Most growers are faced with various diseases of their favorite culture. Diseases of grape leaves not only spoil its appearance, but also destroy the foliage in the vineyard, destroy the precious crop and weaken bushes greatly.
Healthy foliage of grapes has a uniform green color. If on the leaves suddenly appeared uncharacteristic stains, bloom, defects - it means that the grapes are not in order. What if the grape leaves are sick? It is necessary to determine the disease than to treat it, and as soon as possible to begin the fight against the disease.
Mildew (downy mildew of grapes)
The most formidable attack of vineyards is mildew, or downy mildew of grapes. This disease affects all vegetative organs of the plant - leaves, shoots, clusters.
The source of infection - spores of the fungus, preserved in the soil, on fallen leaves and berries, are carried by the wind over long distances. Infection of plants usually occurs in the spring when the weather is warm and humid. Spores actively germinate, during the season the disease can re-produce several generations.
How does it look
Yellow oily spots appear on the leaves of the grapes, which increase, often capturing the entire surface. On the underside of the spots, in a wet weather, a powdery appearance of sporulation appears. Strongly affected leaves turn yellow, dry out and fall off. Berries turn brown and rot. On the shoots appear brown spots, the vines become unsuitable for reproduction and often die in winter. The disease is most dangerous for young growing leaves and clusters; old leaves are less affected.
How to warn
Mildew preventive measures, like all fungal diseases, are aimed at improving the airing of the bush and eliminating sources of infection.
- tying shoots to raise above the soil level,
- pasynkovanie, thinning, breaking of shoots,
- destruction of fallen leaves and berries by burning,
- preventive spraying fungicides.
How to treat:
The fight against mildew is to spray grapes with fungicides. These are drugs of copper (contact action agents) - one-percent Bordeaux liquid, HOM, Oxyhom, Polyhom, Kuprozan and systemic fungicides: Ridomil, Strobe, Thanos.
During the season, the grapes are sprayed several times. The first treatment is carried out when the shoots reach a length of 20-30 cm. The second time, the grapes are sprayed before flowering. The third treatment is carried out after the flowering of the grapes.
Next, spray the grapes during the season at intervals of 2-3 weeks. Copper preparations alternate with systemic preparations so that the infection does not produce resistance to fungicides.
Small black dots formed along the veins of the surface, subsequently increasing in size. Spots merge, curliness, cracks in a leaf plate are shown. Foliage turns yellow, shoots crack, berries rot.
Viral diseases of grapes
Caused by microscopic pathogens that are transmitted through infected planting material, and spread by various pests: nematodes, mites, other gnawing and sucking insects.
Of viral diseases, grape short-grained viruses, leaf curling viruses, and infectious chlorosis (variegation) cause the greatest damage to vineyards.
Grape Mite - Pruritus
The pest winters in bark cracks, bud scales and fallen leaves. With the onset of heat, the tick begins to feed on the plant sap, causing deformation of the leaf and disrupting photosynthesis. Mite affects not only them, but also shoots, young ovary. In addition, the pest carries dangerous for grapes mushrooms and viruses.
Changes in the appearance of the leaves of the vine can be caused by improper care or nutritional deficiencies.
Non-infectious diseases of grapes include chlorosis - loss of green color. Chlorosis can be caused by various reasons: acidification or alkalization of the soil, lack of iron and other elements, cold weather, excess nitrogenous fertilizers. Chlorosis is viral in nature.
Basic Disease Control Rules
The main rule in the fight against diseases: Disease is easier to prevent than to cure! Therefore, when cultivating grapes, preventive treatments cannot be avoided.
- The main disease prevention is a clean, well-lit, ventilated and well-kept vineyard!
- Preventive spraying carried out both in spring and autumn (Bordeaux mixture).
- The main thing is to be on time! Spring processing of the vineyard begins with the appearance of leaves until the formation of the ovary (the size of peas).
- Remember that fungicides and insecticides are poisons. Observe the rules and regulations for the use of drugs. A month before the ripening of the clusters (when the berries have reached the full size), the chemical treatment must be stopped.
- Biological means of fighting diseases - the drug Phytosporin, a solution of baking soda (against fungal diseases), herbal infusions and decoctions of onion peel, garlic, celandine, St. John's wort, wormwood - are ineffective and require frequent use, but absolutely safe for humans. They can be used throughout the growing season, up to the time of harvest.
Diseases of grapes: the main types of diseases
It will be useful for a novice grower to know that the leaves of a vine vine are the main indicator of his state of health. Leaf status should be monitored periodically.and when detecting the appearance of any spots, yellowing or the formation of other atypical signs, it is necessary to urgently take measures for treatment.
To date, there are many ailments, while it is quite simple to determine by the list of a grape disease if you know information about the signs of the most frequent diseases. At the same time, different types of grape diseases are treated using various means. Next will be the most common diseases of the leaves of the vine, as well as methods for their treatment.
Necrosis of wood vessels
This disease is usually attacks young plants. Externally expressed in the browning and dying off of cells near the vessels of wood. Infected vineyards become much more susceptible to poor weather conditions (frost, strong wind, drought, etc.) and are stunted. Experts believe that the cause of the disease is fungi that penetrate wood during winter storage. To combat the disease and for the prevention is recommended:
- regularly apply boron fertilizers to the soil under the growing bushes,
- grape queen cells are required to be located only on light soil with good drainage,
- when storing and harvesting vines do not use materials that retain moisture, for example, polyethylene.
This malicious member of the fungal pest group in Europe has been around for a very long time. This disease can infect not only all types of grapes, but also most other crops. It is the only pest that remains on the affected plant throughout the year, infecting annual wood and all its green parts.
With the condition of wet and cold weather on young buds and shoots can be observed raid. Fruits infected with the disease first become grayish-brown, and during wet weather a gray bloom is formed, and the cluster is an ugly mushy lump. In dry weather, the first shriveled fruits are formed, and during the infection of the crests of the bunch it is visually evident that they acquire a greenish-brown shade, and after a while they may fall off.
The causative agent of the disease can develop even at low temperatures. Fungus wintering spends inside as well as on the surface of one-year-old bark. If he settled well inside the plant, then during conditions of high humidity in a week, conidiophores will appear, causing a gray bloom. The treatment of this disease is a rather laborious business, since it is advisable to use agents that act on the causative agent of the disease regularly and in advance.
Bordeaux liquid and soap, which is used relatively recently, is today recognized as ineffective, because such means as Tserkobin, Derozal, and Benomil are used to fight the disease, which pass into the inside of the plant and treat the grapes from the inside. Chemical control of the disease includes treatment with the help of such contact preparations as “Rowral” and “Ronilan”. These drugs show the best result.if used periodically every 14 days until mid-August. Infection with gray rot can also be reduced by producing weed control, forming a bole tree, and also ensuring that the plant has sufficient area for development and growth.
A white bloom appeared on the grapes - what to do in this case and how to treat? As a rule, this is a sign of the appearance of one of the most dangerous diseases of the grape, which has a fungal etiology. This is a very unpleasant disease.It was brought to our country from North America. If you do not take timely measures to combat mildew, then most likely, the grower will lose most of his harvest.
The main symptom of this grape disease is the formation of oily-transparent, yellowish spots on the surface of the leaves. White spots, as a rule, appear on the leaves of the grapes during wet and warm weather, while at first they form on the back of the leaves. After the lesions become brown, they become dry. The resulting fruits have a shade of blue, then transformed into brown berries.
This disease can completely infect the vineyard due to the fungus belonging to the family of false powdery mildew fungi. This is a very dangerous pest., he spends the winter in the form of disputes in fallen leaves, while disputes with the onset of spring begin to intensify, especially with high humidity. During the onset of this disease, it is necessary to immediately think about how to treat white spots on the leaves of grapes most effectively.
Under comfortable conditions, the incubation period of infection is:
- 17-19 days in the second decade of May,
- 14-16 days in the last decade of May
- 12-14 days in early June
- 10-11 days in the second decade of June
- 6-8 days in the last decade of June
- 5-7 days at the end of July.
During the movement of the infection to healthy plants, the fungus begins the reproduction process at night when the air temperature is above 10 degrees.
As a rule, the treatment of mildew is made with the help of various chemical modern means, as well as the strengthening of measures for the care of grapes. Plowing has proven itself superbly, and also timely cleaning of fallen leaves.
In addition, to combat the disease, the plant is processed, both before flowering time and after it ends. Young plantings and vineyards should be sprayed once every 2 weeks, and from the second decade of June - once a week. More recently, when a question appeared, why light leaves of grapes, used Bordeaux liquid as an effective method of treatment and protection.
But the waters of copper and today experienced growers often used. Modern drugs for the destruction of the disease do not contain copper in their composition, so they are suitable for regular processing of vineyards. Among the most common: Ridomil Gold, Acrobat MC and Quadris.
Oidium is another of the most common diseases that affects vine and leaves. Novice growers People often ask why grapes turn pale leaves - what can be done in this case? Initially, the disease infects only young shoots of the bush, they are covered with gray dust and lose their colors.
Affected shoots are far behind healthy growth. And by July, the disease is already spreading through the entire vine bunch, affecting the tops of the shoots, berries and inflorescences. For the treatment of oidium is necessary in the nursery to provide an opportunity for air circulation.
If the vine has pale shoots and leaves, they should be regularly cut and tied up. Weeds, under or between plants, can be just as the cause of the development of this disease, because they need to get rid of. When chemical processing is desirable to use tools such as Strobe, Tiovit and Horus.
If brown spots are noted on grape leaves, then it is most likely chlorosis that occurs during the alkaline reaction. The most typical signs of the disease are yellowed leaves, and during a very severe form - old leaves get an almost colorless appearance. Young leaves take on a lemon color., at the same time the shoots are very lagging behind in growth, and die after a certain time.
Experienced winegrowers say that the cause of the development of this disease is the presence of undissolved lime in the soil. Rainy and cold weather also has a positive effect on the appearance of chlorosis. It should be noted that in the dry season the grape leaves dry much less frequently, and the disease does not develop in bushes that have an adequate supply of iron. All varieties of grapes grown in our country are equally affected by this disease.
For the treatment of the disease today, most winegrowers in the old fashioned way use copper sulfate, in the fall, they bruise sections on the bark or spray bushes with iron salts.
When using this method of treatment, you need to take 100 grams of copper sulfate, then mix with 20 grams of ascorbic acid and this composition is stirred in 10 liters of water. For each particular bush will need approximately 15-30 liters of the composition. There is much to do with the age of the plant, as well as the amount of iron deficiency. A much more effective way is the use of modern means Chelate and Fetrilon.
Experts recommend using this method of struggle, since this option is the most effective. If the grape leaves are covered with brown spots, the duration of the effect of the funds will depend on the grape variety, as well as the soil on which the bush grows.
Rubella leaf is a fungal disease that is characterized by specific symptoms. At the beginning of infection, the leaves of the shoots begin to become covered with spots, then the disease progresses, while climbing up the vine.
At the same time, white grapes are characterized by leaves with pronounced brown or yellow shades, while at the same time red varieties are ruby or dark red. It should be noted that this disease is most characteristic manifested in July.
By and large, the process of leaf infestation with rubella is caused by a lack of mineral trace elements or a lack of moisture in the earth. If the shrub is already infected, then all diseased shoots, as well as the leaves, should be pruned as quickly as possible to prevent subsequent spread. But the treatment of red or brown spots on grape leaves is made similarly treatment mildew. The plant can be treated with such drugs as Mikal, Rovral.
What you need to know a winegrower?
Thus, it can be summed up that the most common diseases can be saved by the grapevine routine prophylaxis, which includes checking every grape bush for a disease, cutting unwanted residues, regular destruction of infected plants - these are common preventive measures for the health of your vineyard.
Mildew (downy mildew)
Symptoms: On the upper side of the leaf plates, an oily yellow spot occurs, which eventually turns brown. Below the foliage visible whitish plaque (mycelium). Leaves, flowers, ovaries dry.
- wet, hot weather,
- nitrogen overfeeding.
- HOM, Oxy, Abiga Pik: 3–6 treatments weekly, the waiting period before harvest is 1 month. Drugs are washed away by rain, may require re-application.
Oidium (powdery mildew)
Symptoms: on the foliage a grayish-white scurf is visible, which is easily erased with a finger. Ovary as if powdered. Fruits crack, dry or rot with the smell of rotten fish.
- dry heat
- sudden changes in humidity.
Prevention (fungicide spraying):
- Tiovit Jet (analog of colloidal sulfur, the safest for the environment) - May-June,
- Topaz (after flowering),
- Strobe or Kvadris (in the phase of closing the ovaries in bunches).
- Tiovit jet every 10 days (waiting time before picking berries - 3 days).
Hardy varieties: Lydia, Muscat of Odessa, Firstborn Magaracha, Stepnyak, Tayfi pink.
Symptoms: silvery or brownish spots on foliage and vines, berries acquire a silvery sheen, wrinkling, poorly stored.
Provoking factor: wet heat.
Prevention and treatment:
- fungicides: Ridomil Gold, Bordeaux Fluid (1–2%),
- biological drug Trichoderma Veride.
Anthracnose (harmful in some southern areas)
Симптомы: Коричневые или серые пятна, язвочки на листьях, соцветиях, плодоножках, ягодах, побегах. На ягоде язвы с тёмной каймой и светлым (розоватым) центром. Чернота и гибель побегов, гроздей.
- raw and cool season start
- heavy rains
- copper-containing fungicides (in spring and after flowering),
- biological product Phytosporin.
- removal of affected areas
- fungicides: copper preparations - HOM, Oxy, Abiga-Peak, Bordeaux liquid 1% (weekly, with deadlines according to the instructions).
Hardy varieties: there is no complete immunity, good resistance in Arcadia, Brigantine, Delight, Cabernet Sauvignon, Codreanki, Riesling, Saperavi.
Black spot (fomopsis)
Symptoms: small black tuberous spots on young vines, black-brown spots on knots and lower leaves, autumn or spring bark off-white with black dots, dying off of sleeves, darkening and spoiling of berries.
Provoking factor: dampness
- copper containing agents
- fungicide Ridomil Gold before flowering.
Treatment: copper preparations.
Spots with olive bloom.
Symptoms: In the second half of the growing season, olive bloom forms on the lower side of the leaf plates, dry spots and premature leaf fall occur, the fruits turn blue, harden, wrinkle, and disappear.
Prevention: treatment with copper preparations in the first half of the growing season.
Symptoms (old bushes are sick more often): the lower leaves change color between the veins, dry out from the edges, the fruits frown and darken, the wood becomes rotten, sometimes a quick death of the plant happens.
Provoking factor - wounds.
Prevention - disinfection tool.
Treatment: rejuvenation of the bush sometimes helps by completely trimming old wood.
Hamming (spotted necrosis)
Spotted necrosis on a sheet of grapes.
Symptoms: gradual dying off of the tissues of the sleeves, weak shoots, drying of parts of the bush.
Provoking factor: wintering under raw shelter.
Prevention: treatment before hibernation (5% iron vitriol), dry shelter.
Hardy varieties: Bull's Eye (Senso), Muscat of Hamburg, Shasla.
It affects the stiffened parts of the vine.
Symptoms: the wood gradually darkens inside and dies away in the places where adult bushes are cut off (foci), the arms develop weakly, at first the disease is not visible, later dark growths stick out on the trunks (after 5 years, on the dead wood).
Control measures: the affected areas are cut out (and burned) at the beginning of the season.
Prevention: the use of multi-sleeved and dvuhshtambovyh forms.
Shoots die off within 1–2 years after infection.
Symptoms: rapid wilting and dying off of parts of the plant, darkening of the affected vessels is visible on sections. The fungus penetrates from the infected land through the wounds.
Treatment No, only the destruction of the patient specimen.
Prevention: crop rotation, it is not recommended to place grapes after strawberries (strawberries), solanaceous crops, lilacs, roses and phloxes.
Diseases of grapes and their treatment
To date, more than 500 grape diseases are already known. Their main reasons are oversaturation or the lack of necessary elements in the ground for the growth of the bush, lack of light, adverse weather conditions, and also insects - carriers of viruses. The most dangerous are non-treatable viral diseases, often destroying entire vineyards.
Spots on the leaves of grapes
Because of the attack of fungi or parasites, spots appear on the vine leaves. They come in various shapes, sizes and colors depending on the source of infection. Finding them on the leaves, you should immediately begin treatment, because these spots are the source of new infections and the cause of weakened immunity in the vines.
Many of the diseases also cause the leaves to grow dry in the grape seed. The insidious disease of chlorosis is a consequence of a large number of carbonate compounds in the soil, from which the foliage turns yellow and dries. It happens that over time, the leaves grow, but become much thinner and smaller. Shallow and berries. The best preventive measure for chlorosis is timely loosening of the soil, which improves air exchange.
Sometimes the leaves dry out and lack of nitrogen in the soil. Organic fertilizer (mullein, chicken manure) will be a salvation for diseased plants.
Yellowing and drying of foliage is a sign of illness, such as chlorosis
Oidium (powdery mildew) is a dangerous and harmful disease, the causative agent of which is the fungus Uncinula necator Burril. Beginners-growers often encounter such a phenomenon when young shoots start to grow poorly, and the leaves become curly and a grayish raid resembling woody ash appears on them. Later it covers the appeared inflorescences and clusters. Over time, small berries die immediately, and large ones begin to crack and later also die.
The best environment for the maturation of disputes of harmful fungi is damp and warm weather. More affected by oidium grapes growing in poorly ventilated areas and heavily thickened plantings.
Contribute to better ventilation of the bushes:
- loosening the aisle of the vineyard,
- timely pruning,
- cracking and breaking branches,
- garter vines on the trellis.
When oidium use drugs Strobe, Thanos, Teovit Jet, Topaz, Horus. Terms and doses of treatment are specified in the instructions.
Oidium infestation of the vine leads to the loss of most of the crop
Downy mildew, called mildew, by its harmfulness is not inferior to oidium. The most affected by this disease are grape plantations in areas with high humidity. The fungus pathogen overwinters calmly in the infected leaves of the grape, and in the spring its zoosporangia are transferred to the young leaves that appear with the help of rain and wind. With fairly wet weather and a temperature of 10 ° C, spores multiply rapidly, initially forming oily, light yellow spots on all green parts of the plant. Over time, instead of spots on the underside of the leaves, you can see a powdery scurf.
Places with spores in wet weather begin to rot, and in the heat dry, causing the death of the affected parts. During the growing season, the fungus generates more than 10 times. Especially dangerous is his mycelium on the ovaries of berries. Possible deaths of the entire crop.
Agrotechnical methods of protecting grapes from mildew include:
- the destruction of weeds in between rows,
- soil mulching under bushes,
- the correct form of the vine,
- destruction of areas of a bush infected with downy mildew,
- timely garter shoots
- selection of disease-resistant grape varieties.
Since the fungus infects the inside of the leaves, it is almost impossible to dispense with systemic or contact preparations (fungicides). They are recommended to apply in a complex. You can use Antracol, Kurzat, Mikal, Profit Gold, Ridomil, Thanos (according to the instructions).
Folk remedy for fungal diseases of grapes: a bucket of water filled with plant debris, add 250 ml of tincture of tea fungus, insist 2-3 days. The contents are filtered, diluted with water (1: 6), sprayed with bushes 1 time per week during the growing season.
When mildew white scurf appears on the bottom of the sheet, and later goes on the ovary of berries
How to save grapes from wasps
The wasp invades ripening bunches of grapes in order to enjoy the juice. Insects pierce the thin skin of the fruit and after the feast they leave the damaged clusters, which become an excellent environment for bacteria. The peak of the wasp invasion falls on the last month of summer. Until this time, they, on the contrary, bring only benefit by eating the larvae of butterflies and beetles.
Each grower has his own tried and tested method for the destruction of sweet tooth colonies. More effective are such events:
- The destruction of wasp nests in early spring before the awakening of insects. After carefully examining all the buildings near the vineyard and finding a wasp nest, it is removed and immediately burned. The place where it was located is treated with any insecticide to prevent re-construction of the nest. This method will not help to completely get rid of wasps, since they come from other neighboring areas.
- The construction of "traps" with insecticides. Any capacity is filled with a sweet treat for uninvited guests (jam and fermented wine in the ratio 1: 2), adding a dozen drops of any insecticide.
- Smoking a wasp smoke grenade. It is considered less effective because it requires utmost care to avoid bites.
- If the vine is small, the ripening clusters are covered with a light, breathable material and tied so that insects cannot get inside. You can sew special bags. The method is time consuming, but effective.
After visiting the wasps on the clusters of grapes there are damaged fruits - the source of bacteria reproduction
How to protect grapes from mice in winter
Often you hear the gardeners complain about mice, which in the winter cause great harm to the vine, nibbling all the kidneys. Lure with poison near the vines is not the best way to fight rodents. After all, by this very same we lure them not only to the poison, but also to the vine. In addition, many have pets. In such cases, the poison bait is contraindicated.
Mice wintering in the vineyard do great harm by nibbling the bark and buds of the plant.
Some growers in shelters lay out dried branches of wormwood, tansy, thistles. In addition to plants, essential oils, Vishnevsky ointment, naphthalene, and tar are used as scaring agents. They are impregnated with pine needles, sawdust, small branches and laid out around the bushes. But in the fresh air the smell quickly disappears.
Recently, they began to use electromagnetic and ultrasonic devices that scare away rodents. The maximum area of their action is up to 200 m 2. Unlike poison baits, they are safe for pets and people. A plus is absolute soundlessness.
In order not to attract mice to the vineyard, produce only a surface digging between the rows. It is recommended to make the winter shelter of the grapes at a later date, when the temperature reaches - 2–4 ° C, so that the rodents have time to find an “apartment” in other places.
Do not cover the grapes with fallen leaves or straw. Trash heaps left for the winter can also become a habitat for mice and a breeding ground for them.
Grape Spider Mite
Light green spider with an average body length of 0.5 mm. It is easier to notice the cobweb with which it weaves the plant than the insect itself. The larvae that awaken in the spring, which feed on the leaves of the vine, cause the greatest harm. Up to one and a half hundred larvae from eggs of one female intensively grow, and after 3 weeks they can breed themselves. During the growing season the spider generates up to 12 times.
On the grape leaves appear light spots, covered with white bloom. In varieties with dark colored berries, leaves acquire a red hue. Leaves gradually dry and crumble. As a result, the shoots do not ripen, the berries become sour due to a decrease in the percentage of sugar. With a strong tick invasion, the plant may die completely.
With the defeat of a spider mite on the grape leaves appear bright spots covered with white bloom
Felt mite (pruritus, fitoptus)
This arachnid is even smaller than its spider sibling (with a body length of 0.2 mm). It also lives on the underside of the leaf and feeds on the sap of the leaves, and sometimes the inflorescences.
Itch winters under the bark of old shtambov, at their bases, under the scales of the buds of the lower shoots. When young leaves develop, he switches to them. After his actions, light pink tubercles covered with fuzz appear on the upper side of the leaves. In the future, they darken and develop into a solid mass, similar to felt fabric. Hence the name of the tick. During the season breeds several times.
As a result of the vital activity of a felt tick, tubercles covered with fuzz appear on the leaves.
Grape leaf mite
The smallest tick is only 0.15 mm long. It damages the grape plant in the winter. In the habitats of leaf mites in the spring you can find damaged buds, subsequently giving underdeveloped shoots with deformed leaves. Sometimes gardeners take this phenomenon for a viral infection.
To combat ticks, you must:
- Completely burn the fallen leaves, weeds, as well as seedlings infected with mite.
- In early spring, the bushes should be treated with a 5% lime-sulfur solution (according to the instructions).
- When a tick is found, spray the plants three times (1 time per week) with Akaricides Aktellik, Neoron, Omayt, Sunmite, Talstar (according to the instructions).
- Treat the leaves with insecticide BI-58, Fozalonom (0.2% solution), Karate during the growing season.
Video: grape treatment with contact fungicide against tick
The brilliant, sticky and rigid body of an adult insect really resembles a shield that protects it from any danger. In winter, shchitovki live under the exfoliated crust of boles. Starting from early spring, these pests weaken the grape bush, feeding on the juice of the woken shoots.
At the first detection of flaps, it is possible to treat the shrub with an aqueous solution of diesel fuel (1:20) with the addition of 100 g of soap. At the same time, a soft brush removes insects.
Scarab females are distinguished by their fecundity. From one laying of eggs, which usually appears at the end of May, up to 150 larvae can appear. It is important to notice them in time, until they have formed a shell-shield, and to treat the bushes with insecticides of contact or systemic action, when the larvae are more vulnerable. If this is not done, small, light yellow pests spread all over the plant, sticking to the underside of the leaves. For treatments using chemicals Fufanon, Konfidor, Fastak.
Up to 150 new pests can appear from a single scythe egg laying
- winegrowers recommend paying more attention to pruning the vine, often thinning plantings, cutting off dry branches. If moss or lichen appears on the stems, they should be immediately destroyed, since these plants serve as shelters for shields,
- seedlings and cuttings of grapes before planting or grafting carefully inspect for the presence of shields, so as not to introduce pests into the vineyard,
- for prophylactic purposes, other folk remedies are used against flakes: extracts of fern, lemon peel, bitter pepper, celandine.
A tiny banana-lemon-colored aphid, called grape phylloxera, parasitizes only this plant. Larvae of aphids bring the greatest harm. Characteristic blooms-galls on leaves, cuttings and stems are clusters of larvae. With their thin proboscis, they drink vegetable juice, destroying the plant's cellular tissue. In addition to the leaf, there is a root form of the insect. She lives in the underground part of the grape bush. Its larvae feed on layering, underground boles and roots of the vine.
Fertile light soil is an excellent breeding ground for aphids. She likes to live on stony soils, but almost does not occur phylloxera on heavy clay and silt soils. And on the sand its individuals practically do not survive.
With a weak defeat of the vines with aphids, they use insecticides Aktellik, Karbofos. Sometimes a strong infection leads to the most radical measure - the destruction of all bushes and the observance of quarantine in the danger zone. Today, there are many varieties that are resistant to grapes. Therefore, they are most used for rootstocks.
Preventive measures against phylloxera:
- selection of insect-resistant varieties (Anniversary of Moldova, Rkatsiteli, Amateur, Muscat Bessarabian),
- the use of insecticides in the preparation of seedlings for planting,
- recessed landing, removal of surface roots,
- timely processing when detecting pests.
Grape bushes heavily infected with phylloxera to be destroyed
Pest and disease prevention measures
Growing grapes requires care in the care of the plant, as well as the implementation of mandatory agrotechnical techniques to protect the bushes from diseases and pests, including a number of treatments with chemicals.
- The first preventive step in the fight against diseases and pests is the acquisition of healthy planting material.
- Equally important is the choice of site for planting the vine. It must be bright and ventilated so that good air exchange prevents the development of many diseases and the appearance of pests.
- Mandatory compliance with the rules of care for the grape bush at the same time will serve as preventive measures. This includes plant protection from returning spring frosts (building temporary shelters), installing trellis and timely garter them shoots, correct trimming of the bush, removing weeds, loosening the soil around the trunk, mulching the soil, shallow digging for the winter between the rows, destruction of heavily infected diseases and pests of plant parts.
For preventive purposes, grape bushes are treated with Topaz, Teovit Jet, Strobe and at least 4 times:
- on young shoots after the formation of the fifth sheet,
- during budding,
- after flowering,
- during the formation of grapes.
Запрещено проводить обработку винограда во время цветения: нежные цветки от действия препаратов могут осыпаться! Пострадают и насекомые, опыляющие их, а будущие ягоды наберутся яда.
После того как произведена сухая подвязка лозы, рекомендуется обработать почву 3%-м раствором железного купороса или Нитрафена. Можно чередовать их через год. In order to avoid spores of fungi on young shoots, the soil is immediately mulched.
Nitrafen is also suitable for autumn tillage, because its odor frightens off mice.
Vine treatments for anthracnose, mildew, oidium and other fungal diseases are tried to be carried out in a complex with the first foliar feeding. Drugs are added to the total solution along with fertilizers.
The most famous diseases of the vine and their treatment
To grow a healthy and strong shrub, you need to prepare for the difficult work of pest control.. To do this, you need not only to know about the main causes of plant damage, but also about the methods of control and protection. Today we will tell you about the most common diseases of the vine, competent "war" with which is the key to excellent harvest and the development of bushes.
Diseases and treatment methods can be different, but the best thing to remember is that the prevention of grape diseases is much more effective than the treatment process itself. And all this is due to the fact that there are some bacteria and fungi, which are very difficult to fight against - too quickly the "infection" spreads throughout the plant, destroying both the young shoots and the berries themselves.
That is why it is so necessary to understand the importance of preventive protective measures that can protect your entire garden from the adverse effects of various pathogens.
So, the most frequent ailments:
- Mildew disease
- bacterioses, bacterial cancer,
- various types of rot and blotches of leaves and berries
- necrosis of wood
- rubella leaves,
- drying of shoots.
Mildew and ways to combat downy mildew
Mildew's disease appears during the growing season during precipitation and affects not only shoots, but also berries. Initially, it appears as yellow spots on green areas. With an increased level of moisture on all the inflorescences and diseased leaves appears light patina. If you do not take up treatment in time, the affected areas of the plant dry up or begin to rot.
The mildew fungus overwinters in the soil or foliage, falling on grapes with raindrops or wind. During the season, up to 20 new generations can be produced, and the growth of the fungus stops either at low temperatures or with the destruction of the grapes. Prevention of this disease consists in removing weeds, thoroughly airing, spraying the leaves of the grapes with Bordeaux liquid (1%) before the first flowering, immediately after it and when the grapes are growing. It should be noted that the treatment is not effective enough, and therefore it is better to take all measures in advance to prevent the appearance of the disease.
More information about treatment methods: https://nasotke.ru/bolezn-mildju-vinograde-borba-lechenie-foto.html
Bacterial Grapevine Cancer
Unfortunately, there is no cure for bacterial cancer, which is most often affected by grape bushes, and therefore prevention will allow you to reduce the risks of the disease. First of all, you need to pay attention to the root system of seedlings when they are planted - there should not be any hilly tumors indicating the presence of cancer. If you find a diseased plant in your area, you must immediately remove it, and this place cannot be used for planting new plants for several more years.
When cutting grapes, process the work area of the instrument each time with a solution of potassium permanganate to kill possible pathogens. Most often, cancer cells penetrate the plants during tillage, cutting through wounds on the branches, through vaccinations and seedlings when purchased in a nursery. Gradually, the disease flows to all parts of the plant, and for quite a long time does not manifest itself. Only at elevated temperature or humidity on the trunk, on the "shoulders", on the root system and in places of vaccinations uneven tumors can appear. The disease first leads to a decrease in yield, weakening the development of the bush and to its death.
Treatment options store and folk remedies: https://nasotke.ru/bakterialnyj-rak-hloroz-vinograda-lechenie.html
Oidium and methods of dealing with the disease
Oidium or "ashtray" - quite a harmful disease. Its name was due to the dark gray patina with a characteristic rotten smell. The inflorescences affected by the fungus dry up, the berries do not grow as their skin hardens and cracks. This disease develops well in dark and non-ventilated areas of the garden when the temperature rises.
In summer, the fungus is constantly spreading, and in winter it is found in damaged kidneys and vines. It is necessary to process a plant when the first signs appear. You can use tools such as Strobe, Vectra, Quadris, Flint, Topaz or apply a 1.5% solution of colloidal sulfur. We need to carry out at least four procedures: before flowering, after it, a month later and in the first ten days of August.
Fighting black spot (escoriosis)
Violent damage to grapes can be caused by a disease such as black spot, which is caused by a fungus affecting a plant. The first signs appear at the beginning of summer. Thus, on young shoots, round dark spots begin to form, which grow and spread throughout the plant, merging into uniform spots. Because of this, the fabric of the vineyard begins to crack. On the leaves, oval forms of necrosis often “grow”, which are surrounded by a lighter border.
If the fungus struck the berries, they acquire a dark purple color and an unpleasant taste. Whitish spots can also appear on matured vines, and the bark, as the bacteria germinate into the wood, decays, the “shoulders” of the bush weaken and eventually die. It is impossible to destroy the "contagion" even with chemical preparations, but spraying a plant with the help of Euparena, Mikala, and the affected parts of the shrub are immediately removed and burned.
Anthracnose or bird eye
This fungal disease can affect the vine of any grape variety. The disease causes the imperfect fungus Gloeosporium ampelophagum Sacc. Anthracnose is affected by all the organs of the vine that are above the ground - leaves, clusters, berries, shoots, vines. The first manifestations of the disease can be seen in early spring on young leaves. They shrivel up, then specks of light gray color appear on them. which turn brown with time. Leaf tissue in these places is destroyed, holes appear, and then the whole leaf breaks up. Later, a similar picture can be observed on the vines and fruits.
The fungus does not die in the winter. It can persist in shoots up to five years. When the temperature rises, it is activated. A fungus can get on the grapes with various damages by showers, hail, inaccurate pruning and even with watering.
For the prevention of disease, grapes must be treated with fungicides after hail.
To combat the disease, as soon as it is detected and the height of the shoots has reached 5-10 cm, the grapes are treated with preparations containing copper compounds. Most often this Bordeaux mixture. Further, with breaks of up to two weeks, the treatment with fungicides is carried out.
Chlorosis is a disease of the vine, in which chlorophyll production worsens. It can be infectious and develop with a viral disease yellow mosaic. In this case, it is necessary to fight the disease that caused chlorosis. The non-infectious type of the disease is caused by a lack of chemical elements in the plant nutrition. First of all iron. Often chlorosis is found in plants that grow on airtight, dense soil with an alkaline reaction. Excessive application of phosphate fertilizers or organic supplements can also provoke the disease.
The external manifestation of the disease is the light color of young foliage, uniform yellowing and falling off of the upper leaves, weakening the bush, reducing the growth of shoots.
For the treatment of grapes from chlorosis in the first place use a weekly spraying of iron sulphate (foliar top dressing). But the problem can be solved only by eliminating the main cause of the disease - air impermeability of the soil. To do this, enhance its drainage, perekapyu to enhance ventilation, using mulching.
Root rot of grapes.
Symptoms: powdery scurf on roots and root neck, wet decay and exfoliation of roots, bushes are stunted, pale, die. Affected specimens must be destroyed.
Provocative factors: heavy and waterlogged soils, excess of humus in the soil.
Botrytis (gray rot)
Gray rot on a grape berry.
Symptoms: brownish spots and gray fluffy bloom on buds, foliage, inflorescences, bunches, berries.
Provoking factor - dampness.
Prevention and treatment: biological agents - Alirin, Trichoderma Veride, Fitosporin.
Hardy varieties of early and dense skin, relatively resistant: Augustine, Delight, Cabernet-Sauvignon, Codreanca, Levokumsky Sustainable, Nadezhda Azos, Firstborn Magaracha, Russian Amber, Early Purple, Chocolate.
The berries in the hands are also affected. blackrotten (black mouth) and other types of rot (white, aspergillosis, etc.). Fruits dry out or rot, darken or frown, acquire an unpleasant taste, are poorly stored. Control measures are the same as for other fungal diseases (for prevention: Topaz, Ridomil Gold, copper and biological fungicides).
Oleuron's disease (bacterial necrosis, bacterial wilt)
Bacterial cancer on a branch of grapes.
Symptoms: black depressed ulcers on perennial branches, dryness and brittleness in the nodes, young vines are ugly, some of the buds in the hand turn black, some sleeves fade.
Provoking factor - cold and damp spring.
Prevention and struggle: spraying Bordeaux fluid before bud break (concentration 5%) and in the regrowth phase of the third leaf (2%).
Hardy some hybrids with American "blood".
Berry grapes in the initial stage of bacteriosis.
Symptoms: yellow and brown depressed spots on the hands and fruits, falling away from flowers and fruits.
- removal of affected hands and berries,
- spraying with biological products: Fitolavin, Fitosporin.
There are many viral and mycoplasmal diseases of grapes, the symptoms of which are clear from their names: yellow mosaic, viral infectious chlorosis, edging of the veins, twisting leaves, short knots, wood striation and etc.
Diseases are transmitted by sucking insects (scutes, ticks, nematodes, etc.), are transmitted through tools and with a vaccination, are brought in with infected seedlings. Plants lag behind in development, badly fructify, gradually (within several years) perish or wither.
There is no cure, debuffing and burning are recommended. .
The name combines various manifestations of a deficiency in nutrients - nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, iron, magnesium, sulfur, and others. Often, elementoses appear as chlorosis - yellowing or blanching of leaf plates, young shoots.
In cases where it is difficult to determine the cause of elementosis, root and foliar feeding is recommended. potassium sulfate and magnesium sulfate (or Kalimagnesia) with micronutrient complex (necessarily iron, boron, zinc).
Paralysis of the crests (desiccation, atrophy)
Darkening of the fruit and the dying off of the grapes.
Symptoms: at the time of filling and ripening of berries (in the softening phase), the comb's teeth (in whole or in part) suddenly darken and die, the development and ripening of fruits are inhibited, the hand withers completely or partially.
The reasons: Presumably, the phenomenon is associated with metabolic disorders, crop overload, lack of moisture or nutrition, and intense heat.
Prevention: balanced nutrition and water supply of the vineyard, adjustment (normalization) of fruiting, mandatory application of potash and especially magnesium fertilizers, as well as microelements, soil mulching. It is believed that foliar supplements with magnesium sulfate or potassium magnesia (1.5 g per liter), a complex of trace elements, help to cope with the problem.
The use of nets to some extent saves grapes from uninvited guests.
Insects suck the flesh of the grape fruit, causing heavy damage to the crop.
To catch them in the vineyard set bottles of meat or special poison baits. It is necessary to find and destroy the wasp nests.
Thrushes and starlings hollow berries, sometimes flying in huge flocks. Scarecrows and ratchets do not save.
Shiny ribbons, stretched black and white threads, special nets are more successful.
Grape tick and other mites
A felt mite most often settles on the leaves.
Itch (felt tick) the size of all 0.15–0.2 mm sucks the juice, piercing the foliage from the bottom. The pest itself is not visible, but at the place of its nutrition, bloating appears (visible from the upper side of the leaf) - yellowish, brownish or reddish. Felt spider webbing accumulates in the pits below. First, the lower leaves are infected, then the upper ones, and they gradually dry out.
Sometimes bunches are shrouded in felt. The bush suffers, the yield is significantly reduced. The pest gradually masters more northern regions.
Spider mite larvae.
In the vineyard, there are other types of mites, such as spiderwebs, leafs, and others.
- garter shoots higher from the ground,
- timely removal of infected foliage,
- spraying acaricides: Tiovit Jet, Akarin, Kleschevit, FitovermThese drugs have a very short waiting time, they can be used throughout the season.
Hardy varieties: Pineapple, Consul, Moldova, In memory of Negrul.
Grapes are attacked by several species of moths of 1-3 cm in size. Their caterpillars devour the buds, foliage, ovary, fruit, pupate in cobwebs.
Grape moth is nocturnal.
- collection and destruction of plant residues,
- spraying before flowering and immediately after it insecticides (Fufanon-Nova, Aliot, Inta-Vir, Decis, Alatar).
Hardy varieties: December, Moldova, In memory of Negrul, Frumoas Albe.
Shield and false shield
There are several varieties of small sucking insects that produce shiny honeydew, which later colonizes black fungus.
Pests stick plants around in groups like ats. Weaken the bushes.
Mealybug is common in southern regions.
Small insects (3 mm) and their larvae suck sap from leaves, shoots, and clusters.
On the affected areas visible sticky discharge. During the season several generations are born. The development of the bushes is inhibited, the grapes dry, there is a risk of losing up to 70% of the crop.
In the spring, pests release a whitish down. They feed on the underside of young leaf plates.
- cleaning the trunk from the old bark,
- washing pests with soapy water, tobacco or garlic infusion,
- with a strong settlement: treatment with insecticides with respect to the waiting time (Aliot, Konfidor, Aktara).
Briefly about other pests
Other insects can also cause significant harm to the grapes: jumping maggots grape fleacaterpillars kidney moth and mining moth, cicadasgnawing kidneys skosar, wood borers and maggots goldfish.
Spraying insecticides (Aliot, Karbofos, Fufanon-Nova, Alatar) on buds and immediately after flowering reduces the number of pests.
Traditional methods of treatment
Experienced winegrowers give advice on the processing of grapes with tools, home remedies. It is necessary to observe the recommended proportions so that there are no burns.
- Weekly infusion of cow dung a (1–2 liters per bucket of water) or chopped straw: spray every 7–10 days (from a complex of diseases).
- A glass of chopped garlic insist day in a liter of water, add 50 g of host. soap, 50 g of iodized salt, 7 liters of water, potassium permanganate to pink, strain: sprinkle 2 times over the summer from diseases.
- 1 liter of natural milk (2.5% fat) + 15 drops of pharmacy iodine (at a concentration of 5%) + 7 liters of water: spray in the evening (after 19 hours) once a week from oidium.
- Laundry soap (100 g diluted) in 10 liters of water: from gray rot to the ovaries.
- 60 g of soda, 5 g of potassium permanganate per 10 liters of water: from oidium to ovaries and ripening berries.
- Weekly infusion of wood ash (1 liter) in a bucket of water + 50 g owner. soap: on ovaries and pouring berries every 10 days (from diseases + top dressing).
- Tar soap dilute in water and wash the vines before hibernation: from shchitovki.
General processing scheme for the season
It looks like a healthy grape ovary.
- In the spring, removing the shelter, spray solution: 300 g of iron or copper sulphate per 10 liters of water.
- For slightly swollen kidneys: Bordeaux liquid 3% (or slightly later 1%).
- Phase of blooming 3 leaflets: mixture - Ridomil Gold (25–50 g) + Topaz (5 g).
- Before flowering: spraying one of the insecticides against pests (Aliot, Fufanon-Nova, Karbofos), then Tiovit Jet (50–80 g per bucket) from ticks and oidium.
- After flowering and then another 1-2 times every 15–20 days: Thiovit Jet, or a mixture of Scor + Topaz, or copper-containing agents (Bordeaux liquid, Oxyh, Abiga-Peak, HOM).
- The setting, filling and ripening of berries: biological preparations Alirin, Trichoderma veride, Fitosporin from diseases, Bitoxibacillin, Lepidotsid, Fitoverm, Tiovit Jet from pests.
- Before sheltering for the winter: 300–500 g of iron sulphate per 10 liters of water.
A big role is played by the general level of agricultural technology:
- landing in a sunny place
- timely garter and proper pasynkovanie,
- watering in drainage pipes, mulching,
- moderate doses of nitrogen, spraying with magnesium and trace elements,
- the use of immunity stimulants (Zircon, Epin Extra, Novosil, HB-1, humates, etc.),
- adjustment of fruiting,
- collection and incineration of plant waste,
- disinfection tool
- breeding hardy varieties.
There are no grapes that are generally not affected by any diseases and pests.
But there are varieties showing complex resistance to many infections. Their processing can be minimized and get an environmentally friendly crop.
Avgustin, Avgustovsky, Agat Donskoy, Harold, Danko, Dvietsky blue, Helen, Laura, Muscat Steady, Oleg, Pleven Muscat, Firstborn Magaracha, Risus, Citron Magaracha, Chocolate, Elegant Upper.
Learning to distinguish between fungal diseases of grapes
This disease is well known to gardeners and farmers, as it occurs most often. Its second name is downy mildew. Hitting a plant, the fungus causes the appearance of yellow spots and gray bloom on the leaves. Without proper intervention, the culture quickly disappears.
In the photo is a fungal disease of grapes mildew.
Meets a little less than powdery mildew. The second name of the disease is powdery mildew. Manifestation - gray bloom on the leaves and berries. The disease develops in hot weather, and if it is not stopped, it will cause cracking of the berries. After a few years, the vineyard will completely disappear.
All aboveground parts of the grapes are covered with dark brown spots. Over time, these places dry up.
In the photo are the dark spots of anthracnose
The disease mostly develops in spring. It affects all above-ground parts of the plant, only on the berries it appears as white spots, and on the other parts - brown or silver. Affected berries quickly deteriorate.
Olive spots are formed on the leaves and berries. They grow and dry up.
On all aboveground parts of the bush the fungus causes the formation of black spots. The affected peduncle often dries out and breaks.
On the photo grape escoriosis
The disease is caused by fungi, and the death of the plant comes as a result of the release of a large amount of toxins. The second name is esca. Most often appears at the height of summer. In acute form, the bush disappears in a matter of days. The chronic form lasts for several years, and it can be recognized by white spots on the lower sheets.
A fungal disease that can affect any aboveground parts of a grape bush. The affected areas are covered with a fluffy patina of gray. Most often infected hanging brush to the ground.
A bloom of white color covers the berries of the plant. Over time, they completely change color and fall to the ground. The appearance of the disease most often provoke mechanical damage to the bush.
On the photo white rot of grapes
Fungal disease manifested by purple spots on berries and leaves. As the disease progresses, the area covered with spots increases.
With the defeat of this fungal disease in the grape leaves turn yellow and turn brown roots. With the onset of autumn, the affected plants are covered with yellow mushrooms.
In this case, the fungus leads to yellowing of the leaves and the rapid death of the shoots. The fungus saves activity up to 5 years.
Bacterial diseases of grapes
This is the name of a dangerous and non-treatable disease caused by bacteria. Manifestation - growths on the vine. In the first two years, the yield will drop dramatically, and later the affected plant will completely disappear. This is one of the incurable diseases of culture. The next two years in this place is better not to plant grapes.
Shriveled dark pink areas appear on the berries. The impetus to their formation is the scorching sun.
In the photo is grape bacteriosis
On the berries are formed black spots with a clear brown outline, the shoots dry out.
The berries turn brown and rot. As a result, the harvest may die completely.
Experienced gardeners know how dangerous viral diseases are. Since they do not respond to treatment, it is advised to remove the affected grape bushes completely. The only way to protect your vineyard from them is to purchase a sustainable crop.
Among viral diseases often occur:
• marbling of leaves
• mosaic mosaic,
• leaf vein necrosis,
• chlorosis - discoloration,
• short knot - dwarfism.
Chlorosis of grapes in the photo
Viral diseases are extremely difficult to diagnose. They have common characteristics: cracking of wood, deformation of leaves and change of their color, falling off of inflorescences, slow development of a plant.
In addition, there are a number of non-infectious diseases that are caused by inappropriate conditions or nutrient deficiencies. They can manifest themselves in different ways: spots on the leaves, developmental delays, shrinking of bushes and berries, shedding of berries, etc.
Fungal diseases of grapes
Fungi most often affect the leaves of the vine, but can also spread to young shoots, clusters. Diseases of this type act quickly, spread at lightning speed to neighboring plants, and can live in the ground for more than 5 years. At least half of all vineyard treatments are devoted to the fight against fungal invasions. Among the frequent manifestations of the fungus, note the following:
- Mildew. Symptoms: yellowish spots on leaves of different sizes, often oblong. Over time, the spots turn brown, the sheet begins to become covered with mold. In the absence of proper processing, the fungus spreads to young shoots, clusters, which is why they begin to mold, fall. The fungus multiplies most rapidly at high humidity and temperature. During the growing season grapes can give 16−20 generations. Destroy the fungus is not completely possible without significant damage to plants and soil. Preventive treatments with Bordeaux mixture, antractor, or the cultivation of disease-resistant grape varieties are acceptable under modern conditions.
- Oidium. Symptoms: young leaves begin to "curly", covered with whitish dust. All parts of the stem of the plant are affected, within a short period of time they die completely. Outwardly, he looks as if sprinkled with ashes. Fungi successfully multiply in any temperature mode. In case of leaf diseases, the treatment of grapes is carried out by timely spraying, removing weeds, tying grape branches. Treatment is carried out by Thanos, or Topaz.
- Anthracnose. Symptoms: dark spots on young foliage - brown, purple, black. Pinkish patches may appear on infected plants. Those plants that are hit by hail, heavy rain are most susceptible to infection. Preventive measures - treatment with copper preparations in the composition, plant shelter from hail. Mandatory procedure - treatment with fungicides every two weeks.
- Fomopsis. Symptoms: any green part of the plant can be covered with black, brown round dots. The fungus also affects lignified parts of the grapes, deeply rooted in the branches. It is impossible to bring it out completely with the help of chemicals, since the fungus hides under the bark of the grapes. For severely affected plants, only complete destruction of the grapes can be acceptable. Prevention will be fungicide treatment once every 10–14 days, affecting outgoing spores.
The number of fungal diseases is much greater than that described. The frequency of fungal manifestations depends on the climate, treatments with acceptable preparations, contact with infected cultures, and particular weather conditions.
Diseases of grapes and their control include a number of negative bacteriological factors. Consider only the two most common varieties: bacterial cancer and spotting.
Cancer in the form of rot strikes grapes (lignified and young vines), turning them into a collection of large and smaller tubercles-tumors. Affected grapes just slows down the development, and later completely dies.
Most often, the grapes themselves are prone to blotchiness, but the stalk may suffer. The disease manifests itself after mechanical damage from the vital activity of insects, birds, or after hail. A brown spot forms on the injured part of the berry, rather quickly it turns into a hollow (a distinctive feature of a bacterial lesion).
Preventive measures are treatment Bordeaux mixture, and at the time of infection - fitolavinom. If it is practically impossible to protect oneself from natural disasters, it is the responsibility of the gardener to reduce the number of parasites in the vineyard. With the elimination of insects and bacterial problems disappear.
Pests and control of them
Vineyard processing is carried out regularly regardless of whether there are direct traces of parasites. Acting on the lead, gardeners protect other plants and the entire vineyard from imminent death. Everywhere living and severely harming vineyards are considered:
- Phylloxera - aphid, living on sheets or roots of grapes. The essence of the action in both cases is the same - the insect feeds on the plant sap, and at the same time secretes enzymes that violate cell structures. Grape dries. It is difficult to fight such an obvious enemy, especially if we are talking about the root form. If insecticides such as konfidor, or zolone, are used in leaf form, the root form is a death sentence for vines. All affected bushes are excavated and thermally destroyed. The same is done with the nearest neighbors of diseased bushes. Growing hybrid grape varieties is more acceptable on soils infested with parasites, since such plants are less susceptible to “attacks”.
- Grape diseases are also provoked by the spider mite, which feeds on plant sap through leaves. The affected leaves lose color, turn brown, dry, fall off. The grapes cannot die from such a parasite, but the harm lies in the other: the fruits of the affected bushes lose their taste, oxidize, and the whole plant loses its natural immunity. Infected leaves are removed from the plant, and the rest are treated with acaracides.
- The itch turns the leaves of grapes into continuous tumors-tubercles. At first, they barely differ in color from the main green part, but over time they darken, leading to the death of the affected sheets. From the actions of the parasite weakens the development of the bush, deteriorating taste of berries. Dual control methods: removal of the affected sheets + acaracid treatment.
- Listovertka. Caterpillar and butterfly, able to eat all the young shoots, buds of grapes. Under their influence, bushes are more susceptible to bacteria. The control methods include spring cleaning of the bark and burning it (this is how the larvae kill), and treatment with insecticides (zolon, talstar) in three steps.
Since any treatment is associated with a risk to human health + diseases and pests of grapes develop simultaneously, several preparations are combined in one treatment. At the same time, it is worthwhile to carefully study the instructions for all means in order not to create an overly aggressive mixture.
Diseases triggered by treatment
Abundant treatments of the same type, carried out on the same places, lead to the impoverishment of soils. In particular, any amount of iron and zinc may become unavailable to the plant due to an overdose of copper in the soil.
Many drugs contain this element. This is usually about cheap and effective means, so they are widely used by gardeners in general, and not just grape lovers. The effects of uncontrolled treatments are the minimum amount of chlorophyll in plants.
The so-called chlorosis - total yellowing of leaves - may be caused by viruses or insufficient content of trace elements in the soil. Regardless of the reasons, the method of treatment is the incorporation into the soil of products containing iron and zinc. The number of such treatments is at least 4, but the result should be noticeable after the first soil treatment.
Changing the habitat of the vineyard, the moderate use of copper-containing drugs, fertilizing the soil will help remove the problem of chlorosis in time, or solve it altogether.
It is also always necessary to take into account that the painful appearance of grapes can be provoked not only by diseases, but also by extreme weather conditions. A severe drought + lack of irrigation system will turn the whole crop into raisins without any fungi and aphids. Hail or rain mechanically damage the leaves, which outwardly may resemble fungal disease. Do not immediately take up chemicals in such cases. The best way out is to study the possible causes of ugly symptoms, sometimes to conduct an analysis to accurately determine the essence of the disease. To learn how to treat grapes for diseases, you can only after a correct diagnosis.
Vineyards, where there is constantly high humidity, are often affected by black rot, caused by the fungus Guignardia bidwellii, entering the plant with mechanical damage.
Affected by berry rot. Brown spots appear on them with a white dot in the middle. In the future, the grapes turn black and dry. In the rain, the disease becomes wet rot, and the dry berries shrivel and darken.
Infected leaves are covered with creamy spots of dead tissue, circled with a dark green edge. Black strokes appear on the bark of the sick grape, then ulcers and cracks.
The disease, initially invisible, later develops very quickly, and the plant cannot be saved. Therefore, at the slightest sign of illness, they begin processing the entire vineyard. In the initial stage of the disease fungicides can give a good result. In the future, select a mixture of drugs, taking into account weather conditions, the type of soil, grape varieties.
Sour rot has such a name because of the vinegar smell that spoiled berries acquire. It appears as a result of sugar processing on vinegar by microorganisms, and their carriers are fruit flies, laying their eggs in grapes.
The remedy for the disease and its carriers is the treatment of the vineyard with a mixture of insecticide and fungicide. To be sure that the preparations can be used together, their solutions are prepared and mixed just before spraying.
In a dry or opposite rainy year, the metabolism may be disturbed by the vine. Because of this, shoots start to dry out.
The disease manifests itself when the berries are already beginning to pour, and up to 12% of sugar has already accumulated in them. Suddenly dark spots appear on the branches. If the disease is running, it can not be defeated. In case of prolonged drought or prolonged rains that can provoke the disease, experienced growers recommend to prevent the occurrence of the disease and treat the plantations with a mixture of magnesium chloride and calcium chloride. The concentration of the solution should be 0.5%. In a similar situation, magnesium sulfate is used, but not for spraying the entire vine, but for treating those places where the disease manifested itself.
For adversely reacting to the use of chemicals of grape varieties, the prevention of the disease is the introduction of balanced complex fertilizers.
Armillaria or root rot
This fungal disease is caused by several types of fungi. Gray and dark gray threads appear on the roots. Rising above the plant, the fungus infects the wood, it becomes brown in color and dies. In 2-3 years the plant may die.
The external manifestation of the disease is the absence of fruiting, yellowing and a decrease in the size of the leaves. Usually, the disease appears in plants growing on heavy soils, where water can stagnate and in general high humidity. The disease spreads underground, going from the roots of one vine to the roots of another.
For the prevention of the disease, they drain the wet areas, try not to plant the grapes on the soil into which the air does not penetrate, and loosen the soil as needed. At the site where they found root rot, do not plant grapes for at least three years.
When the first signs of the disease are detected, the grapes are sprayed with preparations that include copper: copper oxychloride, Abiga-Pick, Bordeaux mixture, Hom, Ordan and others. To limit the spread of the disease, diseased plants are separated from other plantations by deep ditches, the ground from which is spread on the infected area, and then they are disinfected with formalin.
Bacteriosis of grapes - a group of diseases caused by unicellular organisms - pathogenic bacteria. Most often they occur in plants:
- on depleted kidneys,
- under adverse weather and natural conditions,
- at non-observance of agrotechnology of cultivation,
- in the absence of protection from pests-insects.
Bacterial infections can be seasonal or chronic. Varieties of the disease are:
- bacterial necrosis
- berry bacteriosis
- Pierce's disease,
- bacterial cancer.
For each particular disease developed its own methods of preventing diseases and treatment. The general recommendation to prevent bacteriosis is to comply with sanitary rules:
- Погибшие от бактериоза растения выкорчевывают и сжигают. На их место не высаживают новые виноградные лозы.
- Посадочный материал ни в коем случае не берут с больного винограда.
- Саженцы и чубуки приобретают в проверенных питомниках.
- Before planting the cuttings, they are subjected to their half-hour heat treatment in hot water of 35ºС.
- Cutting the grapes, disinfect the instrument in alcohol or copper sulfate solution before treating each bush.
- Spil treated with blue vitriol in the form of a 2 percent solution and close up garden pitch.
- All agronomic measures should be carried out with special care not to damage the plant.
- When pre-winter preparation exclude contact of the grapes with the soil.
- Do not overload the plant, so as not to weaken it.
- Constantly lead antifungal prophylaxis.
- Do not overmoisten the soil and do not overfeed the plants.
Resistant and unstable to such diseases varieties (photo)
Among the grape varieties there are less susceptible to the effects of pathogenic bacteria and less resistant.
The first are Aligote, Bastardo, Codreanca, Delight and others.
Among the most susceptible to bacterial diseases are the varieties Kishmish white, Favorite, Reksavi, Saba Pearls, and Firstborn Magaracha.
There are no grape varieties that are completely immune to the diseases that bacteria cause.
Small brown spots on the leaves of grapes indicate the disease Septoria. With increased humidity, mold appears on the underside of the leaf. Dried leaves, falling, spreading mushroom spores. Muscadine grapes are most susceptible to this disease.
To localize the disease, damaged plants and fallen leaves are removed.
Prevention of septoriais - spraying the vineyard with a one-percent solution of Bordeaux mixture.
Preventive procedures as a guarantee of health vineyards
From most diseases, you can help simple prevention. First of all, it is a check of seedlings, timely cutting of the remnants of vegetation and removal of diseased bushes. It is better to know the diseases of grapes in pictures, than to struggle with them later in your garden, since this is a very laborious task, and it does not always have a positive effect. So, preventive spraying of bushes should be carried out before the beginning of the growing season, that is, before the buds bloom.
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This helps to reduce the "infectious background", and therefore leads to improved plant development and higher yields. At the same time, diseases can appear both on young plants and on old plants, which means that it is necessary to protect grapes all its life. In the spring after removing the shelter for grapes, the bushes should be treated with a 3% solution of Bordeaux mixture. It is best to make it yourself, because the effect of the purchased mixture is much lower. To do this, you need to pour five liters of warm water into the plastic or enamelware, in which about 300 g of copper sulfate is diluted. In the second container also pour five liters of water, kneading in it 300 g of freshlylive lime.
In this case, it is necessary to inject the solution of copper sulfate to the “lime milk”, otherwise the solution will not be effective for the fight. Indicator for determining the quality Bordeaux fluid will be a regular iron nail. To do this, immerse it in a container with a solution, and then just carefully examine. So, on a nail should not settle copper. After filtering our mixture through a strainer, pour it into the sprayer and water the plants, preferably in calm weather. It is important that the watering solution covers the entire shrub completely, including annual vines and perennial wood.
Means to combat diseases of the vine and their purpose
First of all, it should be noted that both biological and chemical agents can be used to protect shrubs. The first type includes drugs such as Lepidotsid, Trichodermin, Gaupsin, Aktofitwho seemed to be quite decent in their work. They have a huge advantage in safety for humans, but there is also a small minus - the need to spray the plants weekly and after the rains. This is quite expensive because of the relatively high cost of drugs. In addition, labor costs are not encouraging, especially if you are to work with several hundred grape bushes.
It is much more efficient and financially beneficial to use chemicals or pesticides.. They are used either as a preventive measure or in the fight against pests, weeds and diseases that harm the bushes. It is important to pay attention to the fact that such products must be harmless to the grapes themselves, poisonous to bacteria and disease, and of low toxicity to humans. To choose the right means, you need to understand how they are classified.
So, pesticides are subdivided according to the object of use (they are combined into certain groups depending on the bacteria with which to fight):
- Fungicides - drugs used in the treatment of plants, defeated fungus,
- Bactericides - are directed against dangerous pathogens,
- Insecticides - insect repellents,
- Acaricides - preparations from grape ticks,
- Herbicides are substances that help fight weeds.
In addition, they are divided into contact, system, and the third type - combined.
- Systemic use to combat disease. The preparation you use gets onto the surface of the leaf, penetrates inside and with the help of shoots spreads to all the “organs” of the bush, including protecting its new growths. These include Topaz, Fundazol, Topsin-M, Kvadris, Bayleton and Strobe.
- Contact means are used when signs of disease appear on the green elements of the plant. If you missed this moment, and the defeat has become widespread, try to remove the affected leaves, processing the bush using contact fungicides. The most famous drugs in this category include Rovral, Bordeaux liquid, Omite.
- Combination drugs have properties not only systemic, but also contact substances. The most famous is considered Ridomil Gold.
The list of chemicals can be continued indefinitely. Here it is important to reasonably approach their acquisition and use. For example, we must not forget that pests are getting used to the formulations used. That is why they need to alternate between themselves, remembering that the use of drugs of one group is again considered undesirable.
The material has been updated and updated on 01/31/2018