The narcissus is a very attractive spring flower, which belongs to bulbous types of flowers. It got its name from the Greek word "narkao", which means to stun or stupefy. Most likely, this name is associated with its delicious aroma. What a narcissus looks like and other information about it is given in the article.
Description of the plant and when the daffodils bloom
The flower is a bulbous plant, which belong to the group of perennials. The leaves have long and straight dark green, linear type, which extend straight from the root. Depending on the variety, their width may vary, but not by much. Flowers grow on a leafless stalk, which can reach a height of forty or even fifty centimeters. Due to the fact that the stem has no leaves, cutting flowers does not harm the plant. The bulbs are also not harmed.
At the top of the peduncle there is a nodule, from which the pedicel has, which has a membranous wrapper. The flowers themselves are usually solitary, although sometimes they are also collected in brushes, they have a rather strong and pleasant aroma, a little drooping type. Flowers may differ in type and color, but their types are not too much. Mostly white or yellow shades of colors are encountered, which can be simple or terry.
It usually blooms towards the end of spring, that is, at the end of May or the beginning of June. Its perianth has a long cylindrical tube and a six-section limb, with a tubular, bell-shaped or cup-shaped pripenchik (crown), the length of which may vary. After flowering, a fruit is formed in place of the flower - a fleshy box, having a three-leaved type, in which there are seeds. There are a lot of seeds, but they quickly lose their germination.
Narcissus - this is probably one of the most valuable plants used for scenery and flowering in the spring. It is often used in gardens and flower beds, planted on lawns and in flowerbeds, grown for cutting and even used as a pot plant in the winter.
One of the characteristic features of a flower bulb is its presence two kidney renewal. Its roots are located at the bottom of the bulb and their most intensive development is observed in the autumn period, and then die off every year. They can reach up to thirty centimeters in length.
What types of daffodils exist
Breeders have achieved the breeding of a fairly large number of varieties of both terry and simple, and they are mostly different colors. Most often it is white or yellow, but there are also two-colored copies. Especially beautiful are those who have a pink crown.
The only species that is found in the CIS countries is the narrow-leaved narcissus, which is found mainly in the Carpathians. Although there are a lot of varieties of them, garden daffodils are usually classified into several groups:
- Tubular varietieswhich have a long crown in the shape of a tube, which may be equal to the length of the petals or even be slightly larger. Among them are varieties such as: Glacier, which has white flowers and a white crown, Golden Harvest - yellow narcissus and a yellow crown, Spellbinder - yellow with an almost white tube,
- Crowded varietieswhich have a crown that is a third larger than the size of the petals, funnel-shaped or tubular. We can distinguish such varieties as: Velaskes (Velaskes) - has a creamy shade of petals and a large orange crown, Carlton - yellow with a darker yellow crown, Debutant - has a white shade and a pink crown.
- Minor shredded varietiesthat have a crown not exceeding the length of the petals. It, on the contrary, is less than a third of them.
- Triandrus variety - It is a hybrid of a three-legged narcissus and a garden one. This variety is of medium size, and the flowers are gathered in umbrella-shaped inflorescences. On the peduncle can be from two to four flowers.
- Terry narcissus - has flowers with fluffy petals of terry type. Examples of varieties: Acropolis (Acropolis) - flower of white shade with red residual crown, Outer Space (Outer Space) - white with terry pink crown, Chirfulness (Cheerfulness) - narcissus terry of white shade,
- Cyclamen daffodil - A flower with a long crown and petals strongly bent back.
- Jonquil daffodils - varieties that have small but fragrant flowers, several on the peduncle (usually 2-3 pieces),
- Tatsatnye - with flowers of medium size, fragrant, up to 12 on the peduncle.
- Poetic - white flowers, fragrant solitary with a short crown.
- Wild varieties, their forms and natural hybrids.
- Cut-hole - Flowers with a crown, divided into shares.
How to grow daffodils
Narcissus - the plant is not picky, however, to grow them, you need to know some rules. Although the culture of daffodil is quite shade tolerant, on the lighted areas more abundant flowering is observed and the bulbs give much more.
Spread daffodils mainly with the help of bulbs and their children. Though the seeds are ripening, the percentage of their germination is very low. Basically, seed planting is used by breeders when breeding new varieties. When the number of flowering shoots begins to decrease, this is the first signal to transplant. She can begin to engage when the foliage begins to wither. First you need to dig and dry the bulbs of the plant and remove them for storage. When the bulbs are dug out late, it can negatively affect their quality, so you do not need to delay it.
The planting of daffodils is carried out closer to the end of summer - the beginning of autumn. Great for this end of August and the beginning of September. Plant bulbs of daffodils to a depth of about ten or fifteen centimeters, while respecting the distance between them by 10-15 centimeters. This beautiful flower is quite unpretentious, and therefore easily adapts to environmental conditions. Most varieties are frost-resistant and tolerate cold winters without additional shelter. However, if there is little snow in winter, they can freeze out. For this reason, they are sometimes mulched before the onset of winter. Peat may be suitable for mulching, then the plant can be covered. As soon as spring comes and the snow melts, the shelter must be removed.
What kind of care is needed for daffodils
Daffodils love light, although they are considered shade-tolerant. In addition, this flower does not like drafts, so the place for planting them should be taken care of in advance. It is necessary to choose a light enough place that is protected from drafts. If a bright place can not be found, then you can put in the shade. But then, we must understand that the number of their colors may be lower.
Daffodils are moisture-loving plants and it follows from this that they need to be provided with additional moisture, especially if there are no rains during the flowering period. The rest of the course is weeding as necessary and removing diseased and damaged leaves and shoots. To improve the quality of the bulbs, shoots with flowers that have faded, should be cut off. At one place the daffodil can grow about six le, after it is better to transplant it to another place.
This flower loves nitrogen-potassium soil, so after planting, especially in the first year, it needs intensive fertilization. Feed plants for the first time in early spring, when only the first shoots appear. But at first this is done with a small amount of fertilizer, because an excess of nitrogen can lead to the appearance of diseases on the flower. The second time the daffodil should be fed with the appearance of the peduncle with potassium and nitrogen. The third feeding with nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium is carried out in the period of full budding, and the fourth with the help of phosphorus and potassium is carried out during flowering.
It should be noted that fertilizing the flower with fresh manure is by no means impossible, because this fertilizer can attract pests dangerous for the narcissus, such as the narcissus fly, or the onion hover. Manure is allowed to be scattered on the soil prepared in the future for planting these flowers a year or two before.
Thus, when growing narcissus, you should properly care for the plant, that is, take care of:
- the soil
- regular watering
- proper planting and transplanting plants.
Growing daffodil in a pot
Some growers admire the daffodils and in the winter, and for this transplant them in flower pots and grow them at home. Many may think that this is difficult, however, it is not at all. However, with such cultivation has its own nuances. For example:
- for forcing need larger and not damaged bulbs,
- the pot must be deep, that is, at least 15-20 centimeters deep,
- it is necessary to plant the bulbs so that their small part (at least 1 /) remains on the surface,
- then the plant must be kept quiet and left in the dark at + 5-7 ° C.
After that, sprouts should start to appear and now the plant will need a brighter place where the temperature can reach +10 degrees. Only exposure to the flower in direct sunlight should be avoided. When the buds begin to appear, you should raise the temperature to 20 degrees.
Flower brought from the mountain edges. In nature, poetic daffodil lives on higher ground near ponds and springs. Initially, the species was bred near the Mediterranean Sea and not far from Italy. The plant grows quickly and blooms among chestnut trees. For full development of the flower requires moderate moisture and direct sunlight. The flower grows up to 50 centimeters in height. Propagated by bulbs, which have the shape of a ball or a chicken egg, with a pointed end. One shrub of poetic daffodil produces up to five flat, long sheets. They have a bright green color. Flowers bloom on a single branch, white, heads look down. Inside of them there is a crown of bright yellow color.
The species was first bred in 1538. Italians liked the narcissus for its strong fragrance. The size of the blooming flower reaches six centimeters. Flowering stem grows longer than leaves and can reach fifty centimeters. The plant is shown from the ground in early spring, actively gaining growth and begins to bloom in May. Flowering period up to 12 days.
When the temperature in winter is below 10 degrees, the flower requires shelter.
After reviewing the photo with the narcissus and the description of the variety, you can choose the plant of poetic narcissus you like and breed it in your own area.
The representative of this variety has a second name - false narcissus. The flower was brought from France, Germany and southern Italy. Grows well on the slopes of the Caucasus Mountains. Yellow daffodil grows short. Adult plant reaches 30 centimeters. It is propagated by bulbs, the diameter of which does not exceed 5 centimeters. They are round, less oval. One flower blooms on the flower stem, which reaches a diameter of 4 cm. In the process of active growth, the flower produces thin, dark-green leaves, which are located 10 centimeters below the flower.
Inside the blooming flower there is a crown, a bright yellow color with a corrugated uneven edge. The flowering period of yellow daffodil begins in mid-May. It lasts no more than 15 days. The flower is bred and introduced into garden culture since 1500.
Thanks to this variety, many forms of the plant have been bred by crossing.
Gardeners use yellow daffodil to beautify near the house plots and stony gardens, planting them next to tulips, the czar's crown, in mixed plantings and compositions with juniper.
The flower was brought from the Iberian Islands. It grows well on the slopes of mountains, enriched with scenic vegetation, including abundant grass. White daffodil can be seen on acidified soil or in pine forests. Adult flower reaches 35 centimeters. It reproduces and spreads out with the help of bulbs. They are no larger than 4 cm and have a spherical shape. The flower has thin, multiple green leaves. Flowering stem does not exceed 23 centimeters. The flower is white, as well as the inner crown.
White narcissus introduced into culture since 1579. Begins to grow actively from mid-spring. By the end of May, the flower dissolves flowers that smell no more than 10 days.
When grown under conditions of low temperatures, daffodils should be covered during the cold season.
The flower was brought in 1520 from western Italy. At about the same time, the variety was introduced to the crop in the south of France. Pink daffodil is different from other types of plants rather high size. The flower reaches 45 centimeters. The leaves are dark green and wider than those of other species by 0.5 cm. Differs in color of the flower itself. During the flowering period, there is 1 bud on the pedicel. The flower has a white color with a soft pink crown, quite unusual for this group of plants.
Pink narcissus propagates with the help of bulbs. In an adult plant, they can reach 5 centimeters. The daffodil blooms in early May. In order to preserve the flower, it is better to dig out the onion for the period of rest and keep it in a dark place until spring comes. Pink daffodil can not only ennoble the garden area, but also surprise guests. The plant will draw attention to the flowerbed in any design.
The flower belongs to the cyclamen group. Narcissus Tet-a-Tet cultivated since 1584. Brought from the mountains of the Caucasus and Germany. The plant reaches low growth. Most often the daffodil does not exceed 25 centimeters in height. On the pedicel is one inflorescence. The bud has a drooping appearance, strongly lowered to the ground. The flower is bright yellow with unusual petals, raised up.
Narcissus Tet-a-Tet blooms from early May. It has a pleasant aroma. Does not tolerate drought. Plants are planted along the curbs and low fences. Grows well and produces new bulbs of spherical shape. When wintering, the flower is dug out and stored in a dark, cool place until spring comes.
In ancient Rome, daffodils considered flowers symbolizing victory. After the battle, the winner was hung around the neck with a garland of this plant. Some heroes of fights brought live bouquets to the audience.
Most varieties of terry daffodils brought from South America. The plant likes a humid climate and does not tolerate a long drought. This group includes several types of daffodils, varieties with photos, name and description are presented below.
Low-growing plant with dark green leaves 0.5 centimeters wide. On each pedicel there is 1 extraordinary beauty flower. Terry daffodil during flowering has a yellow flower with a bright orange crown, of uneven size. Bud size may exceed 7 centimeters. Flowers are decorated with bouquets, it has no equal when cut. Begins to bloom in late May.
Grade of texas
Belongs to a group of terry daffodils. The flower is large in size, has a terry crown. Color white - yellow or pale pink. Narcissus unpretentious in growing. Loves enriched and moist soil. Brought from Germany and Italy. The flower has been introduced into culture since 1565. Texas has proven itself in the group landing. Suitable for registration of flower arrangements, can not fade for a long time without water when cutting.
Terry daffodil varieties Texas fragrant fragrant during the flowering period from mid-May. When cold wintering is better to cover.
Narcissus Ice King
The plant is bred in Italy and planted by gardeners since 1850. Narcissus Ice King multiplies vegetatively. Bulb of an adult plant does not exceed 5 centimeters. What does a daffodil look like?
The photo shows the flower family. The plant has wide leaves, located below and at the level of the bud. There is one white flower with a light yellow crown on each pedicle. Narcissus Ice King is distinguished by large flowers, the size of which reaches 11 centimeters.
It grows in a richly moistened soil. Does not tolerate prolonged drought.
Flower ennobles the garden plots, it is used in flower arrangements. Narcissus Ice King begins to bloom from early May. Will delight the gardener with beautiful flowers until the end of the month.
What does a Tahiti daffodil look like?
The plant has large double flowers reaching the size of 10 centimeters. The color of the main petals is light yellow. Inside there is a red - orange crown. Narcissus Tahiti in the period of active growth grows to 35 centimeters. It has narrow dark green leaves that are located below the buds. Each flower on a separate pedicel.
The plant multiplies by vegetative means, grows on near house plots. It tolerates direct sunlight, loves wet soil. It grows well in groups. Gaining active growth since mid-May. By the end of flowering dims, but does not lose its pleasant aroma.
The plant propagates in a vegetative way. It tolerates sunlight and can grow in the shade of trees. Растение имеет широкие листья тёмно – зелёного цвета, расположенные на уровне и ниже соцветий. На одной цветоножке может быть несколько бутонов. Цветы крупного размера с лепестками светло – розового цвета. Коронка махровая, с персиковым оттенком. Растение достигает высоты 50 сантиметров. Нарцисс Реплит используют при озеленении садовых участков.
Цветок любит обильно обогащённую, влажную и рыхлую почву. Используется в цветочных композициях.
Нарцисс Рип Ванн Винкль
The flower can be located and blossom, being in the open area and in the shade of trees. Low-growing plant, reaching a maximum of 30 centimeters in length. It has wide leaves that do not grow to flowers. Daffodil Rip Vann Winkle grows in moist and enriched soil, does not tolerate drought. Terry flowers and crowns, bright yellow. On each peduncle single bud. The plant is dug up after flowering and planted in open ground at the end of winter.
The plant belongs to terry group. Narcissus Obdam smells delicate and exquisite aroma. Flowers are located on a separate pedicel. Have a delicate beige shade. Large buds. When disclosing may exceed 10 centimeters. The plant grows large. At the end of active growth may exceed 50 centimeters.
Planted into bulbs in fertilized soil at the end of summer. In early spring, narcissus Obdam begins to sprout from the ground. In mid-May, the plant pleases with its appearance around. The flowering period lasts no more than 12 days. By the end of this period, the flowers fade to a white hue, but do not lose their delicate aroma. Gardeners are recommended to plant tubers in open sunny areas or in the shade of trees.
The tubers of the plant are large enough, up to 6 centimeters. Narcissus Obdam planted in gardens in groups.
Narcissus flower: what is it
Flowering begins in May, lasts about a month. Bright, bell-like flowers sway among thin leaves.
The flower consists of 6 leaves of a simple perianth, the outgrowth of each forms a crown, inside of which is a column and 6 stamens. The diameter of the flower is from 2 to 10 cm. The flowers come in 2 forms: simple and terry.
Culture grows in the Mediterranean, Asia, southern Europe. There are more than 60 species. Except for 25 natural, there are still a huge number of hybrids.
Narcissus - a plant suitable for forcing, decorating, cutting a bouquet.
Interesting! The name comes from the Greek "narko", which translates as "intoxicating."
For centuries it was grown for use in medicine and perfumery. Heady notes of aroma can trigger a migraine attack. The alkaloid contained in the bulbs is poisonous to rodents, making them invulnerable.
In East Asian countries, non-edible varieties are industrially grown for the manufacture of essential oil. Fashionable perfume called "Black Narcissus".
Why is it called the flower? The ancient Greek legend tells all about Narcissus - a beautiful, but selfish young man who did not respond to the feelings of the mountain nymph Echo. He was punished by the gods for his coldness. The young man fell in love with his reflection in the water. Admiration at the stream led the young man to death. At that place a beautiful flower grew, named by his people. This is a myth, but the narcissus flower still pleases everyone with its delicate beauty.
The flowers of narcissus (the Latin name is narcissus) - representatives of the perennial Bulkovichny family, belong to the Amaryllis family. Along with flowers like narcissus: crocuses, hyacinths, refers to the early plants.
The variety of how the daffodils look is created by the size, shape, color of the crown (single-color or two-color).
Characteristics and descriptions of the flower of narcissus
Height: 0.1-0.5 m. The location of the leaves - radical, beam. Quantity - from 2 to 4. Form - narrow linear. The length and width depend on the variety.
At the top of the peduncle flower grows, which consists of 6 petals (terry more). The arrangement of flowers found solitary or umbrella, direct or drooping. At its base there is a Privenchik - a tubular, cup-shaped or bell-shaped crown.
Bulb - perennial, dense, scaly. Form - elongated, oval or rounded. Distinctive feature: two kidneys of renewal with a different degree of development. The roots are straight, annuals. Propagated by onion-kids.
To admire how it blooms from the beginning of May. Among home flowers bloom like daffodils - zephyranthes. People call their flowers homemade daffodils.
Narcissus - types, care and cultivation
Mahomet said about this flower: “He who has two loaves, he will sell one to buy a flower of narcissus, for bread is food for the body, and narcissus is food for the soul.” And indeed, gardeners who do not care for souls in daffodils are much more than those who do not want to grow them at all. Are there any? Daffodils, like tulips - spring flowers, though not the first, but very long-awaited. Daffodils - unpretentious in the care. The main thing is to know that they love and what they do not tolerate. This is our article.
Group planting daffodils. © Monica Meeneghan
Botanical description of the plant
Narcissus (Narcissus) - genus of plants from the family Amaryllidaceae (Amaryllidaceae). The genus Narcissus includes about 50 primary and 60 hybridogenic species. Type species - Narcissus poetic (Narcissus poeticus)
The name of the narcissus comes from the Greek word ‘narkao’ - to stupefy, stun, which is probably associated with the stupefying smell of flowers. The name of the type species - poeticus (poetic) is due to the fact that it was so praised by poets of all countries and ages, like no other plant, except perhaps a rose.
Narcissus perennial bulbous herb. Leaves radical, linear. The flower of narcissus is located on a leafless, flattened or round peduncle up to 40-50 cm high, on top of which there is a knot with a stem 0.5-1.5 cm in length and with membranous wrappers. The flowers are large, solitary or in racemes, fragrant, somewhat drooping, simple or double, 2-6 cm in diameter. Decorative during flowering in May-June, the predominant white or yellow.
Perianth with a long cylindrical tube and six-fold bend, with a tubular, bell-shaped or bowl-shaped pripenchik (crown) of various lengths, formed by outgrowths of the perianth segments, which are usually not the same color. The fruit is a fleshy, tricuspid box. Seeds numerous, rounded or angular, very quickly lose their germination.
Reproduction and transplanting
Propagated mainly by bulbs and children. Reducing the number of flowering shoots is a signal for transplanting. To do this, after the foliage begins to dry, the bulbs are dug out and processed and dried in the shade, then removed for storage. Remember that the late digging has a negative effect on the quality of the bulbs, so do not delay the work.
The best time for planting daffodil bulbs is August-early September to a depth of approximately 10 cm, and the distance between the bulbs is 10-15 cm. Narcissuses adapt well to local conditions. Many varieties are winter-hardy and can winter without additional shelter, but in snow-free winters there are lunges. Therefore, some varietal daffodils in the late autumn mulch with peat, then cover. In the spring, after the snow melts, the shelter is removed.
Daffodils - the culture is quite moisture-loving, so during the flowering period and within 4-5 weeks after it they need to be watered if there is no rain. The rest of the care comes down to weeding and removing diseased plants. In order to improve the quality of the bulbs, the withering flowers are cut off before the seed begins to form, since the plants consume many nutrients to ripen the seeds. Daffodils can be grown in one place without transplanting up to 6 years. Soils prefer nitrogen-potassium, therefore in the first years of life they need intensive feeding.
Daffodils in the garden. © Simon
For the first time, daffodils feed in spring, seedlings and in small quantities, since excess nitrogen causes the development of diseases and the growth of too tall, narrow, weak leaves. The second dressing of narcissus is carried out with nitrogen and potassium in the exit phase of the peduncle, the third - with nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium during full budding and the fourth - with phosphorus and potassium during flowering. Fresh manure is filled into the soil only 2-3 years before planting daffodils.
In no case can you fertilize daffodils with fresh manure, because it attracts the most dangerous pest of this crop - the narcissus fly, or the onion hover. Of the pests of daffodils common nematodes and mites. Daffodils often suffer from fusarium, sclerotinia and mosaic disease.
12 groups of a single international classification of daffodils
- Tubular - crown long, in the form of a tube, exceeds the length of the petals or is equal to them.
- Large crown - crown pipe or funnel-shaped, more than a third the length of the petals.
- Small-crown - crown no more than a third the length of the petals.
- Triandrusaceae are derived from hybridization of a three-peeled daffodil with a garden. Small plants, flowers are collected in umbellate inflorescences of 2-4 pieces on the peduncle.
- Terry - these include varieties of very different structure and origin with double flowers.
- Cyclamen-like flowers with a long crown and petals strongly bent back.
- Zhonklievye - flowers small, fragrant, 2-3 on the peduncle.
- Tatselnye - flowers of medium size, fragrant, up to 12 on the peduncle.
- Poetic - white flowers, fragrant solitary with a short crown.
- Wild species, their forms and natural hybrids.
- Hopper cut - crown divided into lobes.
- All others not included in previous groups.
The use of daffodils in garden design
The plant is widely used in landscaping as early flowering plants, in flowerbeds, rabatkah, groups between shrubs, individual spots.
Very beautiful daffodils in group plantings, small lawns. When you come to the site in the spring, the daffodil pleases with its already blooming flowers, and you understand that it is warm! And the heat is summer. And summer is beauty!
Characteristics and description of the flower
Narcissus (Narcissus) belongs to the genus Amarillis family of plants, including about 50 primary and 60 hybrid species. The name itself comes from the Greek narcao - "stupefy." Most likely, it is associated with a rich aroma of flowers.
These plants are perennial, herbaceous, bulbous. They have basal, linear leaves and rather large white or yellow flowers, arranged singly or in racemes. The flowering period is in April-May.
The narcissus consists of 6 petals of the perianth, the growth of each of which forms a crown with 6 stamens and a column. There are varieties with single-color and two-color flowers, smooth and double petals, with various crowns.
Flower growers are especially appreciated for winter hardiness, ease of care and beauty of this flower.
Varieties of Daffodils
According to the international classification, these plants are divided into 12 groups. In total, there are more than 12 thousand decorative varieties. Depending on the species, daffodils look different:
- Tubular: the crown may exceed the length of the petals.
- Crowded: funnel-shaped tube longer than a third of the petals.
- Small-crown: the height of the crown is much smaller than the petals.
- Triandrusaceae: a hybrid of garden and tretychinkovogo narcissus, can have in the inflorescence from 2 to 4 flowers.
- Terry: different varieties with flowers, terry around the edges, belong to this group.
- Zhonklievye: 2−3 fragrant small flowers on the peduncle.
- Cyclameniform: long crown and backward curved petals.
- Taste: up to a dozen medium-sized flowers on the peduncle.
- Poetic: fragrant white flowers with a short crown.
- Cut-crown: the crown of the flower is divided into shares.
- Wild species and natural hybrids.
- Other species not included in the listed groups.
By combining different varieties of daffodils on the site, you can create a unique design. Flowers look beautiful in groups: in flowerbeds, between shrubs, separate islands.
Various varieties of daffodils are obtained as a result of many years of work of breeders. The first hybrids of these plants were created in the XVIII century. Today, growers can choose from 12 thousand varieties of any to your taste. The most often bred the following types:
- "Victoria". A flower with a diameter of approximately 9 cm is located almost vertically. Petals cream, with a wavy edge, tube of a yellow shade.
- “Easter Bonnet”. A flower more than 10 cm in size with white petals and a corrugated tube.
- "Mount Hood". The petals and the tube is soft cream, but over time the tube becomes completely white. The diameter of the flowers - 12 cm. This variety is very resistant to adverse weather conditions.
- Rembrandt. Flowers golden color, large, up to 10 cm. Have a faint aroma.
- White Triumphant. It has white flowers and a tube of pale yellow color with corrugated edges.
- Confuoko. Large cream-yellow daffodils about 12 cm in diameter. Plant height reaches half a meter.
- "Orange Monarch". Very beautiful variety with a bright orange crown with a wavy edge.
- "Champagne". The flower is white, the crown is cream-pink, the stem reaches a height of 60 cm.
- Pink Glory. It has a strong aroma. The crown is pure pink.
- "Amor". A cream-colored flower with a diameter of up to 11 cm. The crown is yellow, with orange corrugated edges.
- "Gay Challenger". Terry flowers with a diameter of about 10 cm. Look great in bouquets.
- "Texas". A beautiful, rather large terry flower, the greenish-yellow lobes of which alternate with orange.
- "Geranium". Small white flowers, gathered in inflorescences of 3-5 pieces. The crown is bright orange.
Whichever variety of flowers is chosen for planting, it will certainly please the grower after germination, it will look beautiful both on the site and in the design of bouquets.
The best landing site for these plants will be a sunny or slightly shaded area, sheltered from drafts. Some varieties are more fond of the sun (for example, tatsetnye), while others are better in penumbra (hybrid varieties).
Types of daffodils
In the garden and for the forcing of the house, hybrid forms are popular, combined in appearance in 12 groups. Consider some of the types of narcissus flower:
- Narcissus yellow: a low tubular single-flowered flower with a light yellow perianth.
- Terry narcissus: petals, crown terry flower. Happen both with single flowers on tsvetonosa, and with several. Size, shape, color are different because the group unites everyone with a single feature - double-faced.
- Joncilla daffodil - flower stalks with several flowers, a crown of a cupped shape no more than 2⁄3 perianth length.
- Pink Daffodils. Englishwoman Backhouse bred a special shade of a narcissus flower crown - pink. It became the starting point of many species belonging to different classes: terry, tubular, Zhonkillian.
- White narcissus: single flower, small crown, bright, white perianth.
- Sea daffodil can be found on the sea coast. Lily-shaped form of white flowers, emitting vanilla flavor.
- Spray daffodils. Tacetoid form up to 20 fragrant flowers collected in one brush. Have perianth round shape.
- Peruvian daffodil: unusual, very large flower of white color. Externally similar to a lily or a spider.
- Red daffodils: Verzher variety, Queen - inside the snow-white large flower there is a crown of red color.
Features of planting and care
To grow a flower narcissus is not at all difficult. Any garden soil will do. The main condition: good drainage, fertility. Do not use manure for fertilizer. The optimal landing time is August-September.
Daffodils are pretty shade tolerant. Tatsetnye varieties love the sun. Hybrid with a crown of red, orange shades better to grow in the shade.
The depth of planting is 5-15 cm (depending on the type of soil): on heavy ones it is deeper less than on light ones. Aisle about 30 cm, in a row the distance is 15-20 cm between the bulbs. Placed in groups or rows.
The plant is well watered. The soil is regularly loosened, weeded away from weeds.
Narcissus flower must be fertilized. It is better to use mineral supplements in liquid form:
- after the appearance of germs - nitrogen fertilization,
- at the budding stage - potash.
Important! Do not use manure for fertilizer.
Major diseases and pests of culture
Subject to the proper agricultural practices, there will be no problems.
Pests dangerous to flowers:
Plants are subject to the following diseases:
Important! To protect against fungal diseases, the planting material is soaked in a fungicide solution. From narcissus flies and nematodes will help hot water (soak for several hours).
Growing daffodils at home
A flower that everyone loves can be grown at home. For distillation, the view does not matter - most will do. In the autumn large bulbs are selected. Flower pot filled with primer. The onion is buried in such a way that the neck protrudes above the ground. The soil is watered. The bulbs provide rest (temperature + 5-7 ° C and complete darkness) until the sprouts appear, then the pot is placed on the windowsill. Care is reduced to regular watering.
Knowing the features of agricultural technology, it is easy to grow it in your own open field, as well as admire the process of forcing on your windowsill.
Description of the narcissus: what the stalks and bulbs look like, flower structure
The plant narcissus belongs to the Amaryllis family. Under natural conditions it grows in the Mediterranean, Asia and southern Europe. The genus includes about 60 species and thousands of hybrids and varieties bred by breeders.
Начать описание цветка нарцисс стоит с того, что это многолетнее луковичное растение с прикорневыми линейными листьями, цветоносом, длина которого может варьироваться от 8 до 80 см.
Как видно на фото, луковица нарцисса имеет округлую или яйцевидную форму, прикрыта оболочкой из чешуек:
Ее строение характеризуется отличительной особенностью: луковица имеет две почки обновления, которые находятся на разных стадиях развития.
Цветет нарцисс белым, желтым, оранжевым, красным и оттенками красного и оранжевого. В строении цветка нарцисса выделяют коронку и листочки околоцветника. Flowers can be with a split crown and terry. The shape of the flower is amazing: six shares of the perianth, and in the middle is an outgrowth - long or not. It is called a tube or crown. The diameter of a white, yellow or cream flower is from 2 to 10 cm, the crowns are from 1 to 6 cm, the height of the crown is from 0.5 to 6 cm. The edge of the crown is smooth or wavy. Tones - white, yellow, orange, pink, red. On the edge of the crown can be located border of a different color. During flowering daffodils on the stem is from one to seven flowers, depending on the variety.
When describing a narcissus plant, it is worth noting that flowers with a pink and orange crown retain their color better if they are not in the bright sun.
The root system of daffodils is fibrous and is formed from annually updated adventitious cord roots, which are located in the lower outer part of the bottom. They are laid in the period of summer dormancy and appear on the bulb in the fall. In addition to the usual roots of daffodils are found and retractable, contributing to the deepening of the bulbs in the soil. They appear in small and medium-sized bulbs, as well as shallow (up to 10 cm) planting. The life span of the roots is 11-12 months, then they gradually die off. In August, the growth of new roots begins, and it is in the fall that they grow most intensively. In years with excessive moisture, the dying off of old roots is delayed. With long-term storage of bulbs in conditions of high humidity, the growth of roots begins in the store. This, of course, is very bad, because when sorting and planting the roots can break off. Subsequently, they are renewed at the expense of stocks of bulbs, but such plants develop poorly. The roots of the daffodil die by mid-summer.
Narcissus leaves are linear, erect, green or gray, collected in basal bundles. During the year of vegetation, 3 to 5 assimilating leaves develop. By the time of flowering leaf blades reach maximum sizes.
In the following description, you will learn what the stem of a narcissus, a bract, a pedicle and an onion look like.
The flower stem is leafless, from 10 to 50 cm in height and more, smooth, round or slightly flattened, sometimes ribbed with two keels on the sides.
The bract leaves develops at the interstices, at the base of the pedicel, and consists of two fused leaflets forming a tube that protects the flower from damage during development. As the bud grows, the bract leaf breaks, turning into a membranous wing covering the pedicel and part of the ovary.
The pedicle is a thinner continuation of the stem and has different lengths for different varieties. The pedicel grows unevenly and therefore becomes curved. The degree of its curvature is different, in connection with which the flowers are arranged vertically or at different angles of inclination.
The bulb of narcissus has 10–12 storing scales of two ages: this and last year. One or two daughter bulbs are laid inside the mother. Plant growth occurs at the expense of nutrients from external storing scales, after flowering, they are deposited in the storage scales of the current year (internal). The advancement of the bulbous daughter bulb to the periphery takes place over several years. Thus, the bulb is in constant development.
That is why the bulbs of daffodils can be left to hibernate in the soil, digging them every 5-6 years. In old gardens, you can even once in 10 years. The signal, which means that the bulbs need to be transplanted, is poor flowering, chopping flowers, an outbreak of diseases, bulking each other. Usually a transplant is done in early August when the leaves of the narcissus turn yellow. If the bulbs have already begun to form new roots, it is necessary to carefully dig the bulbs in order not to damage the new roots.
The flowers of daffodils for bouquets are cut off in the bud phase at the moment when the cover leaf burst and the bud turns to color.
Since mucus containing toxic substances is secreted from the slice, narcissuses should not be placed in a vase with other colors, which may fade prematurely because the sticky juice will plug the vessels in their slices and water will stop. The stalks of daffodils should be immersed in water to a depth of no more than 6–7 cm. The beginning and duration of flowering of daffodils depends on the temperature of the soil and air. Air temperatures of 15 ° C and soils of 10–12 ° C (this is April, May) are considered optimal.
History and properties of daffodils
The history of daffodils in Russia began earlier than the history of tulips and hyacinths. And this flower became popular at the end of the 19th century, when breeders from Holland, England, USA and Japan began to develop new varieties.
Elegant forms of daffodil turned the flower into a true symbol of the awakening of nature. Flower can be called a romantic plant. Its petals are delicate, and the aroma is simply delightful. Many growers love to grow unpretentious daffodils.
They love daffodils not only in Russia. For example, the Chinese, he is considered a traditional New Year's plant. The ancient Romans once had a tradition to meet with bouquets of daffodil warriors-winners. Especially like the English daffodils. In this country, daffodil is even more popular than the beautiful rose. Once upon a time in Germany it was decided to bring a pot with a daffodil after the wedding to the house of the newly-made husband. After that, the young wife carefully looked after the plant, which, according to legend, brought good luck and prosperity to the house of the young couple.
The properties of narcissus have long been known to traditional medicine. The ancient Greeks made from the wonderful flower aromatic oil, which they used in the treatment of male infertility, as well as to stimulate the attraction. In the East, the leaves of this plant are used in the treatment of hemorrhoids and to relieve headaches. It is believed that the leaves contribute to the speedy healing of wounds and abrasions.
The leaves and bulbs of the plant contain a substance that is used in modern folk medicine to treat pneumonia, bronchitis, and as an expectorant. Dermatologists claim that the leaves of narcissus can be used as an adjunct in the treatment of inflammatory skin diseases.
The advantage of daffodils over many onion bulbs is that they are not eaten by mice, since there are poisonous substances in the bulbs and leaves of the narcissus. Therefore, daffodils can serve as a “shield” for planted tulips, melkolukuchnyh ephemeroids, lilies and other bulbs.
Currently, daffodils are widely used in gardening flower beds, lawns, borders, they are planted in groups between shrubs, of which are original compositions with other spring flowers. In addition, daffodils provide excellent cutting material.
Narcissus plant: codes and classification
Daffodils are divided by scientists into 13 groups. And only one of these groups are those daffodils that are found wild in nature. The remaining groups of daffodils - the work of human: they are obtained by crossing.
If you buy daffodil bulbs from the catalog, you need to learn how to read the code of the narcissus - it is one for the whole world.
Color codes for narcissus flowers:
- g - green (green),
- o - orange (orange),
- p-pink (pink),
- r - red (red)
- w - white (white)
- y - yellow (yellow).
If the color of the narcissus has many colors and shades, the code can contain up to 6 characters. The first describe the color of the petal, mentally divided into three zones: from tip to center. Three second - the color of the crown, also divided into three zones, but from the center to the edge of the crown.
Daffodil blooming time codes:
- 1 - very early,
- 2 - early
- 3 - early average,
- 4 - medium,
- 5 - medium late,
- 6 - late.
Peduncle height codes:
- 1 - below 20 cm
- 2 - from 20 to 40 cm,
- 3 - from 40 to 50 cm,
- 4 - above 50 cm.
Look at what the general code looks like on the example of one of the varieties of narcissus, namely the La Belle variety: 2-Y ‑ GYO, 3, 3. This means that the variety belongs to the second group (2), that the flowers have yellow petals (Y) the crown is green-yellow-orange (GYO) in color from the center to paradise, the flowering time of the variety is early medium (3), and the peduncle (3) is 40 to 50 cm tall.
International Classification of Daffodils:
Bloom early. These classic daffodils have one large flower on a strong peduncle. The tube is equal to or longer than the perianth segments. The color is white, yellow, single or bicolor (perianth and tube of different colors). Good for open ground and forcing.
One flower on the stem. The crown of the flower is shorter than the perianth segments, but is more than 1/3 of their length. That is, the crown is not very long. In this group, the most diverse combination of colors of the crown and perianth segments. Perianth white, yellow, cream. Crown white, cream, yellow, orange, orange-red, pink. Many varieties with a border of different widths of orange, pink or red, the edge of the crown can be wavy, corrugated, bent back, like air lace. Insanely beautiful flower.
3. Small crown
The length of the crown in these daffodils is small - less than 1/3 of the length of the perianth lobe. On the peduncle is one large flower. Perianth white, cream or yellow. Crown often with a border, yellow-orange, apricot, pink, red, greenish. Bloom later than the varieties of the first and second groups.
These daffodils refute our usual ideas about daffodils! On the peduncle there is one or several flowers, with a terry perianth or a terry crown, or a crown and a perianth - terry. Single or two-color: white, yellow with red, orange, pink tones. Terry daffodils have been known for over a hundred years, but they were singled out not so long ago as a separate group, since there were very few terry varieties. These beauties have a drawback - the flower stalks are wilted when wet, so after a rain or abundant watering the flower stalks tend to the ground, they can break. It is better to tie terry to the supports.
On one small peduncle there can be 2–6 small hanging flowers, the petals of which are slightly pulled back. The tones of the flower are white, yellow, golden. The crown is small, in the form of a cup.
It blooms early. On a low (15–20 cm) peduncle, one graceful flower resembling a cyclamen flower. Perianth segments very bent back, the flower is located at an acute angle to the peduncle, with a short pedicle, a crown narrow, long. White, yellow perianth, crown white, yellow, orange.
Bloom late. On the peduncle there are several flowers, the shares of the perianth prostrate or bent back, the crown is small, in the shape of a bowl. Usually its width is greater than the length. The flowers are fragrant, the leaves are narrow. The color is yellow, white.
Bloom late, need shelter for the winter. On a strong peduncle there are several - more than three - flowers. Perianth segments prostrate, not upturned back, the flowers are usually fragrant, with a specific aroma. Petals are rounded, with a folded surface. Crowns are small. The leaves are wide. The color is white, cream, yellow. Good for forcing.
9. Poetic or real
This name was given to fragrant varieties of narcissus with a large flat single flower and a very small flat crown. Poetic daffodils bloom late, they can not be transplanted for a long time, up to 6 years. Perianth segments usually white, folded crown, disk-shaped, usually with a green or yellow middle and a red border around the edge (sometimes monochrome). Can grow not only in a sunny place, but also in partial shade.
10. Hybrids N. Bulbocodium
On a low (10–15 cm) peduncle one flower, perianth segments very small, almost undeveloped, bell shaped crown. These daffodils are also called daffodils - "crinolines." Not bad can spend the winter in middle latitudes, but in cold winters it is better to shelter them. Good in the ground. And for forcing.
11. Split Corona Split Corona
This daffodil is like an orchid. On the stalk one flower. The crown is heavily cut, more than half. Tone crowns are very different: white, yellow, red, pink, orange. Very beautiful flower.
12. Wild species
Natural species and their cultural forms.
13. The rest.
Further you can familiarize with a photo and the description of narcissuses of different grades.
Narcissus varieties: photos, names and description of plants
Beautiful tubular daffodils Spellbinder with a white crown and yellow petals, large-crown Precocious, Oregon Snow, Manon Lescaut, Rosy Sunrise, Berlin - with a strongly corrugated bright crown. From small-crown we can recommend graceful Audubon and Lancasterterry Obdam, Modern Art, Delnashaugh, My Story.
You will not regret if you choose daffodils with a divided crown - amazing Chanterelle, Pink Wonder, SunnySide Up or fragrant triandruses Thaliacyclamen-like Wisley, Cotinga, Avalanche tatset.
Buying bulbs of daffodils, you can see on the packaging label Top size. This means that the packaging contains very high quality planting material, which consists of 2-3 bulbs that have grown together. Such daffodils will bloom immediately in the first year.
Here you can see photos of varieties of daffodils, the names of which are given above:
Here are some other well-proven and aromatic varieties:
from the group of poetic - Actea, Glory of Liss, Dante (white with a yellow crown),
tatsettovidnyh - Aspasia (white with a yellow crown), Geranium (white with an orange crown),
Canary bird (light yellow with orange-yellow crown), Laurent Koster (white with orange-yellow crown),
Red guard (orange-yellow with orange-red crown), Jellyfish (white with orange-red crown),
Elvira (white with a yellow crown and an orange border), jonklividnyh - Campnelli (bright yellow),
tubular - Glory of Noordwijk (yellow), Godolfin (dark yellow),
Daisy Schaefer (white with yellow tube), Rembrandt Emperor (white with a yellow tube).
See photos of varieties of daffodils that are very popular with gardeners:
Vegetative method of reproduction of daffodils and how to store the bulbs
Varietal daffodils breed only vegetatively. Seed method is used when breeding new varieties. Vegetative reproduction of daffodils is based on the separation of daughter bulbs from the multi-tip bulb, which already have their bottoms and only slightly, by one side, connected to the maternal one. When separating the children, in order not to injure the mother bulb once again, only those that break off easily are alienated. If the daughter bulbs with this method of reproduction of daffodils are not completely separated, you can cut them off with a portion of the common ground. The reproductive ability of daffodils is not constant, depending on many factors, including the biological characteristics of the variety, the meteorological characteristics of the season, the storage conditions of the bulbs, as well as the agricultural technology. In many modern varieties, the coefficient of vegetative reproduction of commercial bulbs does not exceed 2.0-2.6, which is clearly not enough. You can increase it by shallow cuts of the bottom. For the reproduction of daffodils, the prepared bulbs are laid out in a warm, ventilated room with a temperature of 18-20 degrees so that they do not touch each other. After 1.5-2 months, up to 10 and smaller onion bulbs are formed on the wounded surface. With good care, they bloom in 3 years.
A rather productive way to reproduce daffodils is by mechanically dividing large bulbs into pieces and growing the babies, which are formed in the axils of the accumulating scales on the bottom.
You can propagate daffodils paired scales. To do this, select large bulbs (4-6cm), dug out slightly earlier than normal terms. Within 7-10 days they are dried at a temperature of 19-20 degrees. Then cleaned from roots, covering scales and disinfected in a 0.2% solution of benlate, foundationol or benomyl for 30 minutes. Decontaminated bulbs are cut vertically into 8 parts (segments), after removing the upper part of the bulb. Each segment in turn is divided into paired scales with a common piece of Donets. The best is the pair of scales, the mass of which exceeds 1g.
And how to store the bulbs of daffodil to ensure good germination? Prepared scales are disinfected in the same solution as the bulbs, poured into plastic bags, pre-mixed with wet perlite or peat, tightly tied and stored at a temperature of 18-20 degrees. With proper storage of the bulbs of daffodils in 12-16 weeks between the scales at the bottom and near the base of the scales are formed onion. In October-November, they are ready for planting. They are separated from the scales, pickled in a 0.2% solution of benlate for 20 minutes and planted in boxes filled with a mixture of peat and sand in a ratio of (3: 1). In winter, onion boxes are kept in a cool place with a temperature of 5-10 degrees. In the second year of growing onions increase in size, and their weight reaches 12-20g. Grow them in the open ground.
Distilling the bulbs of daffodils at home
For the distillation of daffodils at home, it is best to take the bulbs of early or middle-early varieties with white or bright tones of flowers.
For the distillation of daffodils are used bulbs of the following varieties:
Poetic narcissus, or present (Narcisus poeticus L.). Homeland - Middle and Southern Europe. Differs linear leaves, floral arrow is always the same color. Цветок чисто-белый, душистый, коронка по краям красная, волнистая. Луковица крупная.
Тацетт (N. Tazetta L.). Встречается в Южной Европе, Северной Африке, Малой Азии, Китае, Японии. С линейными листьями, многоцветной (4-20 цветков) цветочной стрелкой. Имеются формы с белым цветком и желтой коронкой, желтым цветком и белой коронкой, простые и махровые. Луковица крупная.
Жонкилли (N. Jonquilla L.).From South-Western Europe, North-West Africa. The leaves are cylindrical, on the flower arrow 2-6 strongly fragrant, bright yellow, with a jagged crown of flowers. The bulb is small. Well-developed bulbs are planted at the end of August or beginning of September (poetic and acetotic - 3, 6–8 jonquillide) in pots with a diameter of 14 cm with compost soil and river sand, fully immersed in the soil, and above the surface leaving only a long neck. Then the pots are transferred to a non-freezing room with a low temperature, watered, closely settled next to each other, covered with 10 cm of earth.
Daffodil bulbs differ from the bulbs of hyacinths and tulips in that among them there are single-tops and multi-tops, so you need to stock up on a sufficient number of single-tops. How to do it? If you dig a part of daffodils every year, and not once every 5–6 years, as I and my familiar flower growers do, then single-toe bulbs will be enough for forcing. All you need to do is not to get involved in and not to dig out all the daffodils every year - when they are harvested each year, they start multiplying worse. Sometimes I use. For forcing and double-tip bulbs.
Technology distillation of daffodils consists of several stages. In plants that are intended for breeding, leaves are removed at the end of July, without waiting for the above-ground part to wither. Then the bulbs are sorted and selected from single-peaked most attractive and large, about 4 cm in diameter. Store them in a shed or basement at about 17 ° C until early October. As soon as the roots appear, it is time to plant the daffodils. Plant bulbs in pots. Can be planted in any container (not less than 12 cm high) with drainage holes.
Usually used such a substrate for planting: ordinary ground from the garden in half with sawdust. Some gardeners use only sawdust, and daffodils are perfectly driven out.
Fill the pots with the substrate for 2/3 of their height, and then plant 5 bulbs in each pot. The top of the bulbs should be slightly above the edge of the pot. Substrate is poured into the pots, watered and buried in the area. Planting is covered with sand or earth - it can be peat - a layer of 20 cm. With the onset of cold weather, it is covered with leaves, spruce leaves or peat - the layer is also about 20 cm, with roofing felt on top.
You can put pots in any cool place on the street, so long as it is not flooded with water. Under the container with the bulbs then a plain film is useful for flooring. It is possible to lay spruce or pine branches on it, put containers with narcissuses on the branches, and cover the top with straw - mice that will surely be brought up in straw, narcissuses are not afraid, they are poisonous for mice. And you can cover well with branches of spruce or pine.
Rooting bulbs need two and a half - three months. In mid-January, the pots are dug out and placed for one to two days in a cool room (in the basement, on the bottom shelf of the refrigerator) at 10 ° C, wrapping the pots in black paper. Two days later watered daffodils. Then they will be in the light at a temperature not higher than 12–15 ° C, for example, in a glazed loggia. At a higher temperature, the stalks of daffodils are very elongated, you need to put props. Yes, and the flowers will be small. A month after the removal of the pots to the light, the daffodils should bloom.
It is noticed that if daffodils are expelled after January, they do not even have to be kept in the light, and so beautifully bloom.
Daffodils do not need additional dressing when forcing, but they should be watered often. It is desirable at the same time that the leaves do not get wet.
Daffodils of very early varieties can be driven out earlier. With a later forcing, the forcing time is reduced, but the plants can hit a lot in growth, then they will need props.
After forcing planted in May, the bulbs of daffodils on the garden. This year they do not give leaves. For re-forcing, they grow three or four years to the required size, each year digging bulbs.
Growing daffodils in the open field: planting bulbs and caring for flowers (with photos and video)
Before planting daffodils in open ground, it is recommended to treat the bulbs with a 0.1% solution of potassium permanganate or the Xom fungicide (40 g per 5 l of water), this is more effective.
The depth of planting bulbs depends on the size of the bulbs and ranges from 12 to 20 cm, sometimes up to 25 cm for the largest bulbs.
The average planting depth is 15 cm, on heavy land - 12, on light - 17, bulbs for children - 10 cm from the bottom. When planting daffodils in open ground for ease of care between the bulbs in a row should observe a distance of 10–12 cm. With such a dense planting, the bulbs are larger, with a rare - they form more children.
After planting daffodil bulbs, the ground is mulched with peat or humus with a layer of 3–4 cm. When the soil freezes to 4–5 cm, the daffodils are additionally covered with a foliage layer of 20 cm. than on heavy and wet.
The video "Planting daffodils" shows how to place the bulbs in the garden:
In the spring after the snow melts, the shelter from the daffodils is removed, and the mulch layer is left.
One of the conditions for the cultivation of daffodils - the correct choice of the site. Groundwater should be no higher than 50–60 cm, otherwise during the seasons with abundant rainfall, narcissuses may die off the root tips, which will lead to growth degradation.
Daffodils are shade tolerant, but in bright places the quality of their flowers and bulbs is much higher. When growing daffodils in the open field, they adapt well to any local conditions. Plants can grow in a flower bed, under the canopy of trees, on a lawn or lawn. Daffodils can grow without a transplant for 4–5 years. They should be transplanted when they grow strongly, forming large nests of bulbs.
Daffodils are undemanding to the soil, they are grown on any garden soil, but the most suitable is loamy soil with adequate nutrition and neutral reaction.
To increase the nutrient content it is necessary to make compost, humus. Daffodils can not tolerate manure, so it can only be made under the previous culture. It is recommended to lick the soil a year before planting the bulbs: apply 200 g of lime-powder or dolomite flour per 1 m2, and wood ash, which helps reduce soil acidity, is added every year in spring when plants appear at the rate of 1 cup per 1 m2.
Feeding usually spend two. The first - in the period of budding: dilute 1 tsp of urea, potassium sulfate and superphosphate with 10 liters of water, spending 5 l per 1 m2 of solution. The second dressing is carried out at the time of flowering: for 1 liter of water, dilute 1 teaspoon of nitrophos, Gumatecalia for garden flowers and Intermaga for flowers and decorative crops (solution consumption - up to 5 l / 1 m2).
Liquid dressings can be replaced by dry ones, especially in rainy summer, while holding only one dressing in early spring - scatter fertilizers by 1 m2: 1 teaspoonful of superphosphate, potassium sulfate, urea, and potassium humate for garden flowers and 1 tbsp. spoon wood ash.
The soil of the plot for planting daffodils is prepared in the summer or at least a month before the bulbs are planted so that she can settle. They dig up the earth to a depth of 35 cm, then add 3-4 kg of compost and peat, on heavy soils - a bucket of river sand and rotten humus. From mineral fertilizers - per 1 m2 make 2 tbsp. spoons of superphosphate, 1 tbsp. a spoonful of potassium sulfate and Intermag for flowers and ornamental crops (1 table spoon for 10 liters of water, solution consumption - up to 5 l / 1 m2). Then they dig up a second time to close up fertilizers to a depth of 10–12 cm. This can be done with an iron rake. In this form, leave the area until the autumn, i.e. before planting the bulbs.
The bulbs of daffodils are planted when the heat subsides - at the end of August, during September. Before planting, the bulbs look well and remove all suspicious, stained, soft and damaged.
If in May and in June there is a hot, dry weather, then the daffodils should be watered from the time of regrowth and until the beginning of the withering of the leaves. Watering after flowering contributes to the accumulation of nutrients in the bulb. The bulbs are usually dug out in July, when the leaves and roots have dried up.
If the bulbs are not dug, then after drying the leaves are cut and the soil is loosened with a rake, preventing the weeds from growing. In the second half of August, if the weather is dry, be sure to water it, because at this time the growth of the roots begins.
The photo of planting and care for daffodils shows how to grow these flowers:
Fight against diseases and pests of daffodils
Daffodils are less affected by other onion crops than diseases and pests. Of the pests, the most dangerous are the narcissus fly and the bulbola hoverfly. In appearance, lifestyle and the nature of the damage inflicted they are similar to each other. The larvae are harmful. Penetrating the inside of the bulb through the top, bottom, or mechanically damaged tissue, they penetrate its juicy parts. In a heavily damaged bulb, only the walls remain, the inner part turns into a black rotting mass.
Control measures. To reduce the degree of infection, during the growing season it is recommended to periodically spray the plants with a 0.3% solution of malathion. Instead of spraying, it is effective to introduce granulated basudine (0.3g / m) into the soil. It is difficult for the larvae to penetrate into the bulb and a simple agricultural application - loosening the surface of the site after harvesting the leaves.
The stem nematode, a microscopic pest of filamentous form, is also widely distributed. Overwinters in bulbs, in soil, on plant debris. Nematodes lay eggs in the tissue of plants, penetrating into the bulbs through the bottom or the stomata of the leaves, where the larvae hatch, which, like adult nematodes, feed on the sap of the plants. Daffodils affected by a nematode are stunted, leaves bend and thicken in the lower part, gradually turn yellow and dry. White spots appear on the bulbs. When cutting the bulbs, one can see that the internal tissues have a loose brown or gray structure. The scales of the affected bulb do not fit snugly together, so it feels soft to the touch. Due to the proliferation of stocking internal scales, external scales crack. With a strong infection of the bottom of the bulbs becomes rotten and disappears, the bulb dies.
Control measures with stem nematodes - agrotechnical, providing for the introduction of a crop rotation, in which daffodils can be returned to their former place no earlier than 4-5 years, and in the interval not to grow plants on it, affected by the nematode. Good results are obtained by treating the bulbs with hot water (43-45 degrees) for 2-3 hours. The soil where the daffodils grew affected by the nematode is disinfected by Milon (60g / m2) 30-40 days before planting. It protects daffodils from nematodes and sowing calendula or tagedesa between them, the root excretions of which attract pests and kill them.
Root Bulb Mite - pest, widespread everywhere. It affects the bulbs during the growing season and during storage. Settling on the bulb, the tick exhausts the bottom, which turns into a rotten mass. Having penetrated inside the bulb, the tick feeds on scales. Affected areas are easily detected by yellow-brown stripes, lines on scales and powdery mite excretions.
Control measures. To protect the bulbs from damage by a tick during storage, it is necessary to sanitize the storage before loading with sulfur dioxide (80-100g / m3), maintain the air humidity in it not higher than 70%, pickle the bulbs with a 0.3% solution of one of the preparations: cydiala, basudin, carbicron for 20 minutes.
Of the diseases, the most common is bulbs fusarium rot, which mainly affects daffodils during storage, and less frequently in field conditions. In diseased plants the leaves turn yellow, are pulled out relatively easily. The roots of the bulbs turn away and fall off from the bottom. On the bottom, scales visible white bloom (mycelium of the fungus). The fungus penetrates deep into the tissue of the bulbs, which soften and turn brown. External signs of the disease of the bulbs in the storage are manifested in the fact that the tissues in the area of the bottom and base of the scales soften, turn brown, chocolate brown, and sometimes brick-red. The rot gradually spreads up the scales. Fusarium most often develops when the bulbs are picked up late, hitting them during storage, especially if the bulbs were dug out in wet weather and poorly dried before storage, or, on the contrary, exposed to high temperatures (24-27 ° C) and direct sunlight for a long time. of time. Having found the bulbs sick with fusarium, it is necessary to immediately disinfect the healthy 0.2% solution with basezol or topsin within 20 minutes. During the growing season, prophylactic treatments of plants with fungicides are carried out: benatom, foundation with a concentration of 0.2% or captan at a concentration of 0.5% with a working fluid consumption of 80 to 120 ml / m2.
Gray rot - A disease that actively develops in spring in cold rainy weather, especially in low areas with heavy soils. The plant becomes infected in the field, and during the storage of the bulbs in cold and humid conditions, the disease progresses. The bases of the leaves are affected, especially on one side, where brown depressed spots are formed, which further grow. The leaves turn yellow from the bottom up and dry out before flowering. With an excess of moisture on the dead areas of the leaves there is a gray bloom, small spots on the flowers, wet rot on the bulbs. Black sclerotia form on the surface of the affected tissues.
Control measures. During the appearance of the first foci of the disease, daffodils are sprayed with Kaptan or Benlat at a concentration of 0.15-0.2%. Treat them several times with an interval of 8-10 days. Sick onions discard and destroy.
Excessive doses of organic fertilizers provoke the occurrence of sclerocial rot. The affected plants turn yellow, wither, and then the leaves completely dry out. The bulbs under the influence of the pathogen soften, cover with abundant mycelium, radiantly diverging in the form of long white filaments, and die.
Control measures: early digging, deep plowing of infected areas, correct crop rotation, destruction of diseased plants.
Penicillosis can occur in low, moist areas. In diseased plants, leaves and flower stalks are deformed, light yellow spots of various size and shape are formed on the leaves at the surface of the earth. The affected areas soften, rot and become covered by the blue-green spores of the pathogen. Penicillosis on the bulbs is easily detected by spots covered with bluish-green sporification of the fungus. The disease develops very intensively during storage on poorly dried bulbs with high relative humidity.
Control measures: reduction of relative air humidity to 60-65%; storage ventilation; dusting of affected bulbs with a mixture of sulfur and polycarbacin in a 1: 1 ratio.
Stagonsporosis - develops in early spring during a cold snap. On the leaves, first in the upper part, then on the entire leaf blade along the main vein, spots of rounded or oval-elongated shape appear. A chlorotic (lighter) zone is visible around the spots. As the parts dry out, pycnidia form (receptacles of asexual spores of the fungus), which are clearly visible to the naked eye, small, black, bulging, arranged randomly or more often by zones. On the bulbs stagonosporosis is very rare. The disease is clearly visible 4-8 weeks before the onset of natural leaf death.
Control measures: At the first signs of illness, plants are sprayed with fungicides (0.5% Bordeaux liquid, 0.4% polycarbacin or 0.3% figone, etc.). After 10-12 days, the treatment is repeated.
Daffodils are also affected by viral diseases of different nature. Streaks and stripes appear on the leaves (light, yellow, silvery), and on the flowers, irregular-shaped spots are lighter than the basic tone. There are no visually definable symptoms on the bulbs.
Control measures. The disease is extremely dangerous, to prevent its spread is possible only by digging and destroying sick plants.
Prevention of diseases and pests is a few tricks. In the soil you need to make the optimal dose of fertilizer. An excess of phosphorus and nitrogen contributes to the development of fusarium, potash fertilizers increase resistance to it. Daffodils should not be planted on an infected site for 5 years. The boxes in which the bulbs are stored must be disinfected. Weak and diseased bulbs must be destroyed immediately after digging. The bulbs need to be cleaned in time of old scales and roots, stored at a temperature not higher than +18 ° C and humidity not higher than 60%.
Against fungal diseases, before planting the bulbs of daffodils, it is necessary to soak for half an hour in the solution of the “Maxim” preparation.
The reduction in the number of flowering plants serves as a signal for the transfer of daffodils. Immediately after the yellowing of the leaves, you can begin digging the bulbs. It is advisable to do it on time, because the bulbs will quickly begin to root. In addition, the late digging of bulbs can reduce their quality.
Выкопанные луковицы необходимо прежде всего внимательно осмотреть, удалить и уничтожить больные или подгнившие. Здоровые луковицы хорошенько очищают, сортируют по размерам, промывают, проводят дезинфекцию в темно-розовом растворе марганцовки и оставляют сушить на открытом воздухе в неглубоких ящиках или коробках без доступа солнечных лучей. Температура хранения не должна быть выше +17 °C, помещение необходимо часто проветривать.
Добавление статьи в новую подборку
В садах уже начинают распускаться нарциссы. Planting and growing them is not a very complicated process, but in order for the flower garden to be beautiful, you need to take into account all the nuances of agricultural engineering and follow the rules for caring for these fragile flowers.
Today, the types and varieties of daffodils amaze with their diversity. Some of them look completely different from each other, but the peculiarities of their cultivation are the same.
The right bulbs
The bulbs of daffodils are sorted by parsing: "Extra", I, II, III and baby. Planting material differs not only in diameter (the largest - “Extra” bulbs), but also in structure.
The bulbs "Extra" and I parsing can be with 2 or 3 pointed tips and, accordingly, several peduncles. Bulbs II parsing - single-top and round, in size they are slightly smaller. A III parsing - even smaller and flatter. The baby is a daughter bulb, which separates from the mother bulb after 2-3 years. The baby is able to bloom only 1-2 years after separation. Keep this in mind when buying daffodil bulbs.
In the first year after planting, daffodils, as a rule, bloom poorly, and sometimes the buds may not be tied at all. The fact is that the bulbs of this plant do not tolerate the stress experienced during planting in the ground.
If in the second year the flowering is not as spectacular as we would like, you should not despair. Wait another 1-2 seasons, because some fastidious varieties acclimatize at a new place only after 2-3 years.
Every 4-5 years, the bushes of daffodils need to be seated, as they become crowded. For the same reason, the flowers become smaller, and the number of flower stalks is reduced. In autumn, when the leaves of daffodils turn yellow completely, bulb bulbous nests are dug, divided into individual bulbs, lightly pruned roots, and immediately planted in a new place.
A suitable place of growth is a pledge of lush flowering of daffodils. Wrong site selection leads to stress plants. Daffodils can tolerate shading, but bloom more abundantly in a well-lit area.
Any soil will do, but there must be clay in it. And it is also desirable that the composition of the soil was a minimum of peat and lime. The ideal option is a soil with a neutral reaction (6.5-7 pH).
You also need to take into account that narcissuses are moisture-loving, but the stagnation of water can lead to decay of the roots.
The most suitable time for planting daffodil bulbs is the end of August - the beginning of September. Then before the frost, they will have time to build strong roots.
1.5-2 months prior to planting, it is necessary to prepare a plot: dig up to a depth of 30-35 cm, add compost to the soil (10 kg per square meter), as well as complex mineral fertilizer or independently mix nitrogen (20 g per square meter ) and phosphorus (20 g per square meter).
During the growing season exclude top dressing with nitrogen fertilizers (including fresh manure). Nitrogen will promote leaf growth to the detriment of flower formation.
Bulbs treat fungicide. After that, the children and small bulbs I parse the plant to a depth of 10 cm, and larger specimens - to a depth of 25 cm. Note that on light soils the bulbs should be buried 2 cm deeper. The optimal distance between them is 10-12 cm.
The depth of planting bulbs depends on their size.
Literate Daffodil Care
After planting the soil, soil should be mulched with peat or humus in a layer of 2-3 cm. With the onset of frost, less winter-hardy daffodils (tsetty, cyclamen, terry and triandrus varieties) should be covered with dry leaves or straw (layer should be about 20 cm). In the spring, the shelter should be removed, and the mulch layer should be left.
As soon as daffodils start growing, they need to be fed with a mixture of nitrogen (ammonium nitrate) and potash (potassium magnesia) fertilizers in a ratio of 2: 1 at the rate of 40 g per square meter, and during the budding period - add extra potassium-phosphorus feeding in a ratio of 2 : 1 at the rate of 30 g of the mixture per sq.m. After flowering, it is also necessary to apply phosphate (superphosphate) and potash (potassium nitrate) fertilizers in the ratio of 1: 2 (20 g per square meter). This helps to plant flowers in the bulbs.
The faded heads of daffodils need to be removed in a timely manner so that plants spend energy to strengthen the bulbs, and not to form seeds.
If after the end of flowering daffodils is dry weather, the plants need to be watered regularly for 6 weeks. With a lack of moisture, they will lay little flowers.
In the second half of August, it is also important that the soil be wet, because at this time the growth of the roots of daffodils begins. If necessary, resume watering and periodically loosen the ground.
As you can see, growing daffodils is pretty simple. These plants rarely get sick, they are not touched by harmful insects. Narcissus shoots attract only slugs, but they do not cause serious damage to flowers. Let your daffodils decorate the site with lush blooms as long as possible!