During the winter period, the bushes weaken, their immunity decreases. As a result of such changes, the vine becomes vulnerable to diseases, infections, fungus, pests. Therefore, work to prevent negative factors begin as soon as the snow melts. After the end of winter it is necessary to hold the following activities:
- take shelter
- conduct a thorough inspection of the vine,
- to treat pests and diseases
- to feed.
Next, each item will analyze in detail.
This is the first stage of spring work. In different climatic zones, shelter is taken at different times; in the south, some varieties do not shelter at all. In general, it is necessary to remove shelter from a vine only after a stable warm temperature is established outside.
It is clear that the more to the north is the vineyard, the later is the removal time:
- in the southern areas can be in April,
- in the middle lane - in the beginning of May,
- in the north, in Siberia and in the Urals - in the end of May and the beginning of June.
Open the vine is not sharp, but gradually. This allows the plant to smoothly adapt to the temperature and environmental conditions. In any case, the vine will receive stress, but with a smooth disclosure, this stress is minimized.
After the final removal of the shelter and the drying of the vines, it is tied to a support, a trellis.
Carefully inspect the grapes. It is necessary to identify all areas of the vine affected during the winter: frozen, rotten, moldy, broken, etc. If the vine is rotted, dried or otherwise damaged, it is cut to healthy tissue. All cuts must be processed with garden pitch or other substance.
Make sure that there are no suspicious growths that may indicate a developing bacterial cancer. Repair any damage and suspicious areas. After pruning, burn the biomaterial so as not to spread the infection.
Damaged bushes are watered and fertilized in reduced mode - until they are restored. When the inspection is completed, it is recommended to conduct a preventive spraying of the grapes with copper sulphate. This measure will protect the vine from recurrent frosts, as well as from fungal diseases.
Since the culture bears fruit only on young shoots, it is necessary to get rid of old branches regularly. Usually, spring pruning is carried out quite radically - sometimes shoots are cut at 90% of their length. This pruning rejuvenates the bush, allows you to activate the rapid growth of young branches.
Annual shoots are trimmed to the ground, even small hemp is excluded. If the branches are small, you can cut them with shears, for thick ones you need to take a saw. Shoots are cut strictly perpendicular to the main trunk so that the cut point is as small as possible. Take a look video on the topic of spring pruning of grapes.
Important: if the grapes are of an unopened variety, prune before sap. If you delay, the damage to the crop can be significant. When a vine that has already awakened is cut, the juice in the cut point flows so actively that it is sometimes impossible to stop it.
Pest and disease protection
This is also a necessary spring measure, which should be carried out every year after removing the shelter from the grapes. Preventive treatment is carried out In spring and summer in several stages:
- spraying iron sulphate immediately after removing the shelters (300-500 grams per bucket of water),
- with “Actellic”, “Poliram” or “Bi58 New” at the moment of swelling and opening of flower buds - but only if the bush was sick last season,
- with drugs "Chorus", "Topaz", "Bi58 new" - when the appearance on the branches 3-5 leaves.
Great for spring processing of grapes universal drug Nitrofen. It is very effective, however, it is necessary to apply it only before bud break. Use in subsequent periods may adversely affect the taste and quality of the fruit, increase the content of pesticides in them.
Such a proven remedy as Bordeaux mixture is excellent for preventive protection of grapes from fungus and parasites. The composition of the Bordeaux mixture is simple: it is copper sulphate and lime dissolved in water. However, the effect of the drug is simply amazing. Traditional Karbofos helps well with most pests, but it is better to use Oxy from ticks.
Leucite sulfate, diluted according to the instructions, will help to cope with leaf chlorosis. Carry out the processing of this drug before blooming buds. By the way, ferrous sulfate kidneys can also be protected from recurrent frosts.
Watering and feeding
When the snow melts in spring, at first the vine can not be watered: the ground remains damp for a long time due to the melted precipitation. The first watering is done only when there is complete certainty that the period of return frost has passed completely. About a week before flowering produce a second watering.
In order for grapes to grow well and fruitfully, it needs a lot of nutrients. The composition of feedings must necessarily include:
- nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus - essential trace elements,
- copper to increase resistance to wet cool weather
- Bor for sugar content of fruits, fast ripening,
- zinc for high yields.
In general, the value of minerals can be briefly expressed in the following list:
- nitrogen is needed for grapes to quickly and actively gain green mass, foliage growth, shoots,
- phosphorus is an indispensable mineral for abundant fruiting, fast and uniform ripening of berries,
- potassium is also needed for fruiting,
- copper is used as a disinfectant, protection against pests and fungal diseases, the mineral improves the immunity of grapes, its level of endurance, resistance to diseases, frost,
- Zinc - a proven agent for high yields,
- Boron makes the berries more attractive in appearance, improves their transportability and product characteristics.
Be sure to combine chemical fertilizers and mineral fertilizers: no responsible grower will become a “bare chemistry” to feed the vines. Manure is recommended as a proven organic fertilizer. This substance has a balanced natural composition, contains a whole complex of minerals, is easily and completely absorbed by the vine. In addition, there are good bacteria in the manure that help loosen the soil, moisten it and nourish it.
Add organic matter from humus as well: this substance perfectly improves the soil structure, increases its permeability and enriches it.
In the summer, work with the vine is much less - all the most difficult and basic steps are supposed to be carried out in the spring. However, even in summer you cannot sit back - unless, of course, you want good harvests.
The important stages of summer care for grapes are watering the vine and loosening the soil in the garden. In addition, it is also important to take care of new fruit-bearing shoots, properly feed the plant and protect it from diseases, pests. Also in the summer pruning, pinching the tops of young shoots.
The main summer work is aimed at ensuring a good harvest in the current season:
- the growing points on the young shoots are cut off so that the food goes to the ovaries, and not to the growth of young greens,
- pinching is used to form bushes,
- thinning and pruning leaves 2-3 weeks before picking the fruit.
The last measure is applied to those leaves that shade the clusters.
Nitrogenous fertilizers are not used in summer, the main focus is on potassium and phosphorus. The fact is that nitrogen leads to the rapid formation of greenery to the detriment of the quantity and quality of fruit ovaries.
At the end of June, the mineral complex is introduced: azophoska or nitroammophoska. But use only water-soluble fertilizers, as dry grains cannot fully assimilate the grapes.
Since the end of July, they begin to apply foliar dressing. In a bucket of water is dissolved:
- liter of wood ash,
- 20 grams of sugar
- 1.5 grams of copper
- 1 g of boron.
Foliar fertilization is carried out by the method of spraying: spraying should be made on the lower part of the leaves. It is better to carry out the procedure in the morning or in the evening when the sun is not particularly active.
Important: if the spring inspection revealed diseased and weak plants, try to feed them less frequently and less abundantly in the summer. The long-term practice of professional growers confirms that the “hungry” vine is quickly restored and copes with diseases.
Of course, the main work on the prevention of diseases is carried out in the spring. But in the summer you should not relax: when signs of foliage damage are caused by pests or a fungus, immediately spray the plant with a solution of Bordeaux mixture or suitable preparations,
Now you know how to properly care for the vineyard in spring and summer. The main work falls on the spring period, in the summer there is less trouble, but attention to the shrub is nevertheless required. Having mastered the basic requirements for care, you can easily grow a healthy vine and enjoy the wonderful taste of juicy, large berries.
How to care for grapes
Already in the first year of life grapes It needs careful, but careful and intensive care, which will positively affect the further survival of the plant and the acceleration of fruiting.
In the first year after planting, the seedling needs to ensure regular loosening of the soil, balanced watering, treatment with special substances, as well as a number of works on shaping the future plant.
As soon as the kidneys begin to revive, the care of grapes must be especially abundant. At this stage, it is necessary to carefully loosen the soil near young plants, getting rid of weeds that have appeared.
If young leaves begin to unfold, grams must be cleaned of the soil layer. A hole is made around the bush, which promotes effective hardening of the plant and simplifies the removal procedure in June. If in the first year of life the care of grapes is not good enough, the rhizome will begin to grow very strongly, but it will not be able to fully develop, because of which it will become vulnerable to the effects of frost. After finishing the June treatment, the bush needs to be re-routed, and after the August cutting of the surface roots, the previously made deepening is instilled 10 centimeters.
Of the three or four shoots formed in June, the strongest remains, which will soon become the basis for a powerful bush. To survival and growth of the vine were the most successful, it is watered at the rate of 10 liters per bush. The intensity of irrigation is determined by the weather conditions in your area. In any case, feeding should be carried out at least 1 time per week. Together with irrigation, winegrowers practice feeding culture with highly effective fertilizers based on superphosphate and nitrogen. This procedure will be good stimulation for more productive green mass development.
Grape care after winter begins with simple actions:
Until the vine began to form green leaves and new shoots, it is important to have time to hold a dry garter of the fruit bearing part to the trellis. If you failed to do it on time, culture will be subject to the following troubles:
- increased risk of injury from dangerous insects and viral infections, including mildew,
- the complication of formative actions for a more productive growth of culture and an attractive appearance,
- deterioration of yields, which is accompanied not only by a decrease in the number of berries, but also by their low taste quality.
In the spring care of grapes, namely the performance of garter activities, apply soft fabrics or string, or special devices that are sold in specialized stores. As a garter, you cannot use a nylon rope or a fishing line cutting into an actively developing vine.
In the process of garter, the future fruitful branches bend down to the lower horizontal row so that the green shoots can grow vertically and evenly. The same is done with the nearest replacement shoots. The second garter will be relevant during the period when the young growth will reach a length of 25 centimeters. Further care is to fix shoots to the supports and trellis. It is necessary to repeat the garter every 10-14 days so that the shoots do not have time to hang and fall. The procedure should be very intensive at the stage of development of heavy bunches.
Forming a bush
For several years after landing, the grape bush gives in to formative measures, in the process of which it is given a special shape. Depending on the varietal characteristics and frost resistance, these forms are distinguished:
- needing shelter for the winter,
- able to freely tolerate the most radical cold without special protection.
The choice of the method of formation of the bush is determined by the growing region, and the characteristics of the variety. In any case, when carrying out trimming and formative works, the gardener must take into account the fact that next year's harvest will be laid on the matured vine from the hibernating eyes.
Uniform bush formation the vine begins with the first year of life and can last for several years. The exact date is determined by the selected type of form.
In the future, the vine must be adjusted in the fall, removing most of the summer growth, including individual, perennial, weak, damaged and old shoots.
Given the peculiarity that the grape varieties grown in our regions do not tolerate the winter well, they were invented a universal way of shaping, which implies bezshtambovoe cultivation. Today practicing a combination of techniques with fan formation, which allows you to get the shape of the bush known today. Correct formative measures provide the grower with a particularly easy rejuvenation and green pruning. As a result, the vine is easily covered for the winter and gives solid harvests when grown in the Kuban and the Urals, where the winters are very harsh and unpredictable.
Features watering grapes
The intensity of irrigation is determined by the presence of shelter or its absence.
- If the ground is covered with some kind of protective tissue, it should be thoroughly moistened approximately two weeks after the vine has been planted. Further, the frequency of irrigation determines the level of soil moisture,
- Open ground exhibits higher watering requirements. Until mid-July, the culture needs to be moistened every week, in the process of which from 0.5 to 1 bucket of water is brought under the bush. Further, the intensity of the event is reduced so that the seedling can form a good immune system before the upcoming winter.
It is known that perennial individuals of the vine react very strongly to any drying out of the soil. Therefore, you need to take care of them in a special way, ensuring free access to a source of moisture as the upper layers of the soil dry.
- the first watering will be necessary when the culture is freed from winter plants,
- the second, in May, before or after flowering,
- the third, in July, when the filling of berries and preparation for further ripening begins.
Watering the grapes is often combined with dressing, in the process of which the arrangement of holes in the ground or a drip irrigation system is practiced.
Growing a vine at home is quite simple, however, in order for the harvest to be truly large in the autumn, the plant needs proper care and care. If you do not follow the key rules for the maintenance of the vineyard, it is likely that it will simply overgrow with green mass and no longer bear fruit, becoming a common weed for a backyard territory.
Adding an article to a new collection
How to care for grapes and collect a decent crop, despite the naughty climate, imperfect soil and aggressive diseases?
The task is not easy, but real. After all, on your side - the experience of winegrowers who have come this way before you. Feed, garter, treatment of diseases and pests, pruning, staving, grafting. We have prepared for you a calendar of major works in the vineyard.
Spring care of grapes
At the beginning of the month, if the weather allows, proceed to pruning uncovered grapes. It is important to finish it before the swelling of the buds on the bushes. If you linger, it will begin active sap flow. Then pruning can lead to a "crying vine" and shrub bush.
Pruning, breaking off and pinching shoots, as well as pasynkovanie - mandatory procedures for the formation of a grape bush
If you are unlucky, and the plant "began to cry," you can smear the cut with oil paint on natural linseed oil with the addition of boric acid or use ready-made preparations, for example, "Artificial bark".
Also in March you can upgrade the trellis, because In the following months, winegrowers usually have much more.
It's time to pay close attention to the thermometer and weather forecast. Если заморозков до –10°С не ожидается, значит, пора освобождать виноград от зимнего укрытия и проверять, как растения перенесли зиму. Если вы обнаружили плесень, не стоит сразу бежать за дезинфицирующими и лечебными препаратами. Скорее всего, она исчезнет сразу же, как только куст подсохнет и проветрится.
But preventive spring spraying of grapes with special preparations is a prerequisite for obtaining a good harvest. Both the plants themselves and the soil around the bushes are treated.
As soon as the air temperature rises to 4-6 ° С, the first prophylactic spraying of the bushes is carried out with a 3% solution of copper sulphate. This will help protect the vines from diseases and rodents.
In the second half of April, after the buds swell, you need to tie up the sleeves of the grapes, and the fruit arrows - horizontally. In order for the grapes to develop properly, it needs reliable support, which is most often served with trellis. In addition to their main function, they provide light and air access to the leaves of the plant, and can also be a decoration for your site, disguising unsightly elements of the landscape and architecture. Tapestries are easy to do with your own hands.
Immediately after the swelling of the kidneys, you can graft cuttings harvested in the fall. This will allow to get clusters of different varieties from one bush, save space in the garden, and also increase the winter resistance of plants.
In the southern regions from the end of April, you can begin to plant rooted cuttings of grapes. When choosing a site, it is important to consider that this is not only a thermophilic, but also a light-requiring plant. Bushes should receive the maximum amount of sunlight from early morning to three o'clock in the afternoon. Therefore, it is just fine if you have the opportunity to plant grapes on a southern or southwestern slope protected from the wind.
Grapes have a strong root system, so it will not be happy neighbors. It is better to settle it no closer than 4 m from other trees and shrubs.
When young shoots of grapes outgrow the first tier of wire, it is necessary to make another garter. At the same time, one should not forget to remove the stepchildren and extra upper inflorescences, as well as to break off the shoots of the grapes, removing all weak and young shoots (when they reach 10-15 cm). To do this, press your finger on the base of unnecessary twigs, easily getting rid of them.
These shoots can be used for cutting green cuttings from which to grow strong seedlings by autumn.
In the last month of spring, characteristic red spots sometimes appear on grape leaves. The cause is usually non-infectious or infectious rubella. In the first case, the plant simply signals you about potassium deficiency in the soil. The whole bush is covered with spots, and the leaf streaks become thicker. Over time, the vine may well die. Therefore, at the first sign of non-infectious rubella, it is necessary to change agricultural practices. You can start spraying potassium nitrate plants (20-25 g of dry fertilizer dissolved in 10 liters of water and spend no more than 1 liter of composition per square meter).
To overcome non-infectious rubella, usually no more than five treatments of the vineyard are required every eight days.
The causative agent of infectious rubella is a marsupial fungus. He storms the vine in stages, so the red foci gradually appear here and there. The leaves of the diseased plant should be treated with 1% Bordeaux liquid or 0.3% solution of copper oxychloride. It is important that the fungicide falls on both sides of the leaf.
In the spring, the vines are quite vulnerable to fungal diseases, so it is important to carry out the treatment of the bushes with fungicides before the flowers appear. Most often, grapes affect oidium (powdery mildew) and mildew (downy mildew). In the first case, colloidal sulfur or the complex drug Kvadris will help fight the disease. Powdery Mildew can be treated with Azofos.
Grape care in summer
At this time, the bush increases the green mass and becomes heavier. You must regularly tie it to the trellis, pinch and remove excess clusters to prevent breaking shoots.
Usually on the shoots remove the upper clusters, because they develop worse, and the berries on them are usually smaller than on the rest.
When the berries reach the size of a small pea, you can treat the plants with Ridomil Gold or Topaz (according to the instructions).
In the summer you can also conduct foliar dressing (on the leaves). For better formation of the ovaries, you can use phosphorus-potassium fertilizers, the drug Ovary or other similar means.
You should not get too carried away with watering, the grapes do not like it. In most areas, it is enough to moisten the soil once or twice a month, but it is abundant for the water to reach the roots of the plant.
It is not advisable to water the grapes during flowering and shortly before it starts.
This month, you need to process the grapes with antifungal drugs (for example, Flint Star or Quadris), and then feed them with fertilizers containing NPK-complex (Akvarin, Novofert, Plantafol, etc. will do).
If early grapes grow on your site (ripening period), then at the end of July you can already expect the first harvest.
From this month begins the mass ripening of grapes. But the care of the vines is still too early to forget. In the last month of summer, bushes should be fed with phosphorus-potassium fertilizers. You can do the same if in hot weather the plants lack moisture (5-10 g of fertilizer must be dissolved in 10 liters of water). It is desirable not to use fertilizers containing nitrogen, otherwise, instead of starting to prepare for the winter, the plants will continue to increase the green mass.
August - the time of chasing the vines (removing the tops of all the shoots with 6-8 upper leaves), this procedure helps the plants to prepare for winter.
In the last summer month, some diseases can also be activated. If you notice brown spots and gray bloom on the leaves, as well as discolored spots on the vine, your plants are likely to become victims of gray rot. To combat it, you can spray the bushes with potassium permanganate solution (5-7 g per 10 liters of water). If a bright bloom appeared on the leaves and clusters, it is likely that the vines are affected by oidium. In this case, the bushes, on which there are still clusters, are treated with colloidal sulfur, and the others are treated with complex preparations (Flint Star or Strobe - according to the instructions). Of folk remedies, treating grapes with ash infusion is considered to be a rather effective and safe method (1 kg of ash per 10 liters of water, leave for 2-3 days, stirring occasionally).
Grape care in the fall
The most pressing issue this month is harvesting.
If you see that not all clusters have time to ripen to frost, remove the weakest ones, this will help the others to ripen
At the beginning of autumn, phosphorus-potassium fertilizers are still relevant. But the use of nitrogen fertilizers is better to postpone in the spring.
The beginning of the month is the time for the autumn planting of grapes saplings. For information on how to do this correctly, read our material Planting grapes in the fall: when and how to conduct.
The end of October - the beginning of November - a great time for the autumn pruning of already growing grapes and cutting cuttings for winter rooting.
Old vines need help preparing for winter. A couple of weeks after the foliage has fallen, all non-ripe parts of the shoots should be cut off and the soil should be dug under the bushes to prevent the spread of infectious diseases.
You can treat plants with a 3% solution of iron sulphate. This will help protect the grapes from fungal diseases. Some experienced winegrowers say that, among other things, bushes treated with iron sulfate are less attractive to rodents.
It is necessary to bend the matured vines to the ground and sprinkle them with peat or sawdust, or cover with spruce leaves or spanbond. But before it is important to water the plants, because dehydrated grapes tolerate winter worse. It is also desirable to bend down the shoots of unopened varieties to the ground, and to soil the soil under the bushes.
In December, finally, you can relax and enjoy the fruits of their labor. The only thing that is required for a sleeping vineyard in the winter season is protection against frost. Therefore, if you are not sure that the vines are securely covered, you can throw fresh fluffy snow on them. But if at some point you will get bored without the traditional hassle and care for green pets, you can always organize a small home garden. And in February - again to remember about the grapes and start rooting the cuttings harvested from autumn at home.
Grapes - wind-pollinated culture. Insects to a small extent also help pollen transport, but not their leading role. The grapes bloom in June for about 2 weeks. For different zones of growth, years, varieties are deviations. Usually the process takes place without human intervention, but sometimes help is needed.
If during flowering rain and cold weather is worth, then the set of berries is low. The reason: in rainy weather the sticky secret is washed off, to which pollen sticks. A relatively low temperature significantly increases the time of its germination. All this leads to a pea of grapes, when small, seedless seeds are present on the hrone along with large berries.
The appearance of the brush is significantly affected by pea, which is important for table varieties: non-marketable. Although for any varieties insufficient pollination reduces the harvest! And the varieties with functionally female flowers, in which their own pollen is sterile, almost will not give without additional pollination and without transfer of pollen from other varieties of berries.
In this case, we conduct artificial pollination. We make two blades of wood or plywood, on which we attach rabbit skin with a stapler or small nails. You can take two rabbit tails and nail to sticks.
Now, alternately with light touches, we collect pollen from the inflorescence of a pollinator variety and transfer it to pollinated gron. Periodically, the blades beat around each other, getting rid of recruited sterile pollen. The action is carried out on dry inflorescences, after a drop of dew or drying of raindrops.
Watering grapes in summer
It depends on the weather, the state of the plantations, the soil. Pour over the sprinkling, drip into the root zone, into the pits near the bushes or along the grooves. We select the appropriate method of irrigation based on local conditions. In the country, with a small area of the vineyard, it is convenient to dig a piece of pipe or a plastic bottle when planting. Thus, it is the grapes that we water, and not the weeds nearby, and in small doses: the water comes to the right place, the unproductive evaporation is minimal.
The number of watering - depending on the needs of the plant and the weather. If the lower leaves begin to turn yellow, water urgently. On light soils, moisture penetrates into the depths faster, but it is necessary to water more often, as it is worse retained. On heavy soils in the rainy season there is an excess of moisture. In this case, you need to drain, loosen the soil for air access to avoid loss of roots.
It is convenient to combine watering and giving of top dressing, using a solution of organic and mineral fertilizers instead of water.
Watering by sprinkling has a significant minus, since, when watering correctly in summer, we still have reflected splashes from the ground. And it is there that the causative agents of oidium remain, which with drops fall on the leaves ...
Culture takes out of the soil a lot of nutrients, they need to compensate for fertilizer. Organic fertilizers are applied in the fall, in the summer - except during watering, when we add diluted urine, mullein or other to the water. When feeding grapes in July and later, we do not introduce mineral nitrogen: the growing season will increase, the ripening of the berries will move away, the plant will chase the mass and will not have time to enter the rest stage. Winter hardiness will be like a banana. Maybe a little higher, but still not enough ...
The removal of potassium is large, we mainly contribute chlorine-free forms of its fertilizers - chlorine damages grapes.
Phosphorus is required a lot, take into account its availability in the soil. The fact is that a high content of copper, manganese and lime in the soil reduces the availability of phosphorus for plants, the roots cannot “pull” it out of the soil. Part of it is good to give in the form of foliar feeding, that is, to spray the leaves with a solution of phosphate salts.
In general, the foliar feeding method has a number of advantages: the batteries are used more economically, since they are not bound by the ground and fall directly on the plant. It is convenient to feed the plant with iron solution of blue vitriol: its deficiency violates photosynthesis, leading to chlorosis. Especially good foliar feeding solution of microelements, which the plant needs in small quantities, but without which it is impossible to do. Top-dressing with such a solution before flowering increases the number of enshrined berries. In this case, the solution should be diluted, and its acidity is close to neutral in order to avoid leaf burn.
Protection of grapes from pests and diseases
High temperature, alas, favors the development of not only grapes. Describing how to care for grapes in the summer, you should definitely pay attention to protection from diseases and pests. This is a large, extensive topic, so we posted articles dedicated to this particular topic on our website. And in this text we just casually mention that there are a large number of diseases and pests of grapes that can reduce or destroy the entire crop. Spraying medicinal preparations. combined with spraying solutions of stimulating and nutrients saves costs.
The unmistakable formation of a bush is of tremendous importance: this is how we achieve the correct ratio of the root part, leaf surface, buds and shoots, inflorescences. Any deviation from the optimum leads to a decrease in yield and a weakening of the bush. And not only this year, but also in the next few!
The main pruning is usually carried out in the spring, but in summer there is enough work. To speed up ripening, the grapes are chased: we shorten the shoots, leaving 10-12 leaves above the bunch. In addition to stamping, other methods are used to speed up the ripening of berries:
- Banding In June, under the lower brush, remove the bark and cambium with a ring, 3-5 mm.
- The long shoot is folded in a ring, inclined or horizontal.
- Torsion the vine. Above the last bunch we twist (do not stop, just twist) the vine. In addition to speeding up the ripening, the bunch will be sweeter.
It is worth noting that if we need to accelerate ripening, maybe we just made a mistake when choosing a variety for planting?
We conduct grazing, removing, in part or in whole, fast-growing small shoots from the buds on the pagons of this year. They thicken the bush, reducing the illumination, which reduces the sugar content and yield, leading to the defeat of diseases. Pysynoki grow stronger when the vine is not full, when there are "extra", not used for filling berries and budding, growth of shoots of the substance.
Formation is carried out all the time, it is not only responsible, but also a complex set of techniques in the description.
The proper care of the grapes in July will help the video, with the demonstrated methods of pruning. To understand whether the bush is loaded enough, observation of the crown of the escape will help. Normally, it remains bent around mid-August. Bending due to uneven growth of wood. The alignment of the crown is a sign of overload of the bush, urgently need to remove excess shoots, otherwise the budding of the buds will be broken and the harvest of this year and the next 2-3 years will suffer.
Proper watering of grapes (with video)
Vintage grapes on photo
The grapes, like other vines, due to the rapid growth of shoots need a fairly high water consumption. Under the conditions of the Non-Chernozem region, quite a large amount of precipitation falls, but their distribution during the year often does not coincide with the maximum needs of the grapes for water. Yes, and weather conditions are unpredictable. Therefore, the possibility of watering the vines must always be foreseen. In grapes, there are two periods of the highest water consumption. The first is associated with intensive growth of shoots, and the second - with the growth of berries. And if the growth of shoots occurs at the end of May, when the soil still has an adequate supply of moisture, the berries grow in the middle of summer.
At this time, arid weather is often established in the middle lane. Thus, during the growing season may need 2-3 watering fruit-bearing grape bushes. The first time to water the grapes should be in the spring, as advised by experienced gardeners, it should be done at the end of May, it is carried out before flowering in the case of a little snowy winter and a hot dry spring. The second and third time to water the grapes should be in the summer - as practice shows, this should be done after flowering, while increasing the size of the berries in the conditions of the dry season. When the harvest begins to ripen, watering is stopped, since an increase in humidity during this period leads to a decrease in sugar content.
Do not forget about the care of grapes in the fall: In addition to vegetative irrigation, autumn wet-irrigation can be carried out in the vineyard. It is necessary in case of insufficient precipitation after harvest. If autumn was arid, then, on the one hand, it makes it difficult to prepare plants for winter, and on the other, dry soil easily freezes at the very first drops in temperature below zero.
For grapes in the first year of life after planting, the soil in the root zone must always be kept moist, but not in the overmoistened state. От этого во многом зависит приживаемость саженцев. Поливная вода должна достигать глубины расположения корней. Поэтому под каждое плодоносящее растение за один полив необходимо вылить 3-4 ведра воды.
Как поливать виноград правильно, чтобы не погубить растения? Колодезную или водопроводную воду необходимо заранее набирать в емкости, чтобы она отстоялась и нагрелась до температуры воздуха. Полив проводят в утренние или вечерние часы. Loosening the soil after irrigation can improve aeration and prevents unproductive moisture consumption. A good result is the mulching of the soil. The next watering is carried out only after the topsoil dries well.
Often, perforated pipes are installed to effectively water the grapes in order to provide water access to the deep layers of the soil when planting bushes. In the future, irrigation water is poured into these pipes.
On the one hand, this allows it to moisten just the root zone, and on the other, the surface layer of the soil remains dry, which prevents the growth of weeds and the development of dew roots. For the winter, the opening of the pipe is closed. Frequent watering with a small amount of water has a number of negative consequences: the plant still suffers from moisture deficiency, the aeration of the deep soil layers is disturbed, and the roots begin to absorb the surface layer of the soil.
This video shows the watering of grapes in spring, summer and autumn:
The beginning of spring
The first trouble comes to the gardener when the snow is just beginning to go. The soil is exposed, the buds begin to swell and open. During this period, it is important to ensure the reliability of the supports, since in the summer the leaves will greatly increase the windage, which is why the wind can cause serious damage.
Uncovered varieties must be cut long before the juice begins to move in the stems, otherwise you could be harmed. If the plant has already woken up, and the juice has gone, even a small incision will cause a "crying vine", which will be difficult to stop even with a garden pitch.
When caring for grapes in spring and summer, this phenomenon should not be allowed, because along with the juice the plant will lose a large amount of valuable substances necessary for it to form and pour berries with juice.
There are two proven and fairly effective ways to stop the "crying vine":
The traditional “old-fashioned” method is to gloss over the damaged area or slice with a special mixture of red paint, drying oil, chalk and boric acid. These components provide disinfection and fast healing.
Balsam "artificial bark" - store lacquer, which already contains all the necessary substances that allow you to quickly heal the damaged bark.
There are other formulations, but these two are very accessible and help in most cases. And during periods when there is no active movement of juice, you can do with the usual garden pitch.
In April, the severe cold recedes, and it is time to open the covering grape varieties. For a weak vine, this process is always a shock, so you need to carry it out gradually, giving the plant the opportunity to pre-dry. It is not necessary to remove the whitish bloom from the shoots, it is harmless. When the vine is dry enough, you need to tie it up.
Protection against parasites and diseases
Any care for grapes in the spring is carried out taking into account the fact that the plants are weak, and gentle shoots are prone to attacks by parasites. Therefore, it is desirable to carry out treatment with protective drugs.
A great option is the universal remedy “Nitrofen” (after the blooming of the kidneys, its use is no longer allowed).
Bordeaux Liquid works well against parasites and fungal diseases, which is a bluestone and lime diluted in water. High insecticidal efficacy is demonstrated by the popular drug “Karbofos”, and “Oxy” works well with ticks. With such a common disease as Chlorosis can handle the solution of ferrous sulfate.
Treatment with this drug is also desirable to produce with unbuttoned kidneys. By the way, it additionally slows down the process of blooming, protecting the kidneys from the most severe frosts.
Most of the funds for the care of grapes in the spring is recommended to use before the buds unfold. You can spend a few sprays of different drugs.
Vines extracted from shelters should be carefully examined for suspicious growths that may indicate a dangerous disease like bacterial cancer. All suspicious areas must be cut and burned to contain the spread of the disease. It is recommended to mark the diseased plants and feed them less in the summer. Practice shows that "starving" plants better cope with this disease.
The end of spring and the beginning of summer
By the beginning of May, excessive growth of green shoots is activated, some of which should be removed (this process is called “debris”). All excess buds, as well as weak shoots break off. When the shoots grow to 15 cm, it is necessary to carry out a second fragment, and when they reach 35 cm - the fourth. Left shoots need to tie up to the trellis.
Further care of the grapes in the spring and summer is to ensure that the stepsons and excess buds are removed in a timely manner, making the shrub as easy as possible and leaving only the payload. It is necessary to constantly inspect, in time to notice the disease, fungus or the invasion of pests. Also summer care is to regularly feed, water and loosen the ground. If everything is done correctly, then by the autumn we can expect a good harvest of healthy grape brushes with juicy and delicious berries.
Rules for the care of grapes in the first season
This young grape bush is clearly thickened.
In the first year after planting the grapes, it is necessary to grow 1–2 strong vines on a bush (preferably one and a half to two meters long).
It is especially important that before the first frost ripen at least part of each vine, at least 3-4 buds.
It is desirable that the grown branches at the base are not thinner than a pencil (but this is very individual in grades and regions).
We leave two strong escapes and tie them up almost vertically.
When in spring or early summer (depending on the region), the threat of frost has passed, the growing young twigs are tied up (using a string or thin wire) for vertical growth. Direction up activates regrowth.
In the first year it is not necessary to construct a powerful trellis, but the garter is obligatory.
At the end of the summer, the grown vines are removed from the support (garters) and placed on the ground. In a horizontal position, wood and bark mature better (brown).
Extra stepchildren remove or pinch.
If with the beginning of the growing season several shoots start to develop, then they leave 2 most active (from different sides of rooted cutting). Sometimes save 3 vines (one - as a reserve, just in case, in the fall the “third excess” shoot is cut out).
During the summer side branches (stepchildren) may appear on the growing branches. They are removed entirely or pinch on the third leaflet.
At the end of the summer, the lower leaves are harvested for better lighting and aging of the vine. With the same purpose, pinch the apical points of growth, but leave the upper stepson (to maintain the point of growth). Continue to delete the other stepchildren.
In the northern regions, shoots can mature poorly and slowly: bases remain greenish . In this case, a temporary greenhouse-type shelter is erected over the bush: agrofibers and film are placed on the arcs (leaving vents for ventilation). Heat contributes to ripening.
Before the shelter for the winter produce the final autumn pruning. It is carried out taking into account the power of first-year shoots and the choice of the future shaping of the bush. If a small piece has ripened (no more than 3-4 eyes), it is left for wintering.
Types of formations
In the case when more eyes have ripened, pruning of each vine (one or two) is carried out with a focus on the future shaping:
- for fan (mainly in covering areas) - 2-4 buds are left,
- for long sleeves (one or two) - make a long pruning, keeping 8–10 mature eyes on each shoot,
- for standard - one (upper) matured vine is left more authentic (8–10 buds), the second (lower) vine is strongly shortened (leaving 3-4 eyes). The second branch is a backup (if the stem dies). In the case when only one sprout appeared in the first summer, the shtams form early, then they cut shortly by 3-4 eyes to grow 2 strong vines in the next season.
Sometimes over the summer, 5–6 equally weak branches are formed (“whisk”). Leave 2 lower shoots and work with them, and the rest cut out entirely. If flower brushes pop up, they are always pulled out in the first year.
Experienced winegrowers advise in the first 2-3 years of bush life not to carry out full-length pruning in the fall, but limit to removing the underexposed part. It is believed that a young plant will win the winter better.
The final shaping is done next spring, after swelling of the kidneys.- when the vine no longer “cries” from wounds, and awakened buds signal the state of preservation after winter.
Watering and feeding
On loams, and even in rainy summer, young grapes are not watered. On sandy soils and in the dry season, at least 2–3 irrigations (30 liters each) are carried out, always with warm water.
If the planting pit was well filled, and the seedling is actively developing, feeding in the first summer can not be carried out at all. The famous Altai winegrower R. F. Sharov advised in the northern zones to keep the grapes "in black body", not allowing him to fatten, so that the vine is better matured..
Such “lazy” agricultural techniques - without fertilizers and irrigation - can be used on unpretentious varieties (Riddle of Sharov, Zilga, Amursky-1, BCZ, Krasa Severa, Muscat Katunsky, etc.).
- With a weak growth in the first half of the growing season they give a complex root feeding with a predominance of nitrogen and phosphorus. . To do this, spend 1-2 fertilizer irrigation (in May-June): pour 40 g of superphosphate in a bucket of hot water, add 30 g of urea, 10 g of potassium sulfate a day. On a bucket of the mixture poured under each bush. Instead, you can take organic matter: an infusion of grass or manure (1:10), bird droppings (1:30).
- In the second half of the growing season, only potassium and phosphorus are released. : 1-2 times (July - August). For 10 liters of water take 40 g of superphosphate and 20 g of potassium sulfate. Can be replaced with wood ash. The event is aimed at the aging of wood.
- Liquid feeding is carried out the next day after watering or rain.
- When arranging a major vineyard, it is recommended to install drainage pipes to the depth of the roots. Watering and liquid dressing are carried out through them.
- Responsive grapes and on foliar top dressing with microelements (2-3 per summer).
- In the autumn, shortly before the shelter of the bushes, a bucket of humus or compost is brought into the basal zone (with a small digging). Conduct prewinter moisture irrigation.
Treatments for diseases and pests
The scheme of processing grapes fungicides.
In the northern zones of viticulture, pests and diseases are practically not observed. Oidium (true powdery mildew) outbreaks occur in wet, rainy seasons. Because of this disease, the vines ripen poorly, winter worse.
For the prevention and control of oidium use:
- water infusion of cow dung (1:10) - withstand 3 days, filter, sprayed, it turns out feeding and protection (in June),
- solution of potassium permanganate (4 g per 10 l of water),
- 50 g of soda ash and 30 g of soap for a bucket of water,
- Tiovit Jet fungicides (4–6 treatments per season - according to the instructions), Topaz, Is fast.
Spray before wintering shelter blue vitriol (300 g per 10 liters of water).
Processing grapevine solution of iron sulfate.
Similar fungicides are effective against other diseases of young grapes, more characteristic of the southern zones. Use also Oxyh, Bordeaux fluid .
Pest insects fight when they appear on a bush, using insecticides . Plants do not bear fruit yet, so there are no restrictions on the processing time.
Second and third season
The installation of trellis is carried out (if this has not been done before). Shoots are already tied up not vertically, but with an inclination to the side.
In the second and third year of life of the grape bush complete its formation.
- The main work is carried out in the autumn pruning (or carry it in the spring, after the swelling of the kidneys). Summer make adjustments. In the second season, sleeves are usually laid down (short - with a fan-shaped formation), and by the end of the third season, fruit links are already ready.
- If the bush is weak , the preparatory work takes not 3, but 4 seasons.
- It is recommended not to allow fruiting (pull out the brush). Sometimes they leave signalku, a test bunch, to be sure of the varietal conformity. It should be removed as soon as possible (immediately after ripening) so as not to deplete the plant.
- Young shoots are removed during the season. sprouting from the base of the bush, extra prongs (especially fattening, too thick).
- Watering the vineyard in the old mode, but when feeding, now give out a bush of 2 buckets of fertilizer solution instead of one.
- In the spring, after taking shelters, the sleeping vine is sprayed with vitriol (100 g per 10 liters of water) from fungal diseases.
Caring for fruiting grapes
In the fourth or fifth year, the vineyard enters a time of full fruiting.
Industrial plantations have been productive for a quarter of a century. In a private garden, with a winegrower-enthusiast, this berry can fully work much longer. The sleeves gradually grow old, and in 7–12 years (depending on the variety), they are gradually replaced by new ones from coppice and top shoots.
Basic rules for good harvest
When the shoots reach the top of the wire, cut them just above the trellis to stop the apical growth.
How to care for grapes throughout the season - in spring, summer and autumn, so that there is a good harvest? Consider the basic techniques of agricultural engineering.
Pinching of grapes is carried out before or at the very beginning of flowering.
In the summer there are various green operations:
- cradle (side branches pinch on the third sheet, second-order stepchildren are completely removed),
- break "twins" and "tees" - extra shoots grown from the spare buds on the eye,
- inflorescencethat are underdeveloped or overload the bush,
- cutting of unnecessary growth and tops,
- pinch tops fruitful shoot 3 days before flowering - for some varieties (prone to pea and female by type),
- chasing fruitful shoots: when active growth is suspended, in the second half of the season, the tops are cut off, leaving a dozen leaves above the fruit brushes (the exercise is not recommended on weak bushes, as well as in the northern areas of viticulture),
- removing old shading foliage 2–3 weeks before harvest time.
- Mandatory autumn watering irrigation.
- Early varieties are abundantly watered twice per season (June, July), middle-ripening - three times (beginning of June, July, beginning of August), later - four times (mid-May, June, July, mid-August).
Schedule making feedings.
- Once in three years in the fall (shortly before the shelter), several buckets of rotten humus or compost are brought under the bush, dug up.
- Are given root dressings : the first (nitrogen) spring, the second (complex) - immediately after flowering, the third (phosphorus-potassium plus magnesium) - at the end of July, the fourth - potassium magnesia (fall in the root zone).
- Are effective foliar feed : before flowering - boron and zinc, at the beginning of pouring berries - potassium magnesia and boron, in late August - zinc.
- Overfeeding grapes is more dangerous than underfeeding (especially in the areas of covering culture).
- Immunity stimulants (Epin Extra, Zircon, Humate, HB-1, etc.), with proper use, support the grape plant, especially under adverse weather conditions.