Some gardeners give a low assessment of such a tree as sea buckthorn. They claim that the berries of this plant are tasteless, they are difficult to collect. The tree gives a thick growth, from which it is difficult to get rid of, even after the uprooting of sea buckthorn. However, this characteristic is inherent only wild varieties.
Garden buckthorn is characterized by completely opposite reviews. It gives sweet and sour delicious berries that do not burst in the hands during harvest. They are canned, added to various dishes. It is also a famous medicinal plant. How to plant sea buckthorn, help to understand the advice of experienced gardeners. Step-by-step instructions for conducting this process will be discussed in detail later.
Studying the question of how to plant sea buckthorn, first of all, you need to familiarize yourself with the main features of this plant. It lives in nature on the shores of seas and rivers. Sea buckthorn belongs to the family of Lokhovs. Both stunted and tall varieties are cultivated. Their leaves are gray-gray in color. They are thin and sharp. Flowering occurs before the leaves appear. This process is not characterized by high decoration. It may even seem that these are not flowers, but small leaves.
Gardeners most often grow buckthorn. It is widespread throughout the world. Also cultivated willowfish sea buckthorn. In nature, this species grows in the mountains of Nepal, India and in the south of China.
Frost-resistant tree is considered sea buckthorn. How to plant and grow a plant depends on the climatic zone conditions. If during the cold period there will be sharp temperature drops, the tree may freeze slightly. This is especially noticeable on the beginnings of male inflorescences. Productivity is directly dependent on environmental conditions. Fruiting occurs in the 4th year of tree growth.
Sea buckthorn likes sunshine. If it is not enough, seedlings develop poorly. During the fruiting period, sunlight stimulates high yields. Berries have a sweet and sour taste. In garden species, fruits are of medium or large size. They may have an orange, reddish or yellow-orange shade. The berries are consumed raw, close the preservation, add to various dishes. Cosmetics and medicines are made of them. Sea buckthorn oil is especially appreciated. It is prescribed in combination with the treatment of various ailments. Fruits enrich the body with vitamins and minerals.
Peculiarities of pollination
Sea buckthorn cultivated in gardens has a division into female and male trees. This means that such plants are pollinated when the wind blows. Therefore, it is important to have on the site not one, but several trees at once. It is also important to know at what distance to plant sea buckthorn. Seedlings should be close to each other. The distance between them should be from 5 to 10 m.
Determination of the sex of seedlings is possible to produce in spring, autumn or winter. During this period there are no leaves on the branches. Female kidneys are significantly smaller. They are covered with 2 scales. Male kidneys are large. They have about 5-7 scales covering a growing inflorescence.
One male plant can have from 1 to 8 female trees. It is important to assess from which side the wind blows predominantly in spring. From this side it is necessary to plant a male plant. Female trees should be placed in a small group area. They may surround the male sea buckthorn species. They can also be planted opposite.
Some gardeners claim that two male trees can be planted next to one female plant. This is due to the increased vulnerability of the latter to adverse weather conditions. Planting two plants increases the likelihood that at least one plant will survive. Female types are more enduring. Male trees can be very close to each other, literally at a distance of 1 m.
It is also important to consider what you can plant sea buckthorn next to. Female seedlings should be a good grade. Male trees can be wild. However, to improve the quality of the crop, it is recommended to plant near the female type of sea buckthorn variety Dear friend, Aley or Ural. They are well acclimatized in a climate near Moscow.
Some gardeners may have a question about when to plant sea buckthorn. In spring or autumn, this process is easier. However, the first days after the snowfall is considered the most appropriate period for planting. According to experienced gardeners, plants planted in the ground in the spring, take root better. In the autumn period, the root system does not have time to prepare for future cold weather. Thaws and sharp frosts have a particularly negative effect on it. During this period, the tree begins to awaken from hibernation. With a cold snap, it can freeze.
It is especially not recommended to plant in the fall plants not bred in this climatic zone. Otherwise, sea buckthorn will be ready to wake up in January. The onset of frosts may adversely affect its development.
An open root system may have in the sale of sea buckthorn seedlings. When planting such plants, the views of gardeners converge. They recommend doing this process as early as possible. In the first days of spring, sea buckthorn is required to land on the site.
The tree does not like transplants. When even a small part of its roots are damaged, growth and development slow down markedly. Therefore, early transplanting is shown to young seedlings.
If sea buckthorn has been grown for over a year in a container, it can be planted in open ground even in summer. In this case, the plant will easily transfer the adaptation period. However, sea buckthorn, which grows in a tub less than a year, planted in open ground is not recommended. In this case, it does not yet have the hardening of its root system and may die.
Choosing a site for a transplant
Having decided when it is better to plant sea buckthorn, you should consider the features of site selection for it. This should be a well lit place. The tree is planted in the garden. It happens that he is given a place in the garden. This option is less preferred. The roots of the tree are shallow. Their bulk is at a level of up to 40 cm under the ground.
Roots can grow far beyond the sea-buckthorn crown. If vegetables are planted next to the garden, the tree can negatively affect their development. Also, the occurrence of roots close to the surface can lead to accidental damage when the owners decide to dig up the garden. The tree transfers any injuries of roots badly.
Studying where it is better to plant sea buckthorn, you should give her a plot on the edge of the garden. Here there is a minimal risk of damage by a shovel to its roots. And the tree itself will not interfere with the growth of other crops on the site.
It is better to choose a place in the garden for sea buckthorn. The sea buckthorn feels good on light and fertile soils. Dislikes drought. The soil should be wet, but not swampy. Groundwater should not be closer than 1 m to the surface.
It is not necessary to plant plants where stone fruit trees have recently been growing. This will save the plant from disease.
Recommendations for choosing a sapling
Considering where to plant sea buckthorn in the area, it is necessary to pay attention to the choice of its seedlings. From this will depend on the quality of the crop, its abundance. Experienced gardeners do not recommend purchasing seedlings from unfamiliar sellers. In this case, it is impossible to give guarantees that a pure sort of plant will be planted on the site.
It is best to purchase biennial plants for transplanting. They have from 3 to 5 basic roots. Their length should be about 20 cm. There should also be a sufficient number of small, secondary roots. The trunk of a two-year-old sea buckthorn usually reaches 35-50 cm. Its diameter is approximately 7 mm. From the trunk leaves a few shoots.
The bark should not flake off. It is elastic, has no defects and scratches. If the wood has a brown tint, this indicates a freezing of the plant. They are not worth buying. Such seedlings practically do not survive.
Adult plant transplant
Having considered where to plant sea buckthorn in the area, it is necessary to study the details of this process. This plant is not cultivated by seeds. With this method of breeding varietal traits are lost. In this case, the fruits will not be so tasty, their collection will be difficult.
Transplantation is done for cuttings or plants with root shoots. In the first embodiment, the procedure can be carried out even in the fall. To transplant a tree with root shoots will have to show maximum patience and endurance. With such a transplant, it is extremely important not to harm the overgrowth.
The roots of sea buckthorn can reach a length of several meters. Therefore, digging them for transplant does not damage the plant at all. To prevent wilting of the plant, when transplanting the root system, the above-ground branches must also be partially trimmed. This year, it will reduce the ability to bear fruit and grow quickly. However, this method will save the power of the plant.
To understand how to plant sea buckthorn in the spring, it is necessary to consider the recommendations that apply to almost all fruit plants. The diameter of the pit should be 50 cm, and depth - 40 cm. The root neck should be at the level of shrinkage of the earth. It is not recommended to apply too much fertilizer. Enough buckets of compost and superphosphate.
If the soil on the site has a high acidity, it must be prodankovkat. For this, 500 grams of hydrated lime are used per square meter. For heavy loamy soils increase breathability. To do this, the top layer of soil is mixed with humus and river sand in equal proportions. You can add 40 grams of potassium salt and 250 grams of superphosphate. After transplantation, the soil needs to be watered and mulched with a dry layer of earth.
Transplantation of young cuttings
Sea buckthorn can be transplanted and green young cuttings. This is a fairly effective way. In this case, it is also important to determine where to plant the sea buckthorn. Ridge of young seedlings is recommended to be placed under the crown of an adult tree. Here they will not be exposed to direct sunlight. However, the process of propagation by grafting begins with growing shoots in greenhouse conditions.
The transplantation process is recommended in the summer (early June). To do this, cut the stalk length of about 15 cm. Three sheets from the bottom must be removed. Then it is recommended to treat the cut with a growth stimulator. Such solutions are available for sale in specialized stores. Some gardeners do not use it.
For cuttings, it is necessary to prepare a soil mixture, where it is most expedient to plant sea buckthorn. For this, fertile soil is mixed with sand and peat. It is necessary to grow a plant in greenhouse conditions. Temperature should be around 28 ºС, and humidity - 90%.
The cutting is regularly watered or sprayed from a spray bottle. When the roots appear, you can feed the plant with mineral fertilizers. Then you can begin to gradually air the greenhouse. After 2 months, the film can be removed altogether. In the spring, the strengthened cuttings are planted on the site.
Reproduction with stiff cuttings
Considering how to plant sea buckthorn in the spring, you should consider another interesting way. Lumbery cuttings are also capable of rooting. They are prepared in the autumn or winter. To do this, cut several shoots, the thickness of which exceeds 5 mm. So that they do not begin to develop prematurely, the material for the seedlings is instilled in the snow.
In the spring you can begin the process of breeding sea buckthorn. Of the blanks make lengths of about 15 cm. They are kept in water for several days. If you leave the blanks here for 2 weeks, small roots will appear, buds will form.
Cuttings must be planted in fertile soil. They are deepened by about 15 cm. An escape with 2 buds should remain above the ground. Grown stalk in greenhouse conditions. The air temperature should be around 27ºС. Maintains a high level of humidity. When the plant is 50 cm in height, it is planted in open ground. Where to plant sea buckthorn in the area should be determined with the previously listed recommendations.
Planted cuttings must be at a distance of 10 cm from each other. The soil is well tamped and watered abundantly. By the fall of the roots of the plant will be able to strengthen and develop enough. The plant will be able to overwinter.
Sea buckthorn can be propagated at the site of root shoots. This is one of the easiest ways. Such shoots appear at the tree 4-5 years after planting. To take the offspring for transplanting, they need to be separated with a shovel from the mother plant. Plants are planted in the ground and kept in greenhouse conditions. They are watered, maintain a sufficiently high temperature and humidity. Before disembarking, sea buckthorn needs to be hardened. Her air, weaning from the greenhouse climate.
Further, having defined where to plant sea buckthorn, the process is planted in watered soil. By the fall he will develop strong roots. During this period, the plant can be transplanted to a permanent place of growth. However, this procedure is recommended to perform all the same spring.
If the gardener wants to speed up the process of forming offspring on the mother tree, he can trim the skeletal root. It is located at some distance from the plant. The cut should remain open. Here many offspring are formed. By the second year they have developed root system. In the spring they can be transplanted into a hole prepared in advance.
You can also graft cuttings to sea buckthorn. This process is most often produced if a male tree has died. In the crown of the female plant grafts of the opposite sex are grafted. Literally in a year, the branches develop well and will be able to pollinate inflorescences. This method is also used with a limited area of the site.
Having considered how to plant sea buckthorn, it is necessary to ensure her proper care in the future. In early spring it is necessary to form a crown. At this time, the kidneys are not yet dissolved. The tops are cut in the second year after transplantation.
After 4 years, sea buckthorn needs pruning. Overgrown branches hamper the development of the tree, reduce yields. Therefore, when pruning should not be sorry even fruiting shoots. It is best to remove branches parallel to the trunk, as well as dry shoots. After 8 years of growth, such a procedure is essential. This allows you to rejuvenate the tree, to avoid its vulnerability and susceptibility to various diseases.
It is also recommended to carry out sanitary cleaning of sea buckthorn. Dry branches are removed from the branches, and then cover up various holes. Also remove the fungus along with the affected branches, carry out the processing of special solutions. These simple actions allow to grow sea buckthorn not only for economic, but also decorative purposes. The tree will grow on the site for a long time, its yield will remain consistently high.
You should also pay attention to watering, timely feeding. Once every 2-3 years it is necessary to add 4 kg of organic fertilizers and 50 g of superphosphates under the sea buckthorn. In the spring of each year a very small amount of nitrogen can be brought under the trunk. It is also recommended to produce foliar dressing with a solution of urea (20 g) with water (10 l).
After reviewing the basic recommendations on how to plant sea buckthorn, each gardener will be able to grow this beautiful tree on his site. The plant will delight both its appearance and abundant crops.
How to choose healthy seedlings
When buying a seedling with an open root system should pay attention to the state of the roots. They should have a yellow-brown color. At the same time one (central) root is well developed. It is surrounded by formed fibrous roots.
When buying a seedling with a closed root system, the capacity should be turned over. If the tips of the roots are light in color and sprouted through holes for water flow, the plant will easily take root.
Be sure to inspect the ground part of the sea buckthorn. Shoots must be well developed, tops - whole.
How to distinguish male sea buckthorn from female
The optimal time for the procedure is the rest period of the plant. At this time, the bushes look different. On the female - the kidneys are small, tightly pressed to the stem. Only 2 scales cover them. Male plants have large rounded buds, spaced from stalks and branches. They cover up to 7 scales.
On male bushes leaves are flat, and female plants have a concave profile. In spring, female sea buckthorn leaves are bright green, and in male ones - with a bluish bloom. And the female bush blooms with small yellow flowers, for men the flowers are green and silver.
What soil loves buckthorn, gardeners are interested. In natural conditions, the plant bears fruits along the banks of rivers and streams, prefers neutral or slightly alkaline soils with admixture of pebbles or gravel. The same soil is required to create in the place of placement of the shrub.
Оптимальное место для облепихи
Перед тем как посадить растение, следует вспомнить, как оно растет в открытом грунте в естественных условиях:
- Кустарник обитает по берегам водоемов, выбирает отлично освещенные солнцем места. И на участке следует предоставить ей самое солнечное и теплое место.
- In the area where it is supposed to plant sea buckthorn, groundwater should not be too close: the roots of the plant do not tolerate wetting. But the root system of a plant rarely penetrates to a depth of more than 40-50 cm. Therefore, the presence of groundwater is allowed at a distance of 60 cm or more from the surface.
- The shrub does not tolerate cold winter winds. It should be placed at the cottage in places protected from drafts: from the southern sides of the buildings.
- The plant has a spreading root system, which lies shallow (40-50 cm). Therefore, planted nearby shrubs or flowers perceives as oppressors.
- Sea buckthorn is a wind-pollinated crop. Male plants are placed on the windward side, and women - with the leeward side.
Some gardeners plant shrubs around the perimeter of the plot, behind the buildings.
Seabuckthorn is recommended to be planted in early spring (as soon as the soil warms up) and in the fall (3 weeks before the onset of frost). During planting in the spring bushes pritenuyut for 2-3 weeks, in the fall for the best survival rate, remove all the leaves.
Schemes and depth of landing
It is recommended to plant 5-8 female bushes in the garden for 1 male plant. Sea buckthorn should not be buried: from the root collar to the ground level should be 5-7 cm. When placing, the distance between the bushes should be at least 3 m. This is required in order to provide sufficient area for plant nutrition.
Step by step landing instructions
For the quick survival of the young sea buckthorn bushes must be properly planted. How to proceed:
- Prepare the landing hole in advance. Dig a trench with a size of 0.4 x 0.4 x 0.4 m. Mix the excavated soil with mature compost or humus. After 2-3 days, add potassium and phosphorus and lay back into the pit. Cover with plywood on top (to prevent precipitation erosion).
- Dig a planting hole. To drive a peg into it to tie up the plant.
- Then gently straighten the roots, put the sea buckthorn in the hole, cover with soil and tamp. Pay attention to the position of the root collar: it should be 5-7 cm above the ground.
- Planted bush watered abundantly and zamulchirovat pristvolny circle.
When planting in the spring should priten planting for 3-4 days.
Care of a young and adult tree
Growing sea buckthorn is simple. The plant is quite unpretentious. Of the necessary measures - timely pruning. It is required for large berries. At home for varietal sea buckthorn recommended feeding and watering with prolonged drought.
It is possible to grow the sea-buckthorn buckthorn without feedings. But fertilization increases yields.
How to fertilize sea buckthorn
Sea buckthorn is recommended to be fertilized with full mineral fertilizer: nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. Nitrogen is contained in humus or compost (necessarily mature). Phosphorus and potassium plants are obtained from bone meal or kiln sifted ash.
Gardeners who do not want to mess with the composting of plant residues or who do not have a furnace can buy ready-made fertilizers and apply them according to the manufacturer’s instructions.
Fertilizer after planting
Properly planted young sea buckthorn is provided with food for the next 3 years. It does not require additional dressings. A bush should be fed regularly from the 4th year of life in the garden. Nitrogen is required in the spring, and potash-phosphate fertilizers in the fall. It is recommended (to save time) to use full mineral fertilizers.
Terms and technology of seasonal dressing
In the spring, it is required to deposit nitrogen at the rate of 1 bucket of humus under 1 adult bush, distributing it throughout the whole tree trunk. In early summer, it is recommended to feed plants with potash-phosphate fertilizer according to the instructions.
In October-November, it is recommended to apply a complex autumn fertilizer: it will help the bush to easily winter.
Many gardeners prefer to grow sea buckthorn in sodded areas. In this case, the role of mulch is performed by ordinary lawn grass. But young plants require mulching pristvolnogo circle. For mulch, dried mowed grass, rotted sawdust, and neutral peat are suitable.
If the gardener wants to use fresh sawdust or shavings, it is recommended to pour them with a solution of urea. This will prevent the outflow of valuable nitrogen from the soil.
When and how to transplant a mature buckthorn bush
Adult bushes do not tolerate transplantation. A gardener will spend energy digging a plant that has an extensive root system. But the roots will still be damaged. Adult bushes landed on a new place most often die. An adult bush is dug out only if the gardener wishes to propagate the plant by division. In this case, the healthy part is cut off with a developed root system. At the new place planted delenku.
There is an easier way to save a favorite shrub: plant rooted cuttings from an old plant.
Trimming scheme and technology
To form sea buckthorn begin immediately after rooting. The grower must decide how he will grow it: a stem or a bush.
In the first case, in the first year, select a direct central branch, and all others are removed. The following year, all the branches are cut at a height of 60 cm. Then (in the third year), 2-3 strong branches are shortened, the rest are removed. In the 4th year, the cropping of the previous year is repeated.
When growing sea buckthorn bushes choose 3-4 strong branches, the rest are cut. Subsequently, 6-7 branches are left every year, the old ones are cut out. Sanitary pruning is recommended as necessary, but at least 2 times a year.
- 1. Listen to the article (soon)
- 2. Description
- 3. Landing
- 3.1. When to plant
- 3.2. Landing in spring
- 3.3. Planting in the fall
- 4. Care
- 4.1. Spring care
- 4.2. Summer care
- 4.3. Autumn care
- 4.4. Treatment
- 4.5. Watering
- 4.6. Top dressing
- 5. Trimming
- 5.1. When to trim
- 5.2. Spring cropping
- 5.3. Pruning in the fall
- 6. Reproduction
- 6.1. How to multiply
- 6.2. Seed propagation
- 6.3. Cuttings
- 6.4. Reproduction by layering
- 6.5. Breeding shoots
- 6.6. Dividing bush
- 6.7. Graft
- 7. Diseases
- 8. Pests
- 9. Types and varieties
- 10. Properties
- 10.1. Beneficial features
- 10.2. Contraindications
Planting and care for sea buckthorn (in short)
- Landing: in early spring, before bud break.
- Bloom: in April or May.
- Lighting: bright sunshine.
- The soil: chernozem, loamy, sandy, with pH 6.5-7.0. Strongly clay and acidic soils, as well as areas with high groundwater levels are not suitable.
- Watering: as needed. Young plants water 3-4 buckets of water, mature 6-8 buckets, trying to soak the entire root layer of soil. By the fall, water consumption is increased by one and a half times, and in October, abundant water recharge is carried out.
- Top dressing: regular starting from the third season after landing. From the fifth year of life, only potash and phosphorus, but up to this age, in the early spring circles of young plants, ammonium nitrate is poured into the soil in the spring at the rate of 20 g / m². Adult fruiting plants also require foliar dressing immediately after flowering and after another three weeks. In autumn, tree trunks are filled with superphosphate, potassium salt and ash.
- Pruning: At any time of the year, but most conveniently in early spring, before the start of sap flow. In the autumn they usually carry out sanitary cleaning.
- Breeding: by seeds, cuttings, dividing a bush, grafting, shoots and layings.
- Pests: sea buckthorn flies, sea buckthorn moths, aphids, gall and spider mites.
- Diseases: endomycosis, black cancer, black leg, scab (stegmina), gray and brown rot, fusarium, verticillis, alternariosis, fomoz, sea buckthorn terry, ring necrosis of branches and coryneum necrosis, mixed and heart rot of the trunk.
Sea-buckthorn shrubs - description
Sea buckthorn can be a shrub or small tree with a height of 10 cm to 6 meters or more. The root system of the plant is superficial, it is located at a depth of about 40 cm, but grows wider by a distance exceeding the diameter of the crown 2-2.5 times. The leaves of sea buckthorn are alternate, long and narrow, green in specks on the upper side of the plate and silvery-whitish or reddish-golden from star-shaped scales from below. Small and inconspicuous same-sex flowers open on sea buckthorn almost simultaneously with the leaves. Flowering sea buckthorn begins in late April or early May. Sea buckthorn is a dioecious plant: male silver-brown flowers form short spike-shaped inflorescences in the bases of young shoots, and female yellowish appear on one or several pieces in the axils of opaque scales. Fruits of sea buckthorn - false pods of spherical or elongated shape, consisting of a nut and a rich, overgrown orange or reddish receptacle, ripen in 90-100 days. The branch of sea buckthorn is densely covered with fruits, which is reflected in the Russian name of the plant.
Jam and juice are made from sea buckthorn berries, but the main value of the plant is healing oil, which is considered miraculous by the people. Sea buckthorn is a winter-hardy plant that can withstand temperatures down to -50 ºC, and its roots in the ground can withstand temperatures as low as -20 ºC. Sea buckthorn is afraid of much more frost fears of winter thaws - in conditions when the earth does not freeze through, its roots may thrash.
Sea buckthorn grown in splendid isolation does not bear fruit, since female and male sea buckthorn flowers are usually found on different bushes. However, sometimes, very rarely, you can find forms with bisexual flowers. Usually, the fruits are formed on female plants, and male ones are needed for their pollination: one male bush is enough for pollination of 3-5 female plants. It is impossible to determine the sex of a young plant, clarity occurs only when flower buds form on a bush - there are more of them on male specimens and they are much larger than on female ones. Fruiting occurs at 4-6 year since the beginning of growth.
Today, sea buckthorn is gradually recovering lost positions many centuries ago, and although it is still not as common in our gardens as grapes, raspberries, strawberries, gooseberries or currants, more often than irgu, strawberries, blackberries, blueberries, blueberries or actinidia . We value sea buckthorn not only for its taste, but also for its indisputable health benefits. In this article we will discuss the sea buckthorn, which grows almost throughout Europe, including in our gardens. We will tell you how to plant and care for sea buckthorn: when and how to plant sea buckthorn in the backyard or in the country, how to care for sea buckthorn during the whole vegetation period, than to feed sea buckthorn to achieve consistently high yields, than to spray sea buckthorn from diseases and pests, when and how to prune sea buckthorn and how to propagate sea buckthorn by seed and vegetative methods.
When planting sea buckthorn.
Sea buckthorn is usually planted in early spring, before bud breaks in the trees, since it is very difficult to tolerate this procedure in the fall. As a rule, for the sea buckthorn emit a sunny plot on the periphery of the garden - there can be placed one male specimen and 3-4 female plants. On acid soils, as well as on clay, sea buckthorn will not grow well, the optimum pH value of soil is 6.5-7.0. Sour soils before planting sea buckthorn lime, adding to them under digging ground limestone or tufa in the calculation of 250-400 g per m² - this amount of deoxidizers will be enough for 8-10 years. The groundwater at the site should lie no higher than at a depth of 2 m. Do not plant sea buckthorn where strawberries grew before it, because they have the same diseases.
Planting sea buckthorn in the spring.
For planting, it is better to purchase one-year or two-year-old sea-buckthorn seedlings, the roots of which are dipped in a clay mash before planting. If you find that the root system of seedlings has dried, place their roots first for a day or two in a bucket of water so that they regain their elasticity.
The plot for the sea buckthorn is prepared in autumn: the ground is dug to the depth of the spade bayonet with simultaneous addition of 20 g of potassium sulfate, 200 g of superphosphate and 4-5 buckets of humus to each m². In the spring, dig 65x65x65 cm pits at a distance of 2 m from each other, a peg 1-1.20 m high is driven into the center of each pit, and a mound of fertile soil is placed on which the seedling is placed. The roots of the seedling are straightened, after which the pit is covered with earth mixed with coarse sand, humus or peat in equal proportions so that the root neck of the tree is in the soil at a depth of not more than 3 cm. A small circular hole is left around the seedling for irrigation, the tree is tied To the peg and pour 2-3 buckets of water into the irrigation well. When water is absorbed, the well is mulched with humus or dry earth, leveling it with the surface of the site. The first time for a sapling to take root in a new place, it is watered daily for a month.
Planting sea buckthorn in the fall.
As we have already written, planting a sea buckthorn in the fall is undesirable, but if the need arose, try to plant sea buckthorn until mid-October so that she can take root before the frost. This can be done only in those areas where winter comes late, and only if the sea-buckthorn seedling meets all the requirements put forward to it: the seedling ready for planting must have at least 3 skeletal roots up to 20 cm long and a lot of fibrous roots: the stem should be high from 35 to 50 cm and with a diameter of at least 6 cm, there should be several shoots on the stem. In a healthy plant, the bark is elastic, without damage and wrinkles. It should not peel off from the wood, and the wood should not have a brown tint, because this is evidence that the seedling is frostbite.
Dig a hole of the sizes indicated in the previous section, hammer a peg into its center, pour ground from under the sea buckthorn mixed with a humus bucket, a handful of double superphosphate and a glass of wood ash into the bottom of the hill. Otherwise, follow the instructions from the previous section.
Care for sea buckthorn spring.
Planting and caring for sea buckthorn does not involve the execution of special difficulties, but require certain knowledge and skills. At the end of March, as soon as it gets warmer, the sea buckthorn is sanitized, removing all broken, diseased, shrunken and drooping branches. In April, the soil should be harvested or loosened in the sea buckthorn tree trunks and between the rows.
In May, watering of sea buckthorn is carried out. It is especially necessary if there was no snow in winter and rains in spring. If during the winter months there was enough snow, and the spring was rainy, it is possible not to hurry with the watering of the sea buckthorn.
If during the flowering of sea buckthorn there will be calm weather, conduct additional pollination: cut off the twig from the male tree and shake it along the crown of the female plant.
Sea buckthorn care in the summer.
Care for sea buckthorn in the summer is due to the intensive growth of shoots and fruits. In summer, the plant especially needs moisture, so drying out of the soil in the near-stem circles is unacceptable. However, keep in mind that waterlogging is just as harmful as lack of moisture: in too-moist soil, air circulation deteriorates and, consequently, the vital activity of the roots slows down. Maintain the water balance of the soil, and a day after watering, loosen the soil between rows and tree trunks. Remove weeds and basal shoots. Carefully monitor the condition of the leaves and shoots of sea buckthorn in time to detect the onset of the disease.
In August and September, ripening of the sea buckthorn fruit begins. To prevent the branches overloaded with berries, do not break them in time. They begin to pick berries when they acquire the color and size of the variety.
Care for sea buckthorn in the fall.
After harvest, the sea buckthorn needs sanitary pruning, and mature bushes in the autumn rejuvenate in turn - one bush each year. In dry autumn, sea buckthorn needs to be watered abundantly in winter. In addition, organic and phosphate fertilizers are introduced into the ground in the fall, patching them up to a depth of 10 cm under the digging area.
Sea buckthorn processing.
Everyone knows that the problem is easier to prevent than to deal with it. To protect your sea buckthorn from pests and dangerous pathogens, it is necessary to carry out its preventive treatment. In early spring, you need to collect fallen leaves, remove the remains of flowers and fruits from the trees, clean the wounds on the trunks and branches and treat them with a three percent solution of copper sulfate, after which you should whitewash the stem and skeletal branches of sea buckthorn with lime to protect the tree bark from pests. The treatment of sea buckthorn with a 7% urea solution or a 1% solution of Bordeaux fluids twice per season — in early spring and late autumn — has proven itself as a preventive measure against fungal diseases and pest invasions. During the season, if pests appear on the sea buckthorn, treat the shrub or tree once a week with a solution of wood ash.
Watering sea buckthorn.
Watering sea buckthorn exercise as needed, trying to soak the entire root layer of soil. For this, a young plant needs 3-4 buckets of water poured into a tree trunk, and mature trees will need 6 to 8 buckets. Closer to the fall water consumption per tree increases by half. It is very important for sea buckthorn water recharge underwinter watering - it enhances its winter hardiness.
После полива или дождя обязательно производите рыхление почвы на участке: на корнях облепихи образуются клубеньки, в которых живут бактерии, усваивающие из воздуха азот и обогащающие корнеобитаемый слой почвы азотистыми соединениями, жизненно необходимыми растению. Именно поэтому почва на участке все время должна быть рыхлой. However, be careful: the sea buckthorn root system is vertical, and it is very easy to damage it, therefore it is best to mulch the tree trunks with humus or compost from potato tops or birch leaves or apple leaves, then it will be rare to loosen the soil.
Top dressing of sea buckthorn.
Growing sea buckthorn provides for regular plant feeding, starting from the third year of growth. Since the root system itself supplies itself with nitrogen, only potash and phosphate fertilizers need to be applied to a mature plant, but up to five years, until the root system develops, ammonium nitrate is dispensed at the rate of 20 g per m² in the seaweed circle, and then covered its layer of soil.
An adult plant, which has already entered fruiting time, immediately after flowering, and then one more time after three weeks, is treated on the leaves with a solution of one spoonful of liquid potassium humate or Effecton in 10 liters of water. In the period of growth of the ovaries, sea buckthorn preparing for fruiting is fed with a solution of two tablespoons of double superphosphate in granules, the same amount of Universal-Micro nutritional mixture and a tablespoon of potassium sulfate in 10 liters of water.
During the autumn digging, 30 g of superphosphate, 100 g of wood ash and 25 g of potassium salt are scattered per square meter per square meter. If the soil at the site is acidic, instead of superphosphate, use phosphate flour at the rate of 50 g per m² as a fertilizer.
When to cut the sea buckthorn.
In principle, sea buckthorn can be trimmed at any time of the year, except for winter. But most often, sea buckthorn bushes are pruned in the spring, during the period of rest, it has not yet become warmer. In the autumn, as a rule, sea buckthorn is prepared for wintering and sanitary pruning is carried out.
Pruning sea buckthorn in the spring.
In the spring, sea buckthorn is put in order after winter - they cut off broken snow, sick and dried out shoots and branches. Young trees are subjected to formative pruning, and here it is important to decide as soon as possible, you will grow a tree or a bush. If you want the sea buckthorn to grow with a bush, cut the newly planted seedling at a height of 10-20 cm, and next year, leave no more than 4 shoots from the sprout that appeared on the stump and sprouted from the root, and remove the remaining processes completely. Just keep in mind that you can count on the shoots from the root only if the buckthorn seedling is roe-own.
If you decide that your sea buckthorn will be a tree, shape it with a stem 30 cm high and 2-4 skeletal branches. A sapling with already formed branches is not needed to be cut, but if there are no branches on it, shorten it to 30 cm, and next year form 3-4 skeletal branches and a conductor from the emerged shoots and level them in height. If in a year the branches become too tall, shorten them to a third or a quarter of the length. When the trees are ripe for fruiting, do not cut the tops of the shoots, because it is on them that the flower buds are formed.
In the future, the formation of both a bush and a tree consists in the removal of thickening, superfluous and growing in the wrong direction of shoots and unnecessary growth. By the way, to remove the root processes, you need to dig them up and very carefully, trying not to damage the root system of the mother plant, cut it to the ring in the place from which they sprouted.
When your sea buckthorn is six years old, the time will come for a rejuvenating pruning, which is also best done in the spring. Branches that have ceased to bear fruit are cut out and replaced by the youngest of the strongest, even the wolf-top. This should be done gradually - replaced annually from 1 to 3 branches, not more.
Do not despair if the tree dies from frost. If the root is alive, just cut down a dead tree or shrub to the root collar and begin to form a new plant.
Pruning of sea buckthorn in the fall.
In late autumn, when the sea buckthorn enters a dormant period, cut off all unnecessary, too old, broken, dried, improperly growing and sore branches and shoots so that the plant does not feed them in vain all winter. Use only sharply sterile instruments for pruning so that they do not break up the bark and wound.
Choosing a landing site
Sea buckthorn is a very light-loving and moisture-loving plant, therefore the place for planting should be sunny. In the shade it will grow worse and bear fruit.
The tree should be planted on the edge of the site, away from the garden. That during loosening of a bed not to damage the sea buckthorn root system. A damaged root will lead to the growth of wild growth. It is possible to loosen the top layer of soil, no more than 10 cm deep. Together with loosening they make humus and mineral fertilizers.
Selection of seedlings
- It is important to ensure that the seedlings are healthy and appropriate for the plant variety. Two year old sapling has a height of about 50 cm and a diameter of 5–7 cm, it also has 5–8 skeletal roots, 25 cm long.
- Bark tight to wood, has a healthy appearance, is not wrinkled, not scratched.
In order to avoid diseases of the trees, it is not necessary to plant in place of raspberries, strawberries, and also where the stone trees grew: apples, pears, cherries, apricots.
It is better to have on the site 2-3 female trees and one male for pollination.
Sea buckthorn is planted in a pit with a diameter of 70 cm, the soil is fertilized with mineral and complex fertilizers, a mound is made from the ground at the bottom of the ground and the seedling root system is distributed over it, the root collar after shrinking of the soil should be located at ground level. Then you need to shed the seedling well, using at least two buckets of water, and sprinkle with earth. In the future, it is also necessary to water the sapling well.
How to distinguish male and female trees
Sea buckthorn buds bloom
Sea buckthorn is a dioecious tree, it is divided into male (staminate) and female (pistillate) flowers. Male plant does not give fruit, it serves for pollination. One tree is enough for 5-7 female seedlings. Female sea buckthorn bears fruit. Without a male sea buckthorn there will be no harvest. Planting trees should be close, because pollination occurs with the help of wind.
It is difficult to distinguish these plants, especially at an early age. But the difference exists:
- In the female plant there are small double buds. Male specimens have larger buds covered with 3-5 scales.
- Male seedlings are larger.
- The leaves have a different shape and color. On the female sea buckthorn leaves are green, male leaves are gray-gray and have a larger patina.
Care for this shrub is easy. It is important to loosen the ground, water and feed the plant, remove dried shoots. And then the sea buckthorn will bear fruit for about 12 years. After reaching the time when the tree ceases to bear fruit, you can cut it to the stump, it will give an incentive to grow new shoots, which in future will bear fruit again.
Sea buckthorn likes watering, especially in the heat. While picking berries, we recommend watering the sea buckthorn well and rinse the berries on the branches in one.
Feed need 4 times per season:
- The first time this is done in the spring.
- the second time during flowering, this is done with a solution of Gumat potassium.
- the other two supplements are carried out after flowering, with an interval of 20 days, for this purpose they use Effecton.
An important condition for care - trim the top. This contributes to the good development of the crown. Pruning is needed before bud break to remove unwanted, damaged branches and root shoots. This can be done at harvest time. The tree can grow up to 6 meters, for convenient harvesting it is important to regularly cut the tops. This is done with a sharp garden knife or pruner.
For prophylactic purposes, three-year branches are pruned.
Picking sea buckthorn berries
Varietal sea buckthorn produces a high yield in favorable conditions. The berries grow densely on the prickly branches of a tree, which requires a lot of time and patience in picking fruits. Harvest in late August. But if you make juice from berries, harvesting is postponed until early September. It is not necessary to tighten too much, the berries become soft and burst.
Options for collecting sea buckthorn
There are several sea buckthorn harvesting ideas:
- The traditional way is when every berry is torn off, but it is very long and tiring.
- Use different devices, for example, a stick with a hook. They remove the berries from the branch, and they fall into the prepared container.
- You can cut branches with fruits, and freeze. Frozen berries easier to remove from the branch. This method is suitable in case of further freezing of the fruit.
- If you make the juice of sea buckthorn, it is better to use the following method. Well wash your hands, and it is better to put on culinary gloves, and squeeze the juice directly on the branch. You need to start from the base and lead to the end of the branch. Ready juice will fall into the substituted basin. For an hour you can push up to 5 liters of nectar.
- Also there are many devices for picking berries. You can take a wooden handle and wire, make a loop from the wire. To pick a berry you need: put a loop on the fruit and sharply cut the footboard, the berries will fall into a bowl.
Recommendations for collecting sea buckthorn
- Berries should be cut from top to bottom of the branch.
- It is also important to wear gloves to avoid scratches on the spines and skin irritation. In order not to spoil the clothes, you can use an apron, because the sea-buckthorn juice can not be washed
- No need to wash the berries, otherwise part of the juice will be lost. Before collecting, you can rinse them directly on the bush.
- It is better to collect enameled ware.
- Recycle the same day when the crop was harvested.
There are many ways of breeding sea buckthorn:
- The easiest way to breed is seedsthey are sown in autumn. Shoots appear in a month. This method is used when breeding new varieties. Since this breeding gives male plants, they are used for decorative purposes or for grafting other varieties.
- Breeding root suckers used when sea buckthorn is not vaccinated. In the spring, the scion is separated from the mother plant, added dropwise and watered well. When the root system develops well, it can be transplanted to another place.
- For breeding layering better to take one-year shoots. The soil needs to be fertilized. After that, near the base of the bush make small grooves, in which young shoots are bent. The tops pinch a little. When young shoots grow 12 cm, they are sprinkled with moist soil and humus. In spring, rooted cuttings are transplanted to a permanent place.
- When transplanting to a new place, sea buckthorn is propagated dividing the bush. To do this, dig a bush, remove the old branches, leaving the young. When dividing the bush choose plants with a developed root system.
- For breeding green cuttings use non-bearing plants. In this case, you need a greenhouse or greenhouse. The cuttings should be 12 cm in size. The bottom two leaves are removed, the cuttings are immersed in the rooting solution for 12–15 hours. Then planted in a greenhouse with prepared soil. For this, the fertile land is mixed with peat and sand, in a ratio of 1: 3.
It is important to monitor the temperature and regularly water the cuttings, after a few weeks adventitious roots appear. A month later, gradually accustoming the plant to the outside air, the film can be removed.
- The most affordable way is reproduction. lignified cuttings. They are prepared in November and stored in the basement. In the spring, they are cut into 20 cm, they are soaked in water for several days, and then in a scavenger solution for a day. After which there are buds and the makings of the root.
Planted in the prepared soil cuttings, plentifully watered and mulch with humus. One year later, healthy seedlings are transplanted to a permanent place.
Diseases and pests
Most often, the sea buckthorn tree is sick from changes in temperature and humidity. The most serious disease is verticillary wilting. It is an incurable disease in which the berries shrivel and dry. The affected branches must be cut and discarded. If the disease reappears next year, the tree must be disposed of.
Such pests are known:
- Sea buckthorn moth. The caterpillars of these parasites crawl into the kidney and eat out the core. Spraying with Chlorophos will help to get rid of pests. This can be done before bud break.
- The same method is used in the fight against sea buckthorn fly. She can destroy the crop.
- Sea buckthorn aphid affects the leaves of the tree. They quickly turn yellow and fall off. Get rid of the parasites will help the broth with onion or garlic peels, or 10% Malathion.
Sea buckthorn fruits are very rich in vitamins and biological active substances. Sea buckthorn is very useful and has healing properties.
Fresh fruits can simply freeze or grind sugar. You can make juice from the berries, make jam or jam. Be sure to prepare for the winter sea buckthorn oil. This remedy is known for its anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory properties.
Having grown sea buckthorn in my area, you can provide the whole family with vitamins all year round. By consuming these berries every day, the body will receive a variety of nutrients.
Preparation of culture for the winter
The shrub does not require special care, but for a successful wintering of a young plant you can warm the tree trunk with dry leaves or peat. Timely autumn dressing will increase the winter hardiness of the plant.
Peculiarities of tree fruiting
The plant has received the name because of the bright berries that tightly dot (stick) thorny shoots. The plant preserves the crop on the branches before the onset of cold weather. But the marketability of the fruit with a delay in the collection of spoils.
Sea buckthorn is a wind-pollinated plant. During flowering pollen from male flowers is transferred by wind to female pistils. In the absence of wind during flowering, it is recommended to carry out pollination independently: a branch cut from a male plant is required to be held over female sea buckthorn.
When the sea buckthorn begins to bloom and bear fruit
Sea buckthorn - skoroplodny plant. The first fruits on wild plants will be born on the 2nd year of the life of the shrub in the garden. And what year will begin to bear varietal shrubs, indicate breeders in the description of the plant.
Terms of ripening and harvesting
Harvest berries are harvested when they reach the color and size characteristic of the variety. This usually occurs between the end of July and the end of September. Ripe berry juicy, it has a dense skin. When separated from the branches, the fruit retains its integrity. Berries accumulate the maximum amount of sugars and vitamins.
Shrub resistant to shattering fruits. Orange berries can decorate the twigs before frost. But their taste spoils: the amount of sugars decreases, the berries begin to sour. The skin is thinning, the fruits burst. From overripe fruits, quality blanks are not obtained. Therefore, harvesting is required in a timely manner.
The nuances of agricultural engineering in various regions of Russia
The shrub grows well and bears fruit in various regions of Russia. But when planting modern varieties, it is recommended to choose those that are bred for a particular region. Then the gardener will always receive a bountiful harvest.
Gardeners began to grow massively sea buckthorn in the suburbs in the 70s of the last century. On varieties it was not, everywhere grew ordinary krushenovidnaya. The climate and soils of the region are suitable for the cultivation of sea buckthorn. Now breeders have created more than 60 varieties that are listed in the State Register and recommended for cultivation in the region.
Ural and Siberia
In the Urals and Siberia, there are thickets of wild sea buckthorn, so local gardeners prefer to pick wild berry, rather than plant plants on the site. But breeders have created new varieties, their characteristics are better than those of wild ones. These shrubs gardeners placed in the country. When planting several cultivated saplings – girls it is permissible to have a wild boy for pollination.
When planting varietal sea buckthorn, you should choose species zoned for Siberia or the Urals. Such a shrub will easily endure winters with low temperatures and strong winds. To care for the cultivated sea buckthorn, growing in the Urals and in Siberia, follows the usual rules.
In the middle lane should be planted the same varieties of sea buckthorn, as in the Moscow region. The plant is excellent fruits to the east and west of the Moscow region. But the varieties created for regions with a warm climate freeze in the middle lane in winter. They are required to carefully cover in the area of pristvolny circles.
Seed propagation of sea buckthorn.
If you want to get a varietal seedling, it is better to use the vegetative methods of propagation of the crop, because the seedlings, as a rule, do not repeat the varietal characteristics of the parent plant. With the help of seed propagation, new plant varieties are usually derived. In addition, seedlings grown from seeds are used as rootstock in the propagation of sea buckthorn by grafting.
Germination of sea buckthorn seeds do not lose more than two years. At the end of April, after preliminary stratification for one and a half months in the lower drawer of the refrigerator, the seeds are sown to a small depth and germinated, as usual: in the light, in a warm place covered with glass. Shoots may appear in a week or two, and their first time shading from direct sunlight. In mid-June, seedlings are transplanted to a permanent place, after shortening a long taproot to stimulate the development of the root system.
Sea buckthorn diseases
For some reason, it has always been believed that sea buckthorn is little affected by diseases, but along with the spread of this culture in our gardens, it turned out that such a statement has no ground. Облепиха, как и другие плодовые деревья, поражается грибковыми, вирусными и бактериальными болезнями. Чаще всего облепиха страдает от таких заболеваний, как:
Эндомикоз - a fungal disease of focal nature, which manifests itself in early August on sea-buckthorn fruits, which become flabby, soft and filled with an odorless gray mucus. The shell of the affected berries erupts, and the content flows onto the neighboring berries, infecting them with endomikozy. Contribute to the development of the disease rains and dew.
Control measures. Sea buckthorn treatment consists of a two-stage treatment with one-percent Bordeaux liquid or copper oxychloride. The first treatment is carried out after the end of flowering, and the second in mid-July,
Black cancer It appears dark round spots on large branches. With the development of the disease in places of these spots the bark turns black, cracks and falls off, the wood darkens and rots. The causative agent of the disease penetrates through the place of frostbite or wound during pruning.
Control measures. Affected areas are cleaned from diseased bark and wood to healthy tissue, treated with blue vitriol, and then with a mixture of clay and mullein,
Blackleg, excited by soil fungi, it thins the stem of the seedling at the point of contact of the subforeless knee of the seedling with the soil. Young seedlings are affected by the disease.
Control measures. Grow seedlings on a substrate of washed sand mixed with sod land. As a preventive measure, water the seedlings with a pale pink solution of potassium permanganate once every few days, but if the disease still manifests, treat them with a solution of potassium permanganate daily:
Scab, or stegmina - This is a fungal disease that affects young shoots, leaves and fruits, often leads to drying of the shoots, and even the entire plant. In the middle of summer black, round, shiny spots are formed on the berries, gradually increasing in size. Then through the tears of the fruit appear pink or yellow mucous formations. Fruits dry and turn black. Black shoots appear on the shoots of the current year, black velvety spots and ulcers appear on the leaves. The bush looks like it was spattered with black ink.
Control measures. As a preventive measure, every autumn you should do a sanitary pruning of sea buckthorn, then burn all plant residues, and treat sea buckthorn with one-percent Bordeaux liquid no later than 20 days before harvesting,
Gray and brown rot - these diseases manifest in July, and rainy weather contributes to their development. From the gray rot, the fruits of the sea buckthorn shrivel and wither, and from the brown on the berries appear dark spots.
Control measures. Plants with signs of disease are cut and burned. As a preventive measure, the rules of sea buckthorn care - irrigation, loosening the soil, top dressing are strictly observed.
In addition to the diseases described, sea buckthorn can be affected by Fusarium, Verticillus, Alternaria, Fomoz, Sea buckthorn Terry, Ring Necrosis of Branches and Coryneum Necrosis, mixed and heart-shaped rot of the trunk, but you can never know how the symptoms of these diseases look like with Sea buckthorn agrotechnology.
Sea buckthorn pests
The most dangerous pests for sea buckthorn are:
Sea buckthorn moth - its caterpillars penetrate the kidneys during their swelling and eat them from the inside,
Control measures. The best way to get rid of moths is to treat sea buckthorn with Karbofos solution during the period of kidney swelling,
Sea buckthorn fly - the most dangerous for the plant pest that can destroy the entire crop. Flies take off in the second half of June. Their larvae eats into the berries and destroy the flesh of the fruit, from which they frown, darken and fall.
Control measures. It is possible to get rid of the sea buckthorn fly by treating the sea buckthorn in mid-July with a solution of Chlorophos,
Sea buckthorn aphid - a sucking insect that feeds on the sap of leaves and young shoots, settling on the underside of the leaf plate, which causes the sea buckthorn to turn yellow, its leaves curl and fall prematurely.
Control measures. If the aphids have multiplied, traditional methods of struggle, such as the treatment of infusions of onion peel or garlic, tobacco leaves with soap, may not give results, and you will have to resort to insecticides - sea buckthorn treatment with a 10% Karbofos solution during foliage blooming,
Sea buckthorn gall mite - A very small pest, sucking the juices from the young leaves of the plant, from which they swell, deform and fall.
Control measures. With gall mites, the same ways of dealing with aphids are effective.
In addition to the described pests, with inadequate care for the sea buckthorn, you may encounter other pests, but if you follow the agrotechnology of the crop, the diseases and pests of the sea buckthorn will bypass your garden.
It is a tree up to 15 m high with a trunk diameter of about 30 cm. The leaf blades of trees of this species are sharp, lanceolate, up to 8 cm long and up to 1.5 cm wide, whitish with a red-brown venation. The fruit is a round yellow drupe up to 7 mm long.
we described at the very beginning of the article. In our latitudes cultivated varieties of this particular plant species. Varieties of sea buckthorn are divided into Siberian and European, large-fruited and small-fruited, thorny and barrenless, early, medium ripening and late. Siberian varieties are not adapted to cultivation in European countries, because they do not tolerate soft winters with thaws. And European varieties are not cold-resistant enough for growing in Siberia.
We offer you a description of the best known today sea buckthorn varieties.
- – Pearl oyster - a very early productive and frost-resistant variety that does not tolerate heat and drought, from an ovoid shape fragrant orange-colored berries,
- – Krasnoplodnaya - strong-growing, spreading fruitful variety of medium cold-resistance, disease-resistant, with thorns located all over the stem, and fragrant, sour, reddish ovate-conical berries weighing up to 1 g,
- – Yin - not very high frost-resistant shrub with a spreading, but sparse crown. Berries of this variety are fragrant and sweet, tubularly rounded, red-orange color, weighing up to 1 g,
- – Openwork - bearingless, frost-resistant, drought-resistant, heat-resistant and high-yielding variety with elongated-cylindrical sour berries of yellow-orange color weighing up to 1 g,
- – Gold cascade - bearingless, not very fruitful variety, resistant to diseases and pests with ovoid fragrant sour-sweet orange-colored berries weighing 1 g.
Varieties of sea buckthorn.
These varieties include:
- – Glow - fruitful and frost-resistant, almost not affected by diseases and pests variety with a small number of small spines on the outer part of the shoots and sourish crimson-orange-colored berries,
- – Favorite - medium-sized tree or thorny shrub with large berries of bright carrot color weighing more than a gram. The variety has high frost resistance and resistance to pests and diseases.
- – Chanterelle - not susceptible to frost, pests and diseases high-yielding weakly sprawling, not very tall bush with large and medium berries of auburn color and great taste,
- – Botanical - winter-hardy, resistant to diseases and pests skoroplodny variety of industrial direction with moderate spinousness and large, fragrant oblong saffron-orange berries of a pleasant sour taste,
- – Pepper - low productive thorny bush with umbrella-shaped crown and orange oval sour berries with pineapple flavor.
Late varieties of sea buckthorn.
These varieties of sea buckthorn differ in that from the frost they become sweeter and firmly held on the branches even after frost. The most popular varieties of late ripening:
- – Elizabeth - one of the best high-yielding varieties of Russian breeding with shrubs of low growth and with a miniature crown. The berries are large, golden-orange, barrel-shaped, with a delicate and fragrant sour-sweet pulp,
- – Chuy - perfectly cold-resistant, skoroplodny, consistently fruitful variety, which, unfortunately, is not very resistant to fungal infections. The berries in this variety are medium sized, orange-colored, sweet-sour,
- – Zlata - consistently fruitful variety with thorns and large berries of egg-straw shade, rounded ovoid shape and sour taste,
- – Herringbone - scarce cold-resistant and disease-resistant variety with a narrow cone-shaped crown, resembling a young spruce in shape. The berries are small, sour, lemon green,
- – Giant - Bearing winter-hardy, consistently fruitful variety with large ovoid orange-colored berries of excellent taste.
How to plant sea buckthorn?
Sea buckthorn belongs to dioecious plants, that is, there are male and female bushes. When choosing seedlings, this nuance should be considered. Independently calculate the female and male cuttings is impossible. You can determine the floor only after flower buds start to form. Male plants have large-sized buds. Female kidneys are distinguished by their miniature size, as well as the presence of 2 instead of 5 covering scales.
After planting, sea buckthorn begins to bear fruit only for 4-6 year. Pay attention to the fact that, even if you need one shrub, you still have to plant two: a female and a male tree.
How to choose a sapling?
When choosing seedlings Follow these guidelines:
- do not buy plants from random sellers, buy a plant only from proven sellers who give a guarantee on their seedlings,
- a good seedling should have 4 to 6 skeletal roots,
- seedling length for planting should be about 20 cm,
- sapling must have several shoots
- Pay attention to the fact that the handle does not have scratches and darkening, which may indicate that the planting material was frostbite.
When choosing a seedling, inexperienced gardener, you should pay attention to the root growth of the sprout.
Choose zoned varieties of sea buckthorn, as they are already adapted to certain climatic conditions, so the likelihood that the stalk will take root becomes larger. Thus, varieties that grow well in the Altai may not settle down in the Northern part of Russia, since the plant is not accustomed to a sharp change in thaw and frost.
It is best to buy seedlings in nurseries.where you can not only buy a good sapling, but also get advice from experienced gardeners.
What are the advantages and disadvantages of spring and autumn planting?
Sea buckthorn planting in spring has the following advantages:
- the first harvest appears much earlier than during the autumn planting,
- the root system is strengthened before the onset of cold weather, so the plant tolerates winter well,
- during spring planting, you can prepare in advance the planting pit, which during the winter will have time to infuse, thereby increasing the fertility of the soil.
Before planting sea buckthorn in the spring, pay attention to such limitations:
- in the spring it is very difficult to choose the time for the plant to adapt to a new place before the start of sap flow,
- seedlings planted in spring require more careful care,
- spring is a very small assortment of seedlings, so you have to be content with what you have.
Autumn planting has the following advantages:
- in the fall, the assortment of seedlings on the shops is much larger
- When buying a seedling, the seller can immediately show the fruits of this tree,
- in the autumn period the price of planting material is much less
- When planting in autumn, you can water the plant less often,
- Trees planted in the fall begin to grow 2-3 weeks earlier than those planted in spring.
Autumn planting has the following minuses:
- the plant may die during frost,
- a strong wind can break young twigs,
- in winter, the plant can be attacked by various insects and rodents.
Before choosing the landing time, you should weigh the pros and cons, and you should also build on the weather conditions in your area.
How to prepare the soil for planting?
In order to prepare the soil for planting a series of simple manipulations should be carried out.
Land on the site where the bush will be planted, should be well leveled, scattered slaked lime, and dig. Digging should be on a full bayonet shovels. After 10–15 days after this procedure, you can feed.
How to fertilize the soil?
For fertilizer, use humus, manure and compost. Of mineral fertilizer is recommended to use complex additives and superphosphate.
If the land is clay, it is best to add some sand. At 1 square meter you will need 2 buckets of sand.
Fertilizers can be laid over the whole area or directly into the planting pits. The second option is much more economical.
How to plant sea buckthorn: basic recommendations
Planting sea buckthorn involves the following actions:
- dig holes 30–40 cm deep and 50 cm in diameter, the pits should be 2.5 meters apart,
- make a small mound in the hole and plant a cutting there,
- spread the roots gently across the hole
- sprinkle the plant with earth until the root neck of the cutting,
- around the cutting make a small hole
- sing the plant with water, at the rate of 2 buckets per 1 plant,
- Mulch the soil with peat or humus.
Sea buckthorn: planting and care
In the first few years after planting, the plant can not feed fertilizer, since the planting was laid a sufficient amount of nutrients.
One of the main points of care for the sea buckthorn is the maintenance of soil moisture. Care should be taken to ensure that the soil does not dry out or the moisture does not stagnate for a long time, otherwise the roots may begin to rot or dry out.
Do not forget to carry out the prevention of disease and the appearance of insects. Chemicals can adversely affect the fruits of the plant, so experienced gardeners recommend the use of biological additives.
Note that in the first year after planting, should form the correct crown. To do this, remove all the branches that grow in the wrong direction, as well as those that are dry or very weak. This procedure should be carried out before the kidneys begin to form.
How to transplant a plant?
Plant transplantation is practically no different from the initial planting. Sea buckthorn is best transplanted in the spring, but it is also possible in the fall.
If transplanted in the spring, the plant will recover faster and get used to the environment. When transplanted in the fall there is a risk that the plant is not accepted or will freeze.
Many experienced gardeners do not recommend transplanting a sea buckthorn bush, as there is a high risk of damaging the root system.
How does sea buckthorn bloom?
Sea buckthorn begins to bloom in late April or early May. Simultaneously with the flowering leaves begin to appear. Male flowers have a silver-brown color, while female flowers have a yellow color.
The fruits of sea buckthorn ripen in late August - early September. They have a cylindrical shape and brown or red-orange color. To taste, these fruits are bitter-sour, and have a peculiar smell, which can remotely resemble pineapple.
As a result, it should be noted that sea buckthorn fruits are the most useful berries. This plant unpretentious in growing, it can be planted both in autumn and in spring.
Useful properties of sea buckthorn.
Not only the fruits of sea buckthorn have medicinal properties, but also its leaves and branches. Sea buckthorn contains oxalic, tartaric and malic organic acids, vitamins C, B1, B2, PP, K, E, carotene and carotenoids, flavonoids, manganese, boron and iron, tannins, phytoncides, oleic and linoleic fatty acids.
Sea buckthorn fruits contain serotonin, which is of great importance for the normal activity of the human nervous system, as well as beta-sitosterol, which has anti-sclerotic effect. A decoction of sea buckthorn berries is indicated for gastric and duodenal ulcers. Applying fresh berries treat frostbite, burns and ulcers. Men over the age of forty have shown sea buckthorn berries as a means of increasing potency.
The leaves and fruits of sea buckthorn are derived from the body of oxalic and uric acid, the infusion of the leaves of the plant is used in the treatment of gout, rheumatism and diabetes. Broth leaves and branches of sea buckthorn prescribed for disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. Dry leaves are brewed as tea with scurvy symptoms.
But perhaps the most valuable product is sea buckthorn oil, which has a strong bactericidal effect. It contains vitamin E, vitamin F, regulating the metabolism in the skin, sterols, trace elements and minerals silicon, silver, copper, vanadium, nickel, manganese and cobalt. Apply the oil both externally and internally. Its action increases the amount of protein in the liver, improves lipid metabolism, stimulates regenerative processes in damaged tissues. Sea buckthorn oil with chronic pharyngitis and laryngitis lubricate the oral mucosa, it is used for inhalation. Dermatologists recommend using sea buckthorn oil to enhance hair growth, which fell out as a result of certain skin diseases.
Preparations based on sea buckthorn oil can repeatedly improve the body's tolerance of anticancer drugs, and sometimes even enhance their therapeutic effect. Кормящим матерям для укрепления иммунитета ребенка рекомендуют с месячного возраста добавлять в молоко для младенца несколько капель облепихового масла.
Облепиха – противопоказания.
Can there be harm from sea buckthorn? Since there is a lot of carotene in its berries, sea buckthorn can cause an allergic reaction in people with reduced immunity. Due to the presence in the berry of a large amount of acids, it is not recommended to use sea buckthorn for people suffering from liver diseases, pancreatitis, cholecystitis and duodenal inflammation, especially if the disease is in an acute stage. Contraindication is also a tendency to loose stools. Since the berries increase the acidity of urine, the use of sea buckthorn is not recommended for patients with urolithiasis. Sea buckthorn is also dangerous for those who suffer from its individual intolerance.