The property of tomato is known to be thermophilic; therefore, it is not always possible to bring the fruits of tomatoes to full maturity in the open air. Using greenhouses for growing vegetables is an ideal option for those who live in temperate regions. But there are peculiarities of tomato farming in greenhouse conditions. Knowing them will help to achieve high yields of delicious tomatoes.
Proper seed planting in the ground
Despite the fact that the temperature in the greenhouse rises during the day due to the bright March sun, it is cold at night. For planting seeds you need them temper in advance. To do this, after soaking the material is placed in the refrigerator, then in warm water. Now the sunflower seeds are ready to grow.
To avoid this, a special indoor heating will help. It happens:
- biological with fresh manure,
Having stuffed the greenhouse with a shovel with hot manure at the end of February, you can sow the seeds. Heat them enough until mid-May. Heat the manure, pouring it with hot water, sprinkling with quicklime.
Good heat keep the shelter of the walls of the mats in two layers. Three days later, the manure is leveled, ground is poured on it. It can be planted tomato seeds. Accelerated growth of hardened seedlings allows them to bear fruit a month and a half earlierthan garden beds.
How to plant tomato seedlings
Rassadny way to grow tomatoes easier. There are some nuances of planting seeds and sprouts that have appeared. In the spring, sow tomatoes for seedlings in greenhouses not earlier than March 20. As soon as she reaches the age of sixty days, you can sit or sit on a permanent place in the room, for example, on a windowsill.
For seedlings air temperature is important - it should reach eighteen degrees during the day, sixteen at night. Watering seedlings is the first month three times. The water used is warm, well settled. When the first shoots appear, watering is carried out up to once a week.
Pike seedlings planted in place, preparing a layer of earth at 17 centimeters, then pouring it to twenty centimeters. The soil should consist of equal parts of humus, sod land with the addition of a small amount of river sand.
Before planting seedlings in the hole add wood ash
Before planting 50 grams of wood ash in each prepared well or furrow, carefully mix it with the ground. Planting tomato sprouts to produce deep, reaching the bottom of the racks.
Stretched seedlings - landing features
Because of the thin stem, tomato seedlings often break, so when you transplant, you must follow a number of rules:
- For planting seedlings sprouts suitable cloudy day or morning low temperature of air.
- The long stem fits into the landing fossa ring. You can lay the kusutik horizontally, leaving a stem on the surface that is no longer than forty centimeters long or, on the contrary, leaving most of it underground.
- Cut off the bottom leaves and stepchildren on the stem.
- Carefully pour soil into the hole, trying not to damage the shoots.
- Drive a peg next to which tether seedlings.
- At the end of the procedure, the bushes are watered.
If at the beginning of growth the sprouting sprouts will lag behind in the development of their counterparts, then after the formation of new roots, the tomatoes will become stronger.
What is the square-nested way of disembarkation
When planting seeds or seedlings of tomatoes in the ground using a square-cluster method that will make caring for tomatoes easier. And for plants it will be better to pass nutrient absorption. With such a planting each bush enough light.
The plan for planting a tomato in a square-nested way is as follows:
- In one nest 70x70 centimeters two or three plants of standard and determinant species are placed.
- Early tomato enough two for one nest.
- With average and late terms of ripening - on one plant. If you increase the nest by twenty centimeters, you can land two tomatoes, reducing the planting density slightly.
After landing is necessary air more oftenthat will avoid the spread of fungal diseases indoors.
To prevent the appearance of fungus, the greenhouse must be thoroughly aired.
The best time for planting a tomato
Spring, which arrived in a timely manner with stable weather, is the main condition for planting vegetables other than proper courtship and watering. For a seedling growing method, planting it in an unheated greenhouse is made in the first decade of May. At the same time, it is necessary to additionally warm the walls of the enclosed room, covering them with mats.
In regions with warm climates, heated greenhouses are prepared for tomatoes. in Marchand with moderate, including Western Siberia, Novosibirsk, Krasnoyarsk - in the end of April. The spring sun will allow you to get enough tomatoes for their growth of heat and light.
Placement of tomatoes in the greenhouse
In accordance with the choice of varieties of tomato, greenhouse designs produce and plant young bushes:
- For indeterminate tomatoes choose the chess arrangement of bushes. They need to be placed in rows with the distance between them. no more than eighty centimeters. The distance between plants will be half a meter in the formation of one stem, and two - seventy centimeters.
- Determinate species need row spacing in half a meter. The distance of the bushes from each other is thirty centimeters to those that grow two or three stems. It is reduced to the norm of twenty-five units, if one stem is formed.
Comply with the rules for placing a tomato is important, otherwise they will not have enough nutrients, moisture, light and air.
Optimum bed width
Device beds depends on the area of the greenhouse premises. With a standard area of 3x6 beds the place will suit along the wall. High-quality lighting beds will be in its direction to the west.
The height of the soil in relation to the track is done in 40 cm. The width of the beds can be in 60 or 90 cm. For full care, you will need a path a little less than half a meter wide.
Care must be taken of the location of the necessary equipment and the sufficient width of the tracks. This will allow proper care of the tomato beds.
It is necessary to think in advance of sufficient width of the tracks in the greenhouse.
Features of the location of stunted and tall varieties
For proper placement of tomato bushes, you can use the following recommendations:
- Tall varieties fit in two rows, as they are left in the nest of two stalks. And the distance between the rows reaches eighty centimeters.
- The landing would be perfect in the middle premises of tall varieties, On the sides - undersized. When ripening at different times, you can harvest the tomato constantly.
- With a modest size of a tall greenhouse, they arrange a bed in one row on the sides, and undersized - in two rows in the middle of the room.
Consider the location of different varieties of plants and choose the approach to planting is necessary in advance.
Agrotechnology of tomatoes in a polycarbonate greenhouse: planting dates, distances between bushes
In the first days of May You can start planting seedlings in a polycarbonate greenhouse. At this time, the seedlings already have a strong root system, a thick stem, one or two floral brushes.
After hardening the seedlings in the open air for two weeks, it is sprayed with a solution of boric acid. This will prevent the fall of the buds. Before planting, the two lower leaves on the sprouts are removed. The plant layout is the same as in ordinary greenhouses.
Landing step by step
Before planting a tomato in a greenhouse, it is necessary to add humus, peat, phosphate and potash fertilizers to the prepared beds. For soil disinfection it needs to be processed - sprayed with potassium permanganate solution or treatment with Zaslon.
For disinfection of soil is processed by the preparation Barrier
The prepared wells are placed seedlings using square-nested or tape-nested method. The depth of the holes is not more than twenty centimeters. For better assimilation of phosphorus, which is necessary for tomatoes for proper development, wood ash is added to the wells.
Depending on soil moisture and air in the greenhouse, seedlings are watered two - three liters per bush. Well planted tomatoes planted in the evening in cloudy weather.
Plant Care Requirements
For active growth of tomatoes in a greenhouse made of polycarbonate, you must create the following conditions:
- air temperature in 22 degrees, but not above 25, soils - over fifteen.
- ventilation for fresh air in the room
- moisture levels remain at 70 percent.
- pour over as drying top layer of soil
- fertilizing with the addition of monopotassium phosphate and potassium nitrate weekly with irrigation,
- carrying out pollination with shaking of bushes during flowering.
Compliance with all the rules of care for tomatoes in a polycarbonate greenhouse will lead to continuous fruiting bushes.
It is no secret that you can get high yields of tomatoes in the early stages only by growing them in a greenhouse. In addition to this plant in protected ground less attacked by pestsDo not suffer from diseases.
Greenhouses ensure proper operation of the ventilation channel in the following way: they carefully and regularly wipe the walls of the structure. If the right place for the installation of the greenhouse is chosen - well lit, without shading from the trees, buildings, the light will easily penetrate into it.
Before starting the preparation of tomato seedlings for the greenhouse, it is necessary to select such plant varieties that can grow well in greenhouse conditions.
Preparation and disinfection of soil for future beds required, depends on the health of plants.
Increases the resistance of tomatoes to disease spraying of copper sulphate, boiling water.
Peculiarities of courtship after planting seedlings
For young seedlings it is important to carry out timely watering, introduction of optimal doses of fertilizers. A week after planting, they begin to water their plants. Before flowering, watering is carried out with a break of five days. One square meter - one bucket of warm water. Water under the root, trying to keep drops of moisture from falling on the leaves. Suitable and drip irrigation method.
Two weeks after landing, exercise fertilizing bushes with mulleindiluted in water to five hundred milligrams - ten liters, add ten grams of ammonium nitrate, fifty - superphosphate, fifteen - potassium chloride. The next time after the appearance of the flowers, the ripening of the fruit must be treated with fertilizers, doubling the amount of minerals when dissolved in a bucket of water.
What is the difference of care in greenhouses and greenhouses
Greenhouses are used for a smooth transition of seedlings from home to open ground. Therefore, the timing and rules of planting a tomato are the same for both greenhouses and greenhouses.
It can not exceed two and a half meters from the soil surface. So that the soil is not sprinkled from the walls of the greenhouse, they are sheathed with boards. Install greenhouses on the southern slopes of the site, this will avoid flooding the area.
The greenhouse must be installed on the south side of the plot.
Feed tomato bushes need during budding and fruit formation. Every month fertilizer or compost is added between the rows. Purchase fertilizers in specialized stores, taking into account the importance of the presence of a large amount of nitrogen in them.
Suitable for feeding mullein, bird droppings, mineral supplements. All types of fertilizer are diluted in a bucket of water and applied after watering the bushes. Per square meter is enough bucket solution.
When to air
In order for plants to receive more air, light, it is necessary to open the doors of the greenhouse for ventilation. The procedure will help reduce fever and humidity. High parameters of humidity, the heat will not let the fruit tied, pollination slows down.
Airing is included in the phytophthora prevention measures. In good dry weather, you can leave the greenhouse open for the night.
How to plant to harvest a good crop
Getting a big harvest of juicy fruits is the dream of every gardener. For this is important observe the landing terms vegetables, when the temperature in the greenhouse will be maintained at night at the level of twenty-five degrees of heat.
Tomatoes will grow better in polycarbonate greenhouses. But during the hot summer it is enough to hold the bushes for the first time under the film. Although it is in the greenhouse that crops are harvested earlier and more often.
Variety selection tomato is important. There are tomatoes, which in the greenhouse give rich fees, and in the open field they do not sow badly. It is best to choose hybrids that do not need pollination and they are excellent fruit. The resistance of hybrid species to diseases that prevent an increase in yield is also noted.
Most types of tomato require a garter of stems to pegs. Garter plants spend subject to grade. To early and undersized grades it is optional.
Low-growing varieties of tomatoes do not need a garter
How to tie a greenhouse
The material is never used wire, durable fishing line, hard thread, thin string. Such materials will easily cut the stem. Strips of fabric two to three centimeters wide are the best choice. Before the procedure, they must be disinfected by scalding with boiling water or stretching with laundry soap.
Near the tomato drive in pegs long 30 cm above the stalks and loosely bind the stem to them.
Another method of garter - device trellis. Stakes are driven in along the beds, pulling hard wire between them in several rows. During the growth of tomatoes, they are charged for wire or brushes are hung on hooks.
Hang on the trellis or tie up - which way is better
Both options are convenient for the growth of tomatoes. Brushes tall tomatoes tied to the top of the trellis or hookedlocated at the top. In both cases, the fruit continues to grow successfully no matter how they hang.
Tall tomatoes are hanging on hooks
What can be used as a peg
It is convenient to prepare individual pegs or sticks for tying tomato bushes. They will serve for several years.
You can replace them:
- trimming fittings and metal fixtures,
- metal rods
- thin plastic tubes
- wooden slats.
First watering frequency
After landing, it is necessary to take a break in soil moistening, which will allow harden root system young plants. Three days later, under each bush pour in up to two liters of water. Then the number of procedures increase.
After strengthening the roots, up to 2 liters of water is poured under each bush.
The best time for watering is morning. And then open the greenhouse for airing. Watering is enough once or twice a week.
Peculiarities of watering in a polycarbonate greenhouse
In the greenhouse, watering tomatoes in the flowering phase often doubles the amount of water. The best option would be a break in moistening. in two days. After the formation of ovaries begin to reduce the frequency of watering. At the same time take into account the weather conditions. With an extremely wet summer, it is enough to water the plants once every two weeks.
How to water the tomatoes
High yields in the greenhouse are obtained if watering is carried out with water at a temperature of 20-25 degrees. Many people add a tablespoon of table salt and a glass of wood ash to a bucket of water. Pouring half a liter of solution under each bush, you can harvest a good crop of sweet, meaty tomatoes.
Tomatoes are poured over, adding a bit of grass to the water.
Organization of drip irrigation plants
Using homemade droppers for irrigating tomatoes is important for moistening. root area plants. Water in this case is served in small portions.
For the device of this method of irrigation need hoses with a diameter of 1.5 cm. Attached to the dropper or drip tape. The hose is attached to the faucet or immersed in a container of water. Lay the system along the landings, sprinkled lightly with soil. Through the tape or dropper water will flow directly to the root system of the vegetable crop.
How to water seedling material
Since the future harvest depends on the condition of the seedlings, it is necessary to know how to water it properly. Due to lack of moisture, young shoots can quickly die. When sowing seeds reduce the frequency of watering, making two days break.
As soon as the first leaves appear, they observe the drying of the upper layer of the soil. Only then produce watering or spraying. Two or three days before the picking, the soil is softened by irrigation and the first top dressing. The sprouts are then easier removed from the ground.
Four days after transplantation, seedlings begin to water, bringing it to up to once a week. You can increase the amount of moisture, if the intensity of sunlight increases, which leads to drying of the soil.
For planting tomatoes to grow them, there are some peculiarities. Знать все нюансы как ухаживать за ними в обыкновенных теплицах и теплицах из поликарбоната важно, чтобы получить высокие урожаи томатов.
Как подготовить теплицу и рассаду
To get a high crop of tomatoes in a greenhouse or greenhouse, you need to protect the plants from diseases. To do this, every season it is necessary to cultivate the soil and the inner surfaces of the greenhouse with disinfectants, and once every 3-5 years completely replace the soil in it. To do this, use different means:
- fumigation with sulfur smoke,
- spraying a solution of bleach or copper sulfate.
The first option is not suitable for buildings with a frame made of metal profile. Sulfur vapors interact with the metal and lead to its rapid corrosion. But it is desirable to process wooden or plastic constructions only in this way. Poisonous fumes penetrate into every corner and destroy the fungus, mold and bacteria, larvae and adult hibernating insects.
The secrets of gardeners on how to accelerate the ripening of tomatoes, can be attributed to even the greenhouse seedling method of cultivation of this crop. At the same time, plants that have reached the age of 50 days and have already laid the first flower brushes can be transferred to a permanent place. Fruiting in this case begins in 2-3 weeks after planting.
Sowing of tomatoes specifically designed for greenhouses should be done according to the following scheme:
- late varieties (120 days or more from sowing to harvest) - should be planted in February,
- seeds of medium ripening varieties - in early March,
- the earliest hybrids (about 90 days) should be sown at the end of March so that they do not have time to stretch.
Soil for sowing to cook from turf land, humus and peat in equal parts. For each bucket (10 l) of the mixture, add sand of 1 liter and 1 tbsp. l wood ash and superphosphate. Thoroughly mix the components, pour the finished soil in the seed boxes and moisten it. You need to sow seeds in shallow grooves, filling them with a layer of soil not more than 0.5 cm. To preserve moisture before seed germination, cover the container with film or glass. Shelter to remove immediately after the first shoots. The optimum temperature for seed germination is 22-25 ° C.
When the seedlings will have 2 true leaves, they should be unpacked in separate pots or seedling boxes at a distance of 5-7 cm from each other. Further care is timely watering. Signal to this can serve as a strong drying of the upper layer of soil. Watering should be abundantly warm water (25 ° C), but in any case, do not overfill, as tomatoes do not like it.
To prevent early sprouted plants from being exhausted from a lack of light in early spring, young tomatoes need a backlight with a fluorescent lamp.
Duration of daylight should be increased to about 10 hours per day. Only in this case, young plants will be strong, low, with well-developed leaves. Fertilizing seedlings with a well-filled with organic matter and minerals soil is not needed.
Before planting, young plants need to be hardened on a balcony or in a cool room for 7-10 days. They should be planted in a greenhouse when the soil on the ridges warms to 15-20 ° C.
To preserve the heat obtained from the sun during the day, homemade film greenhouses are best covered in 2 layers. The distance between them should be at least 2 cm. This creates an air cushion between the polyethylene membranes, which serves as a good heat insulator.
Modern greenhouse "Signor Tomato" with a coating of polycarbonate and PVC profile frame is able to retain heat without additional measures. The manufacturer of polycarbonate sheets took care of this in advance: the material consists of cells within which there is already an air cushion. High yield of tomatoes in the greenhouse tested in practice. The first copies of such structures began to go on sale in 2009.
At the very beginning of May, it is already possible to transfer seedlings to heated and prepared greenhouses. The height of the bushes by this time should reach 30 cm. If the tomatoes are very stretched, then they should be planted in the ground obliquely, trying not to bury the roots too much. As a rule, the soil in the depths is still quite cold, which will prevent tomatoes from quickly taking over and starting to grow.
The soil for planting tomatoes must be uniformly enriched in potassium, phosphorus and nitrogen. This is another secret of how to get a good crop of tomatoes in a greenhouse or greenhouse. With an excess of organic nitrogen in the soil (manure, chicken manure, humus), the tops will grow remarkably, but the flowering and fruit laying will be minimal. It is best to use complex fertilizer for tomatoes or when planting to make in the soil, filled with organic, potash and phosphate fertilizers. The dose of them in this case should not exceed that specified by the manufacturer.
Having dug a hole for planting tomatoes in the greenhouse, you need to pour about 2 liters of warm water into it. Having placed the roots and part of the stem, from which the lower leaves are removed, into the pit, cover it with soil to the level of the soil. Watering tomatoes planted in this way is not necessary in the first 1-2 weeks.
Rules for the placement of greenhouse tomatoes
Ridges inside any greenhouse should be placed in the longitudinal direction. The width of the standard model (the greenhouse "Signor Tomato" and others like it) is 3 m. This allows you to break 3 ridges about 60 cm wide, leaving the same aisles between them.
The scheme of planting seedlings for different varieties should be different:
- early low-growing varieties, formed in 2-3 stems, can be planted in 2 lines, leaving a distance of 50 cm between them, and 35-40 cm between plants in a row,
- Standard greenhouse tomatoes can be placed slightly thickened (45x25 cm), forming them in 1 stem,
- tall varieties that form powerful bushes form into 1 stem, having a single line pattern with a distance between rows of about 80 cm, between tomatoes in a row - 60-70 cm.
Tomato care in the greenhouse
Before flowering, water the tomatoes at 4-5 days intervals, waiting for the topsoil to dry. When they begin to form the first ovary, you need to double the amount of water poured under each plant. The sweetest tomatoes can be obtained by watering the bushes rarely, but abundantly (up to 10 liters per 1 m 2). To prevent moisture condensation and drops on the leaves, watering should be done in the morning.
When flowering tomatoes, it is important to maintain the temperature in the range of 22-26 ° C. Too low values can cause late blight disease, and in case of heat of more than 30 ° C, pollen of tomatoes becomes sterile, and the formation of ovaries does not occur. The yield of tomatoes decreases very significantly.
Garter plants to the support begins shortly after disembarkation. To densely planted bushes do not interfere with each other, you need to tie each of them to the trellis twine. As the stem grows, all stepchildren are removed from it, and the plant is tied up until it reaches the top of the trellis. After that you can pinch the tip. This can both accelerate the ripening of the tomato, and allow the latter to grow until the end of the season. Even taken in an unripe form, they will be able to ripen in a box, although they will no longer be as sweet as those that had time to ripen in the hot sun.
Other tricks on how to accelerate the ripening of tomatoes in the greenhouse, is to stop watering, spraying the bushes with iodine solution (30-40 drops per 1 bucket of water) or removing flower brushes in the upper part of the bush. On low-growing varieties, it is possible to leave only 5-7 brushes with ovaries, and on tall varieties - 10-12 pieces. Reduce the speed of fruit loading and ripening and stepchildren. They need to be deleted. Particularly fast lateral shoots form yellow tomatoes, often because of this, their taste is also reduced.
Central Russia and Siberia are characterized by short summers with lots of cool and rainy days. This causes the collection of tomatoes unripened (brown), and most often even green, followed by ripening. With an unsuccessful summer season, part of the crop in such conditions is lost due to late blight or various rot. How to accelerate the ripening of tomatoes and get good yields, regardless of the vagaries of the weather? There is only one way out for a modern gardener: to provide tomatoes with a secure roof over their heads. Growing tomatoes in the greenhouse allows you not only to avoid problems, but also to get fully ripened fruits 2 weeks earlier than those of the earliest varieties in the open field.
Loamy or clayey. Therefore, the beds need peat, sawdust and humus. They make the soil lighter and looser, providing it with breathability,
. It is possible to ventilate the room in different ways: open all the vents, twist a part of the film, or open the ends. After watering, the greenhouse should be ventilated after about two hours, especially as the flowering period of the plant is concerned.
Transplanted tomatoes in the greenhouse around the beginning of May. Do not forget to cover them with a film so as not to injure the tomatoes by temperature changes. In the greenhouse, pre-open the vents, remove about 10 cm of soil left over from last year, and what remains is
Divided into furrows 1.5 cm
Before planting, it is advisable not to water the seedlings for 2-3 days. It will not be brittle and will receive additional hardening.
Caring for tomatoes in the greenhouse begins with the planting of prepared seedlings to the place of constant growth.
The soil for planting seedlings should be heated. It is impossible to plant tomatoes in a cold ground, because in this case the roots do not grow, but rot, the plant is worse Optimal. soil temperature is set at 12-15 ° C. In order to achieve this, it is necessary to cover the ground in advance with a black plastic film. In extreme cases, you can heat up a lot of hot water and pour it into the hole in front.
If you are going to grow tomatoes in a greenhouse in winter, then you need to take care of additional lighting. Without it, tomatoes will not bloom, and all the more they will not yield.
The second feeding will be in 10 days, and the third - 12 days after the second
The temperature of the soil for seedlings should be within 12-15 degrees
Peat. To make it heavy, they add sod land, sawdust and humus,
Also growing tomatoes in the greenhouse includes the following items:
Growing tomatoes in the greenhouse: videos and tips
Process the solution of copper sulfate
, Pour a solution of sodium humate and then sow the seedlings. Then finish the soil and put in a warm and bright place, a few days later the seedlings are covered with film.
Growing tomatoes in the greenhouse: videos and tips
Immediately after planting the tomatoes, it is necessary to conduct abundant watering. This is one of the important rules for caring for tomatoes in the greenhouse. It is necessary to create a contact of the roots with the soil. If this is not done, the plants can attach and then be ill for a long time, which ultimately will have a negative impact on yield.The further successful development of adult plants and the yield of tomato fruits depend on the quality of the planting performed in the ground.Planting seedlings too deep by planting; then, after all, the stem sprinkled with earth gives new roots, and the growth of the tomato stops. For someone who does this for the first time, you can both see how to plant tomatoes in a greenhouse on video.
Maintaining an optimum temperature and humidity conditions is the main condition for obtaining a generous harvest. Tomatoes are not afraid of drafts, so you need to ventilate in any way: open the side and upper vents, twist the film down, open the ends. Be sure to air the greenhouse 2 hours after watering. This is especially important during flowering, because wet pollen can not get into the pistil, so pollination will not occur. The temperature in the greenhouse on an overcast day should be 18-20 ° С, on a sunny day - 24-26 ° С, and at night - 15-16 ° С.
How to sow tomato seedlings on seedlings
Garden beds are prepared 10 days before the planting of tomato seedlings in the greenhouse. Soil need to loosen, remove weeds that appear, make humus. If the soil in the greenhouse is poor, then you need a glass of charcoal and 6-8 kg of humus per square meter, and if the soil is fertile, then 2-3 kg of humus will suffice. Remember that tomatoes in a greenhouse are best loamy or sandy, breathable soil...Chernozem. It is necessary to add sand and humus.Garter of tomatoes - they are tied up a few days after planting, so that tall plants do not break from the weight of the weight and do not rot. The tying material should not break or injure the stems; it is best to tie the tomatoes with linear or frame trellis,
At the rate of one tablespoon per 10 liters of water.
- Details of how seedlings are sown on tomatoes, you can see on the training video, but at this stage of work, consider the following:
- Further watering is carried out with the drying of the top layer of soil. The humidity level is kept at 85% of full capacity. The easiest method of determination is to compress the soil into a fist from a layer below 10 cm. If, after opening the palm, a non-dissolving lump forms and it is not smeared on the hands, then the humidity is optimal, watering is required when the lump is scattered.
- By transplanting, tomato must have the following parameters:
- Do not overdo it with nitrogen. Many people fill the planting holes with fresh, chicken droppings or urea. Such efforts can lead to the fact that beautiful instead of juicy fruits get lush carefully.
- Garter plants
- When planting tomato seedlings in a greenhouse you need to remember a few simple but important rules.
- If the seedlings are strong, the soil is clean, diseases and pests should bypass tomatoes. But sometimes such a nuisance happens. Medvedka, whitefly, and wireworms are considered common pests, and late blight, various types of rot and cracks in fruits are common diseases.
- The wells before planting watered with plenty of water. They should be 25 centimeters deep. Seedlings should be planted vertically. Sleep it in such a way that the earth reached the first leaves, but not higher. If overgrown seedlings are planted, then for this they make a hole twice as large as usual, put a plant in there and cover the roots with earth. Well do not fall asleep until the end. When the bush takes root, the land is filled.
- In addition, the soil is saturated with fertilizers. Add 1 teaspoon of saltpeter and 3 tablespoons of superphosphate per square meter of soil, carefully dig and loosen, then form the beds.
Stepson - this is the name of the process of pulling out stepsons, this is how lateral shoots on tomatoes are called. Masking should be carried out in the morning to wound dried,Planting tomatoes two seasons in a row in the same greenhouse cannot prevent old infections from affecting the new planting. In winter, when planting, take care of lighting that simulates sunlight.Before planting do not forget to warm the soil
- On hot days in the summer, daily watering is sometimes necessary or even twice a day.
- Plant height 25-35 cm
- Examine the plant tops, remove the diseased and yellow leaves, and when planting, remove the cotyledon which leaves are at ground level or Planting.
- The obligatory is the garter of tomatoes in the greenhouse, which is produced 3-4 days after planting. It is necessary so that tall plants do not break under the weight of their weight, do not rot the fruit. The main condition - the material for the garter should not injure the stem of a tomato. In a greenhouse, linear or frame tapestries are used for garters.
Greenhouse preparation and tomato planting algorithm
The soil for planting seedlings should be heated. It is impossible to plant tomatoes in a cold ground, because in this case the roots do not grow, but rot, the plant takes root worse. The optimum temperature of the soil is 12-15 ° C. To achieve this, you need to pre-cover the ground with black plastic wrap. In extreme cases, you can heat a lot of hot water and pour it into the well before planting.Fruits crack not because of diseases, but because of excessive soil moisture. Therefore, seedlings can not be poured.The first time they water it only after 12 days.
Only quality seeds are suitable for seedlings. They should not be empty, damaged or showing signs of illness.
Top dressing - top dressing after planting tomatoes is made for the first time in about two weeks. To make it, you need a tablespoon of nitrophoska, 0.5 liters of liquid mullein and 10 liters of water. Each plant must be treated with a liter of mixture. The second dressing is made 10 days later, for its preparation you will need a teaspoon of potassium sulfate, a tablespoon of fertilizer for fertility per 10 liters of water. Total dressing should be carried out up to 4 times per season.10 days before planting tomatoes prepare the beds
Do not plant tomatoes on cold ground, otherwise the roots will rot,
Excessive overflow of soil is detrimental to the roots, so when the weather is cool, watering should be carried out no more than once every 3-4 days.The presence of the first bud (possibly the opening of the first flower),Below the tomatoes in the greenhouse is produced in the evening or on a cloudy day in the pre-moistened Can. the soil for disinfection the day before shed strong holes with a hot solution of potassium permanganate.
So they tie up tomatoes in the greenhouse using linear trellisНельзя сажать рассаду слишком глубоко, ведь тогда стебель, присыпанный землей, дает новые корни, а рост помидора приостанавливается. Для тех, кто делает это впервые, можно посмотреть, как высаживать томаты в теплице на видео.Чтобы помидоры росли правильно, необходимо:
Как правильно ухаживать за помидорами в теплице
Чтобы вырастить хорошую рассаду, начинают с высеивания семян:
Если вы будете следовать вышеуказанным советам по выращиванию помидоров в теплице, то ваш урожай будет богатым и качественным. You can always please your relatives and friends with delicious tomatoes.: Loosen it and remove weeds.Observe the temperature regime of about 15 degrees, covered the ground with a film of polyethylene,
When planting seedlings at the bottom of the hole it is necessary to pour the starting fertilizer. To do this, use 20 g of nitroammofoski content N16P16K16. The roots should not be in contact with the pellets due to the risk of burns, so they are mixed with the soil.Dark green color of shoots and leavesIf you are interested in how tomatoes are grown in a greenhouse, you need to know their particular features. Usually. planting beds break along, their width should be 60-90 cm. The number will depend on the width of the greenhouse itself. Between the beds make the passage of 60-70 cm. Planting Scheme of tomatoes in the greenhouse is determined by the variety and the formation method of the plant.
- Do not overdo it with nitrogen. Many fill the planting holes with fresh manure, chicken droppings or urea. Such efforts can lead to the fact that instead of beautiful juicy fruits get lush tops.
- Enough to saturate them with nutrients
- The distance between the bushes should be 60 centimeters,
For polycarbonate greenhouses, seeds are sown in the last days of February - early March,
Features of planting a tomato in a greenhouse
Tomatoes are good for the human body. But in order to plant, grow and harvest, you need to invest a lot of energy. This does not mean that the tomato - a capricious plant, on the contrary. The Colorado potato beetle does not bypass it, and under favorable weather conditions, the crop of tomatoes can completely destroy the phytophthora fungus. Therefore, gardeners prefer to grow tomatoes in the greenhouse. It will more reliably protect them from various diseases and pests, and alsoProcess with humus. If the soil is too pale, then charcoal should be added to the humus. For the cultivation of tomatoes, it is best for the soil to be loamy and breathable.Do not plant tomato seedlings deeply so that the growth of tomatoes slows,
Do not overheat or fill with water
And between the rows - 80 centimetersFor film greenhouses - at the end of the first decade of March.The harvest in such conditions will be 2 times larger
Breaking beds before planting
Do not use fertilizer nitrogen or do not overdo it,
- Caring for tomatoes during a massive opening of buds includes operations that improve the formation of ovaries. Tomatoes have self-pollinating flowers. To pollen spill out and hit the pistil enough to gently shake the tomato plant. This operation is performed in the morning on a sunny day.
- Presence of at least 7 well developed true leaves,
- Determinant and standard tomatoes with 1 stem are planted. Between the rows can be 45-50 cm, and between plants - 25-30. It is very important with such a landing scheme to prevent thickening.
Tomatoes must always remove the side shoots - stepchildren
How to grow seedlings
Planting tomatoes in the greenhouse is made in the evening or on a cloudy day in the pre-moistened soil. It is possible for disinfection the day before to shed the holes with a strong hot solution of potassium permanganate.
- . More distance contributes to the growth of the bush and lower yields, and less - the emergence of cramped.
- Soil should be used such as in the greenhouse, so that the transplanted plants adapt quickly. So that the seedlings do not stretch out and be strong, they are used before the glow, because tomatoes like a long day of light.
, And tomatoes ripen earlier for 2-3 weeks than in open ground.Along the width of the order of 90 cmWells can be filled with natural organic fertilizer,
How to prepare for planting seedlings in the greenhouse
During airing, insects fly into the greenhouse and help the flowers to pollinate. Bumblebees do it very well. You can put a hive with bumblebees in the greenhouse to increase fruit stitchiness.
The root system completely entangles the substrate lump and has only white live roots.Tall varieties planted tomatoes, too, in a checkerboard pattern. The distance between the rows should be 75-80 cm, and between plants 60-70 cm.Top dressing
By meeting all the simple requirements for planting and care, you will get a rich harvest
Use the right lighting.Low-growing varieties are staggered. High varieties are planted in two rows.Seedlings should be 25-30 centimeters long
When preparing a polycarbonate greenhouse, it will be sufficient to wipe the walls and check that the ventilation is working.
, The passage between the beds is about 70 cm. The characteristics of planting tomatoes depend on their variety. So, undersized and early ripening varieties need to be planted in two rows in a chess way. But standard tomatoes should be planted with thicker beds. See what it looks like personally, you can on video.Do not forget to remove the yellow and diseased leaves on the plant, immediately remove the cotyledon leaves,Observing all the described rules for caring for tomatoes in the greenhouse, you can get a bountiful harvest of delicious tomatoes.
It is necessary to plant in a specific pattern, which depends on the characteristics of the cultivated variety. When planted planting plants will shade each other, stretch, which will lead to a susceptibility to the development of diseases and lower yields. If the seedlings are very sparse, the greenhouse area will not be used, which will lead to a shortage of the total crop.Special attention should be paid to overgrown seedlings. It should be planted as follows: make a hole in the soil at 12 cm, and in it still one hole deeper, like a height at a time a pot with seedlings. First you need to plant a pot with a plant in the second (deep) well and sprinkle it with earth. But after two weeks, when the seedlings take root, to fall asleep with the ground like that. well, the method is much more efficient than the usual deep planting, because as soon as the plant is sprinkled with earth, additional roots appear on the long stem of the tomato. As a result, growth stops, flowers fall.After 10-15 days from the date of planting in the greenhouse, you need to make the first feeding. To do this, 10 liters of water take 1st. spoon nitrophoska and half a liter of liquid mullein. Under each plant you need to pour 1 l of this mixture. The second feeding of tomatoes in the greenhouse is made after 10 days. To do this in 10 liters of water dissolve 1 tsp of potassium sulfate and 1ST. spoon fertilizer "Fertility". For the season will require 3-4 dressing.
If you are interested in growing tomatoes in a greenhouse, you need to know the characteristics of their planting. Usually the beds are broken along, their width should be 60-90 cm. The number will depend on the width of the greenhouse itself. Between the beds make the passage of 60-70 cm. The scheme of planting tomatoes in the greenhouse is determined by the variety and method of plant formation.To get a full harvest, you need to know how to plant tomatoes in the greenhouse. Planting tomatoes in the greenhouse begins with seedlings. Its cultivation is the most significant stage in the process of growing tomatoes. For the harvest to be good, the seedlings must be healthy and well developed.Seedlings are watered a week after planting, because there is enough moisture in the soil. Then you can not overfill the plants too much, they can rot.
If the greenhouse film, then by planting seedlings need to be well prepared. This is necessary due to the fact that in May they begin to grow tomatoes, and the fluctuations in day and night temperatures are very significant. To ensure optimal temperature in the greenhouse, it is covered in two layers of polyethylene film. With this
Tomato care rules
Tomatoes planted in the greenhouse should be
- Plant tomatoes in the greenhouse need in the evening or in cloudy weather,
- When spring comes, every experienced gardener knows well that it is time to get to work related to the cultivation of vegetables and fruits. Today we will learn what is the process of growing tomatoes in a greenhouse, a video of this process will also be available in the article.
- Therefore, it is necessary to choose the optimal landing pattern and it is recommended to use the following parameters:
- It often happens that vegetable growers in their little greenhouse try to plant as many varieties of tomatoes as possible. Doing this is not, after all, it is worthwhile to achieve in this case whether it is hardly possible to get a heavy yield. But to make fun of exactly the plants will turn out: cramped conditions, lack of distribution, light diseases, difficult ventilation. Better is better and less.
- Plant nutrition is done 3-4 times per season.
- Low-growing early ripening varieties, in which 2-3 stalks are formed, are planted in 2 rows in a checkerboard pattern. Between the rows 55-60 cm, and the distance between the tomatoes in the greenhouse - 35-40cm.
- Thus, the correct planting of tomatoes provides a good harvest. We must approach this with full responsibility, because any mistake entails a decrease in yield.
Caring for tomatoes in the greenhouse is as follows:
Feeding and Diseases Tomato
In order for tomatoes to grow well in a greenhouse, it must be constantly in the sun. Shadow can have a bad effect on yield.There should be a small distance between the layersFrom each other at a distance of 35 cm
For disinfecting the wells for seeding, you can use a hot solution of potassium permanganate.
The generous harvest of tomatoes begins with the greenhouse, long before all sorts of field work. To get it, you need to prepare the seeds, garden beds, sanitize the greenhouse, grow seedlings, water it properly and much more.
Early ripe determinant varieties with 2-3 stems are planted according to the 60x40 cm scheme.
- Proper care of plants is the basis of the future harvest. It must begin immediately after planting the greenhouse in seedlings. Here are the basic steps to care for the greenhouse in tomatoes.
- Strictly adhering to the advice, you can grow a good crop of tomatoes in your greenhouse and make everyone home fresh in the summer, and in the winter a jar of pickled tomatoes.
- Determinant and standard tomatoes with one stem are planted thicker. Between the rows can be 45-50 cm, and between plants - 25-30. It is very important with such a landing pattern to prevent thickening.
- First, you need to prepare the seed. If the seeds are coated (brightly colored), then they do not need to be processed. Untreated seeds should be placed for 20 minutes in a solution of Fitosporin-M (prepared according to the instructions). Rinse them after treatment is not necessary. After they can be held in a solution of growth stimulant and sown in the prepared soil.
Watering on time
Beds for tomatoes make the entire length of the greenhouse.
Tomato seed treatment before sowing
Caring for tomatoes in the greenhouse starts from the seed treatment period so that the crop can withstand viral diseases. To do this, apply the treatment with potassium permanganate, which is performed before germination and includes the following steps:
- preparation of a special solution - 1 g of money is taken for a glass of water,
- a gauze bag is taken, seeds are laid in there, dipped in a solution,
- after 20 minutes, the seeds are washed with clean running water.
This treatment helps the simultaneous rapid emergence of seeds, strong growth of bushes. After treatment with potassium permanganate it is useful to sow the seeds with useful substances, which is carried out according to the following technology:
- prepare a solution of 1 liter of warm water with 1 tablespoon of fertilizer (ash, nitrophoska, sodium humate),
- a container is taken, a bag of seeds is laid in there for 12 hours at a temperature not lower than 25 degrees,
- after taking out the dishes are taken with clean water, the bag is put in there for a day.
Such care is useful for short growing varieties, together with tempering, when the bag is placed on the shelf of the refrigerator for 2 days at a temperature not lower than 1 degree. During the time it takes, the seeds must be constantly sprayed with water so that the bag does not dry out, but should be planted immediately after hardening. Soaking and hardening is not necessary for seeds of hybrid and varieties with high stems.
Compliance with temperature
Caring for tomatoes in the greenhouse involves careful monitoring of the temperature at all stages:
- when sown, seeds are watered with warm (up to 40 degrees) solution of sodium humate,
- when germinating seeds, the surrounding air must be heated to 23 degrees,
- the room for aging seedlings before planting should have a daytime temperature of up to 17 degrees, and a nighttime temperature should be up to 14,
- when it reaches a street temperature of 12 degrees during the day, the seedlings shall be carried out on the porch to harden.
Watering tomatoes in the greenhouse
- At all stages of caring for tomatoes, except for planting seeds, they need watering:
- seedlings are watered three times during the entire growth period - after emergence, after 2 weeks and a couple of hours before transplanting,
- 10 days after the disembarkation of the seedlings it is watered,
- watering should be carried out after pollination by pollen and before the beginning of active flowering with the calculation of 5 liters per square meter,
- when flowers are formed, irrigation and the amount of water increases by 300%,
- competent watering of a polycarbonate greenhouse is carried out in the morning to prevent the creation of excessive moisture, and the water itself flows under the root so that the leaves do not get wet.
Formation of tomatoes in the greenhouse
Due to the fact that the summer is short, all the ovaries of the tomatoes do not have time to form the fruit, so you need to limit them. To do this, pasynkovanie and scraping. The first procedure involves the removal of secondary shoots between the sinuses, and the second - pinching the tips to stop the growth up and obstacles to the creation of new shoots. Each of the processes of care has its own nuances.
How to care for tomatoes in the greenhouse
To know all the nuances of how to care for tomatoes in the greenhouse, you must consult the advice of experienced gardeners. They recommend caring for seedlings and bushes:
- the seeds are sown without watering in a glass or plastic box, and the location is chosen warm and well lit,
- seedlings should gain strength, not grow high, so the temperature regime is observed for it,
- seedling spikes and feeds,
- the distance between the bushes is doing enough for growth to occur without problems,
- bushes after disembarking in the greenhouse subjected to garter, feed and water.
How often should water the tomatoes in the greenhouse
When organizing the care of tomatoes, many people ask how to water the tomatoes in the greenhouse and how often to do it. Gardeners recommend watering the bushes every 6 days with a moderate amount of moisture after planting and flowering. Water can not be cold, it should be poured carefully under the root so that the soil does not erode, and the leaves with fruits do not spoil. To avoid the greenhouse effect, the greenhouse should be optimally ventilated. With the active ripening of the fruit, the bushes are watered twice or three times a week.
How to feed tomatoes in the greenhouse
Application of useful fertilizers is otherwise called top dressing and is done so that the plants grow strong, are resistant to diseases, and the fruits ripen on time and in the right amount. It is better to combine top dressing with watering and to carry out three times - 3 weeks after the bushes disembark, then another after the same time and the last time - after 2 weeks. For the care they use organic fertilizers or their mineral types.
Masking of tomatoes in the greenhouse
To care for tomatoes in the greenhouse refers to pasynkovanie - removal of secondary shoots from the sinuses, which is necessary to prevent the formation of new ovaries and the formation of fruits from existing ones. His proper conduct involves the removal of stepsons, which are all but the main stem. The first time pasynkovanie held in 2 weeks from the moment the seedlings emerge, then - every 10 days. To the new broken stalk site does not grow a new one, you need to leave a couple of centimeters old. Properly processed stem has no more than 4 floral brushes.
How to dive tomatoes
Transplanting each tomato bush from a 100-ml container into a separate pot with a half-liter volume is called a pick. It is carried out 10 days from the beginning of shoots, so as not to damage the small root. Literate transplantation involves watering for 2 hours, taking out shoots and picking up a large pot, re-watering. The second method of picking is transshipment, when a few days before transplanting the bush ceases to be watered, due to which the earth dries out and gets freely from the pot. After transshipment, the plant should be moderately watered so that it will stick better.
Sowing tomato seeds for seedlings ↑
Also on the video you can see that the tomato seedlings
In the video you can learn in detail how to grow tomatoes in the greenhouse. And the process begins with the preparation of seed. If you took
Determinant tomatoes with 1 main stem are planted closer - 50x30 cm.
Selection, sorting and preparation of tomato seeds for sowing in seedlings is the first stage of growing greenhouse tomatoes. If the seeds were sold without a shell, then they should be prepared by soaking the seeds in the solution of Fitosporin diluted according to the attached instructions.
After treatment with phytosporin, wash the seeds is not necessary. Если есть возможность, можно замочить семена в одном из стимуляторов роста, которые имеются в широкой продаже. После обработки семян стимулятором роста, семена высевают в питательную смесь.
Питательную смесь начинают готовить с начала февраля до конца марта. Оптимальный период посадки семян томатов на рассаду именно февраль-март. Поздние сорта помидоров высевают пораньше, в феврале, сорта среднеспелые — в начале марта, раннеспелые сорта помидоров — в конце марта.
Посев семян на рассаду и уход за сеянцами томатов
Having dealt with the varieties of tomatoes, sorted them by the rate of aging, begin sowing seeds for seedlings. Tomatoes begin their journey in containers or boxes for seedlings with a height of 5-10 cm.
It is better to buy the nutritional mixture ready-made, since manufacturers offer carefully selected formulations, specifically for tomatoes, peppers and eggplants. If it is decided to prepare the nutrient mixture independently, then the composition of the soil is recommended by the following: peat, humus and sod land in equal shares (1: 1: 1).
The prepared nutritious mix is moistened, adding river sand, at the rate of 1 liter of river sand on 10 liters of ready nutritious mix. Superphosphate and wood ash are added to the mixture - one tablespoon and mixed thoroughly.
The depth of sowing tomato seeds is 1-1.5 cm. Before sowing, you can pour the bottom of the grooves with a warm solution of sodium humate to accelerate the seedlings. After sowing, the soil is slightly compacted and watered well with warm water.
The seed box is transferred to a warm, bright place. Ambient temperature within + 22-25 ° C. For greater importance and speed of emergence of seedlings, containers with tomato seeds are covered with a film, creating greenhouse conditions.
A pick of tomato seedlings is made when tomatoes have two real leaves (not to be confused with cotyledon leaves). Usually, two true leaves grow on the 10th day after germination.
The seedling is ready for planting in the greenhouse. Photo: University of Vermont
The essence of the picking is transplanting seedlings into spacious cups, usually each tomato seedling gets a “separate apartment” in a new peat pot or cube. When transplanting, try not to damage the earthy clod formed at the roots of the seedling.
Duration of growing seedlings at home 40-50 days. During this time, tomato seedlings have time to vymahat up to 30 cm in height. Tomato seedlings are drawn out if the temperature is low and the lighting is poor. By maintaining sufficient lighting and turning the seedlings daily, the other side to the window, you can not worry about excessive length.
Before planting seedlings in the greenhouse, begin hardening, 10 days before transplanting. For hardening, seedlings are carried out to a balcony or veranda, and a window or window is left open.
By the time of transplanting the seedlings, the greenhouse must be fully prepared: the ground has been renewed, the walls and ceilings of the greenhouse have been disinfected with copper sulphate, the film or glass has been repaired, and the end walls are provided with air vents for ventilation.
Tomato seedlings are planted in the greenhouse at the beginning of May - at this time night frosts are possible, which means it will not damage the second film layer in the upper part of the greenhouse. This will increase the temperature inside and increase the life of the inner layer.
Tomatoes need good ventilation, unlike cucumbers, so without window vents your seedlings will be covered with rot from dampness. Tomatoes need good ventilation, which is why it is impossible to grow tomatoes and cucumbers in the same greenhouse.
The old soil layer is cut with a shovel to a depth of 10-15 cm, and the underlying layers are disinfected with fungicides. It is impossible to plant tomatoes in the same soil two or more times in a row - the soil under the tomatoes accumulates diseases and pests that will gladly be moved to fresh tomatoes.
Before planting seedlings in the greenhouse, prepare ridges, remove weeds and introduce humus. The poor soil is fertilized at the rate of 8-10 kg of humus and one glass of wood ash per 1 m 2. Rich soil requires 2-3 kg of humus. The best soil for the greenhouse is sandy or loamy, light and permeable.
When year-round, including winter, growing tomatoes in the greenhouse install additional lighting with barium lamps and do heating. Without additional lighting with phytolamps, it is very difficult to achieve harvest due to the short daylight hours. Without heating you can also not dream of red tomatoes.
Rules for planting tomato seedlings in the greenhouse
By following the simple rules of planting tomato seedlings in a greenhouse, you can protect plants from disease and death:
- Warm soil. The soil for tomato seedlings should be warm, heated. Tomato seedlings should not be planted in cold soil. If you plant seedlings in cold soil, the roots will not grow and rot, the plants will not take root. The soil for tomatoes should be warm - the optimum temperature is + 15-18 ° C. It is possible to heat the ground with the help of a black film, before covering the bed with it. If you can not wait, you can pour the ground with hot water.
- Plant finely. Tomato seedlings should not be buried, the stem sprinkled with soil begins to take root, and the growth of the seedling is inhibited. Optimal planting depth at the old root neck level.
- Be careful with fertilizers. Nitrogen fertilizers before planting tomatoes can not be applied. Fresh manure, bird droppings and urea cause the growth of foliage, but not fruit.
- Take care of the plants. Regularly inspect tomatoes growing in the greenhouse and remove diseased leaves and branches. It is recommended to remove seedbed leaves when planting to prevent rot.
- Plant sprouts in the evening. Evening time is the best time to transplant seedlings in the greenhouse. If it is not possible to land in the evening, land on an overcast day.
The layout of the tomatoes in the greenhouse
Greenhouse beds should have a width of 60-90 cm with a longitudinal arrangement. The number of ridges depends on the width of your greenhouse. The passage between the beds should be 50-70 cm wide. The larger and more spreading the tomato variety, the wider the paths should be.
The following tomato planting schemes are recommended:
- Undersized varieties staggered in 2 rows. The distance between the rows is 50-60 cm, the distance by neighboring plants is 30-40 cm.
- Determinant and Standard Grades Tomatoes are planted thicker: the width between plants is 20-30 cm, and between rows - 40-50 cm.
- Tall varieties Tomatoes are planted with chess, leaving a distance of 60–70 cm between adjacent bushes, 70–80 cm wide between the rows.
Overgrown tomato seedlings are planted in a greenhouse in a special way. In the soil they make holes 10-15 cm deep, and in this hole one more hole is deeper. Overgrowths are planted in a deep hole and sprinkled with earth, leaving the first well not covered. After the seedlings take root, the first hole is covered with soil. This method is very effective.
Do not try to grow in the same greenhouse too many tomatoes of different varieties. Thickening is the cause of disease and poor growth of tomatoes. Instead of a big harvest, you get sick plants.
Tomato care in the greenhouse
Caring for tomatoes in the greenhouse is a regular watering of plants, airing, pasynkovane, garter long stalks and feeding.
- How to water the tomatoes in the greenhouse. In the first days after transplanting seedlings, tomatoes are not watered. After 10 days, when the tomatoes take root begin to water with warm water, the water temperature is not below +20 ° C. The optimum water temperature is + 22-25 ° C. Before flowering, tomatoes are watered every 4-5 days, the rate of water consumption is 5 liters per 1 m 2. During flowering watered in an amount of 10-13 liters per 1 m 2. Watered in the morning at the root.
- Airing - prevention of disease. Draft - a friend of tomatoes, they do not rot and do not get sick. To ventilate the greenhouse it is necessary to open the vents, twist the film, or open the ends of the greenhouse. It is recommended to ventilate the greenhouse 2 hours after watering. During flowering, airing is vital - wet pollen will not fall into the pestle, so the plant is not pollinated. The optimum temperature in a tomato greenhouse on a cloudy day is + 18-20 ° C, on a sunny day - + 24-26 ° C, and at night - + 15-16 ° C.
- Garter long stalks. Tomato stalks are tied up so that tall plants do not break under the weight of their weight and do not rot tomatoes. In the greenhouse it is recommended to tie tomatoes on the trellis.
- Pinching and slicing tomatoes. The butchers cause branching of the bush - it obscures the bush, spreads diseases and increases the ripening period of tomatoes. The ladders break out in the morning by hand.
- Top dressing with fertilizers. The first feeding of tomatoes in the greenhouse is done two weeks after transplanting the seedlings. The recipe of the first feeding: for 10 liters of water take 1 tbsp. l nitrophosphate and half a liter of liquid mullein. Under each bush pour 1 liter of the mixture. The second feeding is performed 10 days after the first - 10 liters of water is dissolved 1 tsp. potassium sulfate and 1 tbsp. l complex fertilizer. During the season, perform three or four feeding.
I wish to grow a big crop of greenhouse tomatoes!
Greenhouses for tomatoes.
Besides the fact that you will have early vegetables on the table, growing tomatoes in the greenhouse also has the advantage of a richer crop than in the open field, due to the protection of plants from frost and rain. But in order to create optimal conditions for the growth and development of tomatoes, it is necessary to properly equip the greenhouse and prepare the soil.
The greenhouse for tomatoes can be film, glass or polycarbonate, and each of these materials has its advantages and disadvantages. And yet, from our point of view, polycarbonate greenhouse is more preferable than glass or film. The frame of the greenhouse is best made of aluminum, because it is lightweight and does not rust.
Tomatoes require a lot of light, and when choosing a place under the greenhouse you need to take this into account, because if the lighting is weak, you will have to plant bushes at a considerable distance from each other to avoid shading, which means that you will have fewer tomatoes or you will have to make a big greenhouse .
Vegetable growers who want to grow tomatoes all year round should be equipped with a heating system - electric, gas, air or steam. The stove heating will cost the least - a boiler that is heated with wood. Gas heating involves the constant ventilation of the greenhouse, while electric will cost more than any other heating.
As for watering tomatoes, it is best to install a drip system, using tape or leading dropper to each plant. Special controllers can adjust watering automatically.
It is very important to equip a greenhouse with good ventilation, so it is advisable to make several large windows in it, opening which you can save the plants from stuffiness and contribute to their successful pollination. Typically, the vents are located at the top and bottom of the greenhouse.
If you already have a greenhouse, and she is not one year old, you should disinfect the room before planting tomatoes. Wood-frame greenhouses fumigate with sulfur. To do this, they close up all the cracks and holes in the greenhouse, lay metal sheets on the floor, put sulfur mixed with kerosene on them and set fire to them. In a tightly closed greenhouse, sulfur should smolder for 5 days, destroying harmful insects, fungi, bacteria, mold and other infections. In greenhouses with a metal frame, sulfur cannot be burned, because it causes metal corrosion, therefore disinfection is carried out by treatment with a solution of bleach: 400 g of bleach is dissolved in 10 liters of water, infused for 4-5 hours, sprayed with a chlorine composition inside the greenhouse, and then tightly closed room for 2-3 days.
After processing the greenhouse is well ventilated and thoroughly cleaned with brushes. The metal parts are boiled over and the wooden parts are rubbed with a solution of copper sulfate.
Sowing tomato seeds for seedlings.
Tomatoes are grown in a seedling way. You can sow tomato seeds for the greenhouse for seedlings at home, and you can immediately grow seedlings in the greenhouse. The optimal period for sowing seeds for seedlings is from the beginning of February to the end of March: late varieties sow in February, mid-ripening in March, and early ones in late March. Before sowing seeds of tomatoes must be processed. The coated seeds (brightly colored) do not need to be treated - they are already ready for sowing. Unduected seeds are immersed for 20 minutes in a solution of Fitosporin-M prepared according to the manufacturer's instructions, after which they are placed in a bag of cloth and dipped for 20 minutes in a growth stimulator solution (a quarter of a teaspoon of sodium humate powder is diluted in 1 l of water). Then the seeds are sown in a light, loose soil - ready-made mixture from the store of "Living Earth" or "Tomato and Pepper". Suitable for the cultivation of tomato seedlings also humus or sod land.
In the soil they make grooves with a depth of 1-1.5 cm at a distance of 5-7 cm from each other, spill them with warm water, spread seeds in them at 1.5-2 cm intervals, close them up, cover them with film or glass and place them in light a place. The box must be installed on a stand so that air can penetrate to the root system of seedlings from below. The room temperature at this stage should be 22-24 ºC.
Growing tomato seedlings in the greenhouse.
Under optimal conditions, tomato seeds germinate within a week, and with the advent of seedlings, the crop can be removed. The first three weeks, the seedlings grow very slowly, the next 15-20 days, the growth of the seedlings leaves is markedly accelerated, and after 35-40 days from the moment of emergence, the seedlings reach a decent height and significant leaf size. Now the main task is to prevent the seedlings from stretching too much, and for this it is necessary to organize the maximum lighting for it. In addition, the crops should be rotated 180 º daily - the seedlings should be evenly illuminated.
As for the temperature of the content, the first week after the emergence of shoots it is maintained at 16-18 ºC during the day and 13-15 ºC at night, and then increased to 18-20 ºC during the day and 15-16 ºC at night. This temperature is maintained until the seedlings develop 2-3 true leaves.
During this period of time, seedlings are watered only 2 or three times - with low natural light in March, moderate watering does not allow the seedlings to stretch too much. The first watering is carried out as soon as the seedlings appear, a second time in a week or two, and the third - three hours before picking. Moisturize seedlings under the root with water at a temperature of 20 ºC.
Before planting in the greenhouse, seedlings are not fed. When the seedlings grow 2-3 true leaflets, they dive into 8x8 cm pots filled with the same soil mixture as for sowing seeds, then watered with potassium permanganate solution, dissolving 0.5 g of the drug in 10 liters of water. During the picking, sick and weak seedlings are rejected. If the seedlings had time to stretch too much, you can deepen their stem a little, but not to the very cotyledon leaves. The first days after transplantation, seedlings are kept at a temperature of 20-22 ºC during the day and 16-18 ºC at night, and when it takes root, the daytime temperature can be reduced to 18-20 ºC and the night temperature to 15-16 ºC. Watering is carried out once a week.
Two weeks after the picking, the first feeding of the seedlings is carried out - a tablespoon of Nitrophos is dissolved in 10 liters of water. Fertilizer consumption - one glass of solution for two plants.
If there is a tendency to stretch or overgrow the seedlings, after 3-3.5 weeks, transplant the seedlings into pots of 12x12 or 15x15 cm, trying not to bury them during transplantation. Immediately water the seedlings with water at a temperature of 22 ºC, and then water it no more than once a week. Transplantation inhibits the growth of seedlings and contributes to the development of a strong root system in seedlings. After two weeks, feed the seedlings with a solution of 1 tablespoon of superphosphate and the same amount of fertilizer Signor Tomato in 10 liters of water at the rate of one cup of solution for each seedling. And after another two weeks, fertilize with a solution of a tablespoon of Nitrophoska in 10 liters of water at the rate of 1 cup per plant. Top dressing combine with watering seedlings. If the soil in the pots has subsided, add some soil to the seedlings.
In April-May, seedlings begin to harden, opening the window for a while in the room. Every day the duration of the hardening session increases, but in no case do not allow the formation of drafts in the room. On warm days, seedlings can be taken out on the balcony for a couple of hours. Hardened seedlings acquire a bluish-purple hue. Make sure that during the tempering sessions the soil is wet, otherwise the seedlings will wilt.
When to plant tomatoes in the greenhouse.
By the time the seedlings are transplanted into the greenhouse, they should reach a height of 25-35 cm, they should have from 8 to 12 developed leaves and one or two formed inflorescences. The best seedlings are those who are 50 days old. 2-3 days before planting, 2-3 lower leaves are removed from seedlings, leaving 1.5-2 cm long stumps from them. This measure reduces the likelihood of developing diseases, and also contributes to good air circulation and allows the seedlings to receive uniform illumination.
In glass heated greenhouses, seedlings are planted at the very end of April or early May, in greenhouses without heating, but with an additional film coating - in the first decade of May, in cold greenhouses without additional shelter - in the second decade of May, and under the film coating in the open ground - at the very end of May or at the beginning of June. The main condition that must be met: the soil temperature in the beds at a depth of 20 cm should not be below 13 ºC, and the air temperature should be in the range of 20-25 ºC.
Soil for greenhouse tomatoes.
It is advisable to change the soil in the greenhouse every five years - during this period, despite the fertilizer applied, the soil is greatly depleted. At the same time, in each off-season, the ground should be disinfected with a one-percent solution of Bordeaux mixture, copper sulfate or dolomite flour at the rate of 50 g per m².
Beds for early tomatoes are prepared in the fall. Можно проложить под грунт дополнительное утепление – настелить слой хвои, опилок или соломы толщиной 10 см, сверху поместить десятисантиметровый слой компоста, а только потом уложить грунт. Оптимальная высота грядки 30-40 см.For the cultivation of tomatoes, humus or turfy soil is suitable, into which 3 tablespoons of double granulated superphosphate, 1 tablespoon of potassium magnesia and potassium sulfate, a teaspoon of sodium nitrate or urea and one and a half cups of wood ash are added to a 1 m² digging. In loamy or clayey soil, in addition to these fertilizers, it is advisable to deposit one m² of a bucket of sawdust, humus and peat. Peat soil is improved by adding, besides fertilizer, for each m² a bucket of sod land, humus, fine shavings or sawdust and half a bucket of coarse sand.
How to plant tomatoes in the greenhouse.
Low-growing early ripening varieties of tomatoes, formed in 2-3 stems, are planted in a checkerboard pattern, observing the distance between bushes of 35-40 cm with row spacing of 50-55 cm.
Determinant and standard types are planted at a distance of 20 cm between bushes with row-spacings in width 45-50 cm. Such a planting scheme will allow placing up to 10 bushes on one m².
It is also better to plant giant varieties, which are desirable to form in two stems, in a checkerboard pattern, observing an interval of 55-60 cm between bushes, and between rows - 75-80 cm.
There is a universal scheme that allows you to grow different varieties of tomatoes in the same greenhouse. Planted tomatoes in two rows:
- - Place the first row closer to the glass or film. In the first row with an interval of 35-40 cm, determinant early maturing varieties, formed into one stem, are planted,
- - In the second row, which is closer to the aisle, tall varieties, formed into one stem, are planted at intervals of 60 cm. In the same row, superdeterminant stemta forms formed in one stem are placed near the giants, placing them at a distance of 25 cm from each other. When a second sprout appears on these tomatoes, it needs to be pinched, leaving only 2-3 leaves. As long as the giant varieties ripen, the standard will begin to bear fruit.
Such a scheme will allow you to grow up to 50 early shoots, 40 determinant bushes and 20 giants in a greenhouse in one greenhouse.
Choose a warm but not hot day, make the wells about 15 cm deep and spill them with a solution of potassium permanganate with a temperature of 50-60 ºC (dissolve 1 g of potassium permanganate in 10 liters of water), spending 1-1.5 liters per well. Instead of potassium permanganate, it is possible to dissolve 0.25 l of drug Barrier in 10 liters of water and spend half a liter of this solution per well. Replant the seedlings directly into the liquid dirt together with the earthy clod, and if they ripen in peat pots, then plant the seedlings in the holes directly into them. If the seedlings have outgrown, no need to lay them at an angle - this is a common mistake. It is better to dig another hole in the depth of the hole in the height of the pot or ground coma of the seedling. Place the seedling in the bottom well and seal it. In a couple of weeks, when the seedlings are already established in the lower hole, it will be possible to cover the upper soil with soil.
Seedlings are planted in such a way that the inflorescences of the seedlings are turned into the aisle, then when ripe, the fruits will not be shaded by leaves. After planting, dig up small holes between the seedlings, in which it will be convenient to feed in the form of solutions, compact the soil around the seedlings and grumble the surface of the beds.
How to grow tomatoes in the greenhouse.
It is better not to disturb the seedlings of tomatoes for a few days, and after 5-6 days you should carefully loosen the soil to ensure air access to the roots of the seedlings. At the same time with the planting of seedlings, it is desirable to set up supports on the garden bed to which you will tie up the growing bushes. To tie up tomatoes, you can use pegs and trellis.
Metal rods, trimming fittings, plastic pipes of small diameter or wooden slats are suitable as pegs. The length of the pegs should exceed the bush by 25-30 cm - it is at such a depth that the stakes are driven into the ground. Place the stakes next to the stem. Garter begin with the growth of the bush.
For garters of giant varieties, it is better to use trellis, which allows you to save a lot of space - thanks to the trellis, 3-4 bushes can be arranged on each m². Beat 180-18 cm high stakes along the row and stretch steel wire or strong twine horizontally every 35-40 cm along them and, as necessary, fill the growing stems of tomatoes like a braid between these horizontal guides. Growing tomatoes on the trellis allows you to leave for the development and side shoots, so the yield of bushes increases.
The first pasynkovan spend before planting seedlings into the ground or immediately after it - the side processes break off, leaving a hemp of 2-3 cm in height on the bush, but in no case is cut to prevent infection of plants with viruses or fungi. They eat tomatoes in the morning when the shoots break off more easily. If you are sorry to throw out the stepchildren, place them with a broken off end into the water, and in a few days you will have seedlings with roots that can be planted on the garden bed. In general, pasynkovanie tomatoes in the greenhouse should be carried out once a week. After pouring the fruit, remove all the lower leaves from the bushes so that the stems remain bare — this is done to improve ventilation and reduce humidity, which leads to the development of putrefactive processes.
The optimum air temperature for tomatoes in the greenhouse is 20-25 ºC during the day and 16-18 ºC at night. When the fruits start to pour, the temperature should be between 24-26 days and during the night - 17-18 ºC. Humidity in the greenhouse is desirable to maintain at the level of 60-65%. Mandatory measures for the care of tomatoes in the greenhouse include regular ventilation, this procedure is especially important during the flowering period - there should be no condensation on the film during this phase of tomato development. Waterlogging of the soil makes the fruits watery and acidic, reducing their fleshyness.
In order for ovaries to appear in the greenhouse of tomatoes, they must be artificially pollinated, since bees do not live in the greenhouse. On a sunny day, the brushes are slightly shaken, and immediately after that, in order for the pollen to sprout on the pistil, you need to spray the flowers and soil with water through a fine dispenser, and after two hours to lower the air humidity you need to open the window in the greenhouse.
Watering tomatoes in the greenhouse.
After planting, tomatoes are not watered for a week and a half, so that they take root and not stretch out in length. However, the question of how often to water the tomatoes in the greenhouse, is the most important when growing this crop. The fact is that during different periods of tomato growing season, the frequency of irrigation and the amount of water consumed per unit area are different. For example, seedlings are watered sparingly, but often, and grown tomatoes - copiously, but less often. Determine that it is time to water the tomatoes, you can as the upper leaves of the plants: if they are twisted, then urgent watering is necessary. But when tomatoes crack when ripe, this indicates that you overdo it with watering. By the way, here is the answer to the question that many readers of the site asked - Why do tomatoes burst in a greenhouse?
So, prior to the start of fruit setting, watering should be frequent (once in 5-6 days) and plentiful - 4-5 liters of water per bush, and the soil should be moistened to a depth of 15-20 cm. And during the fruiting period, tomatoes are watered 2 -3 times a week, however, water consumption is reduced to 3-4 liters per bush. After the soil is moistened, it is advisable to ventilate the greenhouse, since there is a possibility of the spread of blight and other dangerous infections with increased air humidity.
If you have a small greenhouse, you can do the watering by hand - from a hose or a watering can. Water for irrigation should not be cold, so it is advisable to keep a two hundred-liter barrel on the site, in which the water settles and heats in the sun. Try to water the tomatoes so that the water flows only to the ground around the stem, because even a small drop that has fallen on a leaf or fruit, under the sunlight, works like a lens, leaving burns.
In a large greenhouse it is more convenient and faster to use the drip irrigation system. Installing it is not very expensive, while its operation will greatly simplify the process of watering and free up a lot of time for you. Drip irrigation of tomatoes has such advantages:
- - water is delivered directly to the root system of plants,
- - water consumption is significantly less than with manual irrigation,
- - almost twice the yield of plants,
- - there is no leaching and salinization of the soil,
- - watering can be done at any time of the day, without spending effort on it.
In very large greenhouses, automatic irrigation systems are installed for industrial use.
Watering can be done in the early morning, while the sun is still not so active, but you need to consider that at this time of day the water for irrigation may be too cold, and it is desirable that it be at the same temperature as the ground. By the evening watering, the water manages to warm up, but at night, in order to avoid overcooling, the greenhouse is closed, and in an enclosed area with increased humidity after irrigation, there are risks of the spread of putrid phenomena and other infections. If you water the tomatoes in the daytime, then water droplets that fall on the leaves, stems and fruits can cause sunburn. Examine all of these risks and develop an irrigation regime for tomatoes in the greenhouse with their account.
Top dressing of tomatoes in the greenhouse.
Growing tomatoes in a greenhouse involves putting three or four supplements into the soil per season. For the first feeding, which is made three weeks after the seedlings are planted on the beds, a tablespoon of Nitrophoska and half a liter of liquid mullein are dissolved in 10 liters of water, spending 1 l of solution for each bush. One and a half weeks after the first top-dressing, a solution of a tablespoon of complete fertilizer and a teaspoon of potassium sulfate in 10 liters of water at the rate of 5 liters per m² is introduced into the ground. Two weeks after the second feeding, dissolve a tablespoon of superphosphate and 2 tablespoons of wood ash in a bucket of water and water the beds at the rate of 6-8 liters per m².
When the tomatoes ripen in the greenhouse, in order to speed up the pouring of the fruit, add to the ground a solution of one tablespoon of liquid sodium humate and 2 tablespoons of superphosphate in a bucket of water. Solution consumption - 5 liters per m².
Tomatoes in the fall in a greenhouse.
To get tomatoes in the fall, to the very frost, they need to be planted in a greenhouse in the middle of summer. In order to grow tomatoes until winter, it is important to observe three rules:
- - choose the right varieties of tomatoes for greenhouses - early ripe, with medium-sized fruits,
- - plant strong seedlings in greenhouses,
- - calculate the time of planting seedlings in the greenhouse.
On how to choose the right variety of tomatoes for growing in the greenhouse, we will tell you a little later. With regard to the preparation of seedlings, before planting seedlings in the ground in mid-summer, you must make sure that they have a sufficiently developed root system. And in order to determine the timing of planting tomatoes, you need to count from the beginning of frost predicted by weather forecasters in the reverse order of 60-85 days. For example, if the frost comes in late October or early November, then it will be right to plant tomatoes in a greenhouse in August, somewhere in the middle of the month.
Since tomatoes have to be planted in a greenhouse in the heat, they will need regular and abundant watering, at least for the first two weeks, after which they can proceed to the usual schedule for wetting the soil. Due to the fact that young bushes will be located in the intense sun, it will be necessary to install screens with a shading grid or strip coating from the southern and western sides. You can use a less expensive method, protecting the seedlings from the sun with old sheets or towels stretched over pegs.
Another method is used to produce fresh tomatoes until late autumn: summer tomatoes are pruned to stimulate their new growth. In this case, the cut bushes must be carefully watered and balanced fertilizers applied to the ground.
If you are going to grow tomatoes in the greenhouse in winter, when the sun is low, you will have to arrange additional lighting in the greenhouse, and this significantly increases the cost of production. Therefore, in the winter in the greenhouse is better to grow cucumbers. We are often asked whether it is possible to grow tomatoes and cucumbers in one greenhouse, because cucumbers need increased air humidity, moreover, they are afraid of drafts, and tomatoes prefer dry air. If you do not have the opportunity to grow these vegetables in different greenhouses, then under certain conditions you can cultivate them in one greenhouse, but this topic is for a separate article.
Caterpillars on tomatoes in the greenhouse.
Among the pests that oppress tomatoes in the greenhouse, the caterpillars of a different color scoop, 30 to 40 mm long, are especially dangerous. They damage different plants, but the tomatoes from them get stronger than other vegetables. The caterpillars at night make their mean business - they gnaw the petioles and leaves of tomatoes in the greenhouse. Butterflies, scoop lure, hanging on the greenhouse jars with roaming kvass - drink diluted with water 1: 3 and add a little yeast. How to deal with caterpillars on tomatoes in the greenhouse? Caterpillars can be harvested by hand, and plants can be sprayed with extracts of wormwood or potato tops or biological preparations Agravertine and Fitoverm, although it is undesirable to use chemical preparations to destroy gnawing caterpillars.
Whitefly on tomatoes in a greenhouse.
Sometimes trouble can be expected from the whitefly - butterflies about one and a half centimeters long with a yellowish body and mealy-white wings. Whitefly larvae, flat, oval, pale green in color, feed on cell sap sucking on the leaves. In places where leaves are damaged by whitefly larvae, a black deposit from a black fungus appears, and as a result the leaves dry and die. Whitefly can be destroyed by treating the plants with a solution of 10 ml of Phobicide preparation in 10 liters of water. Spraying is carried out early in the morning or after sunset in two stages with an interval of two to three weeks. Before flowering tomatoes are treated with liquid smoke Sochva.
Medvedka on tomatoes in the greenhouse.
An arnivorous bear, reaching a length of 5 cm or more, can get into the greenhouse along with the soil. It makes a nest in the soil at a depth of 10-15 cm and lays hundreds of eggs in it. The larvae that emerged from them in three weeks can cause serious harm to the tomatoes. In the fight with Medvedka use infusion of hot pepper (150 g per bucket of water) or vinegar water, adding 2-3 cups of table vinegar to the bucket of water. These compounds in the amount of half a liter are poured into the found mink minks. Of the chemical preparations effective, such as Thunder, Medvetoks and Grizzly.
Wireworm on tomatoes in a greenhouse.
Wireworms, or larvae click beetles - yellowish dense caterpillars, damaging the root system of tomatoes and penetrating into the stem. In order to select all the wireworms from the soil, you need to arrange traps: 3-4 days before planting, make holes 12-15 cm deep in the beds and bury in them the pieces of raw vegetables - potatoes, beets or carrots - strung on sticks 15 cm long. Leave the tip of the wand sticking out of the ground - so it will be easier for you in 2-3 days to find a trap in order to remove the wireworms gathered in the hole and burn them. They select the larvae and destroy them also when digging the soil. Reduce the number of wireworms in the greenhouse soil liming and mineral fertilizers. From insecticides effective powder Basudin, which is mixed with sawdust or sand and added dropwise to the soil near the plants.
Why tomatoes crack.
In the prolonged heat on the tomatoes in the greenhouse cracks are formed, which makes gardeners worry, but this phenomenon has a physiological cause that is not related to infectious diseases. Fruits cracking as a result of a sudden change in soil moisture, when tomato bushes are watered too heavily in a drought: a large amount of water quickly flows into the fruit, the walls of the epidermis do not withstand pressure and burst. Subsequently, the wounds dry up, and the tomatoes quickly turn red, without increasing in size. In order to avoid cracks on the fruits of tomatoes, it is better to water them less plentifully, but a little more often, and so that the soil does not dry out in the heat too quickly, cover the surface of the bed with a covering material. Glass greenhouses should be sprinkled with lime milk on the outside in strong heat.
Phytophthora on tomatoes in the greenhouse.
Late blight of tomatoes is a fungal disease that often affects plants in the open field, although there are troubles with blight and in greenhouses. Our site has already posted an article on how to deal with blight in both open and protected ground, so we will not describe this topic in detail.
Tomatoes in the greenhouse do not blush.
Sometimes you can see that the bottom of the fruit turns red and the top of the head remains green or yellow at best. Why tomatoes in the greenhouse do not blush? The main reason for this phenomenon is the lack of lighting due to the thickening of the landing. In dense tomato thickets, the light cannot break through to all the leaves and all the fruits, so you have to deprive the plants of some leaves, especially the lower ones. И разберитесь с боковыми побегами – возможно, необходимо провести повторное пасынкование томатов. Во второй половине июля прекратите вносить подкормки, поскольку растения будут лишь наращивать зеленую массу, а скорость созревания плодов упадет. В стебле на высоте 15 см от почвы сделайте сквозной продольный разрез стебля длиной 5-6 см и вставьте в него щепку, чтобы части стебля раздвинулись – после этой манипуляции растения начинают потреблять меньше влаги и питания, и плоды быстрее созревают.
Чернеют помидоры в теплице.
There are several reasons why tomatoes in the greenhouse turn black. For example, this may be due to the defeat of tomatoes with apical (or gray) rot, the development of which is provoked primarily by a lack of calcium, irregular irrigation and temperature changes. Or due to the fact that in the greenhouse appeared phytophthora. The reasons for the blackening of the fruit can be increased acidity of the soil or an excess of nitrogen in it.
What to do if the cause is late blight, you can learn from the article on this topic, which is already on our website. From the summit rot, tomatoes are sprayed with a solution of a tablespoon of calcium nitrate in 10 liters of water, the affected fruits must be removed and destroyed, and, of course, it is necessary to correct errors in the care of plants.
Spots on tomatoes in the greenhouse.
Why do spots appear on tomato leaves in a greenhouse? Due to such reasons as insufficient moisture, cladosporia, or brown tomato spotting (we devoted an article to this disease and posted it on the website), chlorosis, which most often affects seedlings, and fusarium, a fungal disease, in which root nutrition is disturbed hypothermia or damage.
If the soil in the greenhouse is not sufficiently moistened, the upper leaves of the tomatoes begin to turn yellow and curl, and from a lack of nitrogen in the soil in the first half of the growing season chlorosis develops, from which the tomatoes turn yellow in the greenhouse.
As for fusarium, it is a dangerous, but, alas, quite frequent disease of tomatoes, a symptom of which is the appearance of yellowness on the leaves, often with a bluish tinge. Then the leaves lose turgor and fade. If you expose the root system of the affected plants, you will see a twisted root ball.
Yellowing only the lower leaves indicates mechanical damage to the roots as a result of soil loosening or transplanting. But in this case you should not worry: soon the plant will have new adventitious roots, and the leaves will cease to turn yellow.
Large brown spots with concentric circles appear on the leaves of tomatoes as a result of macrosporosis. Severely affected leaves die off. On fruit spots occur in the area of the stem. It is necessary to fight with macrosporosis in the same ways as with late blight.
But the most dangerous disease of tomatoes is a mosaic - an incurable viral disease, manifested in the form of light and dark spots alternating in the intricate ornament on the leaves of plants. The affected bushes look depressed, the harvest is sharply reduced, as a result the tomatoes die. Sick plants should be immediately removed from the greenhouse and burned, and to avoid mosaic contamination, seeds should be etched before planting seedlings for half an hour in a one-percent solution of potassium permanganate, and grown seedlings should be watered with a solution of 1 g of potassium permanganate in 10 liters of water 2-3 times day, doing three-week breaks between sessions.
Why do tomatoes rot in the greenhouse.
The cause of the rotting of the fruit is the same gray, or apical rot. It appears on the lower part of the green fetus with a watery spot, which becomes dry with the development of the disease, acquiring a gray-brown shade. Then on the spot a dense cracked crust forms. Very quickly, top rot develops most of the fetus, affecting it with mold. But sometimes the fruits do not rot, but dry up, and it happens that the disease proceeds without pronounced symptoms, and that the bush is sick of rot, you will learn only when the rotted tomatoes from the inside fall to the ground. If time does not recognize the disease, you can lose the entire crop. The cause of the disease is a lack of calcium and imbalance when there is a lack of moisture in the external high temperature of air in the cells of the fruit. Therefore, you need to review the irrigation regime and process the tomatoes with a solution of calcium nitrate, diluting 40-50 g of the substance in 5 liters of water. And do not forget about top dressing: when brown spots appear on the fruits, apply a solution of mineral fertilizer containing potassium and phosphorus to the ground. A solution of ash containing sulfur, iron, calcium, potassium, phosphorus and zinc can be added under the root, dissolving 250 g of ash in 10 liters of water.
The fruits of tomatoes are rotting away from phomosis, or brown rot, which develops exclusively on the fruits, manifesting itself as a brown spot on the stem. And although the stain is not very large, only 3-4 cm, the entire inner part of the fruit is rotting. The disease affects both green and red tomatoes. To protect tomatoes from fomoz, disinfect the soil before planting seedlings, do not use fresh manure as a fertilizer, do not abuse nitrogen fertilizing, collect and destroy diseased fruits, and treat shrubs with Barrier or Fundazol.
Another cause of rotting fruit is late blight, but you will read about it in an article that has already been posted on our website.
Collecting and storing tomatoes
Tomatoes have four degrees of ripeness - green, milky, brown or pink, and full. Red fruits can be removed from the bush, that is, fully ripened, or only slightly reddened, yellowed or brownish fruits can be obtained - if you put them in the sun, they will survive in 10-15 days and will not taste like those that have ripened on a bush. They can ripen in the sun and fruits shot green, but they will not be so tasty. If you shoot only ripe tomatoes, the next ripening fruits will be smaller and lose filling, so it is better to shoot brown or pink tomatoes. Tomatoes are harvested every 2-3 days, and in summer and autumn, the collection should be daily.
The timing of when you can shoot tomatoes depends on the variety, planting time, weather, and growing conditions. Take off the ripe fruits first with the stalks and put them in the boxes. Harvesting continues until the night temperature drops to 8 ºC, because the fruits taken at a lower temperature are prone to rotting, and those that you collect when the night temperature drops to 4 ºC, you will not save. Tomatoes that have been removed from the bush and at an acceptable night temperature can rot, if they have managed to ripen to harvest, so try to do everything on time.
Brown tomatoes and fruits of milky degree of maturity put on ripening in a bright room in which you can maintain a temperature of 20-25 ºC and humidity of at least 80%. Tomatoes are laid out in one layer and let them lie down for 10-15 days, regularly airing the storehouse - during this time tomatoes must acquire full maturity. Fresh tomatoes can be stored for 2-3 months, and sometimes more, if you put ripe tomatoes in a box before placing them, lower them for 2 minutes into a bucket of water heated to 60 ºC and then wipe each fruit dry. After such a warming, the tomatoes are put in boxes in a single layer, wrapping each fruit in a napkin or paper or sprinkling tomatoes with sawdust or dry peat.
It should be said that early and mid-ripe tomatoes, usually grown in greenhouses, are not stored fresh for a long time, but they can be frozen and kept in the freezer, and before eating they can be kept in cold water for thawing. You can keep frozen tomatoes in a box under the snow in the yard.
Types and varieties of tomatoes in the greenhouse
The quality of the fruit and the abundance of the harvest depend on the varieties of tomatoes you grow in the greenhouse. We suggest you to understand the variety of varieties and hybrids of tomatoes and decide on their choice.
Good varieties of tomatoes for greenhouses are chosen for such qualities:
- - Yield, which may be low, high and very high. It must be said that the most productive tomatoes for greenhouses are hybrid, because they are much more resistant to diseases and to changes in the environment,
- - size and type of bushes: varieties can be determinant, that is, grow to a certain size and do not require pinching, pinching and tying, semi-determinant, or half-tastes, characterized by early maturation, short internodes, high resistance to diseases and height of the bush about 2 m, and indeterminate - requiring pinching, pinching and tying, otherwise they will grow constantly and in height and in width. The best indeterminant tomato varieties include Honey Spas, Midas, Scarlet Mustang, Pink King, Southern Tan, Mushroom Bast basket, half-siblings - Anyuta, Japanese Crab, Simona, and Determinantal varieties - Ballerina, Riddle, Asteroid, Gull, Eleonora, Pink Honey , Lady,
- - ripening speed: tomato varieties can be early ripe (Dina cultivar, Druzhok, Typhoon, Verlioka, Ilyich, Search, Semko 98, Semko-Sinbad hybrids), early ripening - Rennet, Uragan and Samara, as well as ultra-ripened,
- - taste - for example, sweet and fleshy or thin-skinned, but juicy,
- - fruit size - according to this characteristic, varieties are divided into large-fruited (Dream, Monomakh Hat, Mikado, Eagle Heart, Orange Miracle, Cardinal, Market Queen, Biysk Rose, Canadian Giant, London King, Abkhazian, Black Sea and Russian Soul), small-fruited ( varieties Italy, Sanka, Herringbone, Caspar, Yellow Drop, Robot, Kubyshka, Countryman, Sugar Plum, Ventura, Cherry, Legend, Shuttle and Picket), varieties with medium-sized fruits, which include Peter I, Lightbulb, Slavic masterpiece and Diamond. , and varieties of type "cherry" - Bonsai, Minibel, Cherry yellow, Red Cherry and Zelenushka Hybrids, Cherry Tomato and Golden Bead,
- - resistance to diseases, pests and adverse conditions and frost resistance. In this category, the best varieties and hybrids are Blagovest, Intuition, Roma, Budenovka, Chio-chio-san, Erema, Kostroma, Yevpator,
- - keeping quality is an important quality, if the harvest is intended for storage. The best keeping quality is provided by the varieties Salahaddin, Akatui, Ivanovets, Krasnobay and Volgogradets.
The best varieties of tomatoes for greenhouses.
As you can see, there are a lot of varieties and hybrids of tomatoes for growing in the greenhouse, so we offer you the most famous and cultivated more often than other varieties:
- – Gondola - high-yielding mid-season indeterminantny hybrid of Italian selection with dense bright red fruits of excellent keeping quality. The average weight of the fruit is 160 g, but not infrequently there are those whose weight exceeds half a kilogram. The fruits of this variety are good for food, and for processing into juices and sauces, and for pickling, and for pickling,
- – Hurricane - productive early hybrid, the harvest of which can be obtained already 85 days after the emergence of shoots. The mass of fruits suitable for both food and canning, 80-90 g,
- – Major - indeterminate productive variety, resistant to diseases and the vagaries of the weather, with very sweet and fragrant pinkish fruits with dense flesh,
- – Silhouette - medium early productive hybrid, resistant to adverse conditions with slightly flattened round fruits of excellent quality,
- – Pink king - mid-season fruitful determinant variety with bright pink flat-round fruits,
- – Long keeper - medium productive late-ripening plant with large rounded fruits, reaching a mass of 300 g and ripening already in maturation,
- – Lyolya - a new, early, relatively fruitful hybrid with red tomatoes weighing over 100 g with sour-sweet pulp,
- – Kohava - overproductive ultra-early indeterminantny hybrid resistant to viral and fungal diseases, with flat-rounded pink fruits weighing up to 180 g. Fruits ripen 90 days after germination,
- – Bersola - low-growing, deterministic, ultra-fast and fruitful hybrid, immune to diseases and adverse conditions, with dense elastic fruits that can withstand long-term transportation,
- – Wonder of the earth - a tomato, popular among summer residents, since it has almost no drawbacks: a high-yielding, tall and early ripe variety resistant to drought and temperature, sweet heart-shaped fruits of which reach a mass of 900 g,
- – Titanic - a fruitful and disease-resistant hybrid with pinkish-red fruits, characterized by high sugar content and excellent taste,
- – Dina - medium early medium (up to 120 cm) productive variety resistant to drought and disease, with medium-sized bright orange round and sweet fruits weighing 120-150 g with a high content of carotene,
- – Moneymaker - the early ripe universal fruitful variety, immune to diseases and giving light red, juicy and smooth fruits weighing about 100 g, also popular among summer residents;
- – Honey drop - low-maintenance medium-grade variety with honey-colored, ovoid fruits weighing up to 30 g,
- – Bull heart - classic for summer residents high-yielding variety, giving fleshy juicy fruits weighing up to 300 g. The variety has several forms, the fruits of which differ in color - red, yellow and almost black,
- – Samara - a variety with unlimited growth of shoots and large, round-shaped sweet fruits weighing up to 90 g, which are good for both salads and canning.
Self-pollinated varieties of tomatoes for greenhouses.
Tomatoes are self-pollinated plants that do not require the obligatory intervention of insects to form ovaries. But in order to form more ovaries, it is better to help the tomatoes. The following methods improve the pollination process in greenhouse conditions:
- - manual pollination - you need to take a brush or a toothbrush and touch it alternately to tomato flowers,
- - use of a fan directed at plants for pollination - the air flow will transfer pollen from stamens to the pistil and from one flower to another,
- - shaking the plants,
- - attracting bees and other pollinating insects to the greenhouse by growing honey plants near tomatoes;
- - regular airing of the greenhouse, since the wind also carries pollen.
As the pollen on the flowers ripens at night, it is better to carry out the pollination procedures in the morning. The pollinated flower differs from the un pollinated petals bent out.
Types of greenhouses
Even a person far from the garden knows what a greenhouse is and why it is needed. But when it comes to buying or building a greenhouse, many questions arise.
Currently, manufacturers offer greenhouses of various shapes and made from different materials. First of all, the buyer should choose the construction of the building. There are several models of greenhouses:
- single slopes
- with vertical or sloping walls.
Among the large range, every gardener will be able to choose exactly the model that will suit him in all respects. Modern manufacturers offer the connection of various functions (heating, watering, ventilation), which will minimize the labor costs for growing crops.
There are several types covering material:
- polyethylene film.
Each of these materials performs its main function - to protect plants from the harmful effects of the external environment.
Preparing the greenhouse for sowing
A properly equipped greenhouse and optimal conditions created for planting and growing tomatoes in the greenhouse will allow the gardener to always have an early and rich harvest.
By choosing a place under the greenhouse should take into account the need of tomatoes in the sunlight. In case of poor lighting, seedlings will have to be planted at a considerable distance in order to avoid shading the plants, which will reduce the yield.
For those who want to have fresh vegetables on the table all year round, you need a heated greenhouse. Heating can be electric, gas, air, steam or stove. When gas heating is necessary to constantly air the greenhouse.
Good ventilation plays an important role when growing tomatoes in a greenhouse. To do this, you should equip the greenhouse with vents, opening which can contribute to pollination of plants and their protection from stuffiness.
Watering tomatoes in the greenhouse is better in the drip method. You can bring a dropper to each bush or use tape.
In that case, if the greenhouse is already available, before you grow tomatoes in the greenhouse, disinfection is necessary. Greenhouse with a metal frame must be treated with a solution of bleach (400 grams of bleach diluted in 10 liters of water and insist a few hours). After the procedure, you must close the greenhouse. After 3-4 days, the room is aired, and the metal parts are doused with boiling water and are well brushed.
If a wooden framethen all the gaps should be repaired, and metal sheets should be laid on the floor. Spread sulfur mixed with kerosene on the sheets and set on fire. Greenhouse at the time of treatment (5 days) tightly closed. When the mixture smolders, it will destroy all insects, fungi, mold in the greenhouse. After disinfection, the room is well ventilated and cleaned with brushes, then the entire structure is treated with copper sulfate solution.
The choice of varieties must be approached seriously. When buying should pay attention to the seeds for planting in closed ground. The properties of vegetables that are grown for sale, canned or salads are different. Therefore, you should immediately determine the purpose of the future harvest. Varieties are divided into two groups:
- Determinant (low). These varieties of tomatoes finish growing after the formation of six brushes and begin to bear fruit early. They are conveniently grown in low greenhouses. Among these varieties there are standard types.
- Indeterminate (tall). Помидоры этого сорта могут достигать двух метров в высоту, поэтому верхушку куста обычно прищипывают, чтобы успели поспеть завязавшиеся плоды. Рост у этого сорта довольно длительный и зависит от погодных условий. Чаще всего такие сорта сажают в южных регионах, но и для средней полосы они подойдут.Indeterminate varieties are less susceptible to disease, bear fruit longer, and more crops can be harvested from them than from determinants.
Growing and caring for seedlings
With the maintenance of the necessary conditions, in a week the young shoots will hatch. When this happens the covering material can be removed. From this point on, the room temperature should be maintained at around 18 degrees during the day and not higher than 15 degrees at night. After a week, the temperature can be increased by 2 degrees. This temperature regime must be maintained until 3 young plants appear on young plants. full leaf. Now sprouts dive into separate pots. During this procedure, weak plants are rejected.
For all the time of growth, seedlings are watered no more than 3 times, which does not allow seedlings to grow quickly. After the emergence of shoots produce the first watering, a week or two, a few hours before picking - the third. Proper watering is done under the root of warm water.
The first 3 weeks the seedlings grow slowly, but then their growth is accelerated. Seedlings noticeably stretched, leaves grow faster. From this point on, the crops should be periodically turned to the light source so that all parts of the plant are evenly illuminated.
Tomatoes in the greenhouse: planting and care
In the greenhouse you need to plant seedlings reached 30 cm in height. They must have at least 10 developed leaves and a pair of formed inflorescences. Three days before planting, 2 lower leaves are removed from the plants, leaving 1.5 cm of hemp. This procedure will help reduce the likelihood of plant disease.
From the first days of May, you can plant seedlings in heated greenhouses. If the greenhouse is cold, then with the landing it is worth waiting until the end of May. The main factor for the start of sowing seedlings should be the temperature of the soil (not lower than 13 degrees).
Soil for tomatoes in the greenhouse
Before novice gardeners often raises the question of how to grow tomatoes in the greenhouse. Plays a very big role in this properly prepared soil.
For planting early tomatoes in the greenhouse, in the autumn it is necessary to prepare the beds in a height of about 35 cm. For the cultivation of tomatoes in the greenhouse, sod or humus soil is best suited. Under the ground, you can lay straw, sawdust or pine needles, this layer will serve as an additional insulation. Then you can put the compost, and above the ground. When digging the soil, you can immediately apply fertilizers: potassium sulfate, sodium nitrate, wood ash, double granulated superphosphate. It should be borne in mind that clay and loamy soils are rather heavy and poor, therefore they should add sawdust, sand, peat and humus.
Since pathogens, mold and harmful insects develop quickly enough indoors, it must be disinfected every season. For this purpose, you can take copper sulphate, a solution of Bordeaux mixture or dolomite flour. Despite the fertilizer applied, the soil is gradually depleted, therefore every 5 years it needs to be changed.
Plants for planting tomatoes in a greenhouse
For planting tomato seedlings in the greenhouse you need to choose a warm day. After the holes have been made under the saplings 15 cm deep, they should be poured with a hot solution of potassium permanganate. Seedlings need to be transplanted directly with an earthen ball into the resulting dirt. If the seedlings grew in peat pots, then the holes can be planted directly with pots. So that in the future the fruits are not shaded, seedlings are planted, directing the inflorescences in the direction opposite to the walls. The soil around the seedlings need to trample and mumble. Between the planted bushes you can dig up small holes in which it will be convenient to apply fertilizer. You can immediately install the supports to which the bushes will be tied in the future.
Transplanting Tomatoes in a greenhouse should not be made chaotically. There are special planting schemes designed to get more yield from a smaller area:
- tall tomatoes in the greenhouse should be planted in a checkerboard pattern, keeping the distance between the bushes at least 60 cm, between the rows, 75 cm,
- Standard low grades can be planted closer with an interval of 30 cm, and a row spacing of 45 cm,
- well-branching undersized tomatoes are staggered in 2 rows. The gap between the rows make 50 cm, and between the bushes-40 cm.
If desired, several varieties can be planted in one greenhouse. To do this, close to the wall of the greenhouse are planted undersized ripening varieties with an interval of 40 cm. In the next row, closer to the aisle, with an interval of 60 cm, it is necessary to plant indeterminate varieties. In a row with tall tomatoes you can plant short stump species, with an interval of 25 cm. When a second shoot appears on them, you should pinch it. This method of planting tomatoes, will allow to get a harvest for a long time and save space.
Features care for tomatoes in the greenhouse
To seedlings better settled, a few days after planting it should not be touched. After a week, you can loosen the soil to provide air access to the roots. From this point on, the pasyncovye should be carried out weekly (breaking off the lateral processes, leaving hemp no more than 3 cm). After the fruits are tied and poured, all the lower leaves should be broken off on the bushes. This procedure is performed to reduce the moisture that can cause decay on tomatoes.
Greenhouse temperature better to maintain within 24 degrees, and the humidity to keep at 60%. The greenhouse must be ventilated to prevent the formation of condensate.
For the appearance of the ovary in the greenhouse, will require artificial pollination. To do this, shake the brush and then water the flowers and the soil from the spray. After two hours, the room should be ventilated.
Watering a young plant should be frequent and moderate. Adult bushes are watered abundantly, but rarely. Over-wetting should not be allowed, as this will reduce the taste and quality of the fruit.
Observing all the conditions, even a novice gardener can grow a good crop of tomatoes in a greenhouse.
Diving tomato seedlings ↑
First, you need to prepare the seed. If the seeds are brightly colored (tempered), then they do not need to be processed. Untreated seeds should be placed for 20 minutes in a solution of Fitosporin-M (prepared instructions). Rinse them after treatment is not necessary. You can then hold them in a solution of growth stimulant and prepared to sow the soil.
Tall varieties of tomatoes are also planted in a checkerboard pattern. The distance between the rows should be 75-80 cm, and between plants 60-70 cm.
Greenhouse preparation ↑
Secondly, in order for the tomatoes in the greenhouse to give good shoots, it is necessary to prepare the soil for sowing. From February to the end of March - the optimal period for planting seeds on seedlings. It all depends on what kind of tomatoes to plant in the greenhouse. If you decide to grow late varieties, you need to sow in February, if mid-ripening - in March, and early tomatoes for seedlings - at the end of March.
The width of the beds can be from 60 to 90 centimeters, and height - 35-40 centimeters
Features of transplanting ↑
The tomato needs regular airing, so there must be air vents in the greenhouse. They are made mainly on the sides, but can be done on the roof. Plants will get more fresh air, which will have a positive effect on yield.
- The amount and quality of the future crop depends on how well you take care of the tomatoes from the very beginning of planting in the greenhouse.
- Must dive
- Brightly colored tomato seeds
- In indeterminate tall tomatoes, the planting pattern is sparse - 80x70 cm.
- Experienced vegetable growers are the first to advise the days after planting the plants in a non-greenhouse watered. It is necessary to wait 10 days, until plants take root, and then produce watering. It is important to follow the optimum water temperature - 20-22 ° C. Remember that before the flowering phase of the tomatoes watered after 4-5 days, when at 1 m2 you need 4-5 liters of water. During the watering flowering need to be strengthened - 10-13 liters per 1m2. It is best to water the greenhouse in plants at the root in the morning, and not when condensate forms in the evening, and tomatoes do not fall on the water drops.
Secondly, in order for the tomatoes in the greenhouse to give good seedlings, it is necessary to prepare the soil for sowing. From February until the end of the optimal - March period for planting seeds on the All. seedlings depend on which greenhouse tomatoes to plant. If you decide to grow late sowing, varieties are needed in February, if the middle-ripening is to be in early, and in March tomatoes for seedlings are at the end of March.
The scheme of planting tomatoes in the greenhouse ↑
The distance between the tomatoes in the greenhouse must be at least 35 cm
- Tomato seeds are sown in boxes or boxes with a height of 5-7 cm. The soil mixture for seedlings should consist of 1 part peat, 1 part humus and 1 part turf ground. Moisturize the mixture, add river sand (1 liter jar), wood ash (1st spoon) and superphosphate (1 tablespoon) to a bucket of earth. You can also use ready-mixed soils, fertilizers are no longer added to them.
- In The wider the greenhouse, the more you get the beds. Between them there must be small passages.
In order for the plants not to hurt, it is undesirable to plant seedlings in the same soil for several years. Therefore, it is best to periodically update it.
First of all, you should remember that the main component of care is proper watering.
, That is, transplant from a smaller capacity to a larger one. This should be done about a week after germination, when the plant grows two leaves. A dive is done like this:
, They do not need special treatment. Other types of seeds should be treated in a special solution, then, without washing, dip into the stimulator solution and plant in harvested soil.
- Cups with high-quality seedlings are planted in the wells, deepening to 3-5 cm. If the plants are overgrown, then the stem of a tomato can be laid into the soil at a depth of at least 10 cm, while digging a ditch. Additional roots are easily formed on the stem, which can nourish the adult plant more intensively.
Tomato seeds in sowing boxes or boxes with a height of 5-7 cm. The soil for the seedling mixture should consist of 1 part of part, 1 peat of humus and 1 part of sod land. Moisturize the mixture, add a liter of river (1 sand jar), wood ash (1st. superphosphate) and a spoon (1 tbsp) to a bucket of soil. You can also use ready-made ones; fertilizers are no longer added to the soil mixtures.
- Particular attention should be paid to overgrown seedlings. It should be planted as follows: make a hole in the soil at 12 cm, and in it another hole deeper, just to the height of the pot with seedlings. First you need to plant a pot with a plant in the second (deep) hole and sprinkle it with earth. But after two weeks, when the seedlings take root, cover the first hole with earth. This method is much more effective than the usual deep planting, because as soon as the plant is sprinkled with earth, additional roots appear on the long stem of the tomato. As a result, the growth stops, the flowers fall.
In February and March, tomato seeds are sown in separate boxes.
Before planting the seedlings, the soil should be disinfected with a solution of potassium permanganate. It is obtained by adding 1 g of potassium permanganate to a bucket of water.
Preparation of the soil begins with the removal from it of the top layer with a thickness of 10 centimeters. It is in it that spores of dangerous fungi and harmful microorganisms accumulate. Using a solution of copper sulphate, the soil is disinfected. To cook it, take one
- When you have planted tomatoes in the greenhouse, but you do not need to water them for a few days, you need to do this in about ten days, when you are convinced that they have taken root in a new place.
The plant is removed from the old box with a toothpick along with a clod of earth, and transplanted into a larger box,
And to get good shoots, you need to prepare the ground itself. It is best to plant tomatoes on seedlings from the beginning of February to the end of March, depending on the variety you choose.
- Many factors influence the survival rate of seedlings and the further growth of a tomato plant. Consider in detail the important points in the care of tomatoes.
Maintaining the optimum temperature humidity and regime is the main condition for getting generous tomatoes. the crop is not afraid of drafts, so you need to ventilate in any way: open the side and top to tighten, the window leaves at the bottom, open the ends. airing Required greenhouse 2 hours after Especially. watering is important during flowering, because wet pollen can not get into the pestle, it will not happen therefore pollination. The temperature in a greenhouse on an overcast day should be 18–20 ° C, on a sunny day - 24–26 ° C, and at night - 15–16 ° C.
In the boxes there is a seedling no longer than 50 days, its height to this will be about 30 cm already. To avoid the plants, they stretch out to monitor the air temperature, turn the light - the conditions every day by the other side to the days. And the window for 10 before the expected planting of seedlings in the greenhouse plants need to be hardened: to make the balcony, leave the vents open for the night.
It often happens that vegetable growers try to plant as many varieties of tomatoes as possible in their little greenhouse. This is not worth doing, because to achieve in this case, abundant crops are unlikely to be lucky. But to make fun of the plants certainly will turn out: cramped conditions, lack of light, the spread of disease, difficult ventilation. Better less, yes better.
How to start growing tomatoes in greenhouses?
Pour the soil into prepared boxes, compact it, make grooves 1-1.5 cm deep, pour it with a warm solution of sodium humate, and then sow the seeds. Sprinkle on top with earth mixture and put in a bright place, where the temperature is + 22 ° C. In order for the seedlings to grow faster, in 5 days the boxes are covered with film caps.
Features of planting seedlings?
During the adaptation period of the seedlings in new greenhouse conditions, the air temperature must be kept within optimal limits from +22 to +25 degrees, while the soil should already warm up above +15 degrees. Under such conditions, plants quickly give new roots and they begin to grow intensively.
- Garter Binding
- To the greenhouse in the tomatoes did not hurt and gave a generous harvest, it is correctly important to prepare the greenhouse for the season. Since tomatoes are planted in the greenhouse in early May, when the nights are rather cold, you need to cover it with a layer of double film. It is better to leave a small airbag between the layers of polyethylene, which does not only increase the temperature inside the greenhouse, but also increase the life of the inner layer. It is important to do everything from the side windows for good ventilation, last year’s 10–12 cm to remove the soil, and to disinfect the rest with copper liters (for 10 vitriol water, one spoon.). Remember, it is impossible to plant tomatoes in one greenhouse for two years in a row, because the majority of infections in the soil remain and hit new plants.
- Proper care of plants is the basis of the future harvest. It should be started immediately after planting the seedlings in the greenhouse. Here are the main stages of care for tomatoes in the greenhouse.
- When the plants will have 2 true leaves, somewhere on the 7-10 day after germination, you need to make a dive. This is a procedure of transplanting a plant from one container to a larger one, because a strengthened root system requires more space. Each plant is removed from the common box with a toothpick along with an earthy clod and transplanted into pots of greater capacity.
- Top dressing
Scheme of tomato planting in the greenhouse?
2-3 lower leaves are removed on each plant
- . Then the solution is watered beds.
- . Before the tomatoes begin to bloom, they should be watered every five days for 5 liters per square meter. With flowering, the amount of water increases to 10-13, respectively. Under the root, water the tomatoes better in the morning.
- Daily turn the plants to light in different directions,
Height about 5-7 cm
Caring for tomatoes in a polycarbonate greenhouse involves the need to constantly monitor the temperature. Polycarbonate has high thermal insulation properties and good light transmission, therefore, in sunny weather, the temperature of the air during daytime hours can increase dramatically and reach critical for plants (above +35 degrees). Open doors and transom will reduce the temperature.
Plants is a garter of tomatoes in the greenhouse, which produce 3-4 days after planting. It is necessary for the fact that tall plants do not break under the weight of their weight, do not rot. The main thing. Fruit condition - material for garter should not injure the stem of a tomato. In the greenhouse use garters for linear or frame tapestries.
- If you are going to be engaged in growing tomatoes in a greenhouse in winter, then you need to take care of additional lighting. Without it, tomatoes will not bloom and, all the more, they will not yield a crop.
- Dive seedlings need to produce 7-10 days after germination
Protection against pests and diseases.
- To avoid contact with the ground. This method allows to reduce the likelihood of seedling disease during transplantation and improves the movement of air between plants. This most favorably affects the laying and development of the first flower brush. Листья удаляют, отступая от стебля на 2 сантиметра.
Чтобы нормально расти, цвести и плодоносить, помидорам нужны микроэлементы в большом количестве. Если грунт будет достаточно плодороден, рассада будет активно сопротивляться болезням.