Garden flowers, plants and shrubs

All plant propagation methods

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In the room, seeds are sown in boxes, pots or bowls. Land for this take such that is required by this plant. For the smallest seeds (begonias, primroses, gloxinia, etc.) they take the earth, sifted through a sieve with holes of 2-3 millimeters, for larger ones - through a sieve with holes of 4-5 millimeters. A very shallow, dusty ground is no good, as it is rapidly compacted. The ground should be of medium humidity: do not smear, do not stick to hands, but also not to dust.

At the bottom of a pot or a flatware, clay skulls with a convex side up are put on the drain hole. At the same time, a layer of about 1 centimeter of coarse-grained river sand is mixed in half with soddy soil. After that, the pot or stove is filled to the top with earth and compacted with a light tapping of it on the table. Surplus land is driven by a plate, guiding it along the edges of the plate. Zemdu in a pot or pot is slightly compressed with a wooden plank so that its edges protrude above the ground by 8-10 millimeters. Before sowing, potted soil is watered.

Seeds are sown in rows or nests (palm trees and all plants with large seeds). It is very important to distribute the seeds evenly over the entire area of ​​the pot or bowl. Sown seeds are covered with a layer of earth equal to the thickness of the seed. Very small seeds slightly ground with earth or left open.

Dishes with sown seeds covered with glass or paper. Break out carefully. Every day it harms the moisture of the soil and as it dries, it is watered from the watering can in the smallest sieve or sprayed with a spray bottle. Water should be at room temperature or slightly warmer (3-5 degrees above room air temperature). So that when watering the water does not wash the sown small seeds, the pot (bowl) is lowered into the tank (pan) with water so that the surface of the earth in the pot is level with water. The pot is kept in water until the earth is completely soaked with water.

Plates (pots) with sown seeds are placed closer to the heat source, providing the required temperature for the entire growing time. Crops of thermophilic plants (begonias, primroses, palm trees, etc.) are placed on the stove or radiator, where they are kept until germination.

As soon as shoots appear, glass or other tires are removed. To obtain strong seedlings shoots should be kept at a temperature of 3-5 degrees below the temperature of germination. With the advent of seedlings, the boxes are placed closer to the light (on the windowsills). Grown up seedlings are planted (rasped out). Weak and sick seedlings are thrown away.

For picking, they take the ground of the same composition as for sowing and fill it with dishes as they did when sowing. Before picking, the ground is moistened and slightly compacted. Seedlings dive like this: a seedling is taken with a left-sided spine with its left hand, and a picking peg in the right hand is pitted in the ground and the seedling is lowered into it until the cotyledon leaves, the ground around the lowered plant is compressed with a stake. It is necessary to cover the ground in order not to form a void between the ground and the roots, since this may lead to the drying of the roots. To the earth better settled, the plants are watered.

For better rooting, decimated seedlings protect from sunlight and contain at a temperature 2-3 degrees higher than that at which they were kept prior to picking. A picking, like any transplant, somewhat retards the growth of plants, but in the future is justified by their best growth and development.

Reproduction by cuttings

Most indoor plants can be propagated by cuttings, in this way geraniums, lemons, privet, laurel cherry trees, oleanders, rubber plants, philodendrons, fuchsias, begonias and other plants propagate in this way.

The following types of cuttings are distinguished: stem, leaf and root. Stem cuttings propagate the majority of flower plants. In addition to the plants listed above, stem, cuttings are propagated by roses, lilacs, aralia, cryptomeria, and geraniums.

In most plants, the stalk is cut from any growing shoot. In chrysanthemums, hydrangea cuttings taken from the tops of growth shoots coming from the root of the neck or from the rhizomes. Hydrangea cuttings taken from the side shoots often bloom in the same summer, but grow weakly, so they are usually not used. In most conifers, cuttings are best taken from the tops of the main and axillary shoots.

The cuttings from the shoot are cut under the bud (renal node) with two or three pairs of leaves, if the leaves are arranged in pairs, against each other, and at the next arrangement of leaves with two or three leaves. In large-leaved plants (roses, hydrangeas, etc.), large leaf blades are halved to reduce evaporation of moisture. In ficus and other plants containing the milky sap, cut cuttings are immersed in tepid (25-30 degree) water, which is left in until the discharge of this juice is stopped. Cuttings in unwashed juice often rot. Cuttings of geraniums, cacti, as well as plants in thick, fleshy leaves, before planting, are dried for several hours. Sawed cuttings root better without requiring tires. Dracene, dieffenbachia, philodendron and some other plants propagate in pieces of stem or stem (about 5 centimeters long) with dormant buds. The cuttings of tree species are usually taken in annual shoots and less often in two-year-olds, since the former take root more easily.

Leaf cuttings propagate the royal begonia, gloxinia, some lilies, sansevieru. The begonia leaf is notched in the branches of the leaf veins and is completely pinned to the wet sand or is cut into separate triangular plates, at the apex of which are located nervation nodes. Gloxinia leaf cut together with the petiole. A sheet of sanseverier cut into pieces 5 centimeters long.

For rooting cuttings use river sand in pure form or mixed with heather earth and coarse-grained peat, or pure sandy loamy fibrous sod land. Sand thoroughly two or three times washed in water from silt and other impurities. In the washed sand, pits make a dimple peg into which cuttings are lowered to about 5-1 centimeters, then the sand is lightly squeezed with fingers or a peg around the cutting to hold it firmly. After that, the cuttings are sprayed and covered with paper or glass, a glass jar. Some plants take root without shelter. These include cacti, aloe, geraniums and other non-demanding plants.

Cuts on cuttings, especially fleshy, succulent plants (cacti, geraniums) are sprinkled with crushed charcoal before planting.

Root cuttings and pieces of stem (dieffenbachia, dracaena, etc.) are planted in loose garden soil mixed with sand so that only the upper ends remain uncovered by the ground.

The emergence of the roots of the cutting is preceded by the formation of a special influx of callus tissue on the lower section of the cutting. Callus in plants is formed around the site of cuts or damage. Growing up, it closes the wound and thus serves to heal wounds and prevent rotting. New roots in cuttings emerge from or above callus, from the stem.

The cuttings of different plants rooted at different speeds. Some plants (Coleus, Fuchsia, Tradescantia) root quickly, within 5-7 days, while others (most conifers) require several months to root. Most plants take root within two to three weeks.

In recent years, significant progress has been achieved through the use of a number of available chemical compounds - growth substances that induce and accelerate root formation. As a result, a whole series of hard-to-root rocks (fragrant olive, araucaria, etc.) became possible to propagate by cuttings.

The cuttings of such plants are planted before planting with their lower end in an aqueous solution of some growth substance, for example, heteroauxin. In a solution of heteroauxin with a strength of 1: 5,000 or 1: 10,000 (1 gram of powder for 5 or 10 liters of water), the cuttings are kept for 1-2 days. Processing cuttings simplified by replacing the solution, which is prepared from talc moistened with a solution of heteroauxin. Lower ends of cuttings are dipped in powder before planting. In the shops of chemical products sell a variety of growth substances with instructions on how to use them.

The temperature required for rooting cuttings depends on the nature of the parent plants. Heat-loving plants require more heat for their rooting than temperate plants. So, ficus, begonia, heliotrope and other plants root well at a temperature of about 25 degrees. Chrysanthemums, for example, successfully root at a temperature of 12-14 degrees. The temperature is kept even during the entire rooting time. A sudden change in temperature during rooting leads to decay of the cuttings.

The cuttings of most plants rooted in moist air. This is achieved not so much by watering as by systematic spraying and keeping under glass, transparent caps, etc. The sand must always be wet, but not too wet. From cuttings, in particular the lower layers of sand, as well as from excessive dampness, the cuttings can die.

Planted cuttings on sunny days several times sprayed with a spray or in another way. Spraying is reduced after the formation of callus, and with the appearance of the roots sprayed once a day. Geranium and conifers when rooting water very little and almost never sprayed.

Along with spraying, you also need airing. Systematically airing begins only in the appearance of callus on the cuttings, before this ventilation is considered sufficient during removal of the tire when spraying plants.

After the formation of callus daily in the morning and in the evening for a flow of fresh air for 20-30 minutes, a glass or jar is placed on a stick as thick as a finger. With the advent of the first roots, shelter is removed in the evening for 1-2 hours. With the formation of the roots of the tire completely removed.

Cuttings root better in diffused light, which is created by shading them with paper or a curtain. Shading decreases with the appearance of callus and is completely removed after the formation of the roots. Light shading on sunny days is also needed for rooted plants that do not withstand direct sunlight (hydrangea, proglyu, etc.).

Rooted cuttings should not be kept in the sand for a long time, since the young shoots appearing on them from lack of nutrition begin to grow, and due to the lack of light, they should be pulled out, therefore they should be planted in pots with the earth that most meets the requirements of the plant. Only those cuttings (cacti, geraniums, sanceviers, etc.) that were planted not in clean sand, but in prepared soil from the above mixtures of land, can remain for a time in distribution cabinets, bowls or pots without damage.

Planted rooted cuttings for the first one and a half to two weeks should be covered with a glass for the bank, especially in cases where they had previously been sufficiently accustomed to open air.

Propagation by dividing the bush and root suckers. By dividing the bush, they propagate those plants that branch out below the ground or near its surface and form adventitious roots or give root shoots. In this way, the friendly seven, deacy and other plants are propagated. Agave, aloe, pandanus, dracaena, some palm trees propagate with pristvolnoye rooted undergrowth or root suckers, formed around the mother plant.

Divide the bush and trim offsprings in the spring. The bush with a sharp kitchen leg or a small hatchet is cut into several pieces depending on its thickness. At the same time, in evergreen plants they try to destroy the clod of earth as little as possible. Each root offspring is also separated from the mother plant with a sharp knife.

Separated parts and scions are planted in pots of appropriate sizes, ensuring that the root neck is at the same level as it was before the separation.

Reproduction division of tubers. Club multiply gloxinia and some begonias. The tubers are cut so that each part has an eye (sleeping kidney). The sleeping buds of gloxinia are so small that it is difficult for an inexperienced eye to recognize them, therefore it is more expedient to germinate the tubers first, and then divide them according to the germinated eyes. Tubers divide in the spring, cutting a sharp knife into several parts. Cuts are powdered with charcoal powder. Cut parts with sprouted buds are planted in pots in the appropriate soil, and with sleeping buds in cleanly washed river sand.

Bulb reproduction

Bulbous plants are divided into two groups: evergreen (crinums, pancreations) and deciduous, with a more or less prolonged growth arrest - a period of rest (lilies, daffodils, tulips, etc.). These are widespread, very valuable plants that are propagated for forcing in winter, for cutting and for beautiful flower decoration of gardens and parks.

Bulbs of evergreens are separated, like root shoots, in the spring after flowering. Planted in pots in light ground. Later, after rooting, they are transferred to a heavier ground. The bulbs of deciduous plants used for room forcing are selected at the end of summer after digging out of open ground, dried in the shade for a month and planted in the fall in pots.

Reproduction vaccinations. A graft consists in splicing a scion (a part of a grafted plant — a cutting, bud, etc.) with a stock (the plant or its part on which the graft is made). Vaccination is used in cases where, when propagated by other methods, it is not possible to fully preserve certain natural properties or varietal characteristics of the propagated plants. For example, most cultivated varieties of roses, when propagated by seeds, do not retain their properties, degrade the quality of flowers, and also very often form a weak root system, unable to provide the plant with mineral nutrients.

In addition, many varieties of roses and other plants poorly form seeds or do not multiply by other vegetative methods (grafting, etc.). Plants with a weeping crown shape can be propagated only by grafting into the boles of another plant.

Stocks have a great influence on the grafted part. It is able to accelerate, enhance the growth and development of a grafted plant, make it grow faster, more abundant, longer and more beautiful (grafted roses, azaleas, epiphyllum, etc.), increase or decrease its lifespan, increase resistance to pests and diseases, etc. .

Inoculate a kidney (eye), this method is called budding, and the handle. In spring, they are circulating with a growing eye, and in summer - asleep.

They are more often vacuumed in summer, in July - August, when the bark is well separated on the stock and the buds of the current year are well formed on the graft. Vulified with a sharp knife with a thin blade, capable of brit. It is better to use special grafting knives, which are sold in specialized stores.

From the annual graft of a grafted variety, leaf blades are removed and the shield with a 3-4 cm long eyelet is cut. Sewing under the bark should be a thin layer of wood, 2-3 millimeters wide in the middle, and coming to naught by the ends. The flap is inserted on the stock behind the bark into a T-shaped incision on the stem, closer to the root collar or at the base of the main branches of the crown (bush) so that it all goes beyond the cortex and through the incision would leave only the leaf petiole and bud. The inserted flap is tightly tied with a clean bast so that the petiole and the eye are not closed. After two weeks, fusion occurs, a sure sign of which is the leaf stalk, which falls off when touched, then the bandage is loosened. The spongy peephole and leaf stalk dry out, while the peephole darkens and wrinkles. Such a plant should be planted again.

The following year, before the start of growth, a portion of the stock above the vaccinated eyes is punched with a sharp knife, the bandage is removed.

The graft is grafted in many ways, the most common graft for bark and splitting.

The vaccination of roses, lilacs, lemons, cacti and other ornamental plants is quite widely used. They are planted over the bark, usually in winter or early spring, at the beginning of growth, when the bark is separated. For grafting, use cuttings of annual branches of a grafted variety that are at rest. The stalk is cut with two or three buds. The cut against the lower bud is made oblique, about 3 centimeters long, and above the upper second or third kidney, the stalk is cut slightly obliquely, almost across. The stem of the rootstock at the root collar or the main grafted branches are cut across completely and the bark is cut along the length of the wood. Insert the cutting into the incision to the entire depth of the oblique cut. The vaccination site is tied with bast or wool, and the binding and the cut-off areas of the stock and the graft are doused with garden pitch.

An improved graft is considered to be a saddle graft over the bark. Some plants (peonies and roses) are sometimes propagated by grafting on roots.

Правила размножения комнатных цветов

Перед тем как приступить к размножению зеленых «питомцев», важно позаботиться о наличии необходимых для этого условий:

  • Подходящий грунт - it should be light, high-quality, moderately nutritious and necessarily sterile (for each plant it is necessary to select individually),
  • Comfortable spot - it should be well lit, but without bright sunshine,
  • It also requires a sufficiently high temperature and humidity, the absence of drafts and temperature changes,
  • Regular watering.

Such conditions are one of the most important moments contributing to the appearance of healthy and beautiful young plants.

Among the indoor plants can be found representatives of many families, species and varieties. Accordingly, the methods of their reproduction also differ.

Vegetatively, the flower can be bred with its different parts: cuttings, pieces of stem and leaf, layering, offspring, mustache, bulbs, division of the bush.

Plant propagation methods and the principle of choosing a particular method

For reproduction of each houseplant choose the best method. There is a wide variety of breeding methods, but not all of them are suitable for a particular specimen. The choice is made based on its species, season and expected results.

Cuttings successfully propagated most indoor plants with well-developed stems and shoots. Usually cuttings are cut and rooted in the spring or early summer. And cuttings of ficuses of Benjamin, tradescantia, balsam and ivy root well all year round. This method is the most common, as it allows you to quickly get a lot of young specimens from one mother plant.

Leaf cuttings Only a few species of indoor plants are propagated. For Senpoly this method is the best, since it is used almost all year round. But it should be remembered that not all rosette plants with a shortened stem can be propagated by leaf cuttings. For cyclamen, it is not suitable, since this flower is propagated mainly by seeds.

Layering form shrubs with long flexible shoots. This method is used only in the spring so that the winter layouts can already take root. At other times, young plants of these species are produced by cutting.

Offshoots, mustache and bulbs propagate only certain types of indoor plants. For them, these methods are the simplest, and sometimes the only possible. Being engaged in reproduction of these plants it is necessary to create optimal conditions for them and strictly observe the terms of reproduction.

All blooming species are bred by sowing seeds. Even if the plant in room culture rarely blooms and does not form fruit, seeds of this species can be purchased at flower shops. This method is used to obtain a large number of young individuals. But such a need for home floriculture almost never arises. Most often seeds propagate plants for which this method is the only possible one.

Some breeding sites of cultivated plants may seem difficult for inexperienced gardeners.

Reproduction leaf cuttings

For flowers that do not have a stem or form a rosette, the best way to propagate is to use leaf cuttings. For this, a healthy leaflet with a stem of 3-5 cm is cut with a sharp knife. The tip of the stem is dipped into the root stimulator (can be bought in the store). In the ground with the help of a pencil is deepening at an angle of 45 degrees.

The scape is placed in the recess of the bottom of the sheet against the wall of the pot. It is important to note that the sheet itself should not touch the ground. The soil around the stem is crushed.

Leaf cuttings propagate saintpaulia (Usambarsky violet), begonia, gloxinia, and peperomia.

How do plants grow?

During life, the plant grows and develops, passes through various life phases and, reaching maturity, multiplies. By reproduction is meant the reproduction of new organisms, which at the same time carry the hereditary characteristics of the parents. Reproduction is a characteristic feature of all living organisms. It is this process that helps to maintain life not on Earth, to make it continuous. Scientists identify the following methods of propagation of plants: asexual and sexual.

Asexual reproduction

This method does not require different-sex organisms or germ cells, it occurs without fertilization process. In turn, this breeding of plants is divided into two subspecies - vegetative and spores.

With vegetative In this way, a part or several parts are separated from the mother plant, from which new plants are formed. Vegetative reproduction of plants is characterized by the presence of not one parent, but only one.

When breeding disputes In the body of an adult plant, special cells are formed, called spores. Spores are small cells. Inside the spores are formed by the nucleus and cytoplasm, the outside of the cell is covered with a compacted membrane. These specialized cells can survive for a long time in adverse conditions, being like all this time in a kind of "waiting mode". When spores are in a favorable environment for them, they germinate, thus being the beginning of new organisms.

Sexual reproduction

This type of breeding requiresthe participation of female and male organisms-parents, without compliance with this condition, the process of reproduction is impossible. Fertilization is required for this type of breeding. Fertilization is characterized as the process of merging male and female germ cells. Female germ cells are called ova, and men - sperm (motile cells) or sperm (fixed cells). Inside each sex cell is a single set of chromosomes. Chromosomes contain hereditary information about the parent organism. Mature plants usually contain a double set of chromosomes. Thus, in the process of fertilization, the full set of chromosomes necessary for the emergence of a new plant is restored. A new plant combines the characteristics of parental organisms.

Reproduction of angiosperms and gymnosperms

For each semantic group of plants, one can distinguish one's features. For example, in angiosperms and gymnosperms, the result of reproduction is the formation of seeds. The process of fertilization in these plants is as follows. Sperm cells ripen in pollen, and eggs in flower pestles or in female cones. Male reproductive cells are transferred to the female, sex-opposite cells merge, and as a result of this merger is formed zygote (fertilized egg cell). The seed is subsequently formed directly from zygotes. Inside the seed contains the embryo of a new plant and a supply of essential nutrients.

An advantage of reproduction of angiosperms is independence from water, this quality contributed to the wide spreading of this semantic group of plants.

Breeding ferns

For a group of ferns is characterized by the content in the body of an adult plant standard double set of chromosomes.

The process of breeding ferns is as follows:

  1. On the body of a fern spores are formed with a single set of chromosomes within each.
  2. Ripe spores leave the parent body and germinate in the outgrowths.
  3. Spermatozoa and oocytes are formed in the outgrowths.
  4. Sperm swim to the outgrowth in which there are eggs, fertilization takes place.
  5. A new plant of fern is formed from the zygote, which at first “sucks” the nutrients necessary for the maintenance of vital activity from the outgrowth, and later the outgrowth dies.

Ferns and mosses are similar in that water is necessary for fertilization, which complicates the wide distribution of these groups of plants (they can only grow in places with enough water for reproduction).

Reproduction of annual plants

Many people wonder if there is a separate breeding method for annual plants? What types of breeding exist in annual plants? Annual plants are plants whose life cycle lasts only one growing season, that is, they develop, bloom, multiply and die, and all these phases occur within one year. So, what types of breeding exist in annual plants? For this type of plant is characteristic seed propagation only, among them it is impossible to meet the vegetative method of reproduction.

Growing conditions

Planning a garden should be as simple as possible, since the greatest difficulties in caring are delivered by either randomly planted plants or difficult-to-designed compositions. The more comfortable conditions for the growth of plants you create, the greater the return on your future labors.

Before you start planting plants, the site should be put in order. There are a number of important agrotechnical measures, the implementation of which will ensure the normal development of plants and their high decorative effect.

Plant cultivation

After watering the soil is compacted and becomes waterproof and airtight. In order to loosen the soil, as well as remove the roots of weeds, carry out digging. Cultivation of plants necessarily includes the regular loosening of the soil.

For the procedure using a spade or forks. They dig up the soil to a depth of 20 - 25 cm (on the spade of a spade). It is necessary to act with care, trying not to lift the podzol - the infertile layer of the soil. During digging it is necessary to remove the roots of weeds.

Plant Care Rules

Simple rules for caring for plants include recommendations for the timely cleaning of the site from weeds. Weeds grow rapidly on fertile, fertilized and cultivated garden soils. They drown out cultivated plants, preventing them from developing normally and damaging their ornamental effect. In order to get rid of weeds, it is necessary to dig up the site in time (autumn and spring). Weeds are also removed manually or with the help of special preparations - herbicides. Collected plants can either be dried and burned, or added to a compost pit.

How to care for plants during growth

How to care for plants in the process of their active growth to preserve fertility and the structuring of the soil mixture? You will be helped by mulching - this is the sprinkling of soil with some organic material (sawdust, fallen leaves, needles, peat, etc.). This procedure allows you to suppress the growth of weeds, reduces the number of pests, improves soil structure, helps to keep warm and moisture. It should be remembered that on heavy soils the layer of mulch should not exceed 2 cm, and on the lungs it can reach 8 cm.

Europe is conquering the art of bonsai, for which some of the bush cultures are used. One of the most important elements in the care of such plants is pruning, thanks to which they take on an attractive, highly decorative look. Many of the bush crops are more suitable for growing in winter gardens, where there is enough.

Agrotechnics garden plants

The agrotechnology of plants includes the timely and proper application of mineral and organic fertilizers. All fertilizers can be divided into 2 large groups: organic and mineral. These are substances used to improve the properties of the soil, plant nutrition. Mineral fertilizers are made to replenish the supply of nutrients in the soil, such as phosphorus, potassium, and nitrogen. If these substances are introduced separately, they are called simple (ammonium nitrate, superphosphate, potassium chloride). There are complex fertilizers (nitrophoska and ammofoska), as well as complex fertilizers. Their use in a wide range allows agrotechnika garden plants.

Organic fertilizers include humus, peat, manure, guano, bird droppings, compost, sapropel.

Planting plants

Flower crops, like other garden plants, can be grown through seedlings. This is done in the event that the culture is thermophilic, or, if desired, to achieve flowering earlier. Planting of seedlings is usually made in the spring, after the threat of late return frost has passed. Previously dig up the site and make the necessary fertilizers. The planting scheme depends on the individual characteristics of the plant.

Many ornamental crops, especially annuals, are easily propagated by sowing seeds into the ground. In exceptional cases, planting can be done in the fall, but usually it is done in spring. Seeds of some crops should be pre-soaked, others should be stratified. Scheme and timing of planting depend on the individual characteristics of the plant.

Methods and types of vegetative propagation of plants

Plant propagation methods include rhizome division. This method is mainly suitable for herbaceous perennial plants with a fibrous root system. It is best to perform the procedure at the end of summer - beginning of autumn, when new vegetative shoots begin to form. The plant is dug, shake the ground from the roots, pruned shoots and break out a piece containing one or more buds. If necessary, you can use a knife for this. Divided specimens are seated on pre-prepared wells at the same depth at which the mother plant grew, and watered. In this way you can propagate chrysanthemum, host, peony, etc.

Division of rhizome - This is one of the most common ways of breeding perennial crops. The procedure is best done in autumn or early spring. The plant is dug out, freeing the rhizome from the ground and divide it with a sharp knife into several parts so that each of them has a kidney. Then new specimens are seated on pre-prepared holes and watered.

Reproduction by layering - This is another method of vegetative propagation of plants, which is widely used in the cultivation of, for example, strawberries. For this method, choose young flexible branches. They are bent to the ground and instilled, leaving the tip of the shoot on the surface. Sprigs and leaves, located on prikopannom plot, previously removed. Escape can be fixed in the ground with a special stud. In order to stimulate rooting, small cuts are made on the near shoveled shoots.

Plant propagation types include the cutting of adult specimens with their subsequent rooting in a fertile substrate. In this method, cut shoots are rooted either in a container with water or directly in the ground. In the second case, you can use special drugs that stimulate rooting. The cuttings are cut at an angle, the lower tip is dipped in a growth stimulator, after which the planting material is placed on a previously prepared area.

Many ornamental plants breed by self-sowing. The seeds of others have to be harvested and sown annually. It should be remembered that this method of reproduction is suitable only for non-hybrid plant varieties. Otherwise, the signs of the variety will not be preserved and the result obtained will most likely not meet the expectations.

Basic rules for caring for plants

Any, even the most unpretentious types of plants require care. Agrotechnical techniques are usually simple, but they need to be used regularly and in a timely manner. The following are some rules for caring for plants.

All cultures are conventionally divided into drought-resistant and moisture-loving. The first need water only in the hottest period, the second require regular watering. For this you can use a garden hose, a watering can or a special sprinkler. It should be remembered that many plants, being moisture-loving, can not stand the stagnation of water in the soil and need good drainage.

This procedure is based on removing weeds, which usually grow faster than ornamental crops and not only take nutrients from the soil, but also drown out green pets.

Weeding can be done manually or use special cultivators. A good result is the mulching of the soil with various bulk organic materials, such as needles, sawdust, peat or fallen leaves. Weeding should be carried out regularly, as weed plants appear on the site.

Some ornamental crops, especially shrubs, require annual pruning, which stimulates the formation of new shoots and has a positive effect on flowering. For the procedure usually use garden shears, sawing, pruning shears or garden knife. There are several types of trimming. Thus, during thinning, the excess shoots are removed completely, with shortening, the length of the branches is reduced, and during cutting they prevent the growth of individual shoots. Especially badly need pruning roses. The procedure is carried out twice a year - in spring and autumn. Other perennial crops are subject to the procedure after flowering.

Any perennial plant can not grow indefinitely in the same place. Copies grow, lose decorativeness, and the soil is depleted. Поэтому периодически многолетние декоративные культуры следует пересаживать. Перед проведением процедуры выбирают новый участок, перекапывают его, роют лунку и вносят в грунт все необходимые удобрения. При простой пересадке растение осторожно окапывают и переносят на новое место с комом земли.Overgrown copies are pre-divided.

Favorable growing conditions

Choosing a plant for a garden, it is advisable to know its generic and specific name, which will allow to determine the natural habitat, and, therefore, to know its requirements for soil, light and water. It should be remembered that even cultures belonging to the same genus can naturally grow in completely different conditions. Based on the information received, you can try to create a composition of plants with similar requirements to the habitat. In the event that the generic name of the culture is unknown, you can try to determine its preferences yourself. Thus, large leaves and long stems usually indicate that the plant prefers moist fertile soil. Species with small leaves often live under depleted dry soils under natural conditions. At the site it is necessary to create the most favorable conditions for the growth of agricultural and ornamental crops.

Shade perennial crops often have stemless stems and smooth, juicy, dark green leaves. Gray patina and pubescence are a kind of protection from the sun's rays and are inherent in light-loving plants. Cultures with variegated leaves tend to prefer a sunny location. In the shade, their color fades and loses decoration.

Plants, the aerial parts of which are covered with gray pubescence, often like soils rich in lime and do not tolerate the increased acidity of the soil.

Flowers, leaves or fruits add decorativeness to garden crops. The flowering period of some plants occurs in the spring, others - in the summer, the third - in the autumn. In order to create an attractive composition, you should select the culture on the principle of seasonality. So, for example, flowerbeds from early-flowering bulbous, which bloom occurs at about the same time, look great. First, anemone and galantus bloom, then narcissus, tulip and hyacinth. The main requirement for seasonal flower gardens is natural.

Compositions created by this principle are divided into 2 groups. The first is based on decoration for a certain, not very long period of time. In this case, cultures are selected according to the timing of flowering, color, as well as height and density of specimens. Before the beginning of flowering and after its completion, the decorativeness of such compositions is not taken into account. The second group includes plants that are spectacular throughout the entire growing season. In this case, the correct combination of species and their attractiveness, not only during flowering, but also before and after, are very important.

Selection of plants based on the color of their flowers and leaves is carried out according to the rules of color harmony or contrast. Contrast - a visual assessment of the brightness of the color compared to the surrounding background. If plants of unsaturated flowers are present in the composition, they should be selected with greater intensity. So, the red color is enhanced next to green, purple - with yellow, and yellow - with blue. In any composition there is a dominant (dominant) color.

Harmony is a combination of shades, causing a positive aesthetic response.

Cuttings

The most common breeding method . It is used to:

  • currants,
  • gooseberry,
  • grapes
  • cotoneaster,
  • roses,
  • Chubushnik (jasmine),
  • lilacs
  • rhododendrons,
  • indoor plants.

There are several ways of grafting.

Stem

Use long and thick fragments of the shoot with 2-3 internodes and a living kidney or leaf. Cuttings are cut with a sharp knife, placed in water or in a constantly moistened soil to obtain roots. This process can take from 2-3 days to several months. For better rooting, growth stimulants, phytohormones are used, they construct mini-greenhouses and wet chambers. Better root stems taken from young and strong bushes root. The cuttings of tree species are worse than shrub species.

Root

Use thick and long lateral roots. They are cut into small pieces and planted in the soil. Such cuttings can be prepared in the fall, and in the spring to plant in the ground. The method is used for perennials with roots deep in the soil.

Leafy

Suitable for grassy species. The most common method of breeding potted flowers. Cut one or more leaf plates together with the stem and put in the water. When the cutting takes root, you can plant it in the ground.

Vaccination (transplantation)

Is used for:

Grafting is a method of breeding plants of a certain variety. This is a transplant (transplantation) of a previously prepared part of one tree or shrub onto the stem of another. After a time, both of these parts grow together, combining their properties, and continue to grow as a single organism. In other words, the plant root system (stock) is used to propagate another (graft) while preserving its varietal characteristics.

There are two vaccination options.

Budding

Conducted in the spring during the sap flow. A special knife is used to cut a kidney (peephole) and a piece of wood for a graft. The most suitable are considered annual shoots. The bud is placed in a section of the bark of another plant. This method of vaccination is the most economical, simple in execution and provides a greater survival rate of the scion.

Vaccination by cutting

Cuttings are harvested in the fall and stored throughout the winter in wet sand or soil in a cold place. With this storage, the cuttings remain alive, but do not germinate by the time of vaccination. In the spring, using a copulative knife, make an incision in the wood of the stock and the stalk and combine them. It is important to arrange the cuts so that the cambial layers (tree rings) of the stock and the scion coincide and fit snugly together. The junction is tightly wrapped with a cloth and coated with a disinfectant to avoid drying, contamination or displacement of surfaces.

Due to the complexity of the preparation, this method is not popular compared with grafting. But for some cultivated fruit trees, graft reproduction is a must. It is caused by the fact that offspring does not inherit valuable varietal properties during seed multiplication. Such plants will not resemble each other, nor the mother tree. During vegetative propagation, varietal traits are fully transmitted to offspring.

Masking

In this way, multiply:

Some plants are capable of forming daughter processes - stepchildren. They arise on the leaves and stems. Sometimes stepchildren appear in the form of new stems after a strong growth of the main stem. In this case, they must be immediately removed to avoid power shortages.

Paceniks are fully formed plants with their own root system, ready to transplant. They are separated from the parent bush so as to preserve all the roots as much as possible and are placed in a new pot.

Fragmentation

A simple type of breeding plants, which are characterized by strong growth, for example, purslane, primroses, violets, petunias, various shrubs. The plant is dug out and divided into separate ones with maximum preservation of the roots. Each fragment will produce an independent plant with a tendency to grow strongly.

Reproduction by layering

Apply to:

  • berry bushes:
  • flower bushes
  • liana

Layers call the parent plant stems, bent down to the ground and gave new roots. One-year stalks are considered most suitable for this method of reproduction. Therefore, a year before receiving otvodok do pruning lower branches. This stimulates the emergence of new shoots. Young yearling stalks attach to the ground with special hooks, sprinkle with soil in places of internodes and pour water on them. When such a layer takes root, it is separated from the main bush and transplanted to a new location.

Breeding stolons

This method of plant propagation is typical for:

Some plant organisms form long and thin short-lived shoots - stolons. They can be above ground (whips) with green leaves or underground (whiskers) with leaves in the form of scales. At the very end of the stolon is the apical bud. Reaching the ground, the bud takes root and gives rise to an independent plant. After rooting stolons die.

Breeding root suckers

Occurs in tree species:

  • aspen,
  • white and black poplar,
  • gray alder,
  • euonymus,
  • cherry,
  • lilac.

In some plants, adventitious buds are formed on the roots. Gradually, the roots grow, and above-ground shoots arise from the buds. At first, a new plant is fed by the parent through the connecting root. Gradually, the root dies, the formed offspring becomes independent.

Reproduction by modified shoots

Under the modified shoots imply:

  • Tubers - strongly thickened shoots or thickened tops of stolons with several internodes. Developed in potatoes, sweet potatoes, Jerusalem artichoke.
  • Bulbs - thickened stems-bottom with fleshy scale-like leaves. Formed in lilies, tulips, onions, garlic.

These underground formations contain the beginnings of new plants and a supply of nutrients for their full development.

Reproduction occurs after a strong growth of the parent plant. On the axillary buds appear daughter bulbs or tubers (kids). They are separated and form independent plants. Large tubers can be cut into several parts with the preservation of a bud (eye) on each of them and planted in the soil. The bulbs are planted in the ground.

It is important to understand that each plant has its own way to multiply. It is necessary to take into account the reproduction characteristics of each plant and choose the most suitable way for them, paying attention to planting dates and harvesting material.

Breeding leaves

The easiest way to plant greens in this way. In supermarkets today you can find celery, lettuce, parsley, the roots of which are in a miniature pot of earth. At home, you can land such a bundle in a larger pot, in a greenhouse or open ground. It all depends on the time of year.

Soon the number of leaves on the plant will increase significantly, and you can serve greens to the table. If the purchased bundle is thick enough, you can divide it into several containers.

Breeding stepsons

This method is suitable for the reproduction of tomatoes. The ashes called a shoot, growing out of the sinus between the previously appeared shoot and the stem. Usually it is cut off and thrown away so that the plant does not spend strength on excess greens, but gives them to the fruits. However, you can root stepchild, planting him near the mother plant in a wet ground.

It is necessary not to confuse varieties of tomatoes. After watering the stepson will have roots, and it will begin to grow as an independent plant. You can root stepchild in a glass of water or a pot, and then landed in the ground.

Reproduction by air layouts

The air layer is called an escape from the main stem. As if the plant forms another stalk. This is often the case with tomatoes. It produces its own leaves, flowers, fruits. But the root system does not cope with the nutrition of overgrown plants. Fruits are small.

If such a layer of air bend down to the ground, fasten with a spear or special brace and sprinkle with soil, it will take root and grow as an independent plant. You can also do with the branches of bushes: raspberries, currants, gooseberries. As well as shoots of creeping apple and houseplants. It is better to bend down the wood layers in the fall, pressing them down with stone or brick for reliability. In the spring they already take root.

In fact, the strawberry whiskers are also air layouts. After a socket appears on such a layer, you can bend it to the ground and root the socket. A new strawberry bush appears.

Reproduction by dividing the roots

The roots of such plants as chrysanthemum, lungwort, peony, geranium, dahlia can be separated and planted at a distance from each other.

The separation of the roots can be done by hand, cut off with a knife, and in the bushes cut off with a shovel or ax. When transplanting you need to grab a lump of earth, so that the plant will settle down faster in a new place.

Consider the vegetative propagation of plants

Those of them that have not only a single central stem, usually provides processes that can be separated into an independent plant. A stone rose, for example, can grow from one leaflet - it will give both a small stalk and roots from a break point. To multiply the plants in this way is necessary in the spring or autumn - more likely to succeed.

Plant leaf propagation

In such ways, a separate leaflet, or part, or a leaf with part of the stem, succulents multiply. They are forced to live in a hot climate, so they are content with little.

It is enough to put such a piece of a plant on the window sill for 2-5 days to dry it, and plant. It is not necessary to put into the water - it will rot, and in the earth it will take root quite safely, in 1-2 weeks.

Sometimes, if you do not plant a leaf on time, he, lying directly on the windowsill, will release both the roots and the stalk. Plant in the ground - will take.

Plant propagation by cuttings

But in this case one cannot do without lowering into the water. Choosing a stalk, cutting off and strengthening over a jar of water. We plant in the ground only when the roots grow. Water and cover for the first time with a plastic bag.

Plant propagation by division

This method is used mainly in the country, where many plants that grow in a bunch or several stems together. Yes, and in plants such plants are also planted. These are phlox, echinacea, host, daylily, aster, astilba, iris, rudbeckia, various ornamental herbs. There are many plants of this nature.

When setting off the sequence of actions is as follows:

- we take a sharp shovel and carefully dig a bush,

- we divide it into separate plants or bundles with good roots, sometimes it is impossible to separate them with hands, then we just cut the root mass - that’s okay, the roots will recover

- we plant the separated plants or bunches and we water.

That's all the wisdom. Over time, you will become comfortable, and all the plants that have been planted and removed from the cuttings will grow actively and successfully.

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