Philodendron is one of the most popular plants in home floriculture, belongs to the Aroid family. This evergreen, perennial plant. Since not all species are described, their numbers range from 250 to 900.
The name comes from two Greek words - phileo, which means to love, and dendron - a tree. The name very accurately conveys the main feature of the plant, namely, the ability to attach itself to the nearby trees through roots, which become a natural support for the philodendron. In fact, a philodendron is a vine with a semi-grass or woody stem. There are species that have a fairly powerful, resistant stem that allows the plant to rise to the desired height without support.
With the help of aerial roots, philodendron is attached to trees
The leaves, depending on the species, have different lengths - from 11 centimeters to 2 meters and a width up to 90 centimeters. The location is next. The shape can be ovoid, arrow-shaped, heart-shaped, oval and other forms. Philodendron has an interesting property - the same plant does not have a particular leaf shape. Young leaves at first look like a heart, but change in size and shape as they grow. The color is mostly dark green, and the upper side of the sheet plate is painted more intensely than the bottom. Less common species with purple leaves. Mostly purple leaves have young leaves, which, as they grow, lose this color.
Another interesting feature of the plant is the presence of two types of leaves:
- Scaly - it protects the vegetative kidney. Such leaves are called cataphills. They are permanent and deciduous.
- Regular leaf located on a long petiole.
The roots of philodendron are of two types: air and underground. Thanks to aerial roots philodendronis attached to the support and receives food and water. Air roots have small differences, it all depends on their purpose. Those who hold the philodendron on the tree are short, numerous and covered with villi. Feeding roots longer and thicker, able to make their way under the soil. Very often, these roots replace the underground root system, which was damaged and died.
The inflorescence is a cob wrapped in a blanket, painted in shades of pink, purple, pale green and red. Flowers bisexual. Under greenhouse conditions, they bloom more readily than with home-grown ones.
Inflorescences of philodendron varied in color
The fruits of philodendron ripen at different times, depending on the species, and represent a berry, inside of which there are small seeds.
The juice of the plant is poisonous, so you should wear gloves when working with it.
Philodendron grows in tropical rain forests
Under natural conditions, the length of a philodendron can reach more than 200 meters.
Philodendron has a beneficial effect on the premises in which it is located, emitting phytoncides that fight microbes. NASA has made a philodendron on the list of air purifying plants.
Planting and care for philodendron (in brief)
- Bloom: most species are leafy ornamental plants.
- Lighting: light penumbra for species with green leaves and bright diffused light for variegated.
- Temperature: in summer - no higher than 25 ˚C, in winter - not lower than 15 ˚C.
- Watering: between the watering the top layer of the substrate should dry.
- Air humidity: increased, frequent leaf spraying recommended.
- Top dressing: From mid-March to January, 2 times a month with a weak solution of a balanced mineral fertilizer.
- Rest period: not clearly pronounced, but approximately from January to mid-March.
- Transfer: in spring, young plants - annually, adults - once every 3-5 years.
- Breeding: stem, apical and leaf cuttings with a heel, some species - horizontal layers.
- Pests: scale insects, thrips, aphids, spider mites, nematodes, mealybugs.
- Diseases: root rot.
- Properties: Philodendron juice can be poisonous.
Flower Philodendron Description
Philodendrons have an amazing variety of life forms: among them there are semi-epiphytes, epiphytes and even hemiepiphytes, but in the advantage of their philodendrons - climbing plants, epiphytes that use aerial roots to fix on the pole. No wonder that the translation "philodendron" means "I love the tree." If the seed of the philodendron sprouted from the soil and there was no tree near which you can climb up, the plant will crawl with a long lash on the ground, focusing on the shadow cast by the nearest tree, fence or something else that the philodendron can use as a support. The roots of the philodendron are underground and aerial. Air is divided into numerous short and hairy, which serve to fix the plants on the support, and thicker and longer, used for the extraction of nutrients and moisture.
The stalks of the philodendron are fleshy, woody at the base, the leaves are alternate, petioled, large - sometimes up to two meters in nature. The leaf plate can be depending on the type and variety of oval, pinnately dissected, arrow-shaped, etc. On the same plant, young and old leaves may differ not only in size but also in shape. The color of the leaves is also diverse, but the color of the upper side of the sheet is always darker than the bottom. Philodendron inflorescence - an ear with a two-color waxy spathe like a hood, a fruit - a berry.
Some philodendrons grow to large sizes, and they need a lot of living space, so they are grown in greenhouses to decorate the lobbies, large halls and conservatories. But we are interested in the room philodendron, which does not take much space and time from you, but at the same time will refresh and decorate an ordinary city apartment.
How to care for philodendron?
It is best to place a home philodendron in light penumbra, where direct sunlight does not fall, and do not forget that variegated forms of plants need more light than monochromatic ones. Take care that the philodendron is protected from drafts. The temperature in summer should be no higher than 25 ºC, on hot, sultry days, spray the plant or wash its leaves with separated water to prevent overheating. In winter, the air temperature should not fall below 15 ºC.
Air humidity should be, if not like in a tropical forest, it is still very high, the lack of moisture will immediately affect the appearance of the leaves: they will become smaller and simpler in shape. Therefore, get ready for frequent spraying - this is what distinguishes the care of a philodendron. Watering philodendron should be organized in such a way that the substrate does not remain dry for a long time, otherwise the drought will immediately affect the decorative qualities of the plant - first the leaves dry up at the leaves, then the whole leaves in the lower part of the plant dry out and fall off. An excess of moisture leads to the fact that philodendron leaves turn yellow. Yellows philodendron, however, in some other cases, for example, when over-feeding with fertilizers. Water for irrigation should be used either boiled or separated.
In tropical forests, philodendrons feed on animal excreta, rotted foliage of trees, insects, rainwater, and dust dissolved in it. Indoor species of philodendrons respond well to fertilizers with an equal percentage of nitrogen, potassium, and phosphorus, but the concentration of the solution should be weaker than that indicated by the manufacturers by 20%, and, the more often the top dressing, the weaker the concentration should be. The rest period at the philodendron is mild, but falls on winter time, so after the new year the dressing is temporarily stopped and the watering is reduced until mid-March.
Transplant home philodendron.
Philodendron transplanted in the spring, as needed: young plants - annually, adults - once in 3-4 years. Necessity can be considered too cramped pot or renewal of old soil. Substrate for this tropical plant it must be weakly acidic, light, porous, breathable and at the same time nutritious. The basis for it can serve as a soil for orchids, consisting of charcoal, peat moss, peat and bark. To this mixture you need to add perlite or sand, high peat and leaf (grass) humus. Such a composition will provide air access to the roots and, having quickly passed water through it, will remain moist for a long time. You will not need any special instructions on how to replant the philodendron: it is best to use the transfer method, and then add a new pot to the new pot.
Philodendron propagates vegetatively, with apical or stem cuttings, as well as a leaf with a heel. The cut should be sprinkled with sulfur or coal to avoid rotting in a wet environment. Breeding is needed in spring or summer, and plant sections that have already formed aerial roots are best suited for planting. For rooting, a mixture of garden soil with vermiculite and sand is used. It is advisable to place the rooted part of the plant under a plastic bag to create greenhouse conditions, from time to time polyethylene will have to be removed to ventilate the plant and eliminate condensate. Then, when the stalk or leaf takes root, it is transplanted into a more nutritious soil.
Philodendron golden black Andre (Philodendron melanochrysum andreanum)
- highly decorative appearance due to its heterophilia (heterogeneity): young leaves are small (5-7 cm long) - heart-shaped, copper-red, and adults reach from 40 to 80 cm in length (in nature, of course), in shape - more oblong, color - bronze-green with whitish veins and narrow light border around the edge. At home, demanding in terms of humidity.
Philodendron warty (Philodendron verrucosum)
very popular with gardeners, because it is incredibly beautiful: heart-shaped velvet leaves 15-20 cm long and 10 cm wide grow on petioles densely dotted with warty bristles. The problem of the species is that it does not tolerate dry air.
Philodendron biconicular (Philodendron bipinnatifidum)
and Philodendron Selloum. Despite the external similarity, which is misleading many, these are two different types. They are large creepers with a ligneous powerful trunk. The bicurrent philodendron is a rarity, and Sello philodendron is widely distributed in culture.
Philodendron Blushing (Philodendron erubescens)
- the most famous among flower growers species, which served as the basis for breeders who successfully brought with him the participation of many varieties. The trunk of the liana is red-green in color, with age, when lignified, turns gray-golden. The leaf stalks are at the base of a dark red color, the leaves are 25-30 cm long, 15-20 cm wide. The cover covering the fragrant ear of white color is 15 cm long, dark purple. The plant is completely unpretentious, tolerates rare watering, and poor lighting, and insufficient air humidity.
In addition to the above, such types of philodendrons as the philodendron arrowhead, the philodendron scale, the philodendron caplenoid, the philodendron elegant, ivy philodendron, the lobed phylodendron, and many others are cultivated in culture.
Philodendron: home care, species description
Philodendron is a perennial evergreen vine that belongs to the aroid family. In the wild, this plant can be found in the tropical forests of Latin America, Mexico and Australia. The name of the vine is translated as "loving the trees" . This name of the plant was due to the fact that it has flexible stems, with the help of which in tropical forests the philodendron is attached to the trunks of tall trees, making its way to bright light.
Various types of philodendron are grown in special greenhouses or botanical gardens. Some species are also adapted to growing at home. Rules for the care of such species are simpler. Even beginning flower growers can cope with such types.
Let's take a closer look at the main types of flower philodendron, as well as how to care for this indoor flower at home.
Genus of tropical creeper philodendron is quite diverse. They can be very different from each other in relation to their species. Among such diversity, epiphytic, semi-epiphypitic and terrestrial types of philodendron can be found. Also variety of species includes climbing vines and dwarf shrubs.
Plant root system is superficial and strongly branched. In addition to the roots, aerial roots are formed at the very bases of the stems in each interstice. These aerial roots act as an attachment to the supports, and they are also necessary for feeding. On the roots there are very thin hairs, with the help of which the roots can be developed and fastened on the trunks of trees.
The plant has a rather long stem.but very thin. The length of the stem can vary from a few centimeters to 3 m, depending on the species. The lower part of the Philodendron shoot escapes over time and becomes covered with a hard brown bark. The wood on the stem becomes so dense that the plant is no longer needed.
The foliage is especially decorative. Leaves are formed alternately on long petioles. The length of one leaf can reach 2 meters. Oval-shaped sheet plates, swept, dissected or palmate. It is also worth noting that throughout the entire life cycle, the shape of the leaf plate of the same liana can change several times. In addition to the usual petioled foliage, philodendron also grows so-called cotophilia. These are scaly leaves that serve the function of protecting the vegetative buds. When the leaves of the plant fall off, some notches remain on the trunk at the place of attachment of the petioles.
During flowering on one philodendron can form from 1 to 11 inflorescences having the shape of a cob. They are located singly or in a group. The ear is located on a short and dense pedicel. The color of the cob can be light green, cream or pink. An ear grows in length up to 25 cm. In the upper part of the ear there are reproductive male flowers. After a small gap of sterile flowers, there are female flowers at the very base. Near the inflorescence is a reddish or cream shade.
Pollination of philodendron occurs with the help of special bread bugs or crustaceans. It should be noted that the flowering of male flowers does not coincide with the activity of female flowers, so pollinating will require several inflorescences, which bloom at different times. The ear of the philodendron initially grows straight and is slightly hidden by the veil. After a while, the cob bends down, and its cover spreads to the side. After a successful pollination process, it returns to its usual upright position and is completely covered with a veil. After flowering in place of flowers appear juicy berries round shape.
Fruit ripening can last up to one year.. Throughout this time, the cob hides tightly under the veil. When the fruits are ripened, they become white, greenish or yellow. In each fruit there are small and dense seeds.
The main types grown at home
In its family, philodendron has more than 400 species of plants. Let's look at the most popular of these species..
- Philodendron warty. This decorative variety is very popular. It is distinguished by its creeping soft shoots. The leaves of the warty philodendron are velvety, petiolate, 20 cm long, and their width reaches 10 cm. The leaf plate is heart-shaped. Tough bristles visible on the sheet. Sheet plate is painted in dark green color, along the veins there is a bronze pattern. The inflorescences are hidden under a yellow veil, the length of which is 7 cm.
- Philodendron blushing. Thin and brittle shoots of this species grow to 180 cm in length. Over time, the shoots of the reddening philodendron stiffen and turn into a strong vertical trunk. The leaves are elongated, have pointed edges. The length of one sheet reaches 30 cm, and the width is 25 cm. The surface of the sheet plate is shiny, bright green. On the back of the sheet there is a reddish tint.
- Philodendron climbing. This species is a flexible creeper with thin stems. Climbing Philodendron is often grown as an ampelous plant. In this species, large heart-shaped leaves, the length of which reaches 15 cm and width of 10 cm.
- Philodendron atom. This species is the most capricious plant with erect and short stem. On the stems are located decorative five-fingered leaves with wavy edges. The leaf plates are bright green, shiny, length reaches 30 cm.
- Philodendron ivy-shaped. This creeping plant species shoots reach a length of 6 m. The shoots are covered with alternate leaves in the shape of a heart. Листовые пластины имеют кожистую или блестящую поверхность. Длина одного листа достигает 30 см. Листья окрашены в темно-зелёный оттенок. Во время цветения красные початки окутываются зелёным покрывалом.After flowering fruits of a light green shade, round shape.
- Philodendron Cello. The stalks of the cello species reach a height of 3 m. With time, they lumber. On the stems are located triangular or elongated heart-shaped leaves on long petioles. The leaves are deeply dissected and acquire a double-penis shape. The length of one leaf plate reaches 90 cm. The leaf color can be green or gray-green.
- Philodendron guitar-like. This species is a moisture-loving vine, whose length reaches 2 m. The flexible stem needs reliable support. On the stems is a brilliant foliage of dark green color. At an early age, it resembles an elongated heart, which gradually narrows in the middle and takes the form of a guitar.
- Philodendron lobular. This type of creeper is distinguished by a thicker and flexible stem. On it are petioles of emerald green and ovoid shape. With age, the foliage becomes dissected first into 3, and then into 5 shares. The length of one sheet plate reaches 40 centimeters.
- Philodendron Evans. This species is famous for its beautiful leaves, the length of which reaches 80 cm, and its width is 50 cm. Leaf plates are smooth and shiny, triangular or heart-shaped. The edges of the sheet plate are wavy. Young foliage is distinguished by its brownish-green shade with bright green veins. Over time, the leaves become dark green.
- Philodendron radiant. This fast-growing liana is famous for its unpretentious nature. Its length is from one and a half to 3 m. On the stems are hard leaves, the length of which reaches 20 cm.
- Philodendron graceful. This species is quite a powerful and large plant with a single flexible shoot. On it are wide oval leaves, the length of which reaches 70 cm. Leaf plates are deeply dissected and turn green. The ear of the plant is wrapped in a creamy-green blanket with a pinkish border.
- Philodendron Xanadu. This species is a lignified liana, on which large elongated leaves of bright green color are located. The length of one sheet reaches 40 centimeters. Young leaves are soft, with time they become pinnate.
- Philodendron skandens. This species has curly, flexible shoots that are able to develop well both in the shade and in partial shade. On the stems are green leaves heart-shaped with a glossy shine. The length of one leaf plate reaches only 16 cm.
If we talk about care at home, then philodendron needs little attention. This plant is quite unpretentious, and will even be able to survive the brief leave of the owners. If you still decide to plant this vine in your home, then you need to familiarize yourself not only with the rules of care, but also to allocate a place for this plant. A few years later, the philodendron will take up a lot of space in your apartment or house.
- Tropical liana prefers to grow in partial shade, but also tends to the sun.
- It is recommended to have a philodendron closer to the east or west window.
- The plant prefers bright diffused light.
- Liana must be protected from direct sunlight.
- In the dark room the leaves will lose their bright color.
- Philodendron is recommended to keep in a room with a temperature of 17 to 24 degrees.
- Plants do not tolerate sudden changes in temperature, as well as drafts.
- In winter, a slight but smooth cooling is allowed, not lower than 13 degrees.
- During the period of summer heat, it is recommended to ventilate the room, and spray the crown of philodendron regularly.
- Philodendron feels more comfortable with high humidity in the room.
- Tropical vine needs to be sprayed on a daily basis with a spray bottle.
- It is also recommended to moisten the support and place trays with water and wet expanded clay around the pot.
- It is worth noting that some varieties of philodendron are so sensitive to dry air that they can only grow in greenhouses.
- All types of tropical vines need regular bathing, as the dust deposited on their leaves makes it difficult to breath.
- Philodendron needs frequent and abundant watering.
- For watering it is necessary to use well-treated and warm water.
- After the irrigation process, all excess liquid must be immediately removed from the pan.
- The soil in the pot should not be swamped, but it should always be a little wet.
- If the room has low air temperature, then watering should be reduced.
Fertilizer and dressing
Between May and September, the philodendron needs feedingwhich is carried out 2-4 times a month by a strongly diluted organic composition. For this, it is customary to use about 50% of the usual dose. During the rest of the year, the tropical liana needs to be fed 2 times a month with mineral fertilizers. As for young plants in fertile soil, their feeding is carried out much less frequently. It is also worth noting that variegated types of philodendron are strictly forbidden to be fertilized with compounds with high nitrogen content.
Diseases and pests
If you follow all the rules of care for philodendron, the tropical vine will not suffer from various diseases. In this case, it is worth paying attention to the fact that during the flooding of the soil with a large amount of water, root rot can appear. Sometimes on the leaves and shoots, you can see the shield, spider mites or thrips. In order to get rid of these pests, it is necessary to spray insecticides.
An extensive genus comprising more than 400 species. It includes subshrubber, epiphytic and terrestrial forms, lianas. The root system is branched, mostly surface. Characterized by the formation of air roots, extracting moisture from the air and nutrients. They also attach the plant to the support. Air roots are very thin - easily penetrate into the bark, growing to the trunk.
Stems thin, long - up to 2-3 meters. The bottom of the shoot lightens over time. Leaves are alternate. The shape of the leaves depends on the variety. A characteristic feature is the change in leaf shape with age. Additionally, cataphylls grow on the stems - small leaflets in the form of scales. Their function is to protect the vegetative buds.
As a houseplant, philodendron is grown for foliage. Flowering modest, does not attract attention. Inflorescences - cobs, arranged singly or in small groups. Pedicels are short. At the base of the ear are female flowers, at the top - for men. Covered with a cream or reddish veil.
Self pollination in the apartment does not occur. For artificial pollination, several inflorescences are needed at different stages of flowering - the activity of female flowers does not coincide with the male ones. After pollination, the cob is completely hidden under the veil and remains in this form until the fruit ripens - round berries of white, greenish or yellow color.
Not all types of philodendrons are suitable for growing in an apartment. But there are many varieties suitable for indoor conditions. Each variety has already managed to “acquire” hybrid cultural varieties. Most often in apartments found:
- Philodendron warty. Differs soft creeping shoots. The leaves are velvety, rather large, heart-shaped. There are stiff bristles on the surface. Coloring is dark green with a brown or bronze pattern along the veins.
- Philodendron ivy-shaped. Creeping species. The shoots are very long - in natural conditions they reach 6 or more meters. The next leaves are heart-shaped, the surface is glossy or leathery. Coloring - green, monophonic. Cobs are reddish.
- Philodendron blushing. The shoots are very fragile, thin. Growth limit - up to 180 cm. With longevity. The leaves are oblong, elongated, pointed at the tip. The upper side is bright green, the bottom side is reddish.
- Philodendron guitar-like. Scourge reach two meters. Stems are flexible, grow well only with support. Differs interesting leaf shape. At a young age, heart-shaped leaves. Gradually drawn out, take the form of a guitar.
- Philodendron Sello. Scourge up to three meters. With age ligneous. Leaves are elongated heart-shaped or triangular in shape, deeply dissected, double-pinnate. The species has large leaves. Color neutral - green or gray-green.
- Philodendron climbing. Used mainly as ampelous culture. Stems thin, long. Leaves are heart-shaped, large.
Peculiarities of care
Simple to grow a plant. For full growth follow the following rules of care and maintenance.
- Lighting. Some species differ shade tolerance. On a bright diffused light grows more actively. The action of the direct sun is undesirable. In the rooms on the east side they are placed near the window, on the south side they are pushed deep into the room. Variegated varieties are more demanding of lighting.
- Temperature. The optimum range for all varieties is 22-30 ° C. Many do not tolerate cold snaps below 18 ° C. Soil temperature should be the same as air temperature. On the cold window sills do not hold. In winter, fenced off from cold glass insulating material.
- Watering. Moisture-loving plant. In summer, watering is abundant, as the top layer of soil dries out. It is impossible to bring to the complete drying of the substrate. In winter, watering is limited - once a week is enough.
- Humidity. Humidity requirements are high. It is recommended to regularly spray the plants and the air around them, set the pots in trays with wet clay. The use of special humidifiers is encouraged. High humidity is combined with regular airing.
- The soil. Use light, well-drained soil mixture. A mixture of garden land with peat, pine bark and perlite will suit. Use of ready soil mixture for senpoly is allowed. Useful supplements - charcoal and sphagnum.
- Transfer. Annual for young plants in the phase of active growth. Adults - less often, as the root system grows. Root germination through drainage holes is a signal for transplanting. Additionally, transplantation is carried out at salinization and acidification of the soil.
- Feeding. Fertilizers are applied weekly in low concentration - 2-3 times lower than the dosage indicated in the instructions. Gratefully responds to the introduction of organic. In winter, fertilizing is not stopped, but their frequency is reduced to 1 time per month. For variegated forms do not use drugs with a high nitrogen content. Overfeeding young plants is not recommended.
- Hygiene. The large leaves of philodendron quickly become covered with dust. They are regularly rubbed. Act carefully - despite the large size, the leaves are very fragile! Young, not overgrown specimens useful periodically to bathe in the shower.
The vegetative propagation of philodendron is mainly used. The optimal time is spring and summer. You can use stem and apical cuttings, leaves with heels. Preference is given to stalks with air roots. After cutting, sections on the plant and cuttings are immediately sprinkled with coal powder or ash.
For rooting use light soils. A good composition is a mixture of garden soil with sand and vermiculite. Before planting cuttings moisten the soil. For quick rooting use shelter - plastic wrap or cut plastic container. The shelter is periodically removed, the condensate is removed. After rooting, transplanted to a more nutritious soil.
Types and varieties of "Philodendron" with photos
The most complex and capricious subspecies. Compact. Refers to the subspecies of vines. It has luxurious curled leaves of emerald hue. On the leaves is 5 blades. At home, unpretentious. It grows very slowly. Latin name: Philodendron atom.
On the photo room flower "Philodendron Atom":
Actively grows in the USA. The first mention comes in 1845. Latin name: Philodendron squamiferum. Is an epiphyte. Refers to the subspecies of vines. On the ground is not found. It grows only in height, clinging to closely growing trees.
In room conditions, prefers to grow in a porous substrate. Juvenile leaflets elongated. Young plants are simple. As they grow, they become more complex in form. The number and depth of the shares increases. In adult specimens, the leaf plate has 5 asymmetrical blades. In length, the leaves reach 40-46 cm.
Stems burgundy shadecovered with small fibers. Creeping blanket of white-reddish hue. The inner side is completely white.
On the photo the indoor flower "Philodendron Scale-bearing":
The most popular subspecies. It has extraordinary beauty. Latin name: Philodendron verrucosum. Refers to evergreen vines. It has brittle stems. The leaves of the plant are velvet, in the form of hearts. In length reach more than 18 cm, in width - 8 cm.
Located on short stalks. In the wild, the length can reach 50 cm in width - 25-30 cm. The stems are covered with fibers. Cover amber shade. From the seamy side has a burgundy color. Great for decorating greenhouses. When dry air dies.
On the photo room flower "Philodendron Wart":
Sometimes this plant is called "Skeleton" or "Narrow-cut". Latin name: Philodendron elegans. The first mention is in 1913. Actively grows in the tropics of Brazil and Colombia. The forming leaves have the form of a master key. Planted deep, look like rugged stripes.
In length, the leaves reach no more than 45-55 cm. Stamb with a large number of internodes, lianovidny. In length reaches 10-20 cm. Adult leaves are juvenile, asymmetrical. From each other may differ in shape, size and depth of irregularity.
2 inflorescences form in the leaf axil. Looks like an emerald veil. On the reverse side has a raspberry shade. In room conditions does not bloom. Prefers a porous substrate.
On the photo room flower "Philodendron Graceful":
Hybrid Kaplenosnogo subspecies. Refers to variegated varieties. Very picky about lighting and high humidity. Latin name: P. guttiferum Cobra.
On the photo room flower "Philodendron Cobra":
Active in Brazil, on the coasts of Colombia and Costa Rica. Latin name: Philodendron erubescens. The first mention falls on the year 1854. The name comes from the appearance of the flower.
Leaflets, branches and shtambe have a maroon and blood shade. The subspecies refers to the lianas. In the wild it grows up by 10-16 meters. Leaflets elongated, with a pointed end. In length reach 30-40 cm. The surface of the leaves is shiny, emerald. The bottom sheet plate has a reddish tint.
Unlike other subspecies, Blushing prefers shading.
On the photo the indoor flower "Philodendron Blushing":
It refers to the woody terrestrial subspecies.Latin name: Philodendron xanadu. It used to be that Australia was the birthplace of the plant. But it was recently confirmed that Brazil was the true homeland.
It grows well in the tropics with humid air. Leaf plate of the plant dissected. It can reach 1.0-1.5 meters. Abundant flowering. Flowers maroon-purple shade. In room conditions almost does not bloom. On the territory of the Russian Federation is sold with small elongated leaves.
The largest leaves reach 25-35 cm. The shape of the leaves oval, lobed. In room conditions, the plant is not whimsical. May grow in partial shade with arid air.
Tolerates a little dry ground. Full-fledged decorative leaves form only in bright natural light. Requires abundant regular watering.
On the photo room flower "Philodendron Xanadu":
Latin name: Philodendron scandens. Refers to climbing liana. Climbs upward due to accessory branches and root system. The leaves of the plant are in the form of hearts, shrunken, with a solid edge.
Have an emerald or brown shade. In adult flowers in length can reach 11-15 cm. This representative flora can grow in partial shade. ABOUTrushing to fast-growing. Suitable for ampel cultivation.
On the photo room flower "Philodendron Lazyaschy":
Sometimes the plant is called "Brazil." Latin name: Philodendron scandens f. mediopicta "Brazil". It is a hybrid Ivy subspecies. It has raznoperye leaves. The strips can be emerald or amber. As they grow older, it loses the decorativeness of the leaves. Adult specimens have only emerald green leaves.
On the photo room flower "Philodendron Mediapikta":
It is a hybrid of the blushing subspecies. Refers to fast-growing varieties. Leaves amber shade. Chereshki and shtamb - burgundy. It grows well in bright natural light.
On the photo room flower "Philodendron Medusa":
It is an evergreen woody vine. Latin name: Philodendron selloum. The length reaches 1.0-1.5 meters. It has a sleek, glossy barrel. A distinctive feature is that the trunk has traces of fallen leaves. In length, the leaves reach 50-100 cm. Have more than 10 blades. Cut very deep. Edges with small curls.
On the photo room flower "Philodendron Sello":
Latin name: Ph. scandens f. Micans. It has shiny leaves in the shape of a heart. В длину листики достигают 9-16 см. По оттенку они изумрудные. У молодых цветов имеют бордовый оттенок.
На фото комнатный цветок «Филодендрон Сканденс»:
Формирование кроны и опоры
To form a crown, it is necessary to cut off dried branches and leaves.
Many subspecies of this representative flora grow as evergreen vines. Therefore, such a plant must be securely supported.
You can use stakes, moss table, arcs, grilles, damp vertical wall.
Only when growing in an upright position, active growth and full development occurs. Undeveloped leaves will be replaced by adults, and the plant will look like decorative.
In the tropics, the rainfall season is replaced by drought. But in such climatic conditions the air always remains strongly humidified. Therefore, thanks to the air roots, this representative of the flora perfectly absorbs the necessary moisture.
The flower can adapt to slight drying out of the soil. But the content in such conditions will affect the size of the sheet plates. Watering should be abundant and very frequent. Re-wetting should not be allowed. This will lead to rotting of the root system.
Planting and transplanting
In the wild, this representative of the flora, depending on the subspecies, may be semi-epiphypitic or epiphytic.
The root system in such plants abundantly absorbs air. Therefore, the flower can not grow in weighted earth. Under room conditions, the soil must pass oxygen and moisture. The main requirement for the ground - air permeability.
In stores it is impossible to buy a full-fledged porous earth, suitable for "Philodendrons". Therefore, the substrate must be prepared by yourself. For this we need black soil for orchids. It is made from tree bark, peat, charcoal and sphagnum. Such a substrate will occupy half the capacity.
The upper part should be occupied by soil based on peat and grass humus. Also, perlite, coarse-grained sea sand and leafy earth are added to the ground. Such a composition of the substrate provides excellent air access to the root system of the plant. The soil will easily pass through the water. The roots will remain wet for a long time.
Exists very many kinds this creeper. And each species is distinguished by its indescribable beauty. Today we will get acquainted with the best of them and find out how to care for them.
Philodendron in nature grows in the tropical belt of South America. Today, scientists have managed to count over 300 species of this plant.
For flower lovers, philodendron is hardly suitable because blooms only in the wild. At home, he does not give color. However, lovers of indoor plants appreciate its not flowers, but for the shape and color of the leaves, which can be very diverse. In addition, the philodendron has the ability to absorb harmful chemicals from the air, so it can be safely called a useful indoor plant.
In the natural environment, the philodendron grows in the form of a liana. Naturally, such a plant cannot be planted in a room. Hybrids are suitable for home cultivation. They are smaller, but also tend to curl and crawl.
Different varieties of philodendron differ in leaf shape, stem height and color.
With age, the leaves of this plant can significantly change color. Therefore, different varieties can be distinguished only by the shape of the leaves.
In the care of philodendron is very simple. The only thing is that he needs to organize conditions under which he will not be in the dark, but at the same time the sun’s rays will not directly fall on him. If the plant is in a dark corner, it will start growing up, and its leaves will lose color and shape. When exposed to direct sunlight, yellow spots may occur.testifying to the burn.
In the spring, this plant needs to be fed, otherwise its growth will stop. It also follows from time to time to loosen the soil in which it grows.
Before you buy a philodendron, you need to carefully familiarize yourself with the variety and find out the size to which it can grow. The fact is that some types of philodendron cannot be kept indoors. They are intended for cultivation in winter gardens, as they quickly grow upwards and tend to capture all the available space.
The Latin name of this plant is philodendron Xanadu. This woody plant comes from the humid subtropics of Brazil. Unlike most other types of indoor philoderdron, Xanadu is not a hybrid. This is an independent plant, distinguished by excellent health and the desire to climb on any vertical surfaces.
Under natural conditions, the plant grows on the ground and winds up the trunks of neighboring trees. In nature, its leaves can reach in size and a half meters. The leaf form of Xanadu creeper is heavily excised. The foliage color is green with a white halo around the edges. The natural environment this plant gives lots of reddish-purple flowers.
Philodendron Xanadu is great for breeding at home. It can be placed in the darkest corner of the room, since this view perfectly endures the lack of light. Its advantages are as follows:
- The plant feels good in a room with insufficient air humidity.
- Can be quite a long time without water.
- Easily tolerates slight drying out of the soil.
However, if the florist wants to get a beautiful and healthy indoor plant, he will not bring philodendron Xanadu to the situations described above.
The Latin name is Philodendron scandens. It is a creeping vine, the roots of which are in the air. They help the plant to climb any sheer surface. Thanks to the roots, the philodendron climbing clings to the slightest projections.
Most often this plant is found in the forests of Central America and the Caribbean.
The stem of this creeper is thin, but juicy. Over time, it hardens and becomes like wood.
The leaves have long petioles and solid edges. The form is mainly heart-shaped with a pronounced sharp tip. The surface of the leaves is glossy, slightly similar to the skin. To the touch it is quite velvety.
The original appearance of this creeper has dark green leaves, but at home hybrids with green leaves are grown in yellow stripes. Moreover, the green color may be present in a variety of shades on the leaves of philodendron.
Care at home for Philodendron scandens requires the following conditions:
- The air temperature in the room should not fall below 22 and rise above 26 ° C.
- You need to water the plant so often that the soil in the pot does not dry out at all.
- Humidity should be close to the tropical level.
Some growers can not afford to maintain high humidity in the room. But this problem is solved. You only need to spray the plant leaves with water twice a day.
Name and its origin
The name Liana Philodendron erubescens (lat.) Received due to the red color of leaves, stems and petioles. When the plant grows and grows, the foliage acquires green shades, and the petioles are still red.
According to the classification, philodendron belongs to the perennial evergreen vines of the Aroid family, which naturally grow in the tropical forests of Brazil, Colombia and Costa Rica, as well as Australia. This family has about 900 species (data from researchers at the Missouri Botanical Garden).
For the first time such a species was described in 1854. The literal translation of the name means "loving trees", which characterizes the habit of this plant to cling with its flexible wriggling stem to the trunks of trees in order to make its way up to the sunlight.
Philodendron blushing: home care
The plant belongs to the undemanding species that can grow growers of home flowers, without any special effort. In order to create comfortable conditions for the philodendron, it is necessary to follow the basic rules for the care of tropical species:
- air temperature in the room is +23 ... + 28 ° С (in spring and summer), in winter months - not less than +15 ° С,
- increased air humidity, which provides for regular spraying of leaves from a spray bottle and wiping them with a moistened cloth, as well as installing a special pallet with wet stones,
- placing a plant pot near heaters or heating systems is not recommended, also the philodendron strongly dislikes drafts,
- watering is moderate, i.e. the soil should always be slightly damp and dry to 1/3 of the pot height, reduce the frequency of watering during the winter months,
- the philodendron does not like stagnant water after abundant watering, because of which the oxygen supply to the roots is blocked, the leaves begin to turn yellow, the roots rot, so you should not allow overflow or drying of the soil,
- the lighting should be good, but the plant should be protected from direct sunlight (a wide window sill with windows facing east or west is ideal).
Selection of soil for planting
When choosing a soil for the flower of a reddening philodendron, you must adhere to the following rules:
- the soil should be porous, heavy earth mixed with clay will prevent the breathing of the root system,
- You can prepare the soil yourself: add peat, sand and leaf humus to the mixture for orchids (it consists of: peat, wood bark and coal, sphagnum moss) - such components perfectly hold moisture and allow the roots to breathe,
- There is a ready-made primer for philodendrons, which contains all the necessary components.
When planted in a pot, its optimum size is selected, which corresponds to the age of the plant: for the young - smaller, then as it grows it should be increased.
In order for the philodendron to turn red when you are at home, it develops well, you need to feed it in a timely manner. Most of all, young plants that have a period of active growth need it. As a fertilizer in nature there is rotten foliage of trees, rotting roots and other organic components.
In an apartment setting, organic, mineral and complex fertilizers are recommended for top dressing. It is especially important to fertilize the philodendron reddish or reddening in the period from March to September: in such months it is better to do top-dressing every 2 weeks. In the cold winter months, the flower is fertilized 1 time in 4 weeks, and in a cool room, you can do without it.
Fertilizing should be carried out after the soil is moistened, otherwise the plant will suffer from a sharp increase in the concentration of salts in the soil.
In the absence of dressings, the philodendron lacks the necessary nutrients, which is reflected in its appearance: the leaf plates become smaller and turn yellow, their tips begin to grow brown. Gradually, the leaves begin to look sluggish and lifeless.
Transplantation of young and adult plants
Transplanted philodendron blushing in the following cases:
- under normal development and good growth, a flower transplant is made once every 1-2 years in a pot that is larger than the previous one,
- adult plants should be replanted 1 time in 4 years, however, it is recommended to do the renewal of the upper layer of the earth often,
- when an emergency transplant is required (for illness, etc.).
You should know that in stores such flowers are sold in pots completely unsuitable for their further cultivation. Therefore, the store philodendron should be immediately planted in a large container with good soil. The pot should be wide and of the required height, drainage holes must be drilled at the bottom. Before planting, pebbles or expanded clay are put on the bottom of the tank.
With all the rules of maintenance and care, the philodendron blushing can live at home for 20-30 years.
Varieties and varieties
In specialized stores you can buy a reddening philodendron of several popular varieties:
- Burgundy - a flower (Latin P. Erubescens Burgundy) is slow to develop, prefers bright but diffused light, leaves, petioles and young shoots have a wine-red color, due to which the amount of chlorophyll in them is reduced,
- Red Emerald - a plant (an armor. P. erubescens Red Emerald) possesses larger leaves in comparison with other types painted in red color,
- Mandarin is an interspecific hybrid (lat. P. x mandaianum), looks like the above varieties, young leaves are red, but turn green with age,
- Medusa - a flower (P. erubescens Medusa) is picky about lighting, it grows quickly, has a characteristic yellowish color of leaves, and the stems and petioles are colored in shades of red.
Possible problems with the flower and their solution
Although the philodendron is reddening and belongs to unpretentious plants, however, when it is grown at home, problems are possible that signal improper care. In such a situation, it is necessary to adjust the rules of its content, focusing on the appearance:
- the appearance of brown spots on the tips of the leaves and their falling off is due to too dry air in the room, which can be corrected by increasing the humidity,
- the formation of water droplets on the leaves is a signal of excessive moisture and the need to reduce it,
- with excessive light, the leaves begin to turn pale and lose color,
- with a lack of light - they become shallow and lethargic,
- the appearance of decay on the roots indicates a lower ground temperature, which can be corrected by increasing the temperature in the room,
- the appearance of dry brown-black spots speaks of sunburn, then the flower must be moved to another place,
- yellowing of the leaves indicates overmoistening of the soil and lack of nutrients,
- The lower leaves may fall off as the plant grows, but you need to look at the condition of the upper ones: changing their color to brown shades indicates an elevated temperature of the air in the room, which often happens in winter, when radiators are located nearby.
Many amateur growers ask: “Can a philodendron be kept at home blushing?”. After all, the plant in nature grows in tropical forests, which means that it lives in a warm and humid climate, which is very different from the temperate latitudes of Russia. However, with the observance of the rules of care and maintenance, such a flower feels great in the apartments, delighting its owners with the bright color of the leaves.
The Latin name is Philodendron erubescens Medusa. This plant is originally from South America. Differs in large leaves of plants. Their sizes can reach 37 cm.
At home, this species grows very well. The main thing is to provide a good support for its air roots. The ideal support is a tube with moss inside. In the photo on the Internet you can see an example of such a support.
This type of plant is considered very large, so buying it in small rooms is not worth it.
Care for Philodendron erubescens Medusa is quite simple:
- In summer, the air temperature in the room should be maintained at 18–20 ° C. In winter, it must be ensured that it does not fall below 15 ° C.
- Lighting should be good enough without contact of the plant with direct sunlight.
- Water the plant should be moderate. In winter, watering should be reduced.
- Fertilizers are best given from spring to autumn. Feed should be no more than 1 time in 2 weeks.
Determine the adequacy of watering can be as leaves. If they begin to turn yellow, then the water is too much.
This plant grows mainly in the forests of South America. In nature it with the help of its roots spreads quickly through the trunks of trees.
Its leaves have an elongated shape and pronounced tip. The color of the leaves is dark green with white or silver spots, which many growers call sprays. The length of the leaves is 14 cm. If the plant grows vertically, then the leaves can grow up to 25 cm in length.
Care for this plant at home is not difficult:
- The air temperature in summer is around 27 ° C. In winter, not lower than 17 ° C.
- The lighting is muffled.
- Watering intense.
Learn about the excess moisture is quite simple: the leaves of the plant begin to turn yellow around the edges.
This type of creeper has excellent decorative properties. In the photo from the Internet visible attracting the waviness of its leaves. The surface of the leaves has a light gloss. Color sheets are bright green. Each sheet is divided by cuts into 5 shares.
This species grows rather slowly. At home, its height rarely exceeds 60 cm.
Atomic content is not difficult:
- It is necessary to maintain the air temperature at 26 ° C. In winter, make sure that it does not fall below 19 ° C.
- Do not place the plant near heaters and batteries.
- Watering should be moderate.
- Do not forget to regularly spray the leaves with water.
The Latin name is philodendron stenolobum. This liana is easily recognizable by leaves divided into three lobes up to 40 cm long. The color of the leaves is bright green. Under certain conditions, it can become pale green.
The plant grows very quickly. In just a few months, it can reach the ceiling of the room. For this reason, it is not recommended to buy it for small apartments. In addition, when growing, he needs to provide decent support.
Diseases of philodendron
This plant is very resistant to various diseases. Если оно заболевает, то это чаще всего связано с появлением вредителей.
Чаще всего на этом растении селятся:
- Щитовка. Этот паразит прячется под листком у самого стебля. Выглядит он как светло-коричневая капелька. Пока вредитель маленький, то вред от него незаметен. Но по мере взросления щитовка начинает губить филодендрон.
- Aphid. Селится на нижней стороне листа.It feeds on the sap of the plant and causes its death very quickly. To combat aphids best to use special drugs.
- Spider mite Florist can learn about his appearance by the appearance of the plant. Its leaves shrivel, spider webs appear on them. The photo clearly shows that the base of the leaves has points of red or brown color. This is a parasite. You can cope with it with the help of medical solutions sold in specialized stores.
- Mealybug. This parasite prefers to eat up the leaves of the plant. You can learn about its appearance by white lumps on the stems. They look like cotton wool. The easiest thing to do is to fight the bite. It is necessary to moisten a cotton swab with alcohol and wipe the place where the parasite was seen. After the procedure, rinse the treatment site with water.