When I arrived at my father-in-law's house, I decided to drink a cup of herbs — good, I saw mint on a flower bed. But as soon as she brought a hand with a knife over the succulent twigs, the mother-in-law cried out: “What are you, this is heliotrope”! It turned out that I wanted to kill by cutting out innocent garden flowers for tea. And they turned out to be preznyatnymi ...
What kind of flower
The flower has earned its popularity due to the exquisite smell of flowers - on a summer evening (especially after rain) it seems that the flowerbed smells of cinnamon, vanilla or both seasonings at the same time. Although, of course, not all varieties have a bright, attractive smell.
It's a shame, but the more trouble-free and “indestructible” the variety, the less noticeable the smell of its flowers. Such a fee for the comfort of the gardener!
The name of this herbaceous perennial translates as "turning after the sun." Heliotrope brought to us from both Americas, as well as the Mediterranean. In nature, you can find almost 300 types of such flowers.
We grow it as a perennial room or garden annual. Moreover, decorative appear as flowers (rich purple or blue, rarely blue or white), and leaves - pubescent, large, green, covered with deep veins.
How to grow this beauty
There are two ways. The first is good for indoor gardening, the second - for an open flower garden. True, remember: the seeds are not sown in open ground, they germinate too long - from sowing to the appearance of flowers it takes more than 3 months. So get ready to start in advance - even in winter, and prepare the container for seedlings.
Reproduction by cuttings
Everything is easier: cut a healthy "twig", thrust it into a moist, light, nourishing soil. From above, it is advisable to make a "hotbed" of an inverted jar (although I personally use a transparent cake lid - it is light and comfortable).
Keep your greenhouse on the sunny windowsill, from time to time, remove the jar for watering and just run inside the fresh air, and your cutting will take root.
The best time to separate the cutting: January-February.
If you want to multiply the plant from the flower bed - no problem! Just dig the strongest bush in advance, transfer it to the house, to the pot, and in winter divide it into cuttings. Keep this plant at normal temperature. By the way, if the hands did not reach the cuttings, in the spring just transfer the flower back to the flower bed.
- Sowing plan for the end of February - early March.
- Good soil: 1 part sand and 4 parts peat. In such a good and cuttings rooting.
- Seeds do not deepen, they are too small. They need to be scattered on the soil, only slightly powdered on top.
- Like cuttings, future sprouts are better to cherish under the greenhouse. In this case, even fit a piece of glass, laid on top of the pot. And if the room is dark all the time, it is better to hang a lamp over the greenhouse - sprouts need about 10 hours of light a day.
- With a stable temperature (from 18 to 20 degrees) sprouts appear after 5-10 days. As soon as you see their green heads, the glass can be removed. Take care that the temperature near the hill is even higher - about 22 degrees.
- Picks are carried out when kids grow 2-3 real leaves. Do not bother with the soil - take the same sand-peat one. After transplantation, do not forget to water the sprouts well.
- When sprouts learn new pots (it will take about 12-15 days), they can be fed. Suit the usual top dressing for seedlings.
Important! If you did not buy the seeds, but collected on your plot (or from a neighbor), the next year you can expect "unexpected".
The fact is that the flowers expressed in this way may turn out to be completely different, not like the “mother”, without retaining the varietal characteristics.
You will learn more about growing heliotrope from seeds in this video:
Landing in open ground
- A good time for this is the beginning of June. Night frosts by this time end, and fragile shoots are not in danger.
- Choose a bright flower bed, without stagnant water.
- Soil should not be heavy. If your area is loamy, put some peat and / or sand in the flowerbed.
- In the hole before planting it is good to put a bit of leaf or manure.
- Sprouts must pass, without shaking the ground from the roots.
- The distance between the bushes: 30 cm on each side.
- After the flowers in the holes will be covered with earth and slightly wadded, you can put humus on top.
- After planting heliotrope watered. In the first two weeks of life in the flowerbed, you can pamper the flower with watering three times a week, then - as the soil dries.
Basic heliotrope care
- Watering. Watering can need to get as soon as the top of the soil in the flower bed dries.
- Water treatments. This plant is very fond of spraying. And this applies not only to adult bushes, but also seedlings.
- Mulching. Protect the land from drying in the form of a crust, reduce the number of weeds, which means that you will have less work. Peat or compost will work well as mulch.
- Top dressing. Your option - mineral complex fertilizer. It needs to be made before flowering, twice a month.
- Topping. It should not be carried out often, but the rare "taming" of shoots will help the bush to bloom more magnificently.
Is it possible to grow it in the apartment
Of course! In this case, the flower care is needed the same as the garden heliotrope - but at the same time it will delight you in the pot for more than one year, but much longer.
Make sure that the room is about 25 degrees in the summer (in the winter it can be rearranged to an enclosed balcony, where it stays around 6 degrees) Your pet will bloom from May to August - all this time feed it with a mixture for flowering plants.
And do not forget about the specific aroma of the flower - it is not suitable for everyone (allergy ...), so you should always have a “path to retreat”, that is, a window where you can move too smelling pot, where it will not interfere with anyone.
Experienced gardeners consider: there are several types of heliotrope (Peruvian or tree, European, shield-like, Kurasavsky, stem-wide), but only the varieties of Peruvian heliotrope are well tolerated in the apartment.
Heliotrope can also be grown on the balcony, if he gets enough light there - he loves him very much.
By the way! Above, I talked about the cultural, beautiful heliotrope. But this plant has a dangerous brother that grows in our wild nature, most often as a weed.
Meet the heliotrope elliptical. It certainly cannot be confused with mint or with any other seasoning - this plant can destroy our body, destroying the liver. What this green "murderer" looks like, this video will show:
Any of the species of this plant has dark green pubescent leaves alternate, obovoid-shaped. Short leaflets may be wrinkled or wavy. The small fragrant flowers are colored dark blue or purple, and they are gathered in fluffy shields. These flowers contain valuable essential oil, and it is still widely used in the perfume industry. However, it should be noted that there are such species, in the shoots of which there is a poisonous alkaloid, called cynoglossin, while in the seeds there is - lasiocarpine. These substances have a paralyzing effect on the central nervous system of the human body, as well as animals. However, as a rule, such species do not grow as garden crops.
The flowering of each peduncle lasts about 4 weeks. After flowering, fruits (cenoby) are formed, which after ripening are divided into 4 parts (eremas). In each of the parts are small seeds of the plant. In favorable climatic conditions, heliotrope is grown as a perennial, but in middle latitudes with frosty winters it is grown as an annual.
Cultivation of seeds in open ground
Everyone who has decided to grow such a flower from seeds should be remembered that the choice of planting material should be taken responsibly. You only need to buy seeds in a good specialty store, and preference should be given to such proven brands as: Prestige, Search, Johnsons or Unwins Seeds, because they can guarantee high quality and good grade of seeds. In that case, if the planting material is of good quality, then the flowering from the moment of appearance of the seedling will come in 3-4 months. If you decide to sow independently collected seeds, then you need to be prepared for the fact that they germinate quite badly, such plants bloom only at the end of the summer period, the bushes themselves may be of different heights, and their inflorescences are smaller than usual.
Sowing on seedlings
It is necessary to sow seeds for seedlings at the end of the winter beginning of the spring period. An earth mixture consisting of peat and sand (4: 1) must be carefully steamed to eliminate the possibility of seed infection with various fungal infections. In the container you need to pour the prepared mixture and seal it with a plank. After that, you can start sowing, for this you need to evenly distribute seeds on the surface of the substrate, and then sprinkle them with the same mixture from above, and the layer should be equal to 0.1–0.2 centimeters, but not more. Capacity from above you need to close the glass or film, and then it must be put in heat (from 18 to 20 degrees). After the seedlings appear, approximately 5–20 days after sowing, the glass should be removed from the tank and rearranged to the window sill. The temperature should be slightly increased to 20-22 degrees. At the same time, bright illumination of the seedlings is not required, since they grow well and without it well.
When seedlings grow on 2 true leaves, they will need to dive. They are seated in separate pots with nine-centimeter diameter, while filling them with the same dredge. After transplantation, seedlings should be watered. After half a month after the picking, you should feed the young plants. For this use fertilizer for seedlings.
Transplant in open ground this flower should be in early summer, when the threat of frost at night is over. A suitable place for heliotrope should be sunny, and the soil at the same time needs a loose, well-permeable water enriched with nutrients, as well as containing large amounts of humus.
In the prepared hole should pour sheet and dung humus. After that, you need to gently cross the flower and cover it with ordinary garden soil. The soil is compressed near the plant, and then produce watering.
In order for the plant to grow and develop normally, a proper watering regime is needed. Water it only when necessary, in dry weather watering will be more frequent. When the plant is watered, you need to gently loosen the soil between the bushes, while removing all the weeds. When mulching the soil, the frequency of weeding, watering and loosening is sharply reduced. 2 times a month heliotrope will need to be fed, and you need to continue to do this right up to the beginning of intensive flowering. To do this, use the full complex fertilizer.
Diseases and pests
Aphids, spider mites and whiteflies can live on the plant. In order to get rid of these harmful insects, it is necessary to process the flower by means of Actellic. In the event that it is not possible to destroy all insects from one time, then the heliotrope must be re-processed after 7 days.
A flower can get gray rot. This fungal disease can be eliminated only in the initial stage. After detecting signs of the disease, it is necessary to treat with a fungicide.
This plant has not only a wonderful aroma. So, he has long been very popular in traditional medicine. It is used to treat kidney disease, as well as an antihelminthic. It is also used in the treatment of skin diseases such as warts or lichen. However, in Germany, this plant is obsolete because it contains a life-threatening alkaloid. In this regard, when using heliotrope as a drug, you need to be extremely careful and it is best to consult with a qualified specialist before using it.
How and at what time you need to collect seeds
Even an inexperienced florist can plant such a plant and care for it. But far from everyone will cope with generative reproduction, especially if the seeds were collected from their garden. This breeding process is quite complicated and a positive result is only in rare cases, because the seeds in the middle lane just do not have time to mature properly. It is worth considering whether it is necessary to spend time and energy to collect seeds, of which at best not very beautiful plants will grow. It is much easier to sow purchased seeds, from which beautiful flowers are guaranteed to grow. But in that case, if you really want to try growing heliotropes from seeds collected by yourself, then you will have to wait until the inflorescence withers, dries and turns black. Then it carefully breaks down, and small seeds are extracted from it. The pulled seeds should be sorted, dried and poured into a box of cardboard for further storage.
Heliotrope in winter
Since it is grown as an annual, in the fall the bushes are simply destroyed, because the land will have to be fertilized and dug up. However, in the event that there is a desire to grow such a plant in the winter at home, it is necessary to dig up the mother part of the flower before the onset of the first frost, plant it in a flower pot and bring it home. Heliotrope will need additional lighting, as well as coolness (15-18 degrees), in which case it will bloom for a very long time, filling the room with a unique aroma. In the spring, with such a flower, if necessary, you can cut the cuttings and root them.
Main species and varieties
In nature, there are a huge number of species of such a plant, but at the same time they grow only 3 in room conditions. Heliotrope is Peruvian or tree (Heliotropium peruvianum, arborescens) - it is the most common shrub species. As well as the heliotrope stem-wide (Heliotropium amplexicaulis) and the heliotrope shield-like (Heliotropium corymbosum). The shield-covered heliotrope has rather large flowers and not very wide leaflets in comparison with Peruvian, and the stalk comprehensive is a short-growing species.
Heliotrope Peruvian or heliotrope tree - in height can reach 60 centimeters. Its short-petaled, wrinkled, obovoid-shaped leaflets have pubescence. The flowers are painted in dark purple or dark blue color and are collected in inflorescences, the diameter of which can reach 10-15 centimeters. Blossoming plentiful and lasts until the beginning of frosts. The most popular is the Marin variety, which has dark green leaves with a purple tint and dark purple flowers. There are many varieties of this variety, for example: Mini Marin, Dwarf Marin, Princess Marin, Marin Blue and others. Also popular are varieties such as “Rigal Dwarf” - which is compact, and “White Lady” - which has pink buds, but when they open, the flowers are painted in pure white.
Heliotrope Peruvian is a perennial, rooted in a temperate climate as an annual plant, as it happened, for example, with ganani. Its bushes branch out with straight, sprawling stems up to 60 cm high. The leaves are not uniform green, darkish above and lighter below, pubescent, wrinkled. Inflorescences with a diameter of up to 15 cm, include small, fragrant, dark purple or dark blue flowers, flaming from the beginning of summer to the first autumn frosts.
It should be noted that the delightful aroma of heliotrope grown from seeds is somewhat lost in our time, due to the characteristics of the selective approach, aimed not at enhancing the aromatic properties, but at the development of decorative ones.
Therefore, the intensity of the fragrance may differ upon a detailed study of even the same variety, which is why experts before buying flowering seedlings suggest smelling the plants - most likely, some of them will smell more distinctly.
Varieties and types
The most popular of the Peruvian varieties in the gardens is heliotrope marin. It is quite compact, with an inflorescence diameter of 15 cm, dark purple flowers and dark green-purple foliage. The standard height of flowers of this variety is 45-50 cm. It takes root well and begins to bloom in the same year after sowing.
Heliotrope Sea Breeze - very beautiful variety belonging to the corymbose. Its small flowers create the illusion of easy rippling in the water. The variegated inflorescences are dark blue or purple, and the leaves are colored like those of the Marin variety. The bush can grow 45 cm from the ground. This variety is very fragrant and looks great on the curb.
Heliotrope Odyssey - It is a dense grassy bush less than 30 cm tall, with fragrant small flowers. Rich and long blooms in summer. В основном используется при озеленении балконов и в ковровых цветниках.
Гелиотроп опушенноплодный — ядовитое растение, которое нельзя использовать ни в садоводстве, ни в других сферах. It is characterized by a branchy stem from 20 to 50 cm tall, oval or almost round leaves, small flowers with curls on the tops of the branches and the stem on one side and small pubescent decaying when ripe. Distributed in the south-east of the Russian Federation, in Azerbaijan, growing along the roads and littering the wheat crops. If you find this plant in your own flower garden, know that it is better to get rid of it!
Heliotrope hybrid - grows up to 50 cm in height, has straight branched stems. Dark green foliage elongated heavily pubescent. Small flowers form inflorescences up to 15 cm in diameter with violet, lilac or white colors with a very pleasant smell.
Completely white color of inflorescences characteristic of the variety. Heliotrope Alba. At grade Heliotrope White Lady The flowers are pink, but turn white when they bloom.
Heliotrope planting and care
Planting heliotrope in the open ground is impossible without the preliminary cultivation of seedlings, due to the fact that after germination approximately 100 days pass before the inflorescences are formed.
Seeds should be sown at the final stage of winter or on the first March days in a specially prepared substrate consisting of 4 parts of peat per 1 part of sand. The mixture must be steamed and must be calcined to destroy the fungus.
After filling the container with soil, it is recommended to level it well and compact it a little, then simply sprinkle the heliotrope seeds over the surface and lightly sprinkle it on top of the ground. In the room where the seeds will grow, temperature conditions close to the room should be observed - 18–20 ° C, and 22 ° C - when sprouts appear.
With the advent of 2-3 leaves, the plants are seated in containers and watered abundantly. During the germination of seeds soil moisture in the greenhouse is necessary, for which the soil is lightly sprayed.
The heliotrope seedlings can be planted in open ground in the first days of June, when the nighttime cold spells have ended, on a sunny plot with loosened, preferably fertile, humus-rich soil.
Heliotrope is a sun-loving plant, but it does not tolerate the direct scorching rays of the sun. Pinching sometimes shoots, you can make heliotrope bloom more lush.
Some gardeners confidently believe that heliotrope should be attributed to fastidious plants, but this opinion is not confirmed if the plant is watered in the right way.
In fact, he likes moisture, but he really doesn’t like excess water, so it’s better to maintain optimum soil moisture - when it dries, it’s worth watering. Moreover, the creation of conditions of slightly increased humidity, which is typical for tropical zones, will only be beneficial by spraying.
If you make mulching of the soil with compost or peat, it will become easier to care for heliotrope, because you will not often have to loosen the soil. The loosening procedure itself is obligatory, because this is how the earth is protected from the occurrence of a crust. Fertilized soil also does not require frequent watering.
We keep heliotrope in winter
The plant can not winter in open ground. Before the onset of cold weather, he is transplanted into a pot and sent for wintering into an apartment, well-lit room. At the same time, the flower is protected from direct sunlight, as a result of which delicate leaves can acquire a non-native dark shade or even burn a burn.
Fertilizers for heliotrope
Fertilizing heliotrope is recommended throughout the season, regularly with an interval of 2-3 weeks. Liquid and highly diluted complex mineral fertilizers are excellent for these purposes. After 2 weeks after the occurrence of 2-3 leaves in the seedlings, fertilizing for the seedlings begins.
Heliotrope seed cultivation
Reproduction of heliotrope seeds is carried out in February or March in a wet sand mixture with peat. The boxes are covered with glass or film. After 3-4 weeks, sprouts will appear, then you need to move the boxes into the space with diffused light and keep the temperature around them in the region of 22-23 ° C.
Watering is better with settled water at room temperature. Seed propagation provides a heterogeneous material for planting with fast-growing seedlings, large bushes, flowering in the fall and small inflorescences.
Reproduction heliotrope cuttings
Based on the above, we can conclude that heliotropes are often bred by cuttings. It is best to cope with the role of the mother liquor old individuals, giving in the spring significantly more quality cuttings.
During the winter season, the queen cells are kept in greenhouses, keeping the surrounding thermal regime in the range of 8–15 ° C and producing moderate watering. From the 2nd half of the last month of winter and until May, they are grafted by cutting off shoots with 3-4 internodes, performing pruning of leaves to reduce the waste of moisture.
Cuttings treated with growth compounds are planted in boxes filled with humus and sand in proportions (2: 1) and placed in a ventilated illuminated place under a film or glass. While rooting occurs, the temperature needs to be stabilized at the level of 22-25 ° С, while watering the plants every day.
Already after 18-25 days, roots may appear, and cuttings should be planted in peat pots with fertilized loosened substrate fertilized with minerals, including peat, soddy soil and sand in proportion to 4: 2: 1.
The first week after transplantation the youngsters are kept in shady places and sprayed 2-3 times a day with water. By repeatedly pinching the seedlings, you can achieve greater compactness of the adult heliotrope. It is better to plant in the ground at a distance of 15-20 cm from each other.
Diseases and pests
- Of all the pests of the heliotrope enemies, it is necessary to isolate the flower spider mite that infects young shoots and leaves.
- Besides it, diseases can be caused by whitefly and aphids.
It is preferable to deal with all of them using the “Actellic” agent, repeating the treatment in a week if necessary. Fungicides can be used against gray mold.
Varieties and varieties of heliotropes
Heliotrope belongs to the Burachnikov family, whose representatives are grassy (semi-shrub) annuals and perennials. The peculiarity of plants is that they unfold following the movement of the sun. Due to its delicious aroma, heliotropes are often used in perfumery. Take a look at the charming photo of the colorful and gentle heliotrope.
These plants have dark green leaves on short petioles. Their small flowers have a rich blue or purple hue. At home, they can grow for several years, but in the open field heliotropes are grown as an annual crop.
This genus includes about 250 different species, of which the most famous can be distinguished:
The latter is the most popular. It represents a perennial culture, but is used in the open ground as an annual. Reaches about 50 cm in height. Its leaves are wrinkled. The flowering period lasts from June to late autumn. You can see a representative of this type in the photo.
Select several of its varieties
- Princess marina. Its height reaches only 30 cm, has a subtle aroma and rich color.
- Mini Marin. It is characterized by dark green leaves with a purple tinge and purple-blue flowers.
- Black Beauty. Representatives are distinguished by expressive vanilla flavor and purple color.
- Dwarf Marin. These plants reach a height of only 35 cm, and their color is dark blue.
Planting a plant
Nothing decorates your flower garden with a charming vanilla smell like an amazing heliotrope. Planting and caring for this plant begins with the selection of a suitable place for cultivation.
Planted in open ground perennial culture can be with the end of the last cold weather. An excellent choice will be fertile soil containing humus, loose and permeable. These plants love open sunny areas.
In the hole before planting, you must add humus. Then the plant is placed in the hole, added dropwise with earth, slightly compacted and poured with water.
Caring for heliotrope and plant nutrition
The main feature of heliotrope care is timely and moderate soil moistening. After the irrigation procedure, it is recommended to weed the soil around the plants from weeds and lightly plow through. This will have to be done much less frequently if the soil is mulched. For the purpose of good development and abundant flowering, heliotropes are recommended to be periodically clamped.
Heliotropes react superbly to the introduction of various dressings. For example, you can once a fortnight to make feeding in the form of complex mineral fertilizers. This procedure can continue until the beginning of the flowering period. Fertilizers contribute to greater bush splendor and rich blooms.
Seeds for breeding are best purchased at the store. Growing plants from your own seeds can cause some difficulties. For example, poor seedlings, different height of the bushes, small flowers, etc. If you plant good seeds, the plant will bloom after 15-16 weeks after the emergence of the seedlings.
The optimal time for planting will be the beginning of March. For this you need a mixture of peat and sand. To avoid seed infestation by fungi, the mixture is steamed, poured into a prepared container and compacted slightly. Next, sprinkle the seeds on the soil and lightly sprinkle them with the same mixture. The container is covered with glass and kept in a room with a temperature of 18-20 degrees. With the appearance of the first shoots, the glass is removed and the container is placed on the windowsill (the temperature should be 20-22 degrees).
Council To ensure that seedlings grow and develop normally, provide them with good lighting.
After the appearance of leaves, shoots dive into separate pots filled with the same soil mixture and watered with a moderate amount of water. After two weeks, young plants can be fertilized with fertilizers.
Heliotrope: combination with other plants
This wonderful plant in flowerbeds goes well with coreopsis, begonias, rudbeckia, coleus, etc. In addition, spectacular combinations are obtained by planting different varieties of heliotrope with petunias or cineraria. Variants of successful combinations you can view on the presented photos.
Heliotrope in landscape design
The bright and long flowering of heliotropes could not be overlooked, so the plant took pride of place in modern landscape design. Heliotropes are used to decorate lush colorful flowerbeds, flower borders. They look especially impressive and contrast against the background of a saturated green lawn. In addition, these plants look good as potted crops that decorate balconies. In this case, they are formed in the form of small trees on a trunk.
Heliotrope is a representative of the Burachnikov family, migrated to us from South America and the Mediterranean. Ornamental heliotrope species have the appearance of a small shrub with a height of 20-60 cm.
Heliotrope is notable for small flowers of white, blue or purple color, grouped in lush caps-inflorescences. Inflorescences are located on straight, long peduncles.
It looks like heliotrope in the garden.
Thanks to the breeding work created many varieties of cultures of different flowering period. You can pick them up so that the bushes bloom throughout the season. Heliotrope is a light-loving, heat-loving plant, therefore it is afraid of frost and dies when the temperature drops.
In native climatic conditions, the culture is grown as a perennial. In mid-latitudes with frosty winters, growing conditions allow cultivating a flower as an annual. Hybrid varieties can be grown indoors.
Reproduction heliotrope - a difficult process that requires enough attention and effort. Like many plants, heliotrope can be propagated by seed or cuttings. Both methods contain some difficulties.
In the first case, the difficulty lies in the long period of flower development.
Propagation by cuttings is more suitable for the southern regions of Russia. In regions with cold winters, certain actions will be required to obtain a positive result.
Rassadny method of growing
In order to increase the duration of the flowering of the crop, it is more practical to propagate the seedling flower in a seedling way.
Sowing seeds for seedlings.
- Sowing heliotrope on seedlings should be carried out from late February to 10 March.
- The soil for sowing is prepared from peat and sand (4: 1).
- Before use, it must be disinfected, for example, calcined or shed phytosporin. This will eliminate the possibility of seed infection with various fungal infections.
- Fill the container or seedling box with the prepared soil for sowing seeds and compact it slightly.
- Seeds are evenly distributed over the soil surface, and then lightly sprinkled with earth or sand, a layer of 2 mm maximum.
- The container or any container with crops needs to be closed with glass or film and put in a warm place with a temperature of +15 to +20 degrees. Seeds sprout 2-3 weeks.
This process can be accelerated by soaking the seeds in a zircon solution (3 drops in 100 ml of water at room temperature) for 14 hours. This will increase the resistance of the seedlings to adverse conditions. Zircon-treated seeds will sprout within 4-7 days after sowing.
- After the emergence of seedlings from the seedling box, you need to remove the glass and move the box to the lighted place.
- The temperature is raised to +20 - +24 degrees. From the bright sun shoots should be protected.
- Caring for seedlings is a moderate soil moistening.
- Pick up of seedlings is made when two true leaflets appear on the seedlings. Sampling pots are used with a diameter of at least 10 cm.
- When transplanting the seedlings are buried to the cotyledon leaves, watered.
- In 10-14 days after the picking it is necessary to feed the seedlings. As a fertilizer used fertilizer Ideal or Effecton.
Planting seedlings in open ground
To transplant heliotrope seedlings into open ground should be in early June, when the likelihood of morning frost is over. The site for planting seedlings should be sunny, and the ground should be loose, well-translucent, nutrient-containing, containing leaf humus.
Seedlings heliotrope before planting in the ground.
It is important to avoid planting heliotrope in soil with close groundwater storage.
Planting seedlings in the ground consists of several steps:
- Preparation of holes for seedlings. Earthen ball should be completely fit in the landing hole. If the seedlings are in peat pots, then the size of the seedling hole should be slightly larger than the size of the peat pot. At the bottom of the hole poured sheet humus.
- The holes for planting seedlings are located at a distance of 20-25 cm, since the heliotrope bush is thick. Seedlings are planted in prepared wells by the method of transshipment, avoiding damage to the roots.
- The seedlings are filled with soil, slightly compacted around the plant. After planting, the seedlings are watered abundantly, the tops pinch.
The heliotrope blooms in July and lasts until frost.
Some features of the flower
Breeders brought about 300 species of this culture. In temperate latitudes (with frosty winters), only annuals are grown, although for home conditions many people acquire perennial varieties.
It is possible to give splendor to a bush and flowering with the help of mineral fertilizers. Fertilizing make every 14 days until the first buds of the ovaries.
The flowering period lasts more than one month, starting in July (depending on the area) and ending with the first decrease in temperature. This representative of the Buryachnikov family grows exclusively in open areas that are sufficiently heated by the sun. The name of the flower heliotrope comes from 2 Latin words: “turn” and “sun”. It accurately describes the nature of the plant. Outwardly, this prim shrub has the following features:
- Leaves. The color is dark green, and the shape resembles a small inverted boat. Thanks to the symmetrically located veins, the leaves have a relief structure. On the stem, they are staggered and impaled on small stalks.
- Flowers One shield holds dozens of small flowers. The diameter of such a flowering is about 25 cm. The pedicle is long and straight. Basically they are made by the Great Artist in dark blue and purple colors. However, there are instances of a white tint (White Lady), as well as with a yellow / brownish midpoint (Kurasovsky).
- Fruit. When they ripen, they break up into four lobules. If you collect them in time, they are suitable for planting heliotrope for next year. It should be borne in mind that in the northern regions the seeds do not have time to ripen, so they do not grow well, and their flowers are small and poor.
Plant shrubs should be on the sunny side of the infield. The land should be rich in humus and with shallow groundwater. Watering a bed should be often, but make sure that the water does not stagnate. Moreover, in order for the culture to develop successfully, it needs pinching of the shoots, the tops. After all, some varieties reach 30-60 cm in height.
Weeds can drown out the root system, so it is important to regularly weed the soil. Чтобы почва не засыхала в жаркое лето, можно сделать мульчу из листьев и травы.
Самым оптимальным экспонатом для сада признан гелиотроп Марин, потому что он выбрасывает пышный цвет и отлично ветвится. Эксперты рекомендуют выращивать его исключительно с помощью рассады. Семена могут не дать необходимые всходы. Gardeners practice planting after the last frosts have passed - in March. As a result, the first sprouts can be seen in a month, and a gorgeous bloom - in four. To speed up the process of growing heliotrope from seeds (you can see their photos), you should perform the following procedures:
- Cotton fabric is impregnated with a growth accelerator. The seeds are wrapped in it and left on a plastic pallet. As the material dries, a solution is added. The procedure is carried out for 2-3 days.
- Instead of the usual soil using compressed tablets of peat.
- For 24 hours, soak the seeds in the solution. Silver or zircon is used as a growth accelerator. In a glass of warm liquid add 6 drops of the selected chemical element. Before sowing, seeds should be dried on a towel.
Such actions will protect the heliotrope plant from diseases and pests, as well as make it more resistant to temperature extremes. In this case, the first shoots of the gardener to see after 10 days, and not 30. When more than two leaves appear on the stems, and this will happen in a month or two or two, the saplings will swoop in 2 runs. First, they are transplanted in batches of 6-10. in one container. After they grow up a little, they are transferred to pots: individually or in groups (the distance between them is 10-15 cm).
It is important to tie up blossoming branches that the bed looked solidly. Otherwise, heliotrope "collapse" on the site, becoming a carpet.
Heliotrope tree is a very demanding inhabitant of the garden. But still thousands of gardeners multiply it with cuttings. March and April are a good time for this method. In the peat soil, fertilized with humus, planted cuttings. The microclimate should be wet, and the temperature should not be below 18 degrees. It is desirable to create for it a miniature greenhouse. A can or film is best suited, but do not forget about daily ventilation. When the roots appear, the shoots are transplanted into separate containers. When the roots take root, they are boldly transferred to a permanent place.
From planting substrate, lighting, feeding and regular watering depends presentable plant species. Leaves wither and grow dull if the culture grows in the shade. Therefore, it should choose the south or south-west side of the site. At home, the plant in high-quality and daily ventilation.
It should be used soil without admixture of clay. Preference should be given to loose and lighter substrates.
To plant a heliotrope flower, you should buy special soil for shrubs and then provide the seedling with proper care, as shown in the photo. You can create a substrate yourself. For this we need the following components:
- turfy and deciduous land,
- coarse sand,
- high-quality manure humus,
- charcoal ground into ashes (1-2 handfuls),
- sour peat,
- Expanded clay is used as drainage.
Peat and earth are the largest parts in the substrate, and all the others should be taken an order of magnitude less. Then you should dig a big hole, put a drainage on its bottom, fill it with organic fertilizer, and then carefully lay a seedling. The roots need to straighten, then in small portions filled with cooked soil. At the end, you should press the ground near the root collar and water the bush plentifully.
Some sprouts can pinch to make the pot more voluminous.
Since the heliotrope is herbaceous - the plant is very fastidious for open ground, it is advised to water it with soft and defended water (20-25 ° C). Every 2-3 days it is advisable to spray the shrub, but it can not stand the excess water. During the period of intensive vegetation, the soil should be regularly and abundantly moistened. Before each irrigation, gardeners recommend checking the soil moisture. It should not be wet or dry. Organic and mineral fertilizers, as already noted, are made before the beginning of the flowering period. Protect the heliotrope from exhaustion twice a month.
Rainwater is best suited for irrigation. It should stand for a while and heat well in the sun.
Mulching is an effective method in creating a wet microclimate to the Peruvian heliotrope, as well as other hybrids of this family. You can create such a shelter from any kind of organic matter, namely:
As a result, the gardener will save on water as well as weeding. At the same time under such an organic "veil" the soil will always be loose and moist. Mulch is made up to 10 cm high. Sadly, heliotrope is a tasty morsel for:
- spider mite (trait - leaves crumble),
- fungal bacteria (gray mold and mold),
In the fight against fungal pests using antiseptic drugs (fungicides). Spraying is carried out once a week until the complete disappearance of the disease. To destroy the tick, simply sprinkle the bush 3 times a day using soft water.
In October, the bed with the remaining parts of the plant is desirable to dig. It is recommended to apply fertilizer for winter so that it will rot in the ground before the next planting.
From the annual can be made perennial. To do this, in the beginning of autumn it is dug out with a lump of earth (diameter 30 cm). Transferred to a large pot, at the bottom of which there is a large hole. Place the pot in a room with a temperature not lower than 7 ° C. Watered with a pallet, because the culture is at rest.
Despite its whimsicalness, this inhabitant of the Mediterranean survives well in Russia, Belarus and Ukraine. However, in regions with severe winters, heliotrope is often grown at home.
Variety of species
In the conditions of natural growth more than 300 species of this plant are known. However, only three are grown at home: heliotrope tree or Peruvian, heliotrope is a stalk, and heliotrope is scaly.
- Heliotrope tree or Peruvian. One of the common species of shrub. Plant height is 60 centimeters. The leaves are wrinkled, arranged on short petioles. The heliotrope flowers of blue color are collected in large spherical inflorescences. The flowering period is long. The plant blooms profusely before the onset of the first frost.
- Heliotrope Sea Breeze is the most popular tree shrub variety. Heliotrope The sea breeze is characterized by a rich, dark green leaf color and a variety of flower sizes and the shrub itself.
- Heliotrope is corymboid. It is a tall shrub with long, lance-like, boat-like leaves. The upper part of the leaf plate has a more saturated color. The flowers are painted blue or blue, are collected in inflorescences, the length of which reaches 10 centimeters. The flowering period begins in early summer and ends with the onset of the first frost.
- European heliotrope. Shrub grows on the Mediterranean coast. This is a small compact plant with a height of up to 40 centimeters. Stems have strong branching. The leaves are oblong, painted in yellow or light green color. The heliotrope flowers form curls that, when dissolved, turn into lush inflorescences. The flowering period lasts from late spring to late summer.
Maintenance of the plant in winter
As a rule, in open ground gelitrop is grown as an annual plant. With the onset of autumn, it is removed and the soil of the flower bed is deeply dug up. To save the flower for the winter, you can dig and transplant in a pot or pot for keeping in room conditions. Indoors, the plant will continue to bloom throughout the winter. With the onset of spring, it can again be landed on the garden.
Problems of growing heliotrope
The shrub is quite simple to maintain., but many gardeners are faced with problems associated with improper maintenance or care of the plant.
- Yellowing of the leaves may occur due to changes in conditions. The plant can respond to the change of season.
- If the room is warm and enough light, the plant continues to grow. In winter, additional lighting can be used to prevent foliage from yellowing. Very often the leaves turn yellow with insufficient watering. In this case, it is necessary to strictly observe the irrigation regime and make sure that the soil is not over-dried or over-humidified. It should not be allowed to stagnate moisture, which can cause root decay or the development of fungal diseases.
- When over-wetting the soil on the leaves of the bush may appear brown spots. Damage to the leaves may be associated with low air temperature or burns in direct sunlight. If the spots are numerous, they can be caused by a fungal disease.
- Pulling the stems due to lack of sunlight. This is especially common at the end of winter. Pruning will help to return the attractive appearance of the shrub. With sufficient light, the plant will quickly form new leaves.
Planting cuttings in the ground
In June, when the threat of morning frost disappears, it is time to transplant the cuttings into open ground. To stimulate the emergence of new shoots, plant tops pinch. Place heliotrope seedlings at a distance of at least 20-25 cm from each other. It is advisable to protect the plant from strong winds.
Caring heliotrope in the garden
In order for the plant to grow normally and bloom profusely, we need competent care. It is possible to care for seedlings grown from seeds and for seedlings obtained from cuttings according to one scheme. Attention should be paid to watering, loosening and dressing.
Heliotrope - moisture-loving plant. The soil around the plant should always be wet, but the heliotrope does not tolerate stagnant moisture. Need to focus on the condition of the soil. If the topsoil is dry by 2-3 cm, then it's time to water. On hot days, it is necessary to increase the humidity around the plant by spraying. This should be done with warm water in the early morning and late evening.
Loosening and mulching
After watering the soil between the flowers should be loosened, combining this procedure with weeding.
The mulching procedure allows you to reduce the number of loosening and watering.
After planting seedlings in open ground fertilizing should be carried out every 10-14 days. To do this, suitable universal fertilizers in liquid form, such as Ideal or Kemira Lux.
How to collect seeds and whether to do it
Growing heliotrope from seeds collected from its own plants in mid-latitudes is associated with several problems.
- Seeds do not have time to mature and germination they have bad.
- For seeds that still matured and managed to collect, the development cycle is longer than that of purchased seeds.
- The heliotropes grown from their own seeds begin to bloom only towards the end of summer, the bushes, at the same time, grow different in height, and the inflorescences grow small.
Wintering plants in the house
To prolong the life of your favorite plant after the onset of cold weather, you can transplant it into a pot and settle it at home. For comfortable conditions for flower growth at home, it is necessary to organize additional artificial lighting and a certain temperature regime. You should install a pot on a sunny windowsill.
In winter, heliotrope prefers a temperature of + 15- + 18 degrees and moderate watering. For wintering fit glazed balcony. In spring, the flower can be planted again in the garden, and if desired, cuttings can be cut and rooted.
What plants are combined with
Bright flowers heliotrope from July to frost can decorate any flower bed. This universal flower is used on garden plots for decoration of flower beds and flower beds, in borders and as a background plant in multi-level compositions. It can be planted in vases or containers.
Heliotrope goes well with shrubs and flowers that have lettuce, silver or variegated foliage, with many creeping cultures, with plants such as:
Particularly advantageous look purple and blue flowers on a plain green lawn. By forming a plant in the course of growth in a certain way, it is possible to give it a bush or stem form.
To obtain a stem-shaped form, the trunk of the plant is tied to a support, the upper shoots are clamped at a height of about 50 cm, and all lateral branches are removed from the bottom at a length of 30 cm.
Breeders deduced about 260 species of heliotrope. The most common types are:
- stalk comprehensive.
But the most popular in ornamental horticulture is Peruvian heliotrope, also known as tree. The Peruvian species is attractive with long and lush flowering. The most popular hybrids of the Marin series are:
Marin Blue. The height of the bushes is 45 cm. It is distinguished by its lush inflorescences with purple flowers. The aroma of this variety resembles the smell of cherry or cherry pie.
Mini Marin. Low-growing variety with a height of 20-25 cm. It is characterized by dark green leaves with an original purple tinge and dark blue flowers. It has a long flowering period, amazing aroma.
Black Beauty. Height is 30-40 cm. It is characterized by bright vanilla aroma and deep purple color.
Dwarf Marin. Height up to 35 cm, and the color - bright blue.
White Lady. It has pink buds and white flowers. The bush is very compact, spherical, about 40 cm high.
Baby Blue. Young hybrid variety, has a blue-violet color and strong aroma.
Princess Marin. Height up to 30 cm. It has a faint odor. Inflorescences are large.
Having decided to plant a heliotrope in his garden plot once, not a single grower will regret it later. And the insignificant difficulties associated with the reproduction and cultivation of heliotrope in the open field fade at the sight of lush blue-lilac inflorescences, exuding a memorable aroma.