Previously, they could be seen in almost every home. In revolutionary times, they were called the symbol of the philistinism and began to get rid of them. Now they are regaining their well-deserved popularity. We are talking about plants, called rubber ficuses, - a little demanding, a little capricious, but always extraordinarily beautiful.
There are about 2000 species of ficuses. About 20 of them are grown at home. Ficus elastic - the most popular and most common. "Elastic" is a Latin word. In Russian, these plants are called rubber-bearing, because from their juice they used to extract rubber. Many flower growers love ficuses and are willingly engaged in them, but not everyone knows what amazing properties they possess. People say that the ficuses bring prosperity and well-being. Scientists say they purify the air better than any other indoor plants and enrich it with oxygen. Adherents of feng shui assure that the figs help to think correctly and make the right decisions, bring peace and harmony. In the living room, they create an environment for heart-to-heart conversation, in the office for making bargains, attracting money in the kitchen, relieve insomnia in the bedroom, and even help conceive children to those who have problems with it.
In nature and in the house
Ficus ’homeland is a tropical zone: Burma, Sri Lanka, Sumatra, Java Island, North-Eastern India. There they grow lush trees up to 40 meters or more. Many species for supplemental feeding and breathing have dozens of sufficiently powerful air roots falling to the ground. In India, they even create suspension bridges. In native spaces, all the ficuses bloom and bear fruit. The fruits of some are edible. Ficuses house bloom in the rarest of cases, only if they were provided with all the conditions, and most importantly, provided enough space. But you should not be upset about this, as the flowers (syconia) of most of them are nondescript pear-shaped formations with a hole, similar to figs. The fruits have approximately the same appearance. In our apartments, ficuses of elastic do not grow huge and far from all branch out. This plant genus has many species and varieties, which differ significantly in appearance. Some bushes, others not. Some leaves are green, large or very small, others mottled. Only the conditions of detention for all these varieties are about the same.
Peculiarities of care
Care for ficuses is simple, but requires compliance with certain rules. There are only six of them:
1. Lighting. All ficuses love him, but they cannot stand direct sunlight. From this, burn marks appear on their leaves. The best option is to put a pot with a flower by the window covered with a light curtain. The window itself should also be closed, as ficuses do not like drafts. Once on the blown place, the plants begin to lose foliage.
2. Temperature. Despite the fact that the rubber elastics - Southerners, they can not stand the heat. The optimal temperature for them is +22. +25 o C in the summer and +14. +16 o C in winter. At lower values, plants begin to fold foliage.
3. Watering. It requires regular, but moderate. It is not necessary to flood the plants, but the clod of the earth should be wet (except for cases when the ficus is kept at air temperatures below + 12 degrees). Water for irrigation must be defended.
4. Humidity. All rubber ficuses like spraying with warm boiled water. If the room is hot, it should be done daily. In the winter spraying is not carried out. But to wipe the leaves from the dust required all year round.
5. Top dressing. In order for the plants to enjoy their beauty, it is desirable to feed them 2 times a month with complex fertilizers. The break is done only in winter, when plant growth stops.
6. Persistence. Ficus do not like the changes in their lives, that is, turning the pot or moving to a new place. They respond to these actions by leaf fall.
Ficus transplant at home
Since all varieties of ficuses grow quickly, they need to be replanted from time to time. It is impossible to place a small plant just brought from the store into a large pot at once. So he will begin to grow rapidly the roots to the detriment of the ground part. If there is a need for transplantation, the new pot is chosen only 5 cm wider and 6 cm deeper than the previous one. At the bottom of the necessarily poured drainage. Soil or buy special for ficuses, or prepare themselves. To do this, mix equal shares of sand, humus, turf and peat land. In rare cases, the home transplant of ficus is replaced by adding soil to the top of the pot. If a white bloom appears on the earth's crust around the plant, it must be cut off and the same soil as it is taken in the pot to be added.
Ficus elastic multiply in two ways.
1.Cuttings. It is necessary to cut a small stalk with several leaves, rinse it under running water until the whitish juice stops flowing, and put it in water or stick it into damp ground. In the latter case, it is desirable to cover it with a package. In this way, plants with green leaves, such as the ficus elastica Robusta, multiply better.
2. Air layering. On a vending stalk you need to make an incision (not more than 1/3 of the thickness), wrap it with sphagnum moss and a bag or film. When the roots appear, the stem must be cut and planted. This method is used for breeding variegated ficus.
Pests and diseases
Elastic ficuses are attacked by scale insects, thrips and spider mites. You can fight them with special preparations (“Aktara”) or folk remedies. The most effective is to wipe the leaves and stem of the diseased plant with soapy water, which is washed off in half an hour. Some growers are advised to spray the earth in a pot with a weak solution of potassium permanganate. All other problems with ficuses (falling, twisting, yellowing of the foliage, too elongated bare stem) are caused by non-compliance with the rules of caring for the plant.
Ficus with green leaves
The most popular among gardeners ficus elastic Robusta. In most cases, it has one straight stalk, extending to the very ceiling. Its leaves are large, oval, up to 30 cm long and about 15 cm wide, of a rich green color, smooth, glossy, very dense, with a curved tip. Forcing him to grow a bush is difficult. If this ficus is cut off the top, several lateral buds begin to come to life, but as a rule, one is growing, giving the same single stem. The remaining buds or their young shoots freeze. But the ficus Robusta among its fellows is considered the most patient and undemanding. Making it release side shoots can be, not only cutting the tip, but also tilting the stem. Then the upper kidney will begin to develop. When several leaves appear on it, the stem is straightened. Some growers make needle punctures on the stem (about 1/3 the thickness). It stimulates the growth of the kidneys.
Another popular type of plant ficus elastica - Abidjan. Externally, it looks like Robusta, only its leaves are much darker, and their tip is pointed, but not bent. If Abidjan is provided with proper lighting, the color of the foliage becomes dark beet color with red veins. This type of ficus is also quite unpretentious and undemanding.
Ficus elastica Melanie (pictured above) perfectly branches without human effort. The leaves are smaller than those of the two previous species. In length they grow up to 15 cm, and in width - up to 7. Their tip is bent. The plant looks very beautiful, as the leaves are arranged compactly on the twigs. If you properly care for him, it turns out neat lush bush. This species is a little capricious, likes regular spraying, requires fertilizing with nitrogen fertilizer, does not tolerate drafts, permutations and dust on the leaves.
These include views of Belize, Brazil, Tineke. These ficuses are quite demanding creatures. They need proper lighting, warmth and frequent spraying. Without satisfactory conditions, they discard foliage or lose their variegated colors. Ficus elastica Tineke is quite large, up to 25 cm long and 15 cm wide, oval leaves. Closer to the central vein (pink or cream) they are green, and on the edges are white, cream or other bright colors. Belize is also a very spectacular view. Its leaves have a more pronounced spotting and red central vein. Along the edges are white, pink and cream.
Brazil ficus leaves are also variegated, but there are more bright spots on them. Their color is white, yellow, cream, salad, and the central vein is light. The plant can grow a bush and looks unusually beautiful. In the photo above - ficus Tineke.
The word “mix” in this case means that not one variety of seeds was sown, but several at once. The most common ficus elastica "mix" Benjamin. This species has many varieties, among which there are representatives of both variegated and green leaves. Some of them, for example, green Daniel, Exotica have leaves up to 6 cm in length, and Kinki and Esther leaves only grow up to 4-5 cm. The Monique and Golden Monique varieties look very nice, whose edges are very corrugated. All varieties have the appearance of a small tree with a dense crown. “Mixes” Benjamins basically require the same care as all ficuses: they like spraying, heat, light, hate drafts, permutations and excessive moistening of the earthy coma.
Types of ficus
Ficus rubber is represented in modern floriculture by numerous varieties that are more compact than natural varieties. The most popular and common are the following types:
A completely unpretentious variety with wide shiny leaves, painted in dark green color.
Plant with tricolor leaves (white and pink rims on the edge and the green center), Unlike Robusta, such a ficus is more picky about lighting.
Spectacular flower with very beautiful dark maroon leaves. The plant is not demanding care.
The original form of ficus with leaves covered with irregular spots of green and white. The plant is more fastidious in care, needs good ambient lighting, regular watering, dressing and pruning.
The variety is often bushy and has dark green leaves (up to 20 cm). In the care of unpretentious.
Differs feathery light leaves with light streaks.
The plant has very dark shiny leaves. Unpretentious and ideal for home content.
Description of ficus
A young plant initially has one unbranched stem. Gradually, air roots grow on it and the branches, which in the natural moist and warm environment reach the ground, forming new trunks.
Ficus elastica have large leaves of elliptical shape with pointed ends. They are arranged alternately. Only the leaves, as well as stipules, are colored in a rich dark brown color.
The benefits of ficus
Today, many grow ficus elastica at home, in offices, in summer cottages. This plant favorably affects the microclimate of the room, purifies the air from harmful substances, in particular, trichlorethylene, phenol and benzene.
In Ayuved’s Indian teaching, it is recommended to grow ficus elastic to improve the energy background of a room, cleaning it from negative energy. The plant is harmless.
The rubber plant feels comfortable in the spring and summer at air temperatures up to +25 ° C, although it endures the summer heat without serious consequences if it does not last too long.
In winter, the room where the flower is located may be cool, but the temperature should not be below +15 ° C.
Ficus elastic: watering
The plant needs regular moderate watering. This should be done only after the topcoat has dried out by about five centimeters. In the summer they water no more than twice a week, in the winter no more than once every seven or ten days.
It is impossible to allow that the ficus of an elastic was moistened. The leaves of this plant fall off for many reasons, including an increased amount of water in the soil. It is necessary to maintain the desired humidity and the flower. In the summer, it is raised by sprinkling with water and washing the leaves with a damp cloth or sponge every ten days. Once a month the plant will need a warm shower. But first it is necessary to cover the soil in a pot with a film.
In winter, elastic rubber plants are not sprayed, but only wipe the leaves with a damp cloth. It is advisable to keep the plant in the winter away from heating devices.
In the warm season (from April to September), the ficus rubber plant requires additional feeding, and at least twice a month. It is desirable to alternate liquid mineral and organic fertilizers, which are dominated by nitrogen. For example, pour the moistened soil in a pot with a nutrient solution (1/2 spoon of nitrophoska per liter of water). After fifteen days, treat the wet soil infusion of mullein. Try to keep fertilizer away from growth buds and leaves.
If you do not want your ficus to reach its maximum size, then it is necessary to carry out regular pruning. The crown is usually formed in spring, when the most active growth of the plant is observed, so it is easier to tolerate this procedure. It is necessary to remember, starting to pruning, that rubber ficuses have poisonous milky juice, which can irritate the skin.
When the plant reaches the height you need, nip the main shoot. If you think that it is necessary to shorten the flower, then first cut the escape five centimeters above the desired mark, and then pinch. This will stop the growth in height and help form a lush crown.
Do not forget to disinfect the instrument. Before pruning, the pruner and knife should be ignited on the fire or treated with alcohol. After completion of work, remove the milk juice from the blade with a damp cloth or sponge. Spring formation of the crown activates the growth of new shoots and lateral buds.
If you notice that a ficus of elastic has grown from its old capacity, it should be transplanted into a larger pot in the spring. Preferably, in one year to perform transplantation, and the next season - pruning. Ficus is difficult to adapt and recover immediately after two procedures.
A small young plant should not be planted in a large pot, as this may cause increased growth of the root system, and the ground part will freeze for a long time. For transplanting, the pot is used five centimeters deeper and three centimeters larger in diameter than the previous one.
At the bottom of the tank cover the drainage layer (about five centimeters). Preliminary should prepare a soil mixture. For ficus, it should consist of peat, turf soil, leaf humus and river sand in equal proportions. Today you can buy ready-made soil in specialized stores or prepare it yourself.
Young plants are transplanted by the method of transshipment in order to injure the root system as little as possible. Mature plants are much more convenient to keep in tubs, periodically replacing the surface layer of soil.
Diseases and pests
These are quite powerful and strong plants. Diseases of ficus elastica - a phenomenon rather rare. With proper care and proper watering, the plant is actively developing and growing.
Dry and shriveled leaves can appear in ampelous and cluster varieties due to drying out of the soil and low humidity levels. It is necessary to normalize watering and spray more often. The same symptoms may occur with sunburn. In this case, it is enough to rearrange the plant in a more suitable place, where it will not be exposed to direct sunlight.
If you notice that the plant began to turn yellow leaves, then experts believe that there may be several reasons for this: drying up or waterlogging of the soil, drafts, insufficient lighting.
Some leaf diseases can be caused by pests. Most often they appear in areas with high levels of humidity (fungal infections) or with too low (aphid, nematode, spider mite, shieldweed). To pests do not injure the plant, should be preventive examinations.
If you notice small spiders on the lower part of the leaves, then you should know that this is a spider mite that rapidly reproduces at high temperatures and dryness. To destroy it, the plant is washed with a weak solution of tobacco dust with the addition of soap.
To get rid of the shield aphid, you can use the same soap and tobacco infusion, adding to it a few drops of alcohol or kerosene.
Why do leaves fall?
This question interests not only beginners, but also experienced flower growers. Most often this occurs with a lack of moisture. In addition to watering, ficus should be sprayed with water, but its temperature should not be below +15 ° C.
Plants with large leaves to moisture are less whimsical, and small-leaved species need to be sprayed frequently. During the heating season, place a container with water near the plant and regularly wipe the leaves with a damp sponge.
These diseases may appear stained on the leaf plates. Плохая вентиляция помещения может привести к образованию белого налета.This disease is well known to experienced flower growers and is called powdery mildew. If the plant is extensively affected, treat it with a fungicide, covering both the crown and the root system.
Ficus elastica is a magnificent plant that can revive any interior. It does not require time-consuming care, and subject to the simplest rules of content for a long time pleases owners with beautiful views.
Characteristics of the ficus elastic Robusta
Like the entire mulberry family, to which the ficuses belong, Robusta (lat. Ficus robusta) is an evergreen perennial plant. It is noteworthy that some scientists distinguish it as an independent species, while others refer only to one of the varieties of elastic ficus, the main characteristics of which are massive. The same word can be used to describe the plant itself, because despite its small size Robusta looks powerful enough.
External characteristics of home ficus:
- The leaves of the plant are wiry, large and strong. The form is oval, with smooth edges and a pointed tip, the color is dark green. The ficus Robusta feature is a colored strip of the central vein, which can differ significantly from the color of the leaf itself, acquiring shades from yellow to deep red.
- New leaves appear exclusively at the top of the shoot. The length of "adults" varies from 20 to 25 cm, in width rarely exceeding 15 cm.
- Despite the fact that the ficus Robusta is considered to be an ornamental deciduous plant, it is able to bloom. But the inflorescences of small yellow-green flowers on a tree are rarely noticeable and in no way affect the overall appearance of the ficus.
- Fruits ripening on the site of inflorescences, syconia, inedible.
- Ficus grows aerial roots.
How to organize plant care at home?
Ficus elastica Robusta refers to those indoor trees, the maintenance and care of which is extremely simple. Even being scattered or careless beginner gardener, they are not so easy to ruin. But still there is a small list of recommendations that must be followed so that the plant can please its owners for many years.
For a start, plant a ficus preferably in a nutritious soil. Well, if she will freely pass through the water and air. Excessively generous watering can cause rotting of the ficus Robusta, so a drainage layer should be present at the bottom of the pot - it will protect the plant by taking away excess moisture.
When looking for a place in the house, you need to take into account the fact that the elastic does not tolerate the direct rays of the sun - they can cause burns and leaves fall. Therefore, a pot with a flower should be in a light shade. But the window sill is also suitable if the window is located on the west, east or north side. When the pot is placed in too dark corners of the room, they can be equipped with lamps. Although often such tricks are unnecessary, since the ficus of Robusta easily adapts to various conditions. But let's look at the nuances of care in more detail.
Pot and soil
The capacity in which Robusta grows should be spacious. Otherwise, the roots, and the plant itself, will be cramped. In addition to the soil, a thick drainage layer must be present at the bottom of the pot.
As already stated, the ground for planting ficus elastic need nutrient. But this does not mean at all that it is necessary to scrupulously calculate the elements necessary for the development of the plant. The flower is not so demanding. If you are not a florist and do not understand a huge range of nutritional supplements, then you can, without particular concern, refuse to prepare the mixture yourself in favor of the purchased soil. It is enough to pay attention to a single nuance - it must be “equipped” for planting deciduous or exotic plants.
But you can not tamp the earth in a pot! On the contrary, it should be loose and crumbly, so that the ficus roots can not only easily absorb moisture from the soil, but also breathe.
Temperature and lighting
The ideal temperature for the ficus Robusta should be in the range of 18-25 degrees, in any case not less than the bottom mark. But at the same time, strong stuffiness in the room can lead to the fact that the plant will drop or completely shed its leaves. Therefore, they should not be placed near batteries or other heating elements.
But the illumination of the ficus is not demanding at all. The main thing is not to put it under the scorching sun. Well, “hiding” him into the darkness is also undesirable - the lack of light will badly affect his external characteristics. The rest of the lighting can be:
- diffused sunshine
- artificial, due to lamps.
How to water the ficus Robusta, the humidity of the room
When caring for a plant, it should be watered with separated water at room temperature. As in the case of other home flowers, in the summer it should be done more often than in winter. But even in the hot season it is not necessary to flood the tree with water, and even contraindicated. Watering is required only when the drying of the top layer becomes noticeable.
But the humidity level of the room, in which Robusta is located, must be constant and sufficient - at least 50%. But it would be foolish to say that this condition is special. After all, the same percentage of moisture in the air is necessary and man.
In addition, in the summer, it is sometimes recommended to wipe the leaves with a damp cloth or periodically spray the Ficus Robusta with water. In winter, such care can be neglected., preferring a water-based air freshener or a special device - a humidifier. The latter will create excellent conditions not only for the plant, but also for the inhabitants of the house.
It makes sense to do top-dressing only when the ficus of Robusta is actively growing. This time usually falls on the first days of spring and lasts until November. Absolutely any mineral complexes for house plants sold in flower shops can be used as fertilizers. Add them to the soil in a small amount, with breaks of 10-15 days.
Top dressings based on nitrogen components are considered to be the most effective for ficus.
Transplant and pruning
Young Robusta grows pretty fast. So if he was originally planted in a small bowl, he would soon need a larger pot. Such “planned” transplants, as well as the growth phase, occur in the spring and do them preferably in a year. Otherwise, the root system will begin to be oppressed in crampedness. But at the same time, an adult plant does not need a transplant at all - replacement of the top layer of soil will be morethan enough.
Trimming ficus robusta is also not needed. It is relevant only if further growth of the plant becomes undesirable. With its help, they also form a magnificent crown - after pruning, the tree begins to expand due to the appearance of side shoots.
Caution! Ficus in the field cut off emit poisonous "milk". It is necessary to exclude in advance the possibility of its contact with the skin or mucosa at the time of pruning.
The best time for the procedure is the end of February or the beginning of March. Just before the active growth stage. Ficus has not reached the required height no need to trim. Or do it very carefully, only slightly pinching the top of the main shoot. If the goal is the development and formation of a crown, then experts advise cutting the branch 7 cm above the required leaf or branch.
Important! Cutting and pinching the upper part of the central “trunk” of the ficus completely stops its growth upwards.
Thin branches should be cut in a straight line., while the main shoot - only a diagonal. Moreover, the upper half of the slice should be above the kidney, and the lower one on the opposite side should approach its level.
In this work, you can use both a special pruner and a regular sharp knife, previously disinfected by glowing on the fire or alcohol tincture without additives. After cutting off the waste part of the shoot, the milky sap with a cloth or sponge moistened with water is removed from the place of pruning.
Ficus elastic rubber robusta refers to tall trees of the genus mulberry.
It is the highest representative of ficuses. The largest trees of Robusta reach more 60 meters. The diameter of the stem can be equal to 2 meters. In room conditions shtamb can branch. The plant forms a large number of aerial roots that overtake the soil after a time. The thickness of these roots is not suitable for banyan. The crown of ficus of this kind in breadth does not grow.
The Elastic differs from other representatives by wide glossy wavy leaves. The width of the leaves reach more than 20 centimeters, a length of about 40 centimeters. New leaves can be folded into small cases that fly around after a time. The edges of the leaves turned inward. The surface of the leaflets that appear only has a red-emerald hue.
The surface of old leaves is dark, emerald green. The lamina is round-oval in shape with a thin pointed end. The central vein is well expressed, wide, emerald. The scape is short, light.
After buying a flower can get used to the atmosphere at home for a long time. Transferring plants to a different climate is fraught with a stressful situation. After acquiring the plant should be placed in a well-lit room without direct sunlight.
Ficus Elastica grows well in partial shade near the balcony or the windows. May tolerate the northern side.
Watering should be regular and abundant.
The plant does not tolerate excessive water flooding. For such ficuses, they specially make a good drainage system out of pebbles or composite.
Permanent overflows lead to acidification of the earth and root decay. Between irrigation, the soil should dry well. Without dehydration, the flower may begin to lose leaves.
The flowering of ficus Robusta in room conditions is almost imperceptible compared with the size of natural wood. Fruits-sekonii and amber-emerald inflorescences miniature, in diameter reaching no more than 1 centimeter.
Ficus Elastic does not require the formation of a crown. Such trees are allowed to grow freely even at home. For the active development of lateral stems in an adult flower, you can cut off the top.
To the soil of Robusta is not exacting. The earth must be nutritious with plenty of salts and minerals. It is better to choose a purchase of breathable soil. Landing is made in a tank large in size. Due to the large growth of the plant, transplants are produced annually. Young trees require top dressing with complex fertilizers.
Nutritional solutions with a large amount of nitrogen are well suited for this procedure. Mature plants are difficult to replant. Therefore, these trees replace the top layer of soil.
In the photo ficus "Robusta":
Benefit and harm
The branches of the plant produce a milky sap. It is great for mining rubber.
Drops of snow-white dense juice expire when cutting the stems and leaves of the plant.
On one of the branches under the bark is a curve cut. In place of the wound placed capacity. To prevent the juice from coagulating, the incision is closed with a bandage, previously moistened with alcohol. Vinegar is added to the tank and the mixture is well mixed. Flakes appear in the concentrate, which are washed under running water and rolled into elongated strips.
The rubber is subjected to various tests, since it does not dissolve in water and does not swell during precipitation. Such rubber can be easily processed into rubber or glue. For the manufacture of tires used more than 60% of natural rubber. Large-scale rubber production is used in Thailand, Indonesia and Malaysia.
Description of the flower where it grows in nature
The genus Ficus (Ficus) is the most interesting representative of the mulberry family (Moraseae). It occupies a special place for the unique variety of shapes and colors, the number of its species and the prevalence in the world. More than a thousand species of this genus are found in the tropical forests of the world.
The homeland of these plants is northeast India and southern Indonesia. They grow in tropical forests. The ficus growing in the homeland visually differs from room.
The average height of this tree reaches 30 meters, and the highest instances grow to 60 meters.
The diameter of the trunk of the ficus reaches 2 meters. The plant grows and develops over 50 years, then dies.
At the beginning of the ficus looks like a single-trunk tree. As it grows, branches appear. From the numerous branches aerial roots are formed, they hang down and touch the ground and deepen into it, thereby providing an additional food for the ficus.
Leathery leaves have an ellipsoidal shape, the tip is pointed. Their length reaches 30 centimeters. Width - 15 centimeters. The color of the outer side of the sheet is green. On it various shades and patterns can be visible. Coloring of the underside of the sheet - matte, pale green. The central vein is pronounced, slightly pressed into the leaf plate. Leaves are located alternately.
Young plants growing in indoor conditions need a support, as they can break. On breaking a stem or leaf, thick white liquid containing isoprene flows out. When a wound appears, it should be smeared with petrolatum, sprinkled with pounded activated carbon or bandaged. If the milky juice gets on the skin, it can cause a burn. To avoid this, wash it off immediately with soap and water.
Flowers and fruits give only very large plants. The inflorescence of ficuses (syconium) look like a pear-shaped or capitate with an opening at the top and a void inside. Small (about 1 millimeter long) flowers form on the inner surface of the walls. After pollination, they turn into fruits. They grow together with the wall of inflorescences and form aggregates. The fruits are similar to figs, but are not edible. They have a small, round shape and small seeds.
In the store, most of the ficuses do not exceed half a meter in height and have about 5-7 leaves. You can find more mature plants, reaching 1 meter in height. Indoors, the flower grows to 10 meters.
In favorable conditions, the plant grows by 60-100 centimeters per year. The variegated varieties grow by 25-30 centimeters.
In addition to ficuses with green leaves, variegated varieties are also known. Large leaves are painted chaotically in white, green and even purple, pink shades. Pink, purple ebbs are more noticeable on young shoots and emerging foliage. In some varieties, this color disappears as the leaves grow.
There are also tricolor ficuses, their upper leaves are dark green. They have a bright pink streak. And the lower leaves become bluish-purple.
The variegated ficuses include the Shriveriana variety. Ellipsoidal leaves grow to 25 centimeters, width reaches 18 centimeters. Their color is marble (light green, with splashes of yellow, gray and cream color). Light vein in the center of the light over time becomes reddish.
Miniature Melanie Grade
Among the miniature varieties of ficus stands unpretentious variety Melanie. It has dark, pointed, shiny leaves, about 20 centimeters long. Young shoots grow well and form bushes. The leaves are painted in bright reddish-brown paint.
Ficus Robusta, is a large attractive flower with low branching shoots and large dark green leaves of elliptical shape. Young leaves and stipules have a red-brown shade. The stipule falls down quickly, forming a characteristic circular scar on the branch.
The plant at home blooms quite rarely. The flower grows very actively, it does not require care. The crown needs to be shortened periodically, otherwise the shoots quickly lengthen and lose their appearance and shape.
Ficus Tineke is considered quite whimsical variegated variety. The leaves are oval, 25 centimeters long, 15 centimeters wide. Along the edges of the leaves - cream and pistachio edge. The middle of the leaf is green.
Lighting and temperature
These light-loving flowers adapt to the shade, but the lack of light slows their growth. On the day of the plant should be covered at least 6 hours a day. The best place to put the pot from the southwest side. In summer, the plant can be put on the street or loggia, balcony, providing him a slight darkening in the daytime.
In winter, the minimum air temperature should be 15 degrees, and in summer - no more than 29 degrees. A sharp decrease or increase in temperature indicators can lead to disease and death of the flower. The plant does not like drafts, but responds favorably to airing.
In the summer watering is carried out twice a week. In winter, the soil in the pot should be slightly moist. Watering the plant during this period should be no more than once a week. Waterlogging causes the death of the flower. Excess moisture after watering merge with the pallet.
The ficus adapts to room conditions and dry air, but for good growth the plant needs to be sprayed with a spray bottle 1 time in 7 days. Once a month is wiping leaves with a sponge.
Varieties with smooth foliage are cleaned with a hand or a sponge. Fleece leaves are cleaned with a soft brush. Once a few months, the plant can arrange a warm shower, pre-closing the soil with a plastic bag. Пыль не должна скапливаться на листве, так как она вредит развитию цветка.
Почва и подкормки
Почвенная смесь для выращивания фикуса должна содержать дерновую землю, крупный песок, торф или лиственный перегной. На дне горшка насыпается слой дренажа из керамзита, вермикулита или мелкой гальки.
Подкармливать фикус нужно дважды в месяц. Nitrogen-containing liquid fertilizers are added to water and applied after irrigation. For feeding you can use the mullein infusion.
Replant the plant should be in the spring or early summer. If the flower is bought in the fall, it is better to transfer the transplant to the spring, since in the fall it will be more difficult for the plant to adapt to new conditions.
Ficus transplantation is needed in two cases when the soil does not trap the soil (depleted soil) or the plant has become very large and high (cramped pot).
The young ficus is transplanted every year, and the adult plant is 1 time in 5 years.
Transplantation takes place as the roots fill the whole earthen coma in the pot. The flower responds well to transplanting into a larger pot and then begins to grow more actively. You need to take the pot a little more than the previous one (5 centimeters deep and 3 centimeters in diameter). If you take a large capacity at once, the roots will begin to develop strongly, which will lead to a slowdown in the growth of the ground part of the plant.
Drainage of claydite, broken brick, vermiculite (3 centimeters) is laid out in a pot, then a mixture of turf soil, peat, coarse sand is used in a 1: 1: 1 ratio. You can take a universal substrate in the store and add river sand to it. The flower is set in the center of the pot and covered with soil. After falling asleep the soil around the flower is rammed and watered. During the crescent, the plant becomes accustomed to new conditions, while it can throw off the foliage, and then begins to grow.
Ficus rubber care: video
Cut the plant to early spring, if necessary, limit the growth of the flower. The first time this procedure is carried out to achieve a plant growth of 1 meter. For cutting the sharp, alcohol-disinfected knife is used. The top and side shoots are shortened.
How to form a crown
For giving the volume and containment of a plant in the necessary sizes the forming pruning is necessary. It is produced when the bottom of the plant is exposed. The best time to form is considered the end of winter. If you cut only the upper part of the shoot, the plant will not branch, only one of the uppermost buds awakens. For a volume bush with multiple branches, 6–9 upper internodes are cut off by 10–15 centimeters.
If the buds or shoots are inward, not outward, they are removed. Otherwise, the crown will be thick and sloppy.
Omens and superstitions
In the world there are quite a few signs and superstitions that are associated with rubber-rubber plant. This flower, according to some sources, attracts happiness to the house, while others, on the contrary, say that it cannot be kept in residential premises.
This plant has a special energy and affects its environment. The rubber ficus absorbs the splash energy of people and cleans the atmosphere in the house. To increase the positive energy of the leaves of the flower should look to the west. The atmosphere in the house at the same time becomes calmer, softer and more peaceful.
Ficus should not be placed on the north, south and central sides of a house or apartment. These zones do not allow the flower to open its energy abilities and contribute to the accumulation of negative.
Among the signs are the following:
- If the ficus is in a large room, it promises happiness,
- a flower in the hallway keeps the family energy,
- in the kitchen - to well-being, money,
- in the bedroom - to the birth of children.
The flower can be put in the kitchen, then no one in the family will starve, and there will be plenty of food.
Ficus growing in the bedroom, a beneficial effect on the course of pregnancy and facilitate childbirth.
If you can not get pregnant, then the flower is placed at the head of the woman. When a large number of young leaves and shoots, the young sprout is deposited in a separate pot. It is necessary to care for him, like for your child. The chance of becoming pregnant in this case increases.
A ficus, according to popular belief, is considered a muzhegon. He expels men from housing. If it was presented to the newlyweds for a wedding, then this marriage will not last long.
The flower, on the basis of will, keep single women and couples is not recommended. In the first case, a woman will never meet her half. Secondly - the couple will divorce.
On the other hand, this flower attracts money, those who want to earn good money or get rich quick. The plant is best to put in the office or in the workplace, it contributes to the growth of a career, salary increase or lucrative deals.
Why do the leaves turn yellow and fall?
If the leaves wither, then this is a clear sign of soil salinization. The reason for this is hard water. For watering need to take filtered, clean water.
In shrub and ampelous ficuses, shriveled and dry leaves indicate drying of the soil or dry air in the room. Spraying and proper watering fix this problem.
When sunburn, the edges of the leaves begin to dry and curl. To fix the problem, the plant needs to find another, more suitable place, with less intense lighting.
If the ficus sharply began to fall off the foliage, the reasons for this: lack of light, cold drafts, strong drying out or excessive moisture of the soil.
If the leaves fall off gradually, then there is nothing to worry about, since this is a natural process.
Why not grow?
If the flower shoots develop poorly, and the young leaves are deformed and have a pale color, the plant needs to be transplanted into another pot with fresh soil or top dressing.
Ficus rubber for a short period of time grows into a large and beautiful plant that serves as an ornament to any room.
Caring for ficus Robusta at home
When the content in the room ficus does not need to create special conditions. Enough to adhere to some general requirements.
Lighting. Plants of this species do not need bright sunlight, they feel great in the penumbra, for example, next to a window covered with a light curtain. Therefore, not only windows facing the western and eastern sides are suitable for them, but also windows of the northern direction. The lack of lighting is well compensated by fitolamps, moreover, when using them, a tub or a pot with a plant can be placed even in the depths of the room.
The only thing that needs to be ensured is protection from direct sunlight. Due to prolonged sun exposure, the ficus may begin to lose leaves.
Temperature. It feels quite comfortable home ficus at normal room temperature, if it lies within 18 - 25 ° C. Going beyond the specified interval can affect the plant adversely and ficus, again, will begin to lose leaves.
Watering. Ficus elastic needs regular abundant watering. But at the same time it is impossible to flood the plant, since permanent waterlogging can lead to acidification of the soil and rotting of the roots. The optimal mode will be one in which the ground between waterings will have time to dry out a little, 2 - 3 cm deep into the pot.
But it is also extremely undesirable to overdry the soil. Due to the prolonged period of dehydration, the domestic ficus often sheds leaves and loses its decorative appearance.
Air humidity. The optimum humidity of the air in the room where the Ficus Robusta grows lies in the range of 50 - 70%. If the climate in the room corresponds to such conditions, the tree can not be sprayed. However, in winter, when central heating batteries are operated, the air turns out to be much drier than what the plant prefers. In this case, it is recommended to artificially increase the humidity by either spraying or using special humidifiers. And it is desirable to periodically wipe the leaves with a damp sponge, which not only refreshes them, but also removes accumulated dust.
Pruning. Usually such ficuses are not cut off, allowing them to grow freely while they can. But if there is a desire, it is possible to cut the tip of an adult tree to stimulate the development of lateral shoots. Although it is difficult to predict what the result will be in this case. Sometimes there is only one side shoot, sometimes two or more. And will require further experiments with pruning.
The soil. Ficus elastic is quite undemanding to the soil, the main thing is that the soil is nutritious, with good air and moisture permeability. Before planting in a pot, it is necessary to create a thick drainage layer that prevents the stagnation of water.
Top dressing. During the period of active growth, the Robusta variety needs regular supplements with complex universal fertilizer, which can be prepared nutrient solutions for indoor plants with a high nitrogen content, contributing to the development of green mass and good branching. Fertilizers are applied every two weeks in accordance with the attached instructions. Also very beneficial and foliar dressing on the sheet.
Transfer. Ficus Robusta is a fast-growing plant and at home it needs annual transplantation, especially for young individuals. Large adults no longer transplant, as this becomes very difficult. Here, instead of transplanting, they are usually limited to replacing the top layer of soil, removing the old one to the depth of the roots.
Breeding. The easiest way to breed Ficus Robusta - green cuttings, which cut the tops of the shoots with two - three internodes. Rooting takes place both in the prepared soil mixture in a special mini-greenhouse and in a container with ordinary water.
Diseases and pests. This plant is practically not exposed to pest invasion. Sometimes a spider mite settles on it, but it is enough to wipe the leaves of the plant several times with a damp sponge, paying special attention to the back side, where this pest forms whole colonies, and it will disappear.
Of the main diseases are diseases of improper care. And the most striking manifestation of them is yellowing and dropping the leaves. What could cause such a nuisance?
- due to a lack or excess light,
- due to too dry and hot air,
- due to the draft,
- due to insufficient watering.
In general, any stressful situation leads to the elimination of leaves by the ficus.
Ficus elastic prefers bright diffused lighting. From direct sunlight, the flower must be protected. Comfortable all over it will be on the east or west window. It can be grown in the office and winter garden. If you place it on the north side, the plant must be dosvechivat. If the conditions of the ficus are constant, you can do without a rest period. When the winter and summer content is sharply different, in the fall and spring the plant expects a relative period of rest.