Grape "radish kishmish" refers to high-quality varieties, giving a first-class harvest. It is a juicy, large-fruited and seedless nutmeg. Evaluation of its taste is 9.8 points out of 10. The ripening period is about 130 days, which makes it possible to attribute it to early varieties. Bushes vigorous or medium height.
This grape variety "kishmish" has mid-cut leaves of interesting sertsevidnoy form. They are small in size, light green in color. Clusters of medium size (with proper care, they can be quite large), conical shape. Their length reaches 40 cm, while the density of berries is medium and loose. The average weight of one bunch is about 600 grams (up to 1000 grams with good care). Because of rather large clusters, the bushes of this variety need thinning of the shoots. If this is not done, overloading may occur, leading to an overall decrease in yields in subsequent years.
Grapes "kishmish radiant" has asexual flower. Berries in clusters of medium-sized, large-sized, pink-red and golden-pink color, elongated. The taste is sweet, with a hint of nutmeg. The size of one fruit is 25 x 22 mm or 22 x 17 mm, while its weight is from 2.4 to 4.0 grams. The flesh has a dense structure. During various tastings this variety often takes the first places. "Kishmish" - grapes with good sugar content (from 17 to 21%) and moderate acidity (6-7 g / l). The shoots of this variety ripen well, resulting in about 70% of them fruitful. This variety belongs to frost-resistant species and can withstand winter temperatures up to –24 degrees.
Propagate it best with vaccines. The grape "radiant kishmish" resists poorly to diseases, therefore systematic spraying is required. Culture also requires mineral dressings, especially with a lack of magnesium in the soil.
Berries have a high transportability. Fruits can maintain their freshness for a long time. The grape “radish radish” is universal, therefore it can be used both as table, and for preparation of wines and dried fruits.
Some features of the variety
Breeders have learned to display various varieties of wine berries, suitable for growing in adverse climatic conditions. For example, grapes with a flexible vine are easy to tilt to the ground during the winter and cover with a protective canopy. But the most striking achievement of the breeders was the breeding of seedless varieties, to which the kimshish radiant grapes belong.
This variety has gained special popularity due to its unrivaled characteristics. He is characterized by increased productivity and early ripening. It is resistant to such dangerous diseases as gray mold and oidium, but it’s bad to resist other diseases, therefore, as mentioned above, it should be regularly sprayed with fungicides.
During the ripening of the fruits, one should not forget that due to fairly large clusters reaching 1 kilogram in weight, the entire crop may be threatened, because the vine simply will not withstand such an overload, therefore it is necessary to provide reliable support for the bushes and tie it in time the vine.
With further development, saplings turn into tall bushes, however, if the conditions of detention are unfavorable, the height reaches average values. Special decorative value culture leaves are considered, which are presented in a heart-shaped form with a small incision. Leaf plates are relatively small, due to which the variety can not be attributed to the large leaf group. Color has a lot of similarities with light green. The side cuts have a small incision, which resembles a small, sharply groove.
During the fruiting period, crops appear in the form of clusters, which may have a very large size and conical shape. If the plant does not provide suitable care and too often feed the soil with fertilizer, this can lead to a reduction in the size of the fruit and a delay in flowering. Given this feature, you can clearly control the fruiting.
With proper care, clusters can grow up to 40-50 centimeters, and this happens when the berries are loosely placed. Sometimes, the weight of one bunch reaches 700 grams, and sometimes one kilogram. A beginner grower must carefully thin out the bushes, otherwise they will simply break under the weight of heavy berries. It is also necessary to tie up the bushes in the springtime, using special designs or trellis.
Mature oval berries acquire reddish tones and grow to large sizes. The mass of each berry reaches 4–5 grams. They are fleshy inside, but very dense outside. They leave a sour, nutmeg aftertaste in the mouth. It is possible to study other features of a grade by means of the specialized literature or the accompanying materials.
The term of ripening of the crop is 120–130 days, which is why the culture is classified as early maturing. This hybrid has a low frost resistance, which is equal to -16-19 degrees Celsius, therefore, when grown in harsh climatic conditions, it must be safely covered.
As for immunity, it is not bad for this culture, although the following problems often arise:
To prevent contamination of the culture, it is enough to treat it with special mineral supplements and prophylactic preparations.
If the soil composition is insufficiently fertile and there are no trace elements necessary for normal growth and development, the grapes should be provided with regular dressings. Magnesium supplements are used as them, which are an indispensable component in the life of a variety.
Benefits of grape radiant raisins
The result of diligent selection work shakes all people with their amazing properties. It is known that professional experts devote years of their life in order to give people with different corners of the world a good opportunity to grow in your garden really beautiful and healthy crops with excellent yield and unpretentious behavior. For this reason, almost every year the horticultural industry is replenished with new varieties of garden-fruit plants. Among them, the incredibly popular kishmish radiant.
The variety grows free in regions with severe winters and adverse climatic conditions, which makes it possible to grow it in the Kuban and in the regions of the severe Urals. To protect the culture from unexpected frosts, just tilt it before the upcoming winter. Such an action will protect most of the seedlings from the negative impact of weather changes, as well as the development of pest colonies.
Among the key advantages of the variety, which allow it to occupy a prize in many world exhibitions, we will highlight the following:
- High yield,
- Early ripeness
- Resistance to parasites
- High sugar content (21%),
- Acidity (6-7 g / l).
If you intend to do the maintenance of culture in your garden, do not forget that you will have to show special responsibility and care. Too heavy clusters can create a big load on the vine, so they need to thin out and collect in time, given the external state and degree of maturation. In addition, the plant should provide reliable protection against all sorts of pests, which includes the implementation of preventive measures, treatment with fungicides, pruning, crown shaping and others.
When cultivated in the suburbs, radish kishmish gives good yield indicators only if it is provided with proper care and treatment from the grower. In winter, the plant can not be covered with sawdust or spill, because such materials help to increase the acidity of the soil during the melting of snow and ice. It is no secret that many nutrients are missing in acidic soils, so it must be constantly fed.
If you grow a vine with love and special attention, it will delight your eyes for a long time. After all, to walk near a beautiful bush and not pay attention to it, it is hardly possible. In addition, ripe clusters attract all passing people or customers, if you are engaged in cultivation on an industrial scale.
After a thorough study of the radiant type of kishmish, it remains to be decided whether you are ready to give the vine appropriate care and maintenance, following all the rules of agricultural engineering and the recommendations of specialists. It's no secret that large clusters can significantly overload the vine, because of which it can sag, and sometimes even die. As a result, the lack of timely assistance leads to many irreparable consequences, including deterioration of yields. To prevent such a course of events, it is sufficient to periodically conduct a survey.
Proper conduct of additional feeding activities significantly affects the yield indicators. Among the most irreplaceable agrotechnical methods for productive growth and development of culture should be highlighted as follows:
- gibberellin application, which helps to increase the size of berries and clusters in general, up to two kilograms,
- use of dressings high in nitrogen, which causes a productive build-up of green mass,
- system arrangement drip irrigation, to maintain moisture levels in a normal state.
Planting grapes and agrotechnical features
Based on the ability of grapes to grow very quickly in width, seedlings can not be planted close to each other. The minimum distance must be at least 2 meters. Pay attention to the ranks, and especially when it comes to growing in the regions of the Moscow region. Between them you need to leave three meters distance. Otherwise, the approach to the bush will be problematic, and the air circulation will not be complete.
As mentioned above, the clusters of berries have large size and large weight, so they are able to bend the vine to the ground itself, and sometimes damage it. For this reason, the load on the plant should not exceed 21-23 shoots. To do this, you need to pruning on 5 eyes, and especially if we are talking about young plants aged 4-5 years. As you grow older, you can increase the pruning to 8-9 holes.
Thinning in the suburbs contributes to a large and fleshy crop. If you do not follow the basic agrotechnical technique in terms of pruning, including the rule “for 1 shoot of 2-3 clusters”, the following indicators may be at risk. Among them:
- sugar content of fruits
- sizes of bunches
- the pulpiness of the berries,
- total yield.
In this case, the berries may begin to crack, which is due to a lack of potassium.
To solve the problem with the help of some fertilizers will not succeed. Therefore, in order to prevent such a course of events, it is important to properly treat all the features of vine care.
As for irrigation, this action is carried out taking into account some important features. Pay attention to the following:
- Watering should be plentiful but literate. It is impossible to overdo it in this matter, since the plant will start to rot, and ideal conditions for the development of fungal microorganisms and dangerous pests will appear in the soil,
- When growing crops in sandy soil composition, it is enough to use 8–9 buckets for each sapling,
- If it comes about growing on fertile black soil, the number of buckets is 5-6,
- Subject to the correct dosage, watering can be implemented at intervals of 3-4 days,
- In the flowering period watering plants is not necessary
- The procedure is suspended 2-3 weeks before the expected harvest,
- If the weather is dry, it is necessary to use the drip irrigation system or the method of irrigation between the rows.
It is necessary to apply nitrogen-based fertilizers during the period of use of chemicals. Such events contribute to the rapid and productive growth of green mass. As mentioned above, radiant raisins are characterized by very beautiful ornamental foliage, therefore, in order for it to grow fully, it is necessary to apply magnesium based feedings.
Enter fertilizers based on magnesium and potassium carried out at the beginning of the flowering season. In this case, we should not forget about the ratio of macro and microelements, which are contained in the soil composition. It is no secret that acidic soil compounds often need top dressing with potassium, phosphorus, and sodium. If it is wrong to conduct dressing, most likely, you will have to face such troubles as a delay in flowering and a phase shift forming the ovary. As a result, the final yield will be at risk.
Be extremely careful, and do not forget that the result of growing tomorrow depends on your current actions. Only in this case, the culture can become fruitful and healthy.
Diseases and problems
In the description of the variety it is repeatedly mentioned that it has good immunity and resistance to many pests. Nevertheless, without appropriate treatment and preventive measures can not do. Drugs like Nitrofen or vitriol, scaring mice and mildew. Sulfur-dressing protects the vine from the effects of fungal microorganisms and the formation of mold.
With a late harvest, there is a risk of attracting wasps and other dangerous insects. This is due to the fact that many gardeners leave grown clusters on a bush, waiting for their final maturation. However, instead of the expected success, they have to fight against the colonies of wasps. In order to prevent such consequences, harvest in time and be extremely attentive.
In order for the excellent taste and quality of the berries to be preserved in the best possible way, you must correctly respond to all agrotechnical rules by adjusting the planting, watering and feeding procedures. Only if you have enormous patience and follow the established recommendations, the desired result will be truly successful.
The clusters of radiant Caliphish are elongated, irregularly shaped, conical, cylindrical or branched up to 40 cm long. The berries are very tasty and fragrant, especially children like them. The sugar content in dense pulp is about 17%, the acidity is 6.5 g / l. The mass of one berry to 4 g.
The term of ripening is early or medium, depending on climatic conditions. Clusters weighing 500-700 grams. The berries are a beautiful dark pink color, elongated, transparent in the sun and as if filled with light.
The rules of planting grapes
Planting of grapes is carried out in the spring. In central Russia, it is started at the beginning or in the middle of May. In cold regions, in the Urals and in Eastern Siberia, thermophilic varieties are grown most often in greenhouses.
How to plant Kishmish radiant grapes in open ground:
- For grapes, choose a place well lit by the sun, protected from cold wind and damp.
- The hole is made in size of the root system from 0.2 m to 0.5 m.
- Organic and complex mineral fertilizers are added to it, mixing them well with the soil.
- Roots spread on a hill at the bottom of the hole.
- The sapling is covered with soil, well tamping it down.
- Watered with warm water.
- Mulch compost or manure.
Between the seedlings in a row, a distance of about 1.5 m is left. In the first 2 to 3 weeks, daily abundant watering is carried out with warm water. Pritenyat seedlings from the sun, until they successfully take root.
Open field maintenance
Next to the planted vine, a trellis is installed, which will help the shoots to develop properly. As the vine grows, it is carefully tied up to it, directing the shoots in the right direction. On young, only planted grapes, the inflorescences are removed so that they do not weaken the plants.
Obligatory care is the annual pruning of adult vines. Carry it in the fall, when the movement of juice slows down. From the end of June to the end of August, all stepchildren are cut off on a non-bearing vine, which does not participate in the creation of the next year’s harvest. So that the branches do not start to grow again, leave the bottom sheet, which is closest to the trunk, and cut off the rest. Cuts are cauterized or covered with bitumen.
Fruit grapes need good feeding. From April to mid-summer, organic matter and ashes are brought under the bushes, watered with infusion of weeds. Since July, they prefer potassium phosphate fertilizers - superphosphate and ash. For dressing with microelements sprayed 4 times per season with a solution of "Uniflormikro."
In order to harvest a good crop, grapes Kishmish radiant before flowering must be treated with preparations containing gibberellin.
The formation of a large crop also contributes to the timely pruning. When the vine grows to 2.5 m, its tip is pinched, stimulating aging. At the end of June, fruiting shoots are shortened, smearing the cut with bitumen. Where it is necessary to make a cut, will prompt the tendril, which grew on a vine with clusters, after it the fruits will not be tied up anymore.
Shelter radiant grape raisin for the winter
After the autumn leaf fall, a formative and sanitary pruning of grapes is carried out. Прежде чем начнутся первые ночные заморозки, виноград снимают с опоры, обрабатывают железным или медным купоросом и укрывают на зиму.
Перед укрытием лозу хорошо поливают – влажная земля не замерзает и отдает тепло растениям.
Если зимы холодные, делают полное укрытие лозы. All shoots are tied in one bunch, bend down to the ground and cover with clean old rags made from natural materials. From above still pull a film or agrofibres, and sprinkle a design with the earth. Its layer can be from 15 to 30 cm. Instead of “clothes” and blankets, you can use dry straw.
Covering the vine for the winter, it is saved from the destructive icing of the shoots. On warm winter days, the shelter should be regularly ventilated so that condensate does not accumulate under it, and the plant does not start vegetating ahead of time. In the spring, the shelter is removed completely, when the frosts and sharp fluctuations in temperature stop.
Disease and pest prevention
- For the prevention of diseases and the formation of resistance to adverse weather conditions, grapes are sprayed with biological preparations “Epin” and “Zircon”.
- Prevention of fungal diseases, which can leave the bush without a crop, is treated with fungicides on the leaf (“Fitosporin”). It is carried out in June several times with an interval of 5 days. Autumn leaves and cut vine are harvested and burned in autumn. In the spring, when the winter shelter is removed, a threefold spraying of copper sulphate (3%) or Skorr, Topaz, Tiavit preparations is carried out.
- Ripe crops can destroy the birds. To protect them from the trellis mesh attached at the level of ripening clusters.
- To combat spider mites and scutes, which are planted on a plant, most often in a greenhouse, they are sprayed with Aktar, Aktellik, Fitoverm.
Description and main characteristics of the variety
Radish Kishmish - the leader of all the largest and most delicious raisins. He also occupies one of the first places in the top ten varieties. Berries with a delectable crunch, juicy, liquid, radiated as if from the inside by a ruby purple in the sun, with a subtle sugar aroma of nutmeg.
The grape variety Rasmish Radiant was obtained by Moldovan breeders by crossing two other varieties - Rzze and Cardinal. This type of grape is considered the most delicious.
Interesting fact: the name “kishmish” was formed from the word “kish”, which in translation from the Turkic language means “squeeze, squeeze”.
The grape variety Radiant was bred quite recently, 20–30 years ago, but already successfully managed to win the universal love of both ordinary amateur gardeners and agronomists and winegrowers.
Grape raisin Radiant has a very attractive and positive description of the variety. This variety is high-yielding with large clusters, weighing an average of 800 g, purple-pink color. The berries have an elongated shape, ripen on average for 130 days. Juicy fruit pulp has a delicate sweet taste with a specific sourness, nutmeg flavor and aroma. The leaves of this grape are rounded, medium-sized, five-bladed, light green in color. Sometimes bunch weight reaches 1.5 kg. This variety blooms a week before the ovary. Loves free space. Shrubs have excellent growth power.
Due to its high qualities, the variety is very popular in the industrial field. It is used in the manufacture of wine, juice, various marinades, in canned form. The fruits of this variety are seedless and have a strong skin that allows you to store the product for quite a long time and carry out safe transportation.
The grape raisin Radiant is highly resistant to diseases, but one cannot say about it that the variety is unpretentious. Agronomists in the study of radiant sodding came to the conclusion that he needed careful maintenance and proper selection of agrotechnical tools.
The plant has an average frost resistance, quite vulnerable to frost. The temperature below -15 degrees becomes dangerous for him. Frosts are terrible, freezing of thawed snow in spring and icing of roots is even more terrible. Therefore, it is necessary to have a reliable shelter with suitable material, both additional and for the winter. For this purpose, straw, spruce pine branches is suitable. And also use just the ground. Sawdust for this purpose is not recommended for the reason that the soil is oxidized. This is unfavorable for the plant, since in acidic soils there is a low content of essential nutrients, such as phosphorus, potassium and sodium.
Pros and cons of plants
Culture is one of the best types of raisins for cultural and individual cultivation. It has the following positive points:
- the elasticity and flexibility of the vines makes it possible to freely lay them on the surface of the soil and cover them with covering material for the cold season,
- allowed to breed even in areas with severe climatic conditions,
- fruits do not have seeds in themselves,
- optimum ripening, fruiting - up to 70%,
- large brushes, the degree of yield is high,
- thickened skin of the fruit enables them to save their external merits even with long-term transportation,
- confronts diseases such as gray mold, oidium,
- formed clusters are able to remain on the branches for a long period.
Such positive characteristics are usually enough to choose this variety for cultivation. However, with such a number of useful advantages, there are also negative sides:
- branches of grapevines often break from a load of large brushes,
- By the cold season it is necessary to build a reliable coating
- unsatisfactorily confronts certain diseases (mildew, root phylloxera),
- a large degree of sugar content of the fruit attracts unwanted insects (bumblebees, wasps),
- on excessively long clusters, the fruits do not sleep very well,
- involves the organization of proper and strict maintenance.
Features care grapes
Seedlings should be planted in well-lit places, at a fairly close distance from each other, about 2.5 meters. Between the rows it is desirable to leave a distance of at least 2 meters. Due to this, the bushes will be blown to the necessary extent by the wind. And also it will give the opportunity to freely approach any bush, it is convenient to move among them.
When growing this grape, it is recommended to pre-create support for the branches to prevent their fracture and loss of seedlings. The plant both pleases with its huge abundance of fruits, and the load on the branches is correspondingly large. But it must be borne in mind that too many clusters on the bushes affect the quality of the berries. They become less sweet, have less saturated taste. To prevent this phenomenon do pruning. And also the grade needs good regular thinning.
Improper care can cause the plant to die.
Landing - the first stage, which should be carried out taking into account all the rules. Otherwise, you may encounter problems in the future. The main landing criteria:
- the right time for planting seedlings as autumn (before the first frost), and early spring (before bud break),
- before planting the roots are soaked in clean water for at least a day,
- after soaking pruning annual stepchildren,
- before planting, they try to prevent long-term planting in the open air,
- the landing hole for the bush should be rather large, about a meter long and wide,
- the soil after planting is plentifully watered and mulched with sawdust, dry grass or leaves.
Bushes get accustomed fairly easily, grow quickly, they tolerate the winter well, provided they provide good shelter for the winter.
Propagated by cuttings that rooted, as well as grafting on reliable stocks.
Watering and organizing fertilizers
It should be noted that plants of this variety have a certain interesting feature in the care, which is that when growing it is not recommended to make a large amount of fertilizer. In case of an excess of top dressing, the flowering is delayed, and the size of bunches of grapes decreases. Knowledge of this feature allows you to take control of the level of yield.
Grapes need moderate regular watering, taking into account climatic and weather conditions. The best is drip irrigation. With the arrival of the spring season, for the successful development of grapes, the procedure of irrigation with chemical fertilizer with the aim of protection from pests and diseases becomes essential.
On fertile soil, one bush takes about 5 buckets every 3-4 days. If the condition of the soil is less good, then up to 9 buckets. It is very important to observe the terms of irrigation, the volume of water poured out and the level of soil moisture.
During the period when the plant blooms, and 2 weeks before harvesting, watering is stopped altogether.
The benefits of grape raisins
This variety is the earliest, ripens in about 4 months, and differs from others in its high yield. 1-2 shoots of grapes of 500 grams each are formed on one shoot. Frost-resistant, withstands temperatures up to - 25 degrees, and practically does not suffer from fungal diseases. The advantage of grape raisin is that there are no seeds in the berries. These varieties are an excellent option for feeding small children, but it is worth remembering that they are very sweet, contain about 20% sugar.
In addition to its amazing taste, raisins contain a lot of useful substances necessary for human life. Contains vitamin B, C, carotene, folic acid, zinc, magnesium, potassium, phosphorus and iron. It helps to fight many common diseases, such as:
- bronchial asthma,
- diseases of the genitourinary system
- the liver
Copes with such unpleasant symptoms as heartburn and nausea, has a choleretic effect, and also removes excess fluid from the body. This variety is allowed to use as pregnant women, hypertensive patients, and one year old children, as it is hypoallergenic. Despite the fact that kishmish is very good for health, it also has a number of contraindications. It is forbidden to eat grapes for people with diabetes, as it contains a large amount of sugar, one-year-old kids.
White kishmish round, like other varieties, contains many beneficial trace elements
This grape ripens about 5 months. Shrubs are quite tall, shoots actively ripen. Such grapes bear fruit only in the third year after planting. Hrona large from 800 to 1500 grams. The berries are large, slightly oval in shape, dark pink in color, with a thick wax coating. It is resistant to average frost and a disease such as gray rot.
Moldavian grape variety that ripens quite early, within 4 months. Hrones of large sizes with a weight of 500-600 grams. If you carry out good care, the weight of such a fruit can be about 1 kilogram. The berries are large, elongated, gently pink in color. Such a raisin has an unusual muscat flavor.
Such grapes are frost-resistant, withstands temperatures up to - 18 degrees. It requires a thorough care, as unstable to mildew and other diseases.
Radiant shed gives beautiful berries in large clusters
Quite a rare variety that differs from others in its amazing taste of pineapple. The grapes do not have seeds inside, with dense skin and contain a large amount of sugar. Rumulus rumulus variety, has a high yield and good resistance to various diseases. The small size of the berries has the properties to crumble if perespeet. It is consumed fresh and as a juice.
Low seed variety, with medium size hrones and medium maturity. The shape of the grapes is oval, pink - red. Begins to produce such grapes in the second year. The yield of grapes is rather high and stable. It is frost-resistant to temperature to - 25 degrees. It tolerates various fungal diseases.
Kishmish Novocherkassky gives consistently high yields
Rules of growing and care
Practically every gardener wants to grow this beautiful plant in his own area. But this will require maximum effort, care and patience. All varieties of such grapes do not have seeds inside. Cultivation and care of such grapes is almost the same. The bushes are planted approximately at a distance of 2 meters in a row and at least three between the rows. Frost-resistant varieties of raisins should be insulated in the winter, and in the spring it is imperative to carry out chemical treatment of the bushes.
Those varieties that are more resistant to disease, do not need additional treatment.
Kishmish romulus should be sheltered for the winter
How to make raisins and what varieties are suitable for this
Small-sized raisins made from light grape varieties without seeds are called Sabz. For these purposes, an excellent variety of raisins called century. They do it this way: grapes are boiled in a lime-alkaline solution for 4 seconds. Then washed under running water and dried. Drying can be two methods. The first is in the sun, the second in the shade.
Raisin (Sabza) brings a huge benefit to a person, and is also a common type among dried fruits. In the process of drying, it retains all its important properties. Sabza contains a lot of amino acids and a number of vitamins.
All this composition helps to regulate the human nervous system, and also has a positive effect on the cardiovascular system. Organic acids present in the composition of the grapes cope with inflammatory processes and have antibacterial properties.
When buying grapes, try to carefully look at the berries. Grona should be intact, without damage with beautiful shiny, and most importantly dry fruits. Store grapes should be exclusively in a cool place (refrigerator, cellar). If you have to save a large number of grapes - for these purposes use sawdust.
All beloved grapes of kishmish have a large number of useful properties, but do not forget about some contraindications that will help to look at the grapes completely different eyes.
Description and biological features
The grapes of kishmish were cultivated as a result of the long and painstaking work of the breeders, whose main goal was to obtain a high-quality culture that could grow and develop normally in conditions of insufficient heat in the summer and severe frosts in the winter. To solve the wintering problem of heat-loving grapes, as is well known to specialists, dropping technology is commonly used, and therefore, breeders were faced with the task of bringing the plant with the most flexible vine that would not break when pressed to the ground.
Most popular varieties
Choose a variety of raisins can, guided different criteria - frost resistance, productivity, bones, tastes, color, ripening period, etc. Thus, such varieties as the raisin Gold, Romulus, Korinka Russian, Perlett, Tairovsky pink belong to the groups of boneless raisins mentioned above.
Large and hard bones you will find in the grapes of raisins Moldavian, Zaporozhye, Radiant, Rusball, hybrid form 311 and many others.
Kishmish Zaporozhye is unpretentious, almost not afraid of wasps and has such a high yield that individual clusters must be promptly removed in order to avoid overloading the vine. High-yielding varieties also include Rusbol and Zosya, although the latter is characterized by low frost resistance, as well as general capriciousness and susceptibility to various diseases.
The most unpretentious usually include isabelnye grape varieties, for example, Rilaines Pink Sidlis or Ainsens Sidlis and others.
These raisers are well suited for beginners, because, unlike more high-grade hybrids, they can forgive the owner for mistakes in grooming, pruning and other farming practices.
Grape raisin happens different colors - black, white, red.
How to choose the grapes when buying
There are several universal rules for the purchase of any plant material. The first - it is very desirable to buy goods in a proven place: ideally, from a familiar farmer (who at the same time will give you all the necessary recommendations and answer all questions) or at least in a proven store (preferably specialized, not in a supermarket), or on the Internet site.
Another good tip - bring along a specialist who will make the choice for you and save you from the wrong purchase.
If you have to make your own choice, use the following tips:
- No need to buy seedlings with dried roots (if the grandmother stands on the road under the open sun and sells dug vine - drive past confidentlysuch a grape you are unlikely to be able to reanimate).
- If you are going to plant grapes in the fall, Do not buy seedlings with leaves: When digging a sapling, the leaves need to be cut, otherwise the bush dries out quickly and then may not settle down.
- Purchase seedlings need only in season: if in the whole market you see only one seller who “raised” the goods for planting before everyone else, think about the methods he used to make the vine look shaped. In addition, a sapling should be stored for a long time before it is time to plant it in the ground - this is also a big risk that the grapes then не приживется. Покупайте вовремя и сразу же высаживайте!
- Попросите продавца срезать «головку» саженца на несколько миллиметров или аккуратно соскоблить небольшой участок коры, чтобы убедиться в том, что лоза живая (на срезе саженец должен иметь зеленую и немного влажную мякоть). Также нужно проверить корешки sapling, cutting off a small tip and carefully inspecting the cut - at the living root it is light and moist, like a potato cut in half, for the dead it is dry and dark.
- Neatly bend the vine: dry will break (slight crackling when bending is normal). Lightly press down on the seedling with your finger - they should not break off.
- Check whether the seedling has grafted on: take it with one hand above the vaccine, lower it with the other, and gently twist it as if you want to squeeze the laundry. The accretion must be absolute - no cod, no gaps in the vaccination site should arise.
- The graft should be about 0.5 cm thick and at least five bright brown buds. Well inspect the seedling for the absence of any mechanical damage, traces of mold, stains and incomprehensible thickenings (both on the graft and on the stock).
- The place of vaccination, however, should be viewed: if you don’t see it yourself, don’t take the word for the seller - you are offered an unvaccinated seedling. The thickness of the rootstock and the scion should differ markedly, in addition, the unvaccinated seedling usually has a more powerful root system than the grafted one.
Vine, like trees, can be planted in spring or autumn. Each method has its supporters.
Of course, the autumn planting is good because there is a minimum amount of time between the time of digging up the sapling and the time of planting, because as the sapling survives long-term storage during the winter, it is not known, the risk of death here is quite large.
On the other hand, if the winter turns out to be too harsh, there is a high probability that a poorly-grown and not fully rooted seedling may not withstand frost and die. Some winegrowers, buying on occasion some very rare variety of vines in the period when the earth has already begun to freeze, manage to plant grapes even in winter, choosing an especially warm day with a positive temperature, so as not to expose the seedling to the risk of long storage and subsequent unpredictable planting result.
If you prefer spring planting, wait for sustained warmth and the final care of night frosts. Optimal time - from April 20 to May 20.
In the fall, planting is carried out in October or even later, but before the frost, of course, you need to catch it. So that the seedling does not freeze, you can cover it with a plastic bottle or stick it with pine feet or peat.
Fig loves warmth and a large amount of light, so if there is no such place on your site, it is better to choose another culture for cultivation. You also can not plant grapes in the immediate vicinity of the house and other structures from the west or east, because during this or that part of the day in this case the shade will fall on the vine, and the berries will not ripen as expected.
Trees - bad neighbors for grapes: besides unnecessary shade, they hinder the development of the root system of the vine, suppressing it with its roots.
The perfect place for the bushes of wine berries - south slope (the southwest side of the hill will also do). The distance between seedlings should be at least two meters.
Stepwise landing process
We dig holes 0.7 m deep, 0.4 m wide, 0.8 m long (the long part of the pit must be located from north to south).
At the bottom of each pit lay a layer of ash and superphosphate, then - the drainage layer (fine gravel, rubble, expanded clay, etc.).
Then we put the soil mixture in the hole: sand, humus and fertile land.
We install any pipe (for example, rubber) with a diameter of at least 5 cm and a length of about one meter on the south side of the pit (the end of the pipe should rise at least 5-10 cm above the ground level. We strengthen the pipe with gravel, sprinkle with earth and tamper well.
To the north of the pipe at the bottom of the pit we pour a small hillock of fertile land, in the center of which we place a seedling, slightly deviating it from the pipe to the south. Fall asleep hole.
Watering, loosening and soil mulching
Whatever type of raisin you choose, moisture he needs a lot, at least 30 liters of water for each bush per week, and the intervals between watering should not last more than four days.
A good way to reduce water consumption is drip irrigation, however, our proposed option of planting a bush with in-pipe pipes also protects the soil well from drying out.
Preventive treatment for pests and diseases
As mentioned above, different grape varieties of raisins have different resistance to diseases and pests.
Accordingly, attention should be paid to this question differently, however, no matter what variety you plant, remember: many diseases (especially fungal) are difficult to diagnose and even harder to treat, while they can and should be prevented. Today, you can buy in the store specially selected complex preparations designed to protect grapes from most of the most dangerous diseases and pests, including wasps and ticks.
The grapes for a good harvest is very important to properly pruned. The first pinching of the tops is carried out already three months after planting the seedling.
Next is the full formation of the bush. With the classic long pruning 8-12 holes are removed. An average of 10-12 vines should fall on a meter of height of a bush so that too many clusters do not overload the bushes.
Preparing for the winter
The frost resistance of the grape raisin is generally not bad, but, as has been said more than once, it varies depending on the variety.
Some raisins, with proper care, can withstand a temperature drop to 30 degrees of frost, but on average, without taking proper measures, this type of grape is unlikely to survive the winter with frost more severe than -15 ° C. As for any perennial, for grapes the frost itself is not so terrible as the ice crust formed on roots and on the soil.
In short, the raisins for the winter you need to cover. Land, straw, coniferous paws, peat, foil, roofing felt and other material are suitable for this.
If the winters in your region are especially harsh, it is better to lay the vine in specially prepared grooves and only after that sprinkle it, so more guarantees that the frost will not damage the plant.
Description, characteristics - what you need to know
Early-medium term of ripening (120-130 days). Eat berries - until September 1. Selective cut from 10-12 August. Clusters are conical, cylindrical, medium density, less often friable, weight varies from 200 to 600 g and more, up to 1 kg. The berry is juicy, pleasantly crunchy - a bronze, transparent ruby glowing in the sun - it was gilded by the spring sun and summer sunsets. Pouring purple to the fall, she gives it to us - along with the subtle aroma of muscat. And the clusters are really radiant - with a marvelous pink tint - sunny, often with a slightly reddish tinge.
- The form is elongated, up to 24-25x17-22 mm, weight 2.5-4 g. The flesh is dense, the bone and rudiments do not have in most cases: in small and medium weight - absent, in large ones a barely perceptible rudiment can be observed.
- Distinguished by good aging of the shoots, of which up to 60-70% are fertile - more detailed recommendations on growing are presented below, 1.3-1.6.
- Frost resistance - 15 C, requires shelter for the winter, especially in the northern regions. In the south, with the imminent fall of temperatures in winter, an unexpected spring thaw, shelter is also required.
- Demanding to the level of farming, maintenance of the form and the bush and everything else that makes up the wisdom of the grower.
Fruiting stretched. In general, the time of ripening of the Kishmish Radiant grapes is early-mid-August with an error in the climatic zone. You can often hear that the notes of nutmeg are either not a little: they are not felt when there is a low level of agricultural technology, an excess of moisture, and a lack of trace elements.
Planting, trimming, rationing Radiant kismisha - that loves golden sissy?
It is rational to plant as a pollinator between female varieties with which the flowering time coincides. In general, this distance is well suited: 2.7-3 m between the rows and 2.6-2.8 m in a row. This planting scheme is suitable for almost any molding and is good for any trellis, applicable to any variety that loves open space.
I'll tell you about our family experience of communication with the Ray. Blooms later than others, in the first decade of August, a week before the ovary. A single-sided tapestry is not the best option. Two-shoulder or four-cordon, fan-shaped - suitable.
He loves freedom - we planted under the scheme 2.5 x 3 m. The distance in the row is two meters, when planted in the first year, the distance between the bushes of grapes is 2 m, the distance between the sleeves is at least 1 meter. They say that wood grows slowly, but in the second year of planting two vines of 4-5 cm of wood grew - in my opinion, not bad.
In general, the formation of a bush 7-8 shoots per linear meter, on some 8-10. The distance between adjacent sleeves is about one meter. Often practiced long pruning for 8-12 eyes, when the total load of 20-25 shoots on average, with a food area of 4-6 m 2. Young, up to 3-4 years, of course, less - 8-12.
He likes molding with a large supply of wood. Often you can meet the recommendations: the total load on the bush 25-30 (35) eyes. Pruning vines: it all depends on the situation. On the new sleeves, a short 2-3-eyelet is rational, a long one is 10-14 on older sleeves. What is better - long pruning or short? After they learned that the eyes of the middle part of the shoot have a higher degree of fruit bearing, having read the recommendations and advice of the professionals of the case, they stopped on a long pruning.
For dense, not friable, with fully ripened berries of the bunch or to reduce the load, a length of 10-12 buds is recommended. It is also necessary rationing by clusters during flowering - in bloom, otherwise it will take a time-out next year: you will not wait for the harvest.
- Thus, we have 2-3-4 vines of 3 or more meters each. The lower part of the vine, from 1.7 m in height, thus, the sleeves are formed, while the remaining 5-10 peepholes fall on fruiting. The effect of trimming on the formation of the brush is large.
- The optimum load - 1-2 clusters to escape. It will seem to you a little - not at all.
- Ray clusters are long, elongated, often around 1 kg - you should not be greedy. Better less, but fulfilled, ripened, with juicy, fleshy berries.
- Excessive loading of grapes leads to potassium starvation, regional burns, shallowing berries, reduced sugar content, wateriness and cracking. Therefore, you can safely leave 5-6 clusters, but be prepared for all these troubles. In addition, overloading is harmful - delays the ripening time.
The basics of agrotechnology radiant: care
Sidlis in agricultural technology whimsical - it is a fact. And the fact that we know very little subtleties. Watering moderate, sufficient. For our, the optimum was once every three days, 15-20 liters in the area of each bush. Watering is not recommended during flowering. Listen to the advice. In scientific publications, it is recommended to water 6-9 buckets of water depending on the soil composition (5-6 for black soil for deep irrigation, 9 for sandy soil) before and after flowering, during the ovary. Watering should be stopped 14-20 days before harvest. Aisle, around landings should irrigate little by little to increase the humidity of the air - we work on evaporation. Responsive to drip irrigation. According to the experienced - very responsive.
How to feed grapes?
It all depends on the ground. Potassium starvation is observed on alkaline soils, on acidified soils there is a lack of sodium, phosphorus, etc. Let’s say that the use of ash as a source of potassium is a moot point. Ash and ash are different, it all depends on the composition: with a high proportion of potassium, the acidity of the soil increases, the soil becomes alkalized, the balance of potassium-calcium-phosphorus is disturbed. And most importantly, potassium elements are not absorbed by the root system.
In the spring, with the beginning of the growing season, before flowering, the grapes need nitrogen, for growth of green mass. Then foliar plants will be used - planofol preparations in accordance with the instructions. During the season, the recommended dressing is potassium monophosphate, sulphate, magnesium sulphate as the root dressing, Plantophol over the leaf. During the season - root dressings with potassium monophosphate, magnesium sulphate.
When to do the first fertilizing with mineral fertilizers - in the phase of three leaves, be sure to bloom and ovary. It is useful to process at this time and against diseases. Fruit stimulants such as gibberilin are often used. We did not use - whether there is no experience - it is very important to know the correct dosage of the drug, whether there is no desire - and so good.
He does not like, like, by the way, other sidilis, when growing overfeeding - the fattening vines respond with a delay in flowering, poor ovary formation. What if this year there are few inflorescences? If you are sure that the reason is to correct the molding, you should not delete the correctly formed ones. Simply leave, the next year after the formation of the ovary to normalize - remove excess. It is impossible to leave all stepchildren on young saplings - it will not be formed correctly, it grows, the load is not distributed correctly.
As for disease resistance, it is average. Complexly stable is not, but most often does not cause trouble. By oidium - stable, in some cases, it shows itself better than Arcadia, Flora, Demeter.
Different catalogs describe the Radiation's winter hardiness in different ways. In some - 15C, in others - -30 C. And the truth is somewhere in the middle. The fact is that if it is pure vinifera, that is, a European variety, and seedless - the temperature is below -15 C without shelter, it will not survive. Frosts are terrible, and icing of roots, melt water in an unstable spring and its freezing are even worse. Therefore, we shelter - we, for example, straw mats - turn the soil into acidity, quickly dampen it, plan old-fashioned houses for the old ones - but this is still ahead, while we are just bending down and wrapping it up - not yet mature.
You can often hear reviews about radishes Radiant, or Luchik, as the grape growers affectionately call the variety, contradictory. Whimsical to agricultural technology, complex, and sometimes even fragile, painful. This is not entirely true, and in most cases done wrong. Often the lower part of the bunch does not ripen - we normalize to flowering either at the ovary, pruning, after all, or banally plucking the pea. Afraid of the cold - the normal reaction of the south, in principle, the culture - just shelter. Dries with a lack of moisture, power - and who is to blame for the owners of the muddler? Complicated? - for me, yes. But there is something to strive for! In comparison with the same Arcadia - no more fastidious. As for the maintenance of the form, you can not call an obedient. Therefore, remember: prefers large moldings with a large supply of wood. In order to avoid problems, it is necessary to exclude weak vines, cutting off the weak with a ruthless hand - whatever you say, but you have to apply natural selection. With a short pruning, without overload, he proved to be excellent - a real ray of light in the realm of a winegrower.