The property of tomato is known to be thermophilic; therefore, it is not always possible to bring the fruits of tomatoes to full maturity in the open air. Using greenhouses for growing vegetables is an ideal option for those who live in temperate regions. But there are peculiarities of tomato farming in greenhouse conditions. Knowing them will help to achieve high yields of delicious tomatoes.
Proper seed planting in the ground
Despite the fact that the temperature in the greenhouse rises during the day due to the bright March sun, it is cold at night. For planting seeds you need them temper in advance. To do this, after soaking the material is placed in the refrigerator, then in warm water. Now the sunflower seeds are ready to grow.
To avoid this, a special indoor heating will help. It happens:
- biological with fresh manure,
Having stuffed the greenhouse with a shovel with hot manure at the end of February, you can sow the seeds. Heat them enough until mid-May. Heat the manure, pouring it with hot water, sprinkling with quicklime.
Good heat keep the shelter of the walls of the mats in two layers. Three days later, the manure is leveled, ground is poured on it. It can be planted tomato seeds. Accelerated growth of hardened seedlings allows them to bear fruit a month and a half earlierthan garden beds.
How to plant tomato seedlings
Rassadny way to grow tomatoes easier. There are some nuances of planting seeds and sprouts that have appeared. In the spring, sow tomatoes for seedlings in greenhouses not earlier than March 20. As soon as she reaches the age of sixty days, you can sit or sit on a permanent place in the room, for example, on a windowsill.
For seedlings air temperature is important - it should reach eighteen degrees during the day, sixteen at night. Watering seedlings is the first month three times. The water used is warm, well settled. When the first shoots appear, watering is carried out up to once a week.
Pike seedlings planted in place, preparing a layer of earth at 17 centimeters, then pouring it to twenty centimeters. The soil should consist of equal parts of humus, sod land with the addition of a small amount of river sand.
Before planting seedlings in the hole add wood ash
Before planting 50 grams of wood ash in each prepared well or furrow, carefully mix it with the ground. Planting tomato sprouts to produce deep, reaching the bottom of the racks.
Stretched seedlings - landing features
Because of the thin stem, tomato seedlings often break, so when you transplant, you must follow a number of rules:
- For planting seedlings sprouts suitable cloudy day or morning low temperature of air.
- The long stem fits into the landing fossa ring. You can lay the kusutik horizontally, leaving a stem on the surface that is no longer than forty centimeters long or, on the contrary, leaving most of it underground.
- Cut off the bottom leaves and stepchildren on the stem.
- Carefully pour soil into the hole, trying not to damage the shoots.
- Drive a peg next to which tether seedlings.
- At the end of the procedure, the bushes are watered.
If at the beginning of growth the sprouting sprouts will lag behind in the development of their counterparts, then after the formation of new roots, the tomatoes will become stronger.
What is the square-nested way of disembarkation
When planting seeds or seedlings of tomatoes in the ground using a square-cluster method that will make caring for tomatoes easier. And for plants it will be better to pass nutrient absorption. With such a planting each bush enough light.
The plan for planting a tomato in a square-nested way is as follows:
- In one nest 70x70 centimeters two or three plants of standard and determinant species are placed.
- Early tomato enough two for one nest.
- With average and late terms of ripening - on one plant. If you increase the nest by twenty centimeters, you can land two tomatoes, reducing the planting density slightly.
After landing is necessary air more oftenthat will avoid the spread of fungal diseases indoors.
To prevent the occurrence of fungus, the greenhouse must be thoroughly aired.
The best time for planting a tomato
Spring, which arrived in a timely manner with stable weather, is the main condition for planting vegetables other than proper courtship and watering. For a seedling growing method, planting it in an unheated greenhouse is made in the first decade of May. At the same time, it is necessary to additionally warm the walls of the enclosed room, covering them with mats.
In regions with warm climates, heated greenhouses are prepared for tomatoes. in Marchand with moderate, including Western Siberia, Novosibirsk, Krasnoyarsk - in the end of April. The spring sun will allow you to get enough tomatoes for their growth of heat and light.
Placement of tomatoes in the greenhouse
In accordance with the choice of varieties of tomato, greenhouse designs produce and plant young bushes:
- For indeterminate tomatoes choose the chess arrangement of bushes. They need to be placed in rows with the distance between them. no more than eighty centimeters. The distance between plants will be half a meter in the formation of one stem, and two - seventy centimeters.
- Determinate species need row spacing in half a meter. The distance of the bushes from each other is thirty centimeters to those that grow two or three stems. It is reduced to the norm of twenty-five units, if one stem is formed.
Comply with the rules for placing a tomato is important, otherwise they will not have enough nutrients, moisture, light and air.
Optimum bed width
Device beds depends on the area of the greenhouse premises. With a standard area of 3x6 beds the place will suit along the wall. High-quality lighting beds will be in its direction to the west.
The height of the soil in relation to the track is done in 40 cm. The width of the beds can be in 60 or 90 cm. For full care, you will need a path a little less than half a meter wide.
Care must be taken of the location of the necessary equipment and the sufficient width of the tracks. This will allow proper care of the tomato beds.
It is necessary to think in advance of sufficient width of the tracks in the greenhouse.
Features of the location of stunted and tall varieties
For proper placement of tomato bushes, you can use the following recommendations:
- Tall varieties fit in two rows, as they are left in the nest of two stalks. And the distance between the rows reaches eighty centimeters.
- The landing would be perfect in the middle premises of tall varieties, On the sides - undersized. When ripening at different times, you can harvest the tomato constantly.
- With a modest size of a tall greenhouse, they arrange a bed in one row on the sides, and undersized - in two rows in the middle of the room.
Consider the location of different varieties of plants and choose the approach to planting is necessary in advance.
Agrotechnology of tomatoes in a polycarbonate greenhouse: planting dates, distances between bushes
In the first days of May You can start planting seedlings in a polycarbonate greenhouse. At this time, the seedlings already have a strong root system, a thick stem, one or two floral brushes.
After hardening the seedlings in the open air for two weeks, it is sprayed with a solution of boric acid. This will prevent the fall of the buds. Before planting, the two lower leaves on the sprouts are removed. The plant layout is the same as in ordinary greenhouses.
Landing step by step
Before planting a tomato in a greenhouse, it is necessary to add humus, peat, phosphate and potash fertilizers to the prepared beds. For soil disinfection it needs to be processed - sprayed with potassium permanganate solution or treatment with Zaslon.
For disinfection of soil is processed by the preparation Barrier
The prepared wells are placed seedlings using square-nested or tape-nested method. The depth of the holes is not more than twenty centimeters. For better assimilation of phosphorus, which is necessary for tomatoes for proper development, wood ash is added to the wells.
Depending on soil moisture and air in the greenhouse, seedlings are watered two - three liters per bush. Well planted tomatoes planted in the evening in cloudy weather.
Plant Care Requirements
For active growth of tomatoes in a greenhouse made of polycarbonate, you must create the following conditions:
- air temperature in 22 degrees, but not above 25, soils - over fifteen.
- ventilation for fresh air in the room
- moisture levels remain at 70 percent.
- pour over as drying top layer of soil
- fertilizing with the addition of monopotassium phosphate and potassium nitrate weekly with irrigation,
- carrying out pollination with shaking of bushes during flowering.
Compliance with all the rules of care for tomatoes in a polycarbonate greenhouse will lead to continuous fruiting bushes.
It is no secret that you can get high yields of tomatoes in the early stages only by growing them in a greenhouse. In addition to this plant in protected ground less attacked by pestsDo not suffer from diseases.
Greenhouses ensure proper operation of the ventilation channel in the following way: they carefully and regularly wipe the walls of the structure. If the right place for the installation of the greenhouse is chosen - well lit, without shading from the trees, buildings, the light will easily penetrate into it.
Before starting the preparation of tomato seedlings for the greenhouse, it is necessary to select such plant varieties that can grow well in greenhouse conditions.
Preparation and disinfection of soil for future beds required, depends on the health of plants.
Increases the resistance of tomatoes to disease spraying of copper sulphate, boiling water.
Peculiarities of courtship after planting seedlings
For young seedlings it is important to carry out timely watering, introduction of optimal doses of fertilizers. A week after planting, they begin to water the plants. Before flowering, watering is carried out with a break of five days. One square meter - one bucket of warm water. Water under the root, trying to keep drops of moisture from falling on the leaves. Suitable and drip irrigation method.
Two weeks after landing, exercise fertilizing bushes with mulleindiluted in water to five hundred milligrams - ten liters, add ten grams of ammonium nitrate, fifty - superphosphate, fifteen - potassium chloride. The next time after the appearance of the flowers, the ripening of the fruit must be treated with fertilizers, doubling the amount of minerals when dissolved in a bucket of water.
What is the difference of care in greenhouses and greenhouses
Greenhouses are used for a smooth transition seedlings from home to open ground. Therefore, the timing and rules of planting a tomato are the same for both greenhouses and greenhouses.
It can not exceed two and a half meters from the soil surface. So that the soil is not sprinkled from the walls of the greenhouse, they are sheathed with boards. Install greenhouses on the southern slopes of the site, this will avoid flooding the area.
The greenhouse must be installed on the south side of the plot.
Feed tomato bushes need during budding and fruit formation. Every month fertilizer or compost is added between the rows. Purchase fertilizers in specialized stores, taking into account the importance of the presence of a large amount of nitrogen in them.
Suitable for feeding mullein, bird droppings, mineral supplements. All types of fertilizer are diluted in a bucket of water and applied after watering the bushes. Per square meter is enough bucket solution.
When to air
In order for plants to receive more air, light, it is necessary to open the doors of the greenhouse for ventilation. The procedure will help reduce fever and humidity. High parameters of humidity, the heat will not let the fruit tied, pollination slows down.
Airing is included in the phytophthora prevention measures. In good dry weather, you can leave the greenhouse open for the night.
How to plant to harvest a good crop
Getting a big harvest of juicy fruits is the dream of every gardener. For this is important observe the landing terms vegetables, when the temperature in the greenhouse will be maintained at night at the level of twenty-five degrees of heat.
Tomatoes will grow better in polycarbonate greenhouses. But during the hot summer it is enough to hold the bushes for the first time under the film. Although it is in the greenhouse that crops are harvested earlier and more often.
Variety selection tomato is important. There are tomatoes, which in the greenhouse give rich fees, and in the open field they do not sow badly. It is best to choose hybrids that do not need pollination and they are excellent fruit. The resistance of hybrid species to diseases that prevent an increase in yield is also noted.
Most types of tomato require a garter of stems to pegs. Garter plants spend subject to grade. To early and undersized grades it is optional.
Low-growing varieties of tomatoes do not need a garter
How to tie a greenhouse
The material is never used wire, durable fishing line, hard thread, thin string. Such materials will easily cut the stem. Strips of fabric two to three centimeters wide are the best choice. Before the procedure, they must be disinfected by scalding with boiling water or stretching with laundry soap.
Near the tomato drive in pegs long 30 cm above the stalks and loosely bind the stem to them.
Another method of garter - device trellis. Stakes are driven in along the beds, pulling hard wire between them in several rows. During the growth of tomatoes, they are charged for wire or brushes are hung on hooks.
Hang on the trellis or tie up - which way is better
Both options are convenient for tomato growth. Brushes tall tomatoes tied to the top of the trellis or hookedlocated at the top. In both cases, the fruit continues to grow successfully no matter how they hang.
Tall tomatoes are hanging on hooks
What can be used as a peg
It is convenient to prepare individual pegs or sticks for tying tomato bushes. They will serve for several years.
You can replace them:
- trimming fittings and metal fixtures,
- metal rods
- thin plastic tubes
- wooden slats.
First watering frequency
After landing, it is necessary to take a break in soil moistening, which will allow harden root system young plants. Three days later, under each bush pour in up to two liters of water. Then the number of procedures increase.
After strengthening the roots, up to 2 liters of water is poured under each bush.
The best time for watering is morning. And then open the greenhouse for airing. Watering is enough once or twice a week.
Peculiarities of watering in a polycarbonate greenhouse
In the greenhouse, watering tomatoes in the flowering phase often doubles the amount of water. The best option would be a break in moistening. in two days. After the formation of ovaries begin to reduce the frequency of watering. At the same time take into account the weather conditions. With an extremely wet summer, it is enough to water the plants once every two weeks.
How to water the tomatoes
High yields in the greenhouse are obtained if watering is carried out with water at a temperature of 20-25 degrees. Many people add a tablespoon of table salt and a glass of wood ash to a bucket of water. Pouring half a liter of solution under each bush, you can harvest a good crop of sweet, meaty tomatoes.
Tomatoes are poured over, adding a bit of grass to the water.
Organization of drip irrigation plants
Using homemade droppers for irrigating tomatoes is important for moistening. root area plants. Water in this case is served in small portions.
For the device of this method of irrigation need hoses with a diameter of 1.5 cm. Attached to the dropper or drip tape. The hose is attached to the faucet or immersed in a container of water. Lay the system along the landings, sprinkled lightly with soil. Through the tape or dropper water will flow directly to the root system of the vegetable crop.
How to water seedling material
Since the future harvest depends on the condition of the seedlings, it is necessary to know how to water it properly. Due to lack of moisture, young shoots can quickly die. When sowing seeds reduce the frequency of watering, making two days break.
As soon as the first leaves appear, they observe the drying of the upper layer of the soil. Only then produce watering or spraying. Two or three days before the picking, the soil is softened by irrigation and the first top dressing. The sprouts are then easier removed from the ground.
Four days after transplantation, seedlings begin to water, bringing it to up to once a week. You can increase the amount of moisture, if the intensity of sunlight increases, which leads to drying of the soil.
For planting tomatoes to grow them, there are some peculiarities.Knowing all the nuances of how to care for them in ordinary greenhouses and polycarbonate greenhouses is important in order to get high yields of tomatoes.
Planting seedlings in the greenhouse
Particular attention should be paid to planting seedlings in the greenhouse. Vegetable culture is always grown with seedlings. Therefore, at the initial stage, you must be careful when growing seeds in pots or in boxes. It is necessary to achieve high-quality seedlings, if desired, they can also be bought. To determine the quality of the purchased material, It is recommended to adhere to the following rules:
- seedling height should not be below 20 cm, it is better to choose those that are 30 cm,
- leaves also affect the quality of the plant, there should be at least 8 of them,
- when choosing seedlings should be inspected brush, it should be formed, but without full-blown buds,
- dark green color of leaves is a pledge of quality
- developed live root without any damage.
Rules for planting tomato seedlings
To seedlings began to bear fruit in the shortest possible time and caught on in the greenhouse, it is necessary to carry out proper care.
There are a variety of greenhouse designs., and the time of planting seedlings directly depends on this. And also from the equipment and climate of the area. With stationary heating greenhouses made of polycarbonate, the situation is simpler. In such designs, you can do year-round disembarkation. But with greenhouses made of polyethylene, which do not have heating, the situation is a bit more complicated. In this case, you must wait for the soil to warm up to 15 degrees.
Crates or pots for growing seedlings should be with the correct soil composition. To grow crops of early varieties, should be engaged in the preparation of the soil in the fall, when there will be a final harvest. If planting is carried out all year round, you should know that the soil after picking tomatoes should rest for at least one month.
After the next landing, you need to take care of replacing the soil. But if it is not exhausted, it is enough just to refresh it. Disinfection, digging of beds and cleaning of the remaining weeds are performed. The upper part of the soil is replaced if the plants are sick. Before digging, organic fertilizer is added to the soil, and mineral dressings are added just before planting.
Most growers use well-developed schemes during planting. To do this, take into account not only the variety of tomatoes, but also the working area. You can not too closely arrange the bushes to each other. For this there is a technology:
- For tall varieties with one stem, planting in rows is suitable. The aisles should be 70 cm, the same size is chosen between the bushes.
- Low-growing varieties are placed 50 cm between the rows and 40 cm between them.
Chess scheme of planting tomatoes will help save space in the greenhouse. With such tactics there is a reduction in row spacing, and the width is 40 cm.
The seedling is planted to a depth of 4 cm. Before planting tomatoes, water the wells with room temperature water. Immediately after watering is carried out planting plants. This method will allow the seedling to straighten up in a short time.
Tomato care after planting
Caring for tomatoes is a very important stage and has its own nuances. Microclimate must be created in the greenhouse. with a temperature of 22 degrees, because the seedlings will begin to take root in the soil for two weeks. On sunny days, the greenhouse should be shaded and not allowed to penetrate into the sun's rays, because excessive temperature is not needed.
The first 10 days of tomato seedlings do not water, because it must be done on the day of planting. The soil between the rows is covered with mulch. After 10 days, the care of vegetable plants begins. It is necessary to control that tomatoes began to go in growth on the acclimatized soil.
Watering begins after the start of growth of tomatoes. How to determine that the seedling has taken root? Its branches and stem will be pulled out - this is a signal of a successful landing. If you perform watering before pulling the bush, then the root may rot.
Often, the soil in the greenhouse can dry quickly, but do not do the accelerated watering, it is enough to lower the temperature. According to the technology must be watered once a week. Per square meter of beds accounted for half a bucket of water. In the process of plant growth it is necessary to increase the rate of watering. During the first flowering period, you should spend 12 liters of water, and when fruiting begins or hot days come, you will need to consume 15 liters of water.
The ideal time of day for watering is morning or evening. It is at such a time that the sun's rays are absent, because it is impossible to irrigate with direct rays. Soil and water should have the same temperature. It is not recommended to allow water to fall on the leaves, it is necessary to water at the base of the tomato. The ideal option would be a drip irrigation system. At the expense of the device, you can reduce a lot of time and effort, but if not, then a regular watering can or a bottle with holes in the cork will do.
Greenhouse airing It is an important component factor, because tomatoes do not tolerate excess moisture. At high temperatures condensation forms on the polycarbonate. This is due to the scorching sun, which raises the temperature in the greenhouse to 30 degrees. If the tomatoes are in such conditions, they will start dropping the ovaries and flowers, a fungus will form on the foliage, and the plant will start to wither.
During the spring period, a greenhouse is aired every day. It is enough to open the door or window. But it is impossible to subject tomatoes to strong drafts, only a small wind is allowed. Therefore, airing must be done in the absence of wind. During prolonged heat, you can not slightly open the window, it will benefit tomatoes, because insects will be interested in plants, which will pollinate flowers. After complete disappearance of moisture, you can close the ventilated holes of the greenhouse.
Not all regions are similar in climate and differ in day and night temperatures, therefore correctly ensure the stability of the temperature regimeboth day and night. Tomatoes can die if the temperature in the greenhouse rises to 30 degrees or more during the daytime and drops to 10 degrees at night.
Tomatoes can successfully develop only at a temperature of 22 degrees. The daily limit is 28 degrees, if the norm is exceeded, the leaves will begin to fall, followed by the flowers. For the night it is necessary to provide a greenhouse with a temperature of at least 15 degrees. The moisture level should not be high. Humidity in the air should not exceed 70%. If the rules are met, then tomatoes will not be threatened with various diseases.
Among all types of tomatoes are available self-pollinating varieties. But there are various reasons why the process can be quite difficult: pollen can be crumbly due to high humidity in the room, as well as in the absence of insects. In this case, a brush is taken and artificial pollination is performed. It is allowed to use cotton wool or similar material.
The owners of large stationary greenhouses resort to the cunning method, they bring in a couple of beehives during the flowering of tomatoes - the method is very effective, but this is not available to every vegetable grower. It is important to ensure free access for the bees. To accomplish this, it is enough to open the window or engage in self-pollinating flowers.
If a brush is chosen for pollination, its bristles should be made of natural material. Before lunch, the temperature in the greenhouse remains at 25 degrees, and the humidity is 70%, it is at this time that the pollination process must be carried out.
Forming a bush
Often for greenhouses tall varieties are selected. They must be formed into one stalk, followed by a pinching, as well as a garter to the support. After the plant is fully adapted to the new soil, a tomato bush is formed in two weeks. At the very beginning of the landing, it is necessary to establish the stakes to which the plants will be tied up.
For better control of the growth of tomatoes should perform a garter 10 days after planting. As the stepsons appear, it is necessary to take measures to remove them, it is enough to leave those that are at the very bottom. The fracture site should heal after staining the vegetables, so the procedure is done in the morning. Also at dawn, the processes are fragile and more prone to fracture.
After the formation of 8 fruit branches on the tall bush the stepsoning takes place, the lower foliage is removed, and the top of the plant is pinched. After such a procedure, the vegetable plant will not spend strength on further growth, but, on the contrary, will direct all energy to the ripening of fruits. If the choice is stopped on undersized varieties, then the lowest stepsons are not removed, and the formation is carried out in 3 stems. This is the only difference in the formation of stunted tomatoes from tall varieties.
Nutrients for Tomatoes
Despite the initial feeding, you should feed at least 3 times throughout the season, because most of the nutrients are wasted in the process of growing tomatoes. Mineral and organic fertilizers are important in equal portions, so the first option is necessary for the saturation of nitrates in fruits. Top-dressing with such fertilizer is done at the beginning of growth and no later than two months before harvesting tomatoes. But for organic feeding there is no time limit. Recipes of organic solutions:
- After a three-week landing, the first dressing is made. A mixture of nitrophoska - 1 tbsp. spoon and mullein 500 grams. Poured a bucket of water and mixed.
- Secondary fertilizer is applied after 10 days. The ratio of liquid manure to water is 1 to 15.
- The third dressing is carried out in the process of watering. The ratio of mullein to water is 1 to 10. For better quality, it is necessary to insist the mullein in a closed container.
If you count, then on average 1 liter of fertilizer solution will be spent on 1 bush, however, it all depends on the size of the bush.
The process of growing can turn into a collision with a number of diseases. The most famous of them are:
- bush weakness
- cessation of bush development,
- the absence of the upper ovaries, and ripening becomes incomplete,
- the fall of flowers and foliage,
- leaf dying during twisting.
Often, the ovary may not be formed, but at the same time the bush looks strong and healthy. The fact is that a large number of nutrients are spent on the development of the vegetative mass. This is affected by poor lighting, an oversupply of minerals, or excessive watering. To revive the bushes, the temperature in the greenhouse is brought to 25 degrees, and watering is temporarily stopped for about a week.
If the greenhouse air and soil - dry, then the ovaries and flowers will begin to fall off. To avoid this, it is necessary to carry out regular airing of the room, increase watering and lower the temperature.
The bush may not give full ripening of the fruit due to weak forces. It is enough to remove the brush and lay in the sun. In a couple of days they will mature.
If the vegetable does not provide enough nutrients or light, then the plant will become weak. In case of proper lighting, it is necessary to process the bushes with boric acid or apply organic fertilizer.
Planting tomato seedlings
Caring for tomatoes in the greenhouse begins with the planting of prepared seedlings to the place of constant growth.
The further successful development of adult plants and the yield of tomato fruits depend on the quality of the planting performed in the ground.
By transplanting, tomato must have the following parameters:
It is necessary to plant in a specific pattern, which depends on the characteristics of the cultivated variety. When planted planting plants will shade each other, stretch, which will lead to a susceptibility to the development of diseases and lower yields. If the seedlings are very sparse, the greenhouse area will not be used, which will lead to a shortage of the total crop.
Therefore, it is necessary to choose the optimal landing pattern and it is recommended to use the following parameters:
- Early ripe determinant varieties with 2-3 stems are planted according to the 60x40 cm scheme.
- Determinant tomatoes with 1 main stem are planted closer - 50x30 cm.
- In indeterminate tall tomatoes, the planting pattern is sparse - 80x70 cm.
Cups with high-quality seedlings are planted in the wells, deepening to 3-5 cm. If the plants are overgrown, then the stem of a tomato can be laid into the soil at a depth of at least 10 cm, while digging a ditch. Additional roots are easily formed on the stem, which can nourish the adult plant more intensively.
During the adaptation period of the seedlings in new greenhouse conditions, the air temperature must be kept within optimal limits from +22 to +25 degrees, while the soil should already warm up above +15 degrees. Under such conditions, plants quickly give new roots and they begin to grow intensively.
Caring for tomatoes in a polycarbonate greenhouse involves the need to constantly monitor the temperature. Polycarbonate has high thermal insulation properties and good light transmission, therefore, in sunny weather, the temperature of the air during daytime hours can increase dramatically and reach critical for plants (above +35 degrees). Open doors and transom will reduce the temperature.
If there is no constant heating in the greenhouse, then in case of a probable frost it is necessary to install an additional source of heat. As it can be used various types of burners, heat guns or just kerosene lamps.
Before planting, it is advisable not to water the seedlings for 2-3 days. It will not be brittle and will receive additional hardening.
Immediately after planting the tomatoes, it is necessary to conduct abundant watering. This is one of the important rules for caring for tomatoes in the greenhouse. It is necessary to create a contact of the roots with the soil. If this is not done, the plants can attach and then be ill for a long time, which ultimately will have a negative impact on yield.
Further watering is carried out with the drying of the top layer of soil. The humidity level is kept at 85% of full capacity. The easiest method of determination is to compress the soil into a fist from a layer below 10 cm. If, after opening the palm, a non-dissolving lump forms and it is not smeared on the hands, then the humidity is optimal, watering is required when the lump is scattered.
On hot days in the summer, daily watering is sometimes necessary or even twice a day.
Excessive overflow of soil is detrimental to the roots, so when the weather is cool, watering should be done no more than once every 3-4 days.
When planting seedlings at the bottom of the hole it is necessary to pour the starting fertilizer. To do this, use 20 g of nitroammofoski content N16P16K16. The roots should not be in contact with the pellets due to the risk of burns, so they are mixed with the soil.
Top dressing is one of the most responsible works in caring for tomatoes in the greenhouse. They are carried out weekly, followed by watering. Tomatoes are very demanding on the content of nutrients in the soil, especially phosphorus. In the arsenal of a tomato grower, there should be monopotassium phosphate and potassium nitrate. These are two high-speed fertilizers that will satisfy the need of a tomato plant in macronutrients. They take 20 g each, dissolved in a ten-liter bucket of water and watered at least 10 bushes.
Caring for tomatoes during a massive opening of buds includes operations that improve the formation of ovaries. Tomatoes have self-pollinating flowers. To pollen spill out and hit the pistil enough to gently shake the tomato plant. This operation is performed in the morning on a sunny day.
During airing, insects fly into the greenhouse and help the flowers to pollinate. Bumblebees do it very well. You can put a hive with bumblebees in the greenhouse to increase fruit stitchiness.
Observing all the described rules for caring for tomatoes in the greenhouse, you can get a bountiful harvest of delicious tomatoes.
How to care for tomatoes in the greenhouse (video)
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The article is interesting and informative. Everything is written correctly, but I will add a few practical tips, since there are special growing conditions in the greenhouse. If in spring and autumn it is protected, then at the height of summer, despite the ventilation, it is hot there.
Gradually, from the moment of the rooting of the bush, we remove the lower leaves in order to organize the heating of the earth in spring, and then air it. If the leaf plates of two bushes are fighting for lighting, they should be shortened by half. When the temperature in the greenhouse is above 35 degrees, the pollen of flowers will be sterilized and there will be no ovary. At this time, you need to use a fruit stimulator to help the fruits begin to fasten faster. Если на улице 30 градусов, в теплице около 40, и ничего не сделаешь.
Внекорневые подкормки микроэлементами в теплице обязательны. Через листья питание поступит в 3 дня, через корни результат виден через 2 недели на любую подкормку. Поливать каждый день помидоры нельзя. Землю нужно напитать водой, мульчировать и полив не чаще чем раз в 5 дней. Иначе неизбежна фитофтора и загнивание корней. If the redness is delayed or uneven staining, you must give potash fertilizer with saltpeter or sulphate.
Hello, tell me, please, and how often should water be planted if only the seedlings are planted in the soil (greenhouse)?
Hello! The first watering should be abundant, so that the plant will quickly settle. Further, as the drying of the soil. Tomatoes do not like the swamp and feel bad when the soil is dry. Check the soil at a depth of 10 cm. The frequency of irrigation depends on the composition of the soil and the climate created in your greenhouse. In hot weather, watering should be done more often.
How to prepare a greenhouse and seedlings
To get a high crop of tomatoes in a greenhouse or greenhouse, you need to protect the plants from diseases. To do this, every season it is necessary to cultivate the soil and the inner surfaces of the greenhouse with disinfectants, and once every 3-5 years completely replace the soil in it. To do this, use different means:
- fumigation with sulfur smoke,
- spraying a solution of bleach or copper sulfate.
The first option is not suitable for buildings with a frame made of metal profile. Sulfur vapors interact with the metal and lead to its rapid corrosion. But it is desirable to process wooden or plastic constructions only in this way. Poisonous fumes penetrate into every corner and destroy the fungus, mold and bacteria, larvae and adult hibernating insects.
The secrets of gardeners on how to accelerate the ripening of tomatoes, can be attributed to even the greenhouse seedling method of cultivation of this crop. At the same time, plants that have reached the age of 50 days and have already laid the first flower brushes can be transferred to a permanent place. Fruiting in this case begins in 2-3 weeks after planting.
Sowing of tomatoes specifically designed for greenhouses should be done according to the following scheme:
- late varieties (120 days or more from sowing to harvest) - should be planted in February,
- seeds of medium ripening varieties - in early March,
- the earliest hybrids (about 90 days) should be sown at the end of March so that they do not have time to stretch.
Soil for sowing to cook from turf land, humus and peat in equal parts. For each bucket (10 l) of the mixture, add sand of 1 liter and 1 tbsp. l wood ash and superphosphate. Thoroughly mix the components, pour the finished soil in the seed boxes and moisten it. You need to sow seeds in shallow grooves, filling them with a layer of soil not more than 0.5 cm. To preserve moisture before seed germination, cover the container with film or glass. Shelter to remove immediately after the first shoots. The optimum temperature for seed germination is 22-25 ° C.
When the seedlings will have 2 true leaves, they should be unpacked in separate pots or seedling boxes at a distance of 5-7 cm from each other. Further care is timely watering. Signal to this can serve as a strong drying of the upper layer of soil. Watering should be abundantly warm water (25 ° C), but in any case, do not overfill, as tomatoes do not like it.
To prevent early sprouted plants from being exhausted from a lack of light in early spring, young tomatoes need a backlight with a fluorescent lamp.
Duration of daylight should be increased to about 10 hours per day. Only in this case, young plants will be strong, low, with well-developed leaves. Fertilizing seedlings with a well-filled with organic matter and minerals soil is not needed.
Before planting, young plants need to be hardened on a balcony or in a cool room for 7-10 days. They should be planted in a greenhouse when the soil on the ridges warms to 15-20 ° C.
To preserve the heat obtained from the sun during the day, homemade film greenhouses are best covered in 2 layers. The distance between them should be at least 2 cm. This creates an air cushion between the polyethylene membranes, which serves as a good heat insulator.
Modern greenhouse "Signor Tomato" with a coating of polycarbonate and PVC profile frame is able to retain heat without additional measures. The manufacturer of polycarbonate sheets took care of this in advance: the material consists of cells within which there is already an air cushion. High yield of tomatoes in the greenhouse tested in practice. The first copies of such structures began to go on sale in 2009.
At the very beginning of May, it is already possible to transfer seedlings to heated and prepared greenhouses. The height of the bushes by this time should reach 30 cm. If the tomatoes are very stretched, then they should be planted in the ground obliquely, trying not to bury the roots too much. As a rule, the soil in the depths is still quite cold, which will prevent tomatoes from quickly taking over and starting to grow.
The soil for planting tomatoes must be uniformly enriched in potassium, phosphorus and nitrogen. This is another secret of how to get a good crop of tomatoes in a greenhouse or greenhouse. With an excess of organic nitrogen in the soil (manure, chicken manure, humus), the tops will grow remarkably, but the flowering and fruit laying will be minimal. It is best to use complex fertilizer for tomatoes or when planting to make in the soil, filled with organic, potash and phosphate fertilizers. The dose of them in this case should not exceed that specified by the manufacturer.
Having dug a hole for planting tomatoes in the greenhouse, you need to pour about 2 liters of warm water into it. Having placed the roots and part of the stem, from which the lower leaves are removed, into the pit, cover it with soil to the level of the soil. Watering tomatoes planted in this way is not necessary in the first 1-2 weeks.
Rules for placing greenhouse tomatoes
Ridges inside any greenhouse should be placed in the longitudinal direction. The width of the standard model (the greenhouse "Signor Tomato" and others like it) is 3 m. This allows you to break 3 ridges about 60 cm wide, leaving the same aisles between them.
The scheme of planting seedlings for different varieties should be different:
- early low-growing varieties, formed in 2-3 stems, can be planted in 2 lines, leaving a distance of 50 cm between them, and 35-40 cm between plants in a row,
- Standard greenhouse tomatoes can be placed slightly thickened (45x25 cm), forming them in 1 stem,
- tall varieties that form powerful bushes form into 1 stem, having a single line pattern with a distance between rows of about 80 cm, between tomatoes in a row - 60-70 cm.
Tomato care in the greenhouse
Before flowering, water the tomatoes at 4-5 days intervals, waiting for the topsoil to dry. When they begin to form the first ovary, you need to double the amount of water poured under each plant. The sweetest tomatoes can be obtained by watering the bushes rarely, but abundantly (up to 10 liters per 1 m 2). To prevent moisture condensation and drops on the leaves, watering should be done in the morning.
When flowering tomatoes, it is important to maintain the temperature in the range of 22-26 ° C. Too low values can cause late blight disease, and in case of heat of more than 30 ° C, pollen of tomatoes becomes sterile, and the formation of ovaries does not occur. The yield of tomatoes decreases very significantly.
Garter plants to the support begins shortly after disembarkation. To densely planted bushes do not interfere with each other, you need to tie each of them to the trellis twine. As the stem grows, all stepchildren are removed from it, and the plant is tied up until it reaches the top of the trellis. After that you can pinch the tip. This can both accelerate the ripening of the tomato, and allow the latter to grow until the end of the season. Even taken in an unripe form, they will be able to ripen in a box, although they will no longer be as sweet as those that had time to ripen in the hot sun.
Other tricks on how to accelerate the ripening of tomatoes in the greenhouse, is to stop watering, spraying the bushes with iodine solution (30-40 drops per 1 bucket of water) or removing flower brushes in the upper part of the bush. On low-growing varieties, it is possible to leave only 5-7 brushes with ovaries, and on tall varieties - 10-12 pieces. Reduce the speed of fruit loading and ripening and stepchildren. They need to be deleted. Particularly fast lateral shoots form yellow tomatoes, often because of this, their taste is also reduced.
Central Russia and Siberia are characterized by short summers with lots of cool and rainy days. This causes the collection of tomatoes unripened (brown), and most often even green, followed by ripening. With an unsuccessful summer season, part of the crop in such conditions is lost due to late blight or various rot. How to accelerate the ripening of tomatoes and get good yields, regardless of the vagaries of the weather? There is only one way out for a modern gardener: to provide tomatoes with a secure roof over their heads. Growing tomatoes in the greenhouse allows you not only to avoid problems, but also to get fully ripened fruits 2 weeks earlier than those of the earliest varieties in the open field.
Growing tomatoes in the greenhouse
To correctly know how to grow tomatoes in a greenhouse, you need to follow some simple, but compulsory stages of care, starting with seed treatment and ending with the formation of fruits. Planting vegetables using greenhouses is popular with gardeners, because there the earth heats up faster, the crop appears earlier by 2 weeks, and the fruits do not undergo late blight diseases. The riches of the harvest also belong to the pluses - tomatoes grown in the greenhouse are 250% larger in volume than the same amount from the ground.
Tomato seed processing before sowing
Caring for tomatoes in the greenhouse starts from the seed treatment period so that the crop can withstand viral diseases. To do this, apply the treatment with potassium permanganate, which is performed before germination and includes the following steps:
- preparation of a special solution - 1 g of money is taken for a glass of water,
- a gauze bag is taken, seeds are laid in there, dipped in a solution,
- after 20 minutes, the seeds are washed with clean running water.
This treatment helps the simultaneous rapid emergence of seeds, strong growth of bushes. After treatment with potassium permanganate it is useful to sow the seeds with useful substances, which is carried out according to the following technology:
- prepare a solution of 1 liter of warm water with 1 tablespoon of fertilizer (ash, nitrophoska, sodium humate),
- a container is taken, a bag of seeds is laid in there for 12 hours at a temperature not lower than 25 degrees,
- after taking out the dishes are taken with clean water, the bag is put in there for a day.
Such care is useful for short growing varieties, together with tempering, when the bag is placed on the shelf of the refrigerator for 2 days at a temperature not lower than 1 degree. During the time it takes, the seeds must be constantly sprayed with water so that the bag does not dry out, but should be planted immediately after hardening. Soaking and hardening is not necessary for seeds of hybrid and varieties with high stems.
Compliance with temperature
Caring for tomatoes in the greenhouse involves careful monitoring of the temperature at all stages:
- when sown, seeds are watered with warm (up to 40 degrees) solution of sodium humate,
- when germinating seeds, the surrounding air must be heated to 23 degrees,
- the room for aging seedlings before planting should have a daytime temperature of up to 17 degrees, and a nighttime temperature should be up to 14,
- when it reaches a street temperature of 12 degrees during the day, the seedlings shall be carried out on the porch for hardening.
Watering tomatoes in the greenhouse
- At all stages of caring for tomatoes, except for planting seeds, they need watering:
- seedlings are watered three times during the entire growth period - after emergence, after 2 weeks and a couple of hours before transplanting,
- 10 days after the disembarkation of the seedlings it is watered,
- watering should be carried out after pollination by pollen and before the beginning of active flowering with the calculation of 5 liters per square meter,
- when flowers are formed, irrigation and the amount of water increases by 300%,
- competent watering of a polycarbonate greenhouse is carried out in the morning to prevent the creation of excessive moisture, and the water itself flows under the root so that the leaves do not get wet.
Formation of tomatoes in the greenhouse
Due to the fact that the summer is short, all the ovaries of the tomatoes do not have time to form the fruit, so you need to limit them. To do this, pasynkovanie and scraping. The first procedure involves the removal of secondary shoots between the sinuses, and the second - pinching the tips to stop the growth up and obstacles to the creation of new shoots. Each of the processes of care has its own nuances.
How often should water the tomatoes in the greenhouse
When organizing the care of tomatoes, many people ask how to water the tomatoes in the greenhouse and how often to do it. Gardeners recommend watering the bushes every 6 days with a moderate amount of moisture after planting and flowering. Water can not be cold, it should be poured carefully under the root so that the soil does not erode, and the leaves with fruits do not spoil. To avoid the greenhouse effect, the greenhouse should be optimally ventilated. With the active ripening of the fruit, the bushes are watered twice or three times a week.
How to feed tomatoes in the greenhouse
Application of useful fertilizers is otherwise called top dressing and is done so that the plants grow strong, are resistant to diseases, and the fruits ripen on time and in the right amount. It is better to combine top dressing with watering and to carry out three times - 3 weeks after the bushes disembark, then another after the same time and the last time - after 2 weeks. For the care they use organic fertilizers or their mineral types.
Masking of tomatoes in the greenhouse
To care for the tomatoes in the greenhouse is pasynkovanie - removal of secondary shoots from the sinuses, which is necessary to prevent the formation of new ovaries and the formation of fruits from existing ones. His proper conduct involves the removal of stepsons, which are all but the main stem. The first time pasynkovanie held in 2 weeks from the moment of sprouting seedlings, then - every 10 days. To the new broken stalk site does not grow a new one, you need to leave a couple of centimeters old. Properly processed stem has no more than 4 floral brushes.
How to dive tomatoes
Transplanting each tomato bush from a 100-ml container into a separate pot with a half-liter volume is called a pick. It is carried out 10 days from the beginning of shoots, so as not to damage the small root. Literate transplantation involves watering for 2 hours, taking out shoots and picking up a large pot, re-watering. The second method of picking is transshipment, when a few days before transplanting the bush ceases to be watered, due to which the earth dries out and gets freely from the pot. After transshipment, the plant should be moderately watered so that it will stick better.
When to plant tomatoes in the greenhouse
Terms of planting seedlings in the greenhouse directly depend on the technical characteristics of the structure and weather conditions. If the greenhouse is heated, tomatoes can be planted in late April. For a stationary polycarbonate greenhouse without heating, the period shifts to the 1st decade of May. In the film greenhouse plants transferred in the 2nd half of May.
If the seedlings are subjected to hypothermia or freeze, its growth will stop. After the experienced stress, young plants will need a lot of time to recover - this will adversely affect the time of entry into fruiting.
By the time of transplanting, seedlings should be fairly mature. On each bush requires the presence of 7-10 leaves. Plant age should be approximately 50 days. At this stage of development, tomatoes have strong immunity, they will easily take root in a new place and will quickly grow.
How to plant tomatoes in the greenhouse
Before planting in the greenhouse, seedlings must be hardened so that there are no abrupt changes in conditions. At first, for this, a window opens in the room. After the temperature outside rises to 12 degrees, the pots of plants can be put on the balcony or terrace. The residence time of seedlings in the open air is gradually increased. It is advisable to start at half an hour, adding 10 minutes a day to the street.
On a note! Properly hardened seedlings will have a light purple shade of leaves. During the procedure, the ground should always be wetted so that the seedlings do not wilt.
5-6 days before planting the seedlings in a permanent place the plants should be sprayed with a solution of boric acid (1 g per 1 l of water) in the early morning or in cloudy weather. This will contribute to the preservation of the buds on the 1st fruit cluster, which will increase the yield.
The beds always form along the greenhouse, their number will depend on the width of the structure. Each of them should be 60-90 cm wide and 40 cm high. Between the ridges, a passage of 50-60 cm is left. Land preparation is carried out a week before disembarking.
Just before planting, the ground is watered with a weak solution of potassium permanganate. You can pour the drug solution directly into each well. 3 days before the seedlings are planted in the greenhouse, on the seedlings it is necessary to cut the 3 lowest leaves.
This procedure will contribute to better ventilation of the bushes, and thus reduce the risk of disease. In addition, in this case the plants will have more strength to form the first flower brush.
Hybrids and tall varieties are planted in beds in one row with an interval of 60 cm, or in a checkerboard pattern. Как показывает опыт дачников, увеличение расстояния между растениями приведет к сокращению урожайности вдвое. Кусты начнут сильно ветвиться, станут чрезмерно рослыми.
Как ухаживать за помидорами в теплице правильно
После высадки в теплицу рассаду не поливают 10-12 дней, чтобы она не вытянулась в длину. По истечении этого срока кусты подвязывают к шпалере и обеспечивают им дальнейший уход для нормального роста.
For each culture, there is its own irrigation farming techniques. Tomatoes prefer relatively dry air and at the same time moist soil. It must be borne in mind that both poor and excessive watering are harmful for them.
If you water them excessively, evaporation will increase the humidity of the air, which will contribute to the appearance of fungal diseases. The roots may also suffer from an excess of water in the ground - their rotting will begin. The lack of moisture will cause dehydration, which will lead to wilting of the foliage and the possible death of plants.
Summer residents can recommend the following rules for watering tomatoes in the greenhouse:
- Watering the bushes should be 1-2 times a week, focusing on the rate of air humidity and the temperature inside the building.
- It is recommended to moisten the soil in the morning so that the water does not evaporate too quickly when exposed to sunlight. On hot days, tomatoes are watered twice a day, additionally making watering in the evenings 3-4 hours before sunset.
- The water temperature should be equal to the air temperature. Water the plant strictly under the root, trying to keep moisture from falling on the stem and leaves.
- Each bush should receive during watering 4-5 liters of water.
In small greenhouses, manual irrigation with separated water with a watering can is most often used. Water is poured into large barrels in advance so that it warms and settles. If a container with water is placed inside the greenhouse, it must be closed with a lid so as not to increase the humidity of the building into the structure. Some use a hose for watering. The disadvantage of this method is the lack of control over the volume of water poured on the bed.
Drip irrigation is considered convenient and less costly in terms of effort. For its organization in the greenhouse will need to install a special system. Tubes for drip irrigation are driven in at a shallow depth, and water flows directly to the plant roots. This method prevents the evaporation of moisture from the surface of the earth, prevents the ingress of water on the stems and leaves, provides an opportunity to carry out moisture at any time. Soil with such an organization of irrigation is not eroded and not salted.
At each growth stage, tomato needs its own watering schedule. When planting, water is poured into the well, then the soil is not moistened 10-12 days. After this period, tomatoes are watered twice a week, spending 2-3 liters of water for each bush before flowering. Such a frequency of watering with a small amount due to the fact that the roots of plants are still weak and can not absorb a large amount of moisture.
With the beginning of flowering, the volume of water per plant is increased to 5 liters, reducing the frequency of irrigation to 1 time per week. When fruits appear, tomatoes again begin to water 2 times a week, the amount of moisture applied should be moderate. As soon as the tomatoes begin to blush, the plants again begin to “water” once a week with a small amount of water. If this rule is neglected, the fruits may crack.
Garter involves attaching the stems of tomatoes to the support with the help of strips of cloth, ropes, special plastic mounts and the like. Start this procedure immediately after the removal of the stepsons, as well as later additionally tie up the formed fruit hands and the new growth of the stem. Only compact undersized varieties of tomatoes do not need this technique.
Brushes with heavy fruits, it is desirable to fix immediately in 2-3 places. It is impossible to tighten the knot tightly, there must be a gap between the stem and the support. When the garter grows bushes grow vertically, which allows them to get more air and light, and for the gardener easier care for the plants.
It is impossible to name the specific time of ripening of tomatoes in the greenhouse. They depend on the specific variety and method of cultivation. In the midland and in the northern regions, early-ripening tomatoes are usually planted, which ripen quite early. Due to the correct temperature conditions in the greenhouse, it is easy to obtain ripe red fruits. Of course, you can pick green tomatoes, but it will be more practical and correct to wait until they are fully ripe on the branch.
By simple manipulations, you can speed up this process. To achieve faster maturation will help, for example, spraying the bushes with iodine solution. For its preparation, only a few drops of pharmaceutical iodine are used in a bucket of water. As another method, a reversal of the branches with fruits on the sunny side is applied, after which they are fixed in this position.
If large brown fruits ripen on plants, it is better to pick them in the stage of incomplete maturity, so that the ripening of other fruits does not slow down. Pinching the top of the plant will also help speed up the reddening process. With the same purpose, tear off all the leaves below the fruit cluster (this should be done gradually, and not at one time). On low-growing varieties it is necessary to leave a maximum of 4-5 brushes, in this case, the tomatoes ripen much faster.
Hybrids always ripen earlier than tomato varietal representatives. The difference is about a month. Determinant varieties are harvested faster than indeterminate (tall). Fruits can be removed and in the stage of technical maturity. You can determine it by the incision of the fetus. If the tomato is pink inside, it means that it is already quite fit for human consumption.
By picking fruits selectively, you will increase the total amount of the crop. Pouring green tomatoes is permissible to leave on the bushes until the first of September. Tomatoes that were not picked off the branch in time, lose their taste and reduce the overall yield.
On a note! If you need to preserve the crop as long as possible, pick tomatoes in the stage of dairy or brown ripeness. They can be stored for a month or more.
What to do after harvesting
After the harvest is gathered, the time has come to take care of the greenhouse. The first thing in the building is brought order. The presence of pathogenic microorganisms and pests in the greenhouse largely depends on the harvesting. It is necessary to carefully collect all plant residues and remove the top layer of soil 5-7 cm thick - it is in it that the pest larvae live, which do not always die in winter. It is impossible to add instead of removed ground soil after growing other plants. It is better if it is absolutely fresh soil.
The walls of the greenhouse also need to pay attention, cleaning with them all the dust and dirt. Following it is recommended to disinfect with sulfur checkers, fumigating the entire structure. After airing the greenhouse, the walls are washed with a brush and rinsed with a hose. The soil is carefully dug, and then fertilized with a mixture of manure, peat and humus. Sand and ash are scattered over the fertilizers, after which the straw is laid out. After the appearance of the first snow, it is advisable to put snow mass on the beds, which will prevent the ground from freezing, and in the spring it will become a source of moisture.
Mistakes gardeners to care for tomatoes in the greenhouse
When caring for tomatoes in the greenhouse, even experienced gardeners can make mistakes. Plants immediately signal this with their appearance, so tomatoes should always be carefully monitored to correct watering, feeding or temperature. Let's see how this can manifest itself:
- It happens that with developed and powerful stems, the upper leaves curl around the plants. Such a phenomenon can be observed with excessive watering and application of excessive amounts of nitrogenous organic fertilizers. In this case, it is necessary to stop watering the tomatoes for 7-10 days and not to air the greenhouse so that the temperature inside will rise and the earth will dry out faster.
- If you notice that the “buttocks” turn black on some tomatoes, it means that plants have been hit by top rot. An outbreak can occur due to a sharp increase in temperature and improper feeding. To remedy the situation, diseased fruits remove and process tomatoes with infusion of wood ash.
- Due to inadequate watering at high temperatures, droppings of the ovaries and flowers may occur. In this case, it is necessary to water the plants more often and regularly ventilate the greenhouse.
- We can not allow too thick plantings, it contributes to the development of late blight. When planting seedlings in a greenhouse, it is necessary to maintain a distance between plants of about 60 cm, promptly remove the formed stepsons, and tear off the leaves on the lower part of the trunk. Late blight can also develop in conditions of low temperature and high humidity. If the temperature in the greenhouse has decreased, water the tomatoes less frequently.
If you follow all the rules of care for tomatoes in the greenhouse, then problems with their cultivation can be avoided. In time, you will definitely find for yourself “your” varieties that will delight you with excellent taste and high yield. If you want to "make friends" with this culture can every gardener.
Ventilation and watering
When warm, sunny weather has settled outside the greenhouse, it is recommended to open the greenhouse by a quarter of the upper part on each end side. But note that tomatoes are afraid of a draft.
On warm days, it will be correct to fully reveal part of the greenhouse on the west side, thereby ensuring not only good ventilation, but also access for insects that pollinate flowering. If insects do not enter the greenhouse, help the plant to pollinate: shake it when flowering. To prevent pollen from scattering, wet the tracks after the procedure.
Immediately after planting the plant in the greenhouse, it is necessary to conduct abundant watering of bushes. For young plants also need frequent watering. Their still weak roots are capable of taking water only from a shallow depth, so watering is carried out as the topsoil dries.
Some say that it is better to water the tomatoes in the evening, others argue that early watering has a better effect on growth, but in fact the most correct is day watering. And all because the watering of tomatoes requires warm water with a temperature not lower than the soil temperature.
Water is not recommended for the leaves of plants, therefore, radical irrigation is carried out. Both a hose and a simple bucket with a bucket are suitable for irrigation, but these two methods contribute to the formation of a crust on the soil. There is a need for frequent loosening. Therefore, the most optimal is drip irrigation. When drip irrigation eliminates physical labor, on the top layer of soil does not form a crust, there is no excess evaporation, which increases the humidity in the greenhouse. Such watering does not allow drying or over-wetting the soil.
Soil fertilizer and plant nutrition
To determine the fertilizer that should be applied to the greenhouse soil, it is necessary to conduct its agrochemical analysis. Such an analysis will show exactly what substances are missing in the soil.
Fertilization in the soil increases the growth rate of the plant, also affects the number of fruits and the rate of their ripening. Among all fertilizers, potash, phosphate and nitrogen fertilizers are the most common.
Phosphorus-based fertilizers begin to be applied in the early stages of tomato growth. These include phosphates and superphosphates. Superphosphates include both phosphorus and magnesium, calcium, nitrogen, and sulfur.
Potassium fertilizers are also very beneficial for tomatoes. They are used in the period of ripening. The most common and safest potash fertilizer is common ash. It contains fertilizer in the form of potassium carbonate. Such potassium is perfectly soluble in water, penetrates the soil perfectly and is quickly absorbed by the roots of the plant. The richest in potassium is ash from pine or birch (40%), as well as ash from burning straw (30%).
Nitrogen fertilizers are applied in moderation to increase the growth rate of the plant. Nitrogen-based fertilizer is not recommended during fruit set. With excessive application during the fruiting period, the shape of the fruit changes, spots and cracks appear. This fertilizer also affects the deterioration of its taste.
There are several types of dressings for tomatoes:
- Organic supplements are manure (dry or slurry) and chicken manure. Manure is diluted with water about 1:10, and chicken manure - 200 g per 10 liters of water. Allow to brew and wander for at least 24 hours and water. On one plant 2 l of fertilizer. This dressing is usually used during the flowering and fruit set.
- Mineral supplements are necessary for tomatoes no less than organic. The most common are mineral fertilizer complexes, such as ammophos or diammophos. Mineral fertilizers are applied in dry or liquid form, as well as sprayed between rows. Such top dressings can be entered after the second fruit brush is fastened.
Important! Do not apply a lot of fertilizer - not always the quantity improves the quality.
Topping and gartering tomatoes
Garter - a very important point in the cultivation of tomatoes. In order for plants not to break under their own weight, they need to be tied up in time. There are 2 main ways to garter tomatoes:
- Garter on a peg. This is the most common way to garter. A small peg is driven in beside each of the bushes on the north side, and a plant stem is tied to it with a string. The rope should not contain synthetic fabrics, should be decontaminated at least by boiling.
- Garter on the stretch. Also very effective way of tying. At the beginning and at the end of the beds they drop in a bar, the width of each is not less than 5 cm. Between the bars they stretch the wire. A string is tied to it over each bush at one end, and the stem of the bush is tied to the other.
In order for the tomato to release 7 fruit brushes you need to remove the young shoots from below under the main branches. They are called stepchildren, and their removal is stepsoning. The shoots are very easy to remove, just pull them down and they will immediately break and fall off. It is with the help of pinching that can make tomato bushes tall or short.
Some tips for properly removing stepsons:
- remove shoots only from a strong plant,
- hold the formation of bushes with your hands, so you do not damage the plant,
- go pasynkovku morning,
- shoot stepchildren all season.
Important! Do not let the stepson grow more than 5 cm, the larger the shoot, the more nutrients it absorbs.
Parting is done no more than 1 time in 10 days. With the correct pinching, the harvest can increase by 3 kg from a bush.
Proper cultivation of tomatoes in the greenhouse: photo
- Tomatoes in the country greenhouse: planting, planting and care
- Care of tomatoes in the polycarbonate villa greenhouse
- Growing tomatoes in a polycarbonate villa greenhouse
- Mulching tomatoes in the country greenhouse
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