Gathering a rich harvest of apples in the conditions of Western Siberia and the Urals is quite problematic due to the harsh climate in these regions. Gentle and heat-loving trees often die from the cold of winter and return frost. Trees of standard size with a vertical crown are often zoned only for southern latitudes, therefore they do not take root in places where the temperature is characterized by sharp fluctuations. If such a variety does not die, its fruits grow tasteless and small.
The best varieties of apple for Siberia
In cool conditions, it is best to grow non-standard low-growing creeping trees. They are not as productive as ordinary apples, but the unusual shape allows them to completely hide under the snow cover and not freeze slightly. Seedlings grow low over the soil in an inclined position, because the fruits have time to ripen faster before the onset of frost. In addition, the creeping apple trees look unusual, and the compact size of the crown simplifies harvesting. You can manually pick apples without using special tools.
The best apple varieties for Siberia and the Urals are: Bayana, Altai Souvenir, Borovinka, Zheblovskoe, Melba, Northern Sinap. These plants are most adapted to the conditions of regions with a cold climate. Apple Melba is a Canadian variety, characterized by large fruits that ripen in late August. Apples of this variety are stored for long, only for a month. Description, photos and reviews of the apple Borovinka say that this old variety has excellent winter hardiness and attractive tasty fruits ripening in the fall. Their shelf life is two times longer than that of Melba - 2 months.
Features of low-growing apple
An undersized apple tree with a horizontal crown was the result of experiments by Siberian gardeners who had long dreamed of creating a plant adapted to local growing conditions. The height of the creeping apple tree usually does not exceed half a meter, and the shoots, which are practically above the ground, bend under the weight of the fruits. Harvest from the bush can be obtained in 3-4 years after planting. On average, the life span of creeping apple varieties is about 50 years. Stanted trees are not a specific variety, but a group of plants whose crown is specially formed as a result of the hard work of agronomists.
It is possible to make creeping from any variety. But fertilizing stanants should be made more often than standard trees. In winter, the seedlings are bent to the ground so that about 5 cm is left before the soil surface, covered with spruce leaves, humus and other materials. If in the spring the snow melted, you need to sketch an additional layer over the trees, and after thaw, on the contrary, in time to free the plants from the shelter.
How to choose a sapling
Apples in creeping forms can be of different ripening times, but one should deliberately approach the selection of seedlings, selecting the most appropriate apples for the Urals and Siberia. It is recommended to use the local wilderness as a stock, and to make a graft from any grade you like. Plants with similar characteristics are most often sold in nurseries. Judging by the description, photos and reviews of the apple Borovinka, it is well suited for the graft and is widely used in these regions. When buying an apple tree, it is better to give preference to plants with a developed root system, fresh foliage and a thick stem.
Soil preparation for apple trees
As seedlings use one-year-old trees with a fibrous root system. The diameter of the trunk should be about 1 cm. The roots are kept wet by placing it in an earthen mash. For group planting, the distance between creeping apple trees should be at least 4 meters apart. Place for landing choose protected from drafts, so that the snow in winter is not blown away by the wind. The best harvest can be obtained by growing an apple tree on turf land.
The upper layers of the soil must be fertile, because the food the tree receives from them. It is advisable to avoid wet places, because over-wetting of the root system leads to its rotting. The landing pit is prepared in advance by carrying out standard preplant work. The optimal time for disembarking is the beginning of spring, when the buds on the trees have not yet dismissed, or late autumn, two weeks before the onset of frosts.
Planting an undersized apple
A pit is dug shallow, but wide, and filled with nutrient soil at 2/3 of the height. The soil is mixed with mineral fertilizers and humus, make a mound in the form of a cone. Planting stanants has some features: the seedling should be placed in a hole not vertically, but at an angle of 35 degrees. The top is turned to the south. You can protect a young apple tree from bending when bending down by turning the place of the spike carved on the stock to the ground surface. The root collar should not be buried or planted too deep. It will be enough to 5 cm above the soil level, otherwise a lot of sprouts are formed around the stock, and it will have to be cut regularly. Excessive burial leads to overwetting of the root collar and may cause it to rot.
When planting the roots should be gently straightened and spread on the embankment inside the pit, then fall asleep with soil and compact it. Sapling plentifully watered. For one tree you will need 2-3 buckets of water. Then the soil around the mulch, using peat chips, humus or manure. Under the south side of the young apple trees, a bundle of straw or grass is placed to prevent burns on the bark. When planting in late autumn, annual seedlings should be bent to the soil and secured with hooks so that they do not freeze in winter.
Proper formation of creeping apple
The most common ways of forming stanants are arctic and melon. In the Arctic version, the branches of seedlings are folded in different directions, in the melon - they are placed in the form of a fan. Such forms of an adult apple occupy a large area, therefore, to save space, the formation of a two-shoulder stanza is used. Before the beginning of the bending process, in early spring, all trees are freed from covering material and pruned crown for a third of one-year growth. In June, the formation of the crown begins.
The tree gently bend, holding the vaccination site so that the trunk does not break. Before forming a creeping apple tree, it is fastened with wooden hooks. To protect the seedling from burns, bend it to the soil surface so that it remains 5-6 cm. It is necessary to ensure that the base of the trunk does not bend, otherwise the tree will develop poorly. The lateral parts of the trunk are sent to the sides and fixed with the help of hooks. Skeletal branches bend and twist a little, so that they do not break during formation. By the middle of autumn, raised shoots are also fixed with hooks.
Before the onset of winter cold, young seedlings are spudding the soil to protect against frostbite. The following year, when the snow melts, the trunk is dug up a little, and the hooks are removed. In August, the formation of skeletal shoots of stanza continues, because they are at this moment the most flexible. The branches are directed to the sides and pinned.
In the process, the broken and dried branches are removed, the crown is thinned in early spring so that there is no excessive shading, then the buds develop better. All shoots must be lit and properly directed, as the tree is located near the ground. If any branch interferes with the development of the crown, it is pinched over the fourth leaf in order to turn it into fruiting. When it grows, the process should be repeated. Adult creeping apple trees before the onset of cold weather must be 25 cm above the soil surface, otherwise the crown will freeze out if there is not enough snow.
Stlants crown care
A properly formed skeleton is obtained when the shoots of an adult tree do not rise higher. Each year, young branches are fixed on the ground before wintering, and in the summer they carry out sanitary pruning. Before cutting a creeping apple tree, it is necessary to prepare a sharp tool and garden pitch for covering up saw cuts. In August, the tops pinch to stop the growth of branches and the bark had time to stiffen before the onset of cold weather. Completely crown is formed in 5-6 years after landing. The most important thing is to hold all the events annually. This is a time consuming process, but otherwise the apple tree will cease to move and turn into a regular tree.
This form is not natural for the plant, because it will tend to grow vertically and increase the tops. It is possible to form creeping trees including straight. For this purpose, the annual sapling is pruned in early spring over the fifth bud, leaving a stump no more than 15 cm in height. Summer shoots are directed to the sides and pinned at a distance of 7 cm from each other. The subsequent process of crown formation repeats the usual way. The strongest branching causes the trunk to be shortened by 1/3 of the height. But this option is rarely used by experienced gardeners.
How to care for a creeping apple tree? During the fruiting period, it is advisable to support the branches of the stlangers using a trellis. This will help avoid crop damage and rotting of apples. Fruits from a tree are removed manually together with a stem, trying not to damage fruit buds, and carefully put into a box or a basket for collection. For long-term storage, you should try not to spoil the wax on the skin. It helps the apples stay fresh and protects them from drying out.
Preparing the apple tree for wintering
Apple trees for the Urals require shelter for the winter. To do this, they spud a layer of mulch and fertile soil with a height of 10 cm. It is possible to cover the tree crown with spruce leaves, dry grass and foliage or other materials. Plants must be protected from rodents by wrapping nylon trunks or placing traps with poisonous bait. The poison must be removed in the spring so that birds do not eat it.
One of the options for shelter for creeping apple:
- support all skeletal shoots with supports so that they do not sag due to the weight of the material,
- Cover the tree with a thick cloth, such as burlap,
- the edges around the perimeter are covered with earth,
- put a thick layer of insulation material over the burlap,
- protect the surface from blotting with oilcloth,
- secure the frame with boards, sprinkle with soil on top.
Trees need whitewashing the trunk, which is held before the shelter for the winter. This will eliminate burns from the bright spring sun. It is impossible to take shelter too early, otherwise the apple trees will freeze if frosts return. Young trees are very sensitive to sudden temperature changes, because the protection is removed gradually.
Sanitary pruning and crown care
Crown seedlings need to be thinned regularly, this has a strong effect on fruiting.
Consequences of irregular pruning:
- the spread of diseases and pests
- late fruiting
- low taste of apples,
- loss of shape, chopping fruit.
Brighten the crown and remove excess shoots needed annually. Such treatment rejuvenates the tree and stimulates its development. With abundant flowering during the first fruiting, thinning of the ovaries is required, since the young plant may not withstand a bountiful harvest.
Stans diseases and pests
Prophylactic treatment of creeping apple trees differs from that of ordinary ones. Pristvolny circle should be regularly cleaned of sprouts and weeds to facilitate the access of air to the roots and not to take away nutrients from plants. It is advisable to mulch the soil around regularly so that weeds do not spread. It is easiest to handle trees with a double-shouldered crown, when the branches of the stanza are directed in two directions. This greatly facilitates the work with a large adult apple tree. Pests of stunted plants are damaged less often than others, since insects prefer to lay the larvae at height.
One of the most common diseases of apple trees is scab leaves and fruits. It manifests itself in the form of black spots on the fruit and soot on the foliage. Infection develops rapidly in wet years, especially in heavily thickened trees, where regular pruning of the crown is not carried out. The fruits of the affected tree begin to rot, and the leaves - to crumble. Treat the disease should be special chemicals. For prophylaxis use Bordeaux liquid, regularly sprinkling it with plants. It is very important to regularly burn fallen leaves and fruits. Apple trees with strong immunity do not get scab, even if the spores of this fungus are attached to the leaves.
Another common disease is monilioz. It is expressed in the rot of fruits, foliage and shoots. In young trees, a manifestation of infection can be a sharp blackening of skeletal shoots. Because it is important to remove them in time, treating the cut and other cracks on the bark of the garden pitch. For prevention, you should regularly destroy damaged as well as fallen fruits.
Apple tree "Souvenir of Altai"
The tree is medium with a round crown. The variety is resistant to severe frosts, scab, but undergoes such a disease as moniliosis. The apple tree begins to bear fruit in the fifth year. This variety differs from others in that it has large fruits. Apple weight can reach 130 grams. Fruit ripening occurs in September.
The fruits are round, light yellow in color with a slight ribbing. The taste is excellent, sweet and sour. Fruits can be used for making juice, jam, and they can also be kept fresh for a very long time, for about four months.
Apple tree "Yarmakovskoe Mountain"
This is a good summer apple variety.. The tree is medium thick and strongly thickened with curved branches. Starts to fruition in the fourth, and sometimes even in the fifth year after planting.
Fruits can be collected in August. Apples have a rounded shape and yellow color. They taste sweet and sour with a high content of ascorbic acid, and they are also very juicy. Apples are small in size. The weight of each does not exceed fifty grams. Fruits are stored no more than a month. They are great for recycling.
This variety is the most common in Siberia.. The tree is medium. Its height does not exceed four meters. Crohn thin and breezy. The variety is resistant to severe frosts and some types of fungal diseases, especially scab. The first crop can be harvested after three years, which is very pleasing. Productivity is high.
Fruits are harvested in September. They have a rounded shape and a pleasant aroma. The color of apples is golden yellow, the taste is sweet and sour. The weight of each apple can reach 140 grams. Harvest can be stored fresh for four months.
Dwarf apple varieties: description
Dwarf apple varieties have recently become very popular. Gardeners living in Siberia also dream of growing such fruit trees in their gardens. But dwarf rocks do not tolerate severe frosts, so they are not suitable for this region.
Breeders thought about this issue and brought out dwarf apple trees - hybrids. Let's list and describe the best varieties of such apple trees:
- Altai ruddy,
- Siberian souvenir.
Palmette— it is unpretentious, winter-hardy and resistant to many fungal diseases. Fruiting begins in the third year. Harvest can be collected in September.
Fruits are small, not more than forty grams, but very tasty. Apples have a round-rounded shape and a light yellow color with a crimson blush. The yield of this variety is regular. Up to one hundred kilograms of apples can be harvested from one tree.
Fruits are suitable for cooking compote, jam, jam and juice. Fresh shelf life is small to sixty days.
Nezhenka - summer dwarf variety with a rounded crown. The height of the tree does not exceed 2.5 meters. Starts to fruition in the fourth year. Yield is average. Dwarf grade Nezhenka resistant to scab and high frost.
Fruits have a loose structure, therefore they are used only fresh, they are not suitable for preservation. The weight of one apple does not exceed one hundred grams. The fruits have a green-yellow color, sweet and sour taste and pleasant aroma.
Apple tree "Siberian souvenir"
Siberian souvenir - dwarf variety. It tolerates high frosts, unpretentious and resistant to scab. Fruiting begins in the third year. Productivity is high and constant.
The fruits are small and red-yellow. The mass of each does not exceed forty grams. The taste of apples is good. Fruits are suitable for making compote, juice, jam, jam, as well as fresh consumption.
Rules for planting and caring for the Siberian apple tree
It is better to plant seedlings in the spring, rather than aspen, because an apple tree planted in the autumn time can freeze.
Soil for planting must be fertile and with low acidity. But if on your site there is such a soil, then before planting, it is necessary to add saltpeter or lime to reduce acidity.
Если почва на вашем приусадебном участке глинистая, то в неё нужно внести речной песок. Так вы сделаете её более рыхлой и плодородной.
С грунтом разобрались, теперь давайте остановимся на самой посадке. Для этого необходимо выкопать яму нужной глубины. Засыпьте в неё грунт, смешанный с удобрением в виде небольшой кучки. На неё нужно поставить саженец, расправив корни. Корни сверху засыпьте грунтом. После этого саженец необходимо хорошо полить. На один саженец уходит не менее тридцати литров воды.
To form the correct crown of a young tree, it is necessary to carry out pruning. All competing escapes need to be removed. The largest branches should be cut too, about forty centimeters for the first time, and then fifteen centimeters. In the spring, all dry and broken branches should be removed, and a thin crown is better to thin out. So the fruits can receive more light.
Since the weather conditions are severe in the Siberian region, seedlings and trees must be fed. Humus, peat, superphosphate, and nitrogen are suitable for this. To feed the trees you need to dig a small groove around them. In it you need to pour fertilizer, and then pour water. So the tree will get all the necessary vitamins and minerals.
Now let's deal with wateringHow often should it be carried out? If there is ground water near the planted tree, the tree does not need watering. If you planted a dwarf apple tree, then watering should be frequent, about thirty liters per tree.
What needs to be done so that the tree does not freeze in winter?
So that the earth does not freeze in winter it is necessary to dig it up in the fall, and then pour a lot of humus and peat, about twenty centimeters.
Now you know which varieties of apple trees are suitable for Siberia, how to properly prepare the soil and plant, how to water and trim the fruit tree. Feel free to plant your apple trees. Good harvest!
Features of apple trees for Siberia
Today, more than two dozen apple varieties are suitable for this region. The main requirements for such trees are simple. They should be easily restored after frosts, be resistant to various ailments of fruit trees, and most importantly, be resistant to winter hardiness. By this criterion, they are all divided into several categories:
- With an average winter hardiness. Tolerant to temperatures up to 25 degrees below zero. Differ the largest fruits
- Winter hardy. Tolerant of frost to 30-35 degrees below zero. Fruits are medium sized
- Super winter hardy. Normally feel at a temperature of 40 degrees below zero. Their fruits are small, the yield is quite high.
In Siberia, apple trees live for about 50 years, the most fruitful from 6 years old to about 12. After 15 years, fruiting drops sharply. Three types of apple trees live best in this region:
Ranetki more winter-hardy, but different tart taste, therefore, more suitable for processing. Semi-cultural are good with excellent taste, the first harvests appear already in 4 years.
Large fruits are quite low and need shelter in the winter. This is usually creeping apple trees. Also, apple trees for this region can be divided by maturity into summer and autumn.
Classic apple genre. Belongs to the category of large-fruited. Starts to fructify from six years, taste with a wine shade. The size of the fruit is average. Among the diseases of white filling scab most dangerous.
The bushes are medium in size, the weight of the fruit is about 100 g, the taste is excellent. The color of the fruit is golden with raspberry.
The tree needs warming. Fruit weight - up to 130 g. Color - golden yellow with stripes. The aroma is expressive, the pulp is juicy and tender. Great taste. The flavor preserves about one and a half months.
The first harvests appear within a couple of years after transplantation. The fruits are small, but with a magical sweet-sour taste. Yielding, good for processing.
Pretty tall trees. Taste corresponds to the name - honey and sweet. The crown needs to be shaped and thinned out every year, as it thickens quickly. Resistant to various rot and mycoses.
The fruits are not very large, conical, but very tasty: with a delicate sourness and sweet, the aroma is not inferior to the taste. Trees of medium height, crown oval and rare.
One of the earliest varieties. Fruiting begins already with 4 years. The fruits are large, their distinctive feature is the candy flavor. It cannot boast a strong winter-hardiness, but even in the Siberian winters it is normal if it is covered with agrofiber if the trees are covered.
Depending on the area
For the eastern regions of Siberia are also suitable:
- Autumn joy
- Young naturalist,
- Minusinsk dessert,
- Summer early.
For Western Siberia, the most relevant:
- Altai beauty,
- Bow Shukshin,
- Altai amber.
Features of growing an orchard in Siberia
To date, there are about two dozen winter-hardy varieties that are adapted to this climatic zone. In addition, they are of sufficient size (the first specimens were very small), different ripening times, have good taste and the ability to retain useful qualities.
The work of breeders was aimed at ensuring that the apple trees of this region were able to quickly recover and withstand diseases, and most importantly, they had winter hardiness.
Apple varieties for Siberia: apples in the snow
According to the last criterion, they can be divided into:
- The most winter-hardy - withstand temperatures as low as -40˚ C. These are high-yielding varieties with small fruits. They ripen mainly in the fall, suitable for consumption and processing.
- Winter-hardy - they are not afraid of cold from -30 to -35˚ C. New varieties of this category have a good taste, fruit size - medium.
- Medium-resistant, not bad feel up to -25˚ C, but they have the largest fruits.
Apple trees in Siberia can live more than half a century, but high productivity persists between the ages of 6 and 12 years. Therefore, trees older than 15 years can be removed from the garden.
Siberian apple trees are divided into 3 groups: raznetki, semi-cultural and large-fruited.
The most winter-hardy and productive. But the apples in small plants are small, sour and tart, therefore they are mainly used for processing and preservation. It is also a kind of insurance in case of too cold winter. So plant a couple of these trees in the garden with a difference of three to five years.
Despite the name, it will please the first apples already at 4 years of age. The harvest brings rich, but not permanent. Fruits are small, bright purple. Ripen at the turn of summer and autumn, stored less than a month. Long - winter-hardy variety, quickly restored in case of freezing branches. Resistant to diseases.
Apples of this group are very tasty. They are suitable for use as freshly harvested, and for blanks. In terms of ripening are divided into summer, autumn and winter, so it is good to have different types of trees in the garden. Fruits are medium in size, yield is good.
Begin early to bear fruit - in 3-4 years. They have an average winter hardiness, therefore, it is advisable to grow them on foothill slopes, since trees freeze in the plains, which affects both the amount of harvest and its periodicity.
The most common variety in the Siberian region, since it has relatively large fruits for this area. Fruiting begins in 3-4 years. It ripens with the first September days, the fruits have a rather long keeping time - 4 months.
Fruit juicy and fragrant, purple color, full-ripe with a purple hue. The variety is well resistant to frost and diseases. He is highly productive, but periodicity is possible. The lack of Bayans - a small number of apples during the first years.
Small varieties (rates) and their description
The most frost-resistant, tasty varieties of apples, suitable for growing in a cold Siberian summer. The fruits are small, have a sour and tart taste. As a rule, they are used to create a variety of conservation and procurement. A large tree is not formed at the openings, which is convenient for planting in a small garden.
A variety of American breeding late ripening. The tree is formed srednerosly, often grows in the form of a shrub, the average height is 4 m. The plant is very decorative, it can be used to decorate the site. Apples are small, fruit weight - 11-16 g.
The peel is very smooth, may have a yellow or red color. Thick pulp has a creamy shade that changes during storage. The taste is sweet and sour with a characteristic plum aroma. Fruiting begins in 3-4 years, ripening begins in the second half of August. The average yield - 170 kg per apple.
Despite the high yield, trees bear fruit unstable. The variety has an average resistance to scab, requires high-quality processing. The fruits are very small and have a satisfactory taste, poorly suited for fresh consumption.
A variety of domestic breeding, bred gardener amateur in 1937. Until recently, it was widely distributed for cultivation in the Urals and Siberia, today it is rare.
Tree srednerosly with pyramidal crown. Fruiting occurs only on shoots of 2-3 years of growth. The fruits are very small, the average weight is 8-12 g. They have an oval-round shape, often ribbing occurs. Apples are colored yellow or dark red, there is a slight bluish bloom. The flesh is white with reddish streaks.
Taste is sweet-sour, badly is suitable for the fresh use. Fruiting is only possible for 3-4 years after planting, the maturity of the fruits occurs in the second half of August. The average yield - 50-100 kg per tree.
The main advantages of the variety are high frost resistance and earlier ripening. The tree is formed extremely decorative and unpretentious in the care. The disadvantages are typical for many raenok - small fruit, sensitivity to scab, crop instability in different seasons.
Beauty steppe (Siberian)
Variety summer ripening, bred by the breeders at the Novosibirsk experimental station them. Michurin. It is included in the state register in the West Siberian fruit growing zone. Often used for industrial cultivation.
The tree is medium thick, has an oval crown of strong thickening. The main branches depart from the trunk at an acute angle. Apples are small, the maximum weight is 20 g. They have a flattened-round shape with weak ribbing.
Usually found yellow color of the skin, less often - solid red. The flesh is dense, sweet-sour taste. The variety begins to bear fruit only for 3-4 years, the average yield up to 90 c / ha. The fruits ripen from the second half of August.
Apple Tree Beauty steppe gained great popularity due to high frost resistance and stable yields. They note a good immunity to diseases, the leaves are almost not affected. In the dry season, the fruit pulp may slightly bitter. Apples are not suitable for fresh consumption, are used only for processing.
The variety of domestic breeding, bred by experts of the Krasnoyarsk Experimental Station for Horticulture. In the 60s of the last century, it was the most popular variety for industrial cultivation in the conditions of Siberia, today the interest in the apple-tree Flashlight fades away. Some gardeners consider this variety to be a transition between the markets and semi-crops.
The plant is represented by a tree of medium growth with a narrow pyramidal crown, which has a large decorative. Fruits are oval in shape, have a small weight - up to 20 g. By the time of maturity, the skin is painted in crimson color, which darkens during storage. Maturation occurs in the first half of September. The average yield of up to 40 kg per tree.
When growing a gardener variety, crop instability is noted, which depends on the weather in the season. Fruits due to sour taste are suitable only for the preparation of blanks, but can be stored for a long time. The tree tolerates a cold winter, there is resistance to scab.
The variety was bred by Siberian breeders in 1963, today it is actively used for cultivation in unfavorable climatic conditions of Russia.
The apple tree is represented by a medium-sized tree with a wide oval crown. The fruits are very small, reaching only 30 g. The skin of the yellow color, as it ripens, reddens.
In the pulp there are reddish streaks, it is dense and juicy. The taste is sweet and sour, the fruit has a large amount of sugar. Productivity - 35 kg / tree, annual fruiting.
Variety loved gardeners for a small tree height, which facilitates the process of care and picking apples. Productivity is stable, active fruiting comes late. There is a high frost resistance, resistance to scab. An apple tree of this variety is used as a stock for other trees.
Summer hybrid variety of apple trees, bred by Russian breeders at the Research Institute of Horticulture of Siberia. Lisavenko. Widely distributed for industrial and private cultivation in the mountainous area of Altai.
The tree is low-growth, the crown is rounded and has weak foliage. Fruits are one-dimensional, the correct rounded shape. The average weight of apples is 60 g. The skin color is light yellow, often there is a red blush. The flesh is medium density, juicy and fine-grained.
Note the pleasant taste and aroma that lasts a long time after ripening. The average yield is 68 centners per hectare, active fruiting begins at 4-5 year from the moment of planting.
Among the advantages of varieties emit a weak force of growth of the tree, good taste of the fruit. Apples are suitable for long-term storage. Winter hardiness is average; there is no resistance to scab. The variety is best suited for growing in a small garden.
Large-fruited varieties (stanza)
This group of apple varieties is not widely spread for cultivation in Siberia, because it has a low or medium frost resistance. When planting, it is important to consider that regular pruning is required, as well as the cover of the crown for the winter. Suitable for experienced gardeners, the fruits are very large, usually for universal use.
Old apple variety, bred in Canada in the late 19th century. As a rule, the Melba Red hybrid is used for planting in Russia, since it has high frost resistance and scab resistance.
The tree reaches a medium height, has a spreading crown oval. Fruits are large, the average weight of apples is 120-140 g. They have a rounded or rounded conical shape, ribbing is weak.
The skin is dense with pronounced oiliness, colored in a yellow-green color with a strong blush. The flesh is snow-white in color, juicy and has a pleasant candy flavor. Active fruiting occurs only for 3-4 years from the moment of planting, yield - 90-120 kg / ha.
Gardeners point out the difficulty of caring for this variety. Requires regular processing, as well as carrying out shelter for the winter. With increased humidity there is a risk of scab infection. In addition, the tree has a low self-pollination capacity. There are also advantages - the earlyness of the tree, as well as the attractive appearance of the fruit and the possibility of their universal use.
Late-winter apple variety bred by domestic breeder S. I. Isaev. There is zoning in most regions of the Russian Federation, often used for breeding new varieties of culture.
Apple tree is vigorous, can reach impressive sizes. Crown pyramidal shape with powerful skeletal branches. Accurate fruits of a rounded-conical shape reach a weight of up to 150 g. The main color of the skin is yellow-green, often there is a red blush.
White flesh of apples is very juicy, they note an interesting spicy flavor. The removable ripeness of fruits comes only by the beginning of October. Fruiting begins only 5-8 years from the time of planting, the yield of adult trees is very large - 120-170 kg / tree.
When growing apple trees Northern Synap should be remembered that this is an intensive type, therefore regular care is required, including pruning, feeding and watering. Gardeners note that late harvest is recommended, otherwise the fruits begin to dry quickly. Apples are universal purpose, suitable for use in freshly harvested form, preparation of blanks.
A popular variety of American breeding, grown in Russia since the end of the 19th century. Often used as a mother plant in the process of hybridization. It has high rates of frost resistance and strong immunity. Used for planting in the gardens of the Novosibirsk region and the Altai Territory.
The tree is medium in size, crown pyramidal or round shape, requires a constant anti-aging pruning. Fruits are medium or large in size, the average weight is 80-150 g. The skin is smooth, as it ripens, the color changes from yellow to red. The flesh is pale pink and very dense. The taste is usually sweet, but depends on the weather conditions in the region.
The ripening of apples is amicable, the optimum time for picking fruit is the second decade of September. Fruiting starts from 4-5 years old, an adult tree has a high yield, which can reach up to 200 kg / tree.
The variety of apple trees Welsey fell in love with gardeners for high frost resistance, resistance to scab infection, as well as the attractive presentation of apples. When growing it should be borne in mind that regular shaping of the crown is required, which directly affects the tree overload and the volume of the crop.
Apple tree Cornet colonic
This is a self-fertile, winter-hardy variety of Russian breeding. The fruits are red and oblong-round in shape. One apple can weigh 150-200 grams. The rind of the fruit is dense, the flesh is very juicy, fragrant.
Variety of autumnal fruit ripening. The ranetka (semi-culture) grows to a height of 2 m, the width of its crown can reach 40 cm. The fruits of the apple-tree are round, with a bright yellow color outside. The flesh of the apple is juicy, yellow. Плоды имеют высокий дегустационный балл за кисло-сладкий вкус и особую ароматность.
Самый неприхотливый и эстетичный сорт. Он вообще не нуждается в обрезке. Отличается невысоким ростом (до 190 см). Плоды яблонькя имеет сладкие, овальные и красные. Первые яблоки с весом 100-130 грамм дерево дает уже на следующий год после посадки. Часто используется для ландшафтного дизайна.
Calling the best varieties of apple for Siberia, it is impossible not to mention the following: Conference, Sibirka, Sinara, Vasuta, Iksha, Triumph, Dialogue, Medoc, Gin, Ostankino. It is appropriate to use all these apples for the Arkhangelsk region - varieties are perfect for areas with cold winters and short summers.
How to choose a grade
As experienced farmers indicate, not every columnar apple for Siberia can provide a good harvest. Choosing the best option, you should focus on: winter hardiness, taste, fruit storage period.
After analyzing different varieties of apple trees for Siberia, it should be pointed out that the ones that are most suitable are those with a frost resistance level of at least 4.5. This means that the tree is able to withstand temperatures up to -25 ° C. Those that have a score of 5 are able to survive the frost down to -50 ° C.
As a rule, the Siberian apple tree has a good keeping quality of apples. Fruits can be stored from August to October, some to January. Preference should be given to the variety that is characterized by these best qualities.
Important! The phase of active fruiting of an apple tree is 12 years.
Every year, new varieties of apple trees appear on the market, so experts advise experimenting with them, testing in their garden.
Before planting, you need to choose a variety of apple trees
Purchase of seedlings
A good tree will grow, the sapling of which was healthy and strong. Going to buy for your garden, it is better to follow these simple tips:
- Planting material must contain a tag. At such indicate the age of the plant, its variety. In addition, the seller must have with him the documentation (and, at the buyer's request, present it), which must indicate the fruiting period of the apple tree, information on how frost resistant the seedling is, how resistant it is to diseases and parasites, etc.
- In the nursery usually allow you to buy not yet dug seedlings. Preference is better to a tree that has no visible damage. Carefully inspect the bark of seedlings from all sides, and the roots themselves (if we are talking about digging).
- The roots should be elastic, without cones or thickenings.
Important! If you slightly remove the bark from the spine, the fabric of the apple inside should be white and alive, that is, without any traces of drying.
- It is better to give preference to “one-year-old” saplings. Such should not have any branches. The stem of the plant should be about 6-7 cm. The optimal number of buds is 5-6 pieces.
- If you can, it is better to buy seedlings with a closed root system. As experience shows, these are stored longer and are more likely to be taken.
- Plants with vaccinations need to inspect especially carefully. Fragile rootstock can significantly harm the plant.
Important! During the entire period of transportation and until planting, the roots of seedlings should be wet. To this end, the lower part of the tree is wrapped in a wet film or fabric.
Terms and methods of landing
The best season to plant columnar apple varieties in Siberia is spring. Sub-winter (that is, autumn) planting threatens to freeze seedlings.
With regard to the choice of methods and methods of planting, here you should also consider the western harsh climate. Some Siberian gardeners suggest planting a columnar apple tree with a stanza method. In this case, the seedling is placed in the landing hole at an angle. In winter, it allows him to bend down to the ground and more reliably protect against frost.
If the climate in the region is milder, the landing can be carried out in the usual way by placing the tree in a previously prepared pit.
It is also possible to plant a columnar apple by the container method.
Technology and landing scheme
Most of all, the apple-tree is columnar (varieties for Siberia, like all other varieties of this species, have a weak root system) loves moist and loose, fertile soils. The soil should pass air and water well. For planting a whole apple orchard, it is better to select areas with high (from 2-3 m) groundwater storage. To get a good harvest, you need to choose a sunny and well protected from the wind plot.
Due to the narrow crowns, the columnar apple does not occupy much space in the territory. Meanwhile, it should be planted at a distance of 40 cm from other trees.
Important! Between the rows you need to keep a distance of not less than 1 meter.
Preparation of the landing pit is better to implement in the fall. Its diameter depends on the size of the seedlings: all roots should be placed freely on the bottom of the pit. In the fall, several handfuls of humus or compost should be laid out at the bottom of the pit. Replace these fertilizers can potash phosphate. It is enough to use only 2 tablespoons of mineral dressing for one planting hole.
It is possible to place a sapling in the soil, when outside there will be a stable positive temperature, both during the day and at night. Immediately before planting, the roots of seedlings are placed in clean warm water for 10 hours. If the tree for planting was dug out recently, and its roots did not have time to dry, this will not have to be done.
Important! To sapling wedge-shaped apple tree quickly got accustomed, it is necessary to prune its roots.
An excessive amount of mineral fertilizers, as well as injuries to the roots or stem during planting, can lead to the death of an apple tree.
Varieties by fruit size
- Small-fruited. The most winter-hardy are ratenki, they rarely freeze slightly even in very cold winters, they have time to mature for a short summer. This, for example: Ranetka Yermolaeva, Long - with a mediocre taste, mainly used for jam and stewed fruit.
- Medium: Ural filling, Uralets, Ermakovskoe mountain, Altai Souvenir, Silver hoof, Bayana (semi-cultures) - also winter-hardy, with larger and more tasty apples, for fresh use and processing.
- Large-fruited varieties: Krasa Sverdlovsk, Danila, Bely filling - average winter hardiness, apples of good and excellent taste, in the conditions of Siberia, they are most often grown in stlant and semi-shale forms.
- Summer - ripen in late July - August, suitable for regions with short and cool summer, consumed fresh and for blanks:
- Silver hoof - semi-culture. The tree is low, the fruits are orange-red, rounded, weighing up to 85 g, sweet and sour, ripen in August. Productivity - 160 kg from a tree,
- White filling - large-fruited variety, apples when ripe almost white, very good sweet-sour taste. The only drawback is not stored at all. The height of the tree is about 2.5 m, the crown is half-sprawling,
- Hornis - fruits slightly less than the average size are stored for about three weeks, the variety is highly resistant,
- Papirovka - summer stantsevy variety, fruits weighing up to 100 g are greenish-yellow, sour-sweet, ripen in August. Winter hardiness is good.
- Autumn - the end of August - September, they can be recycled or stored for a short time:
- Ural bulk - autumn variety, semi-culture. The tree is medium thick, with willow crown. Fruits weighing 28–30 g are greenish-yellow, sour-sweet. Rip in September, stored for 2 months. Productivity - 200 kg from a tree. High resistance,
- Anise Sverdlovsk - an old Ural variety with rather large apples (about 90 g) of a sweet-sour taste, high winter hardiness. Differs in small height and compactness of krone,
- Uralets is also a famous Ural variety, semi-culture. Pretty tall tree with a pyramidal crown. Apples weighing about 30 g, green-red, sweet-sour taste. Productivity is consistently high.
- Winter - for long-term storage and use in winter, ripen during storage:
- Bayana - a variety with fruits of medium size, semi-culture.
- Isetskoe later (fruits weighing about 90 g), stored until February, winter-hardy,
- The beauty of Sverdlovsk (weight 100–120 g), does not crumble, apples are stored until April, winter-hardy,
- Danila - apples weighing about 160 g are stored until April, the variety is immune to scab,
- Good news (apples weigh about 100 g) is stored until April, also immune to scab,
- Snowdrop - apples of medium size, light yellow, excellent sweet-sour taste, stored for about 4 months. Harvest about 80 kg from a tree. Practically not affected by scab, high winter hardiness. The variety is a natural dwarf (tree height up to 2 m), which is very good for cold regions.
The apple tree will grow best in a sunny, elevated, protected from the northern winds place. The results of long-term personal observations show that the best time for planting apple trees in Siberia and the Urals is autumn, two weeks before the onset of cold weather. For the Urals and the south of Western Siberia, this is the interval from mid-September to mid-October. In more northern areas a little bit earlier.
- Landing pits are prepared in advance. If the plot was not fertilized, then they are 2/3 filled with earth, thoroughly mixed with fertilizers. On loams and podzolic soils in a single pit lay 1-2 buckets of rotted manure or compost, half a liter jar of ash. You can add a handful of superphosphate. All this must be very well mixed, so as not to burn the tender roots of a young plant.
- The seedling is carefully placed in a hole and covered with earth so that after the soil has settled, the root neck is at the level of the surface layer.
- After the landing pit is filled, the ground around the seedling is carefully tamped down, watered and mulched with humus or chopped mown grass to reduce evaporation of moisture.
- So that young plants are not broken by the wind, they are tied up with pegs hammered in alongside.
A landing pit for an apple tree is prepared in advance so that the earth will have time to settle and the root collar remains on the surface.
With the onset of cold weather, the apple tree must be covered up and then covered with snow. In this form, the seedlings will well winter and in the spring they will immediately start to grow, and after the snow melts there will be a lot of moisture in the soil.
In the first year, the care of young plants consists in timely weeding, watering, protection from pests.
The next pruning after spring can be done first pruning, sections must be covered with garden pitch. In the conditions of Siberia and the Urals, pruning apple trees in the fall is not recommended, as the tree after stress does not have time to prepare for the cold weather and can freeze in winter.
Pruning is needed to form the crown of a young tree: all branches that compete with the main shoot need to be cut to the ground. All large branches are also pruned by about 30–40 cm.
Mature trees need preventive pruning: remove dried and broken branches; when crowns thicken, they thin it out to give the fruit more light.
Large-fruited varieties are formed in the stlant or semi-shale form, i.e., pinning shoots to the soil and removing branches that grow vertically upwards. If the variety is shtambovy (it grows in the form of a tree), then it is worthwhile to leave the lower branches, so that if the tree subsists above the level of snow, it can recover due to these branches.
- The first treatment is done before the start of sap flow. To do this, dissolve 700 g of urea (carbamide) or potassium fertilizer without chlorine, or 1 kg of sodium chloride in 10 liters of water, mix and spray trees from the very tips of the branches to the forks of the branches and the whole trunk, and the soil under the plants in the near-stem circle : it will destroy overwintering pests. You can not spray on the swollen buds and especially on the blossoming leaves, so as not to burn them.
- Before starting budding very well handle the so-called "spring cocktail." To do this, take 2 grains of the Healthy Garden drug, add 2 Ekoberin grains (or Epin-extra), which increases the resistance of plants to the vagaries of the weather, 2–4 drops of Zircon (enhances plant self-defense against diseases), dissolve everything in 1 liter of water. It is also possible to add 4–5 drops of Fitoverma (against sucking and leaf-eating pests). Prepare a sufficient amount of the drug and carry out the treatment.
- During the summer, good results are obtained by treating the leaves with biologics. For example, the Healthy Garden biocomplex (homeopathic medicine Aurum-S) will do. It is enough to spray the trees once a month during the period of active growth and fruiting.
- After harvesting, it is good to feed trees with complex mineral fertilizer with potassium content or pour it into each tree-trunk circle using a bucket of humus (compost) mixed with 500–600 g of ash.
Mandatory watering during planting and during fertilization. The rest of the time, it is only necessary to water the apple trees only where there is a low level of groundwater. The exception is dwarf apple trees: their roots are very close to the surface, so they need watering. At the same time, it is necessary to pour water gently into special grooves in order to avoid accidental leaching of the roots from the soil.
It is necessary to water the apple trees in special grooves so as not to wash the roots
The soil around the trunk should be covered with a thick layer of peat or humus so that it does not freeze in winter. Moreover, the layer should be increased gradually, otherwise the trunk of the apple can overheat from rotting fertilizer.
In late autumn or at the very beginning of winter, young apple trees and fruit-bearing stannas should be covered to protect them from frost. To do this, you can use special covering materials or cover trees with branches, grass, and then with snow. The main thing is to do it carefully so as not to break the branches.
According to amateur gardeners, in cold climates, stunted apple trees grow better and bear fruit - which can be sheltered for the winter from frost. Semi-cultures (Silver Hoof, Ural bulk, Ural resident), adapted to local conditions, and new large-fruited varieties with high winter hardiness and immunity to scab (Good News, Danila) also showed themselves well.
Video: amateur gardeners about the best varieties of apple trees for Siberia and the Urals
The Ural bulk planting of 2000 bears fruit for a long time and the harvest is so decent that it has to be distributed. Yes, the Ural bulk has a periodicity of fruiting, and when a tree is resting it doesn’t say that there are no apples on it, it’s just not as much as always, but what large ones are ..
If the URAL BULK apples are picked, they are not stored for a long time. On the tree, the fruits hang hard until frost, and I leave them on purpose to feast on the next visit to the garden. I also grew a second similar tree - we really like these apples! Now, is it necessary to cover creeping apple trees from above? If this is not done, then the falling snow falls into the voids between the branches of the crown. A part of the branches remains either completely uncovered, or poorly covered, and this leads to freezing of such crown areas. In addition, when sheltering from above, tops of leaves turn out to be a continuous layer of snow and under it a microclimate is created under the crown of the apple tree. As in a fur coat. Heat! For many years my method of protecting apple trees has been in effect, and I am not going to change it. From the good of good not looking!
Shaping and trimming wood
A columnar apple is a species that does not require frequent cutting. The main type remains sanitary pruning, that is, the removal of dried, damaged by parasites or mechanical actions of the branches.
Since the frosty Siberian temperature threatens the tree with freezing of the top, it must be systematically shortened to the height of a stronger escape. After icing of some branches and cutting the top of the apple tree can quickly recover. In spring, replacement shoots grow, which bear fruit well.
If circumcision is done carefully, then an apple tree can please its owners longer than 20 years.
Preparing for the winter
As the Siberians point out, each frost-resistant apple variety can still freeze at too low temperatures. Apical buds remain the most vulnerable.
For the winter, it is desirable to cover the trees with dense material.
You can save a tree from such trouble if you hide it beforehand. The ideal option for this purpose would be:
In this regard, some other insulating materials that will provide the tree with normal access of air, but also protect against sudden gusts of wind, will be useful. It is easier for an apple tree to survive the winter if after each massive snowfall it is necessary to cover the trunk and the root zone with snow. Since the bark of the tree is very tender, it should be tamped with care.
On a note. With the advent of cold time, some animals, in particular, rodents and hares, will certainly want to live on the bark of the apple tree. It is possible to protect the columnar apple from them if it is wrapped in a fishing net.
Advantages and disadvantages
Farmers' descriptions and recommendations make it clear that, like a fruit tree, columnar apple trees (winter-hardy varieties for Siberia) have some advantages over other trees. So, the advantages should be attributed to the fact that the plant has a very compact size. At first glance, it may seem that it consists only of the trunk. Meanwhile, the tree has a crown, the width of which is virtually the same along the entire length.
These trees do not grow tall, which provides ease of care and ease of harvesting.
This variety provides an early harvest - the first apple can be tasted in the second year of the plant’s life.
In addition, the plant has a high decorative value. Яблоню можно удачно высаживать вдоль садовых дорожек или использовать для создания декоративных композиций с низкорослыми кустарниками.
Что касается недостатков этой разновидности яблони, то к таковым можно отнести:
- может потерять свою форму, значит, и привлекательный внешний вид вследствие неправильного ухода,
- непродолжительность плодоношения и жизни – до 15-20 лет,
- возможность прививания только на карликовые деревья,
- the need to fertilize the land with trace elements.
Summarizing all the above, we can conclude that even in the harsh Siberian conditions it is possible to grow a garden of columnar apple trees. The process of planting and caring for plants will differ slightly from what is happening in the warmer southern parts, but careful care and adherence to basic agrotechnical rules remain the main condition.
Large apple trees
This group is also called stanants, because the plants are creeping. Apple trees bring high-quality crops, but they are not winter-hardy, so their crown in winter must be completely covered, otherwise the trees will die.
If it is good to take care of an apple tree, it begins to bear fruit from 3-4 years old, without proper attention, a year or two later. Melba fruits ripen in early autumn. You can store them until about the end of October. Brings a moderate harvest constantly, old trees - periodically. Melba apples are large in size and taste good. They have a light green color with a red blush, soft flesh, with the aroma of candy. This variety suffers from severe frosts, can cause scab.
Refers to the winter varieties, the time of apple harvest falls at the end of September - beginning of October. They are large, yellow-green with blurred red stripes, refreshing, with a spicy aftertaste.
Stored for quite a long time - until mid-spring. Northern Sinap begins to bear fruit from 6 years old, not too harvested. The variety is resistant to low temperature, has moderate immunity to scab.
It begins to bear fruit from 6 years and gives a plentiful constant crop. The apples are large, flat-round, cherry-red. Ripen unevenly - during the second half of September. Capable of storage from 3 to 4 months. Severe frosts can harm welsey. The grade differs in the maximum resistance to a scab.
Trees bear fruit from 6 years. Gives an average harvest every year. The apples are not too big, white and yellow. They are sprinkled in the first days of August, with a mealy taste when laying. Grade moderately resistant to low temperatures. During the wet season it is infected with scab.
Severe and long winters, short and not too warm summers - all this determines the choice of a gardener. The above-described varieties of apple trees for Siberia, taking into account the soil and climatic conditions of the area where the trees will grow, will warn you against possible mistakes, so that your garden will always delight you with beautiful flowering and abundant harvest.