).
It looks good almonds low in the background of stony hills (rockeries), among the boulders.
As seen in the photo, low almonds are decorative and in group plantings (3–4 bushes nearby) at the corners of the lawn:
Also, shrubs are planted to highlight the recreation area on the site, in mixborders with other bushes and perennials of suitable habitus (external dimensions of the aerial parts), as well as in a solitary planting.
The decorativeness of the bush, thanks to the beautiful leaves, is preserved throughout the growing season. From the berries prepare the oil, suitable for medical purposes.
Description and characteristics
In nature today there is about 40 varieties of almond. Virtually all of them are heat-loving plants growing in subtropical areas. Among all kinds of almonds stands out low. In our country, along with this name, the plant is often called bobster, steppe, dwarf, wild almond. Almond low refers to the sight of flowering shrubs and with proper care can delight with its flowering for many years. An adult plant reaches a height of 1.5 meters. The leaves of the shrub are small, oblong and dark green in color. The flowering period is at the beginning of spring; it is at this time that the almonds are abundantly covered with small pink flowers.
The advantage of the plant is its excellent survival, the ability to withstand cold and drought. This ability is associated with the characteristics of the structure of the root system. Almond low has deep-rooted roots that are able to extract moisture in sufficient quantities even in dry weather with a long absence of precipitation.
The fruits of wild almond in the form of nuts ripen in mid-autumneach of which has a length of about 6 centimeters. Inside contains a core with a delicate aroma and a pleasant taste. Consumption in raw form is dangerous, because inside such a nutlet there is a substance capable of releasing hydrocyanic acid when ingested. After heat treatment almonds can be eaten. Almond tree is the only fruiting almond species that grows well and tolerates wintering in our regions. The seeds of the plant have long been used for medical purposes and cooking.
On the market of garden crops today you can find interesting almond hybrids with an unusual flower shape and even standard forms. The most sought after varieties:
When buying, it is worthwhile to clarify the growth conditions and features of the care of the variety in advance, in order to avoid possible disappointments in the future.
How to plant
Landing fit in many respects determines how well the plant will take root in the new place and how successfully it will grow in the future. First you need to decide on a permanent place for bobster. Such a plant is southern in nature, it is recommended to choose an open sunny place, where the sun's rays fall most of the daylight hours.
In the absence of such, it is necessary to choose a place with minimal shading. It is worth knowing that the plant does not tolerate drafts at all, therefore, it is worth taking care of protecting bauber from wind gusts.
An important step is the preparation of the right ground. The optimum level of acidity for almond soil is the value of 7.5 H. Soil for planting can be prepared with your own hands, knowing the correct proportions of the main components. Well proved the following composition per one bush:
- leaf earth - 3 parts,
- humus - 2 parts,
- sand - 1 part,
- lime - 300 grams.
Landing is carried out in such a way that between the bushes there was a distance of about 1.5 meters. Such a distance is considered normal so that the shrubs grow freely and do not interfere with each other.
After digging a hole for a bobovnik, it is necessary to prepare drainage to eliminate stagnation of excessive moisture and root decay. Each fossa must be of such a size that the whole root system of the bobster tree is freely placed in it. As a drainage material can be used:
It is recommended to make a drainage layer with a height of about 20 centimeters. A small layer of sand is poured over the drainage layer, on top of which a small layer of previously prepared soil is poured. Almond roots are placed in the hole and straightened, after which they are covered with a layer of soil in such a way that the neck is above ground level.
Obstetre is a southern plant and despite its unpretentiousness requires attention and compliance with certain rules of care. Neglecting the recommendations can lead to the disease of the plant or even its death. A distinctive feature of the almond is the ability to actively produce seedlings, so the main rule of care is its timely removal. Otherwise, such growth leads to a weakening and less abundant flowering of the shrub.
In early spring, pruning is mandatory. This procedure is carried out in order to create the correct form of crown in the shrub, remove diseased and dried branches. Pruning a plant contributes to the formation of a lush shrub crown and its abundant flowering. This procedure is carried out immediately after flowering. Each branch of an adult shrub is cut off by about a third of its length. For the ability to tolerate a good haircut, the plant is very much in demand by designers in landscape design.
A feature of almonds is considered склонность к образованию большого количества молодых побегов после обрезки, что обеспечивает более обильное цветение. Старые побеги отличаются непродолжительностью жизни и быстрым отмиранием, а появление большого количества новых побегов со временем приводит к разрастанию куста.
Almond for good growth is required to provide a sufficient amount of organic and mineral substances, so you should periodically make fertilizing plants with a complex of fertilizers. Top dressing during the season is made several times:
- in the beginning of spring it is worth feeding with a mullein,
- in summer, top dressing is made by superphosphate,
- In the fall, fertilize with potassium-based fertilizers.
It should adhere to moderation in watering. The greatest watering of almonds is carried out during the formation of buds, but excessive moisture can lead to rotting of the roots. It is necessary to pre-analyze the soil. If the soil at the planting ground is sandy, then the plant needs more frequent watering. Periodically loosen the soil to allow air to penetrate the plant's root system.
How to propagate almonds
Buying an almond bush ready for planting will require financial expenses, and if you want to plant a few kuts, such costs can be quite substantial. Low almonds can simply be propagated in several ways. In total there are four ways to reproduce shrubs:
- with the help of seeds,
- using the grafting method
- using shoots.
Planting seeds carried out immediately in the ground winter or spring. When planting in early spring, seeds must first be stratified for 4 months. After the onset of warm spring days and stable positive temperatures they can be planted. Before planting, the soil is carefully loosened and fertilizers are applied to the soil. When growing almonds from seeds, the first fruiting begins after 5 years.
The cutting is recommended in the middle of the summer season.. To do this, a small stem with several nodes is separated from the parent shrub and placed in the nutrient solution for several hours. After this, the process is planted in the ground in such a way that several nodes are above ground level. If the cutting has got accustomed, then for the winter period it is mandatory to cover it from the cold.
The essence of the method of grafting is that well-matured branches are taken from an adult bush. Each branch is grafted onto a peach or plum. For breeding shoots enough to separate it from the adult shrub with the preservation of the root system and transplant. Such a plant after rooting begins to bear fruit in 3-4 years.
Steppe almonds do not differ in persistent immunity to various types of diseases and pests, therefore, it is necessary to take preventive measures. The most susceptible to shrub disease is gray mold and rust. At the first signs of the disease should immediately begin active actions.
If the shrub is observed folded leaves in the form of a tube, then this is the first symptom of the disease - leaflet. To combat the disease and prevent the disease in the future, spraying with nitrophene 2.5% is used. Chlorophos is used to destroy the caterpillars, but its concentration should not exceed 03%.
Aphid is one of the most common pests of bovovnik. To combat it, spraying with soapy water is effective, for the preparation of which 200 grams of soap softens in 10 liters of water. To prevent the invasion of the bark beetle, lime is whitewashed every year. To obtain a more durable protective layer of lime, a layer of glue is added on top of it.
Steppe almond is a very bright shrub, so it is actively used not as a background plant, but as a soloist. He looks good:
- when creating landscape compositions,
- as decorating lawns,
- to create borders,
- during alpine gardening,
- in rockeries and on the background of boulders,
- in flower bouquets when cut.
The life of almond branches after cutting is not very long and averages 3 days. Compositions of dry almond twigs, cut not only during flowering, but also during fruiting, look very good.
Features of almond low
For normal growth, the steppe almond requires good lighting, so it is mainly found in the steppe forbs. In the steppe, grass does not compete with it for light. The rest of the list of requirements of low almond (bobster) is modest. Bobovnik exclusively:
- drought resistant
- frost resistant
- able to grow on poor soils
- carries smoke, so that it can be used for urban greening.
Planting almond steppe and care
Bush almond steppe (bobovnika) responds well to watering, but you need to make sure that the neck is not tightened when watering in the ground. Therefore, when planting it is somewhat lifted above the ground. When preparing the planting pit, they provide good soil drainage, adding brick chips or sand.
Features care and planting steppe almonds associated with wintering plants. In nature, baubnik does not receive as much water as in the summer cottage. With low planting and high snow cover, the root collar can perepret and the plant will die. By the end of autumn, it is necessary to reduce the watering of the plant so that the bush becomes woody and has time to prepare for winter. For the same purpose, you can pinch the green shoots.