In the gardens often planted not only ordinary shrubs and trees, but also exotic, which include Japanese quince. Another name is Chaenomeles. The home of the plant is Japan. It is also found in China and Korea, though only a wild species. Also, the tree is planted in the gardens of Ukraine and Russia. Quince prefers to grow on plains, mountain slopes (up to 1.4 km above sea level), forest edges, clearings and clearings. It can be found in the marshland, along the reservoirs.
Japanese quince: photos and description of the shrub
The plant is a low tree or deciduous shrub, reaching a height of up to three meters and living about 60-80 years. Distinctive features of quince are:
- Branches. Being felt-colored and colored in a green-gray shade, after a while, as they grow, they become black-brown. At the same time their hairiness is lost. Black color of the kidneys. The bark is thin, scaly, colored in dark gray or reddish brown. On the branches on the petioles are shiny, 5-centimeter egg-shaped leaves with a blunt-toothed edge.
- The flowers have an obovate petals of orange-red color, the diameter of which reaches 4 cm.
- The fruit is a false apple, shaped like a pear or an apple about 4 cm in circumference, covered with slightly pubescent skin. As for the pulp, it is firm, sweet-tart, astringent.
Quince fruits contain a storehouse of useful components for the body. So, vitamin C in them is about 100-150 mg, except for it, vitamins E, B1, PP, A, B2, K, B6, various organic acids (citric, malic, tartronic), fatty acids, proteins, sugar, fructose, tannins are found. substances, ethyl esters, antioxidants, glucose, pectins, mineral components, such as calcium, boron, iron, phosphorus, copper, zinc, pectins, silicon.
Quince seeds contain: amygdalin glycoside, starch, myristic and isoleic acid glycerides, mucus, tannins, including tannin.
Where to place
Quince shrubs like good lighting, so you need to choose the lighted areas on your site. In principle, the plant grows well in the shade, but you will not see any fruit from it.
Be especially careful when planting and caring for Japanese quinces in the Moscow region. Of all the existing varieties, many winter well without insulation. But with very cold winter annuals can freeze. Trees are recommended to be planted in areas where there is usually a lot of snow. And if the harsh winters are a regularity, the bushes cover with a spruce branches for the winter.
Chaenomeles feels great on any soil. Favorite are raw clay and poor sand. But they need to be fertilized with humus and moistened. Saline and limestone soils are categorically unacceptable.
For planting mix sand, leaf soil and peat in a ratio of 1: 2: 2. Additionally, fertilizers are added to the well: superphosphate (0.2 kg), 1-2 buckets of humus (1-2 buckets), potassium nitrate (0.3 kg), ash (0.5 kg).
Quince shrubs planted 3-5 copies in one group. Adult plants are located at a distance of not less than one meter from each other, so that the plants develop well.
Young animals are best transferred to the ground at a permanent place with the arrival of spring, when the earth thaws. Possible planting Japanese quince in the fall in the period of strong leaf fall. But this is fraught with the fact that the plant does not have enough time to take root before the frost and it will die.
Place the tree so that the root neck is flush with the soil. If the plant is already adult, 3-5 years old, they need to dig a hole 0.5-0.8 m deep and 0.5 m wide.
Japanese quince can be propagated in several ways.
The core is removed from the ripened fruit and seeds are pulled out. They must be sown immediately in the ground in the fall. Seed germination is excellent.
If it is impossible to perform sowing before winter, the seeds are sent to stratification: they are kept for 3–3 months in wet sand at + 3 + 5ºС. When they hatch, the seeds are planted in the ground.
In early June, early in the morning, when it is not very hot and dry, cut the green cuttings so that they have 2 nodes. It would be best if you cut the stalk with a “heel” up to 1 cm. Place the cuttings in growth stimulants (for example, a 0.01% solution of indolylbutyric acid) for a day. You can use the "root". The prepared material is planted in the substrate (peat and sand, 1: 3) according to the scheme 7 * 5 cm positioned obliquely.
Quince gives a large number of root layers. To get them, you need to dig a plant and separate delenki 0.5 cm thick and 10-15 cm high. At the same time, see that the root system is well developed.
With one bush, you can "get" no more than 6 delenok.
The resulting processes are planted vertically and take care of them, maintaining the substrate moisture and watering. After spend mulching chips, humus, chips.
Diseases and pests
For the Japanese quince, the main problem is the plant louse, when the plant can die. As soon as you notice the first signs of these insects, you should immediately carry out the treatment with insecticidal preparations.
With the onset of cool and wet weather, accompanied by high humidity, trees can undergo various diseases of fungal origin. For example, it could be:
- cercosporosis, which is detected by the occurrence of brown spots, fading with time,
- foliage spotting and necrosis, leading to shrinkage and foliage deformation,
- Ramulariasis, the signal of which is the formation of brown spots on the leaves.
Problems can be dealt with by treating the plant with a soap-copper solution and a base of 0.2%. If you are afraid to use chemicals or simply do not recognize them, you can use onion extract (0.15 kg of onion peel pour 10 liters of water and insist day), which should be sprayed several times with bushes with a frequency of 5 days.
Quince is considered a medicinal plant, and in the course are not only the fruits, but also the leaves and seeds.
Novice gardeners care about the question of when to collect the fruits of the Japanese quince. Fruits are harvested in the fall before the first frost. Then each fruit is well wrapped in paper, placed in a ventilated box and stored in a cool place (6-10 ° C), devoid of light. Even unripe fruits can be stored in this state until February. If the "apples" are small, they can be placed in a plastic bag and put in the refrigerator. There they can be stored up to 3 months.
Quince foliage is harvested when the plant is still blooming. It is laid out on a baking sheet and dried in the shade or dryer at a temperature of 40 degrees, shifted to tightly closed containers and used for its intended purpose.
If you need to collect the seeds, they are pulled out of ripe fruit, dried at 40-50 ° C. Then they are placed in containers with well-closed lids and stored for not more than a year.
With proper planting and care for Japanese quince (henomeles), the shrub will not only please with beautiful flowering, and later a good harvest, but also support your health.
- 1. Listen to the article (soon)
- 2. Description
- 3. Landing
- 3.1. When to plant
- 3.2. How to plant
- 4. Care
- 4.1. Growing conditions
- 4.2. Diseases and pests
- 5. Trimming
- 6. Reproduction
- 6.1. Breeding root suckers
- 6.2. Growing from seed
- 6.3. Cuttings
- 6.4. Graft
- 7. Grades
- 8. Chaenomeles in landscape design
- 9. Properties: harm and benefit
- 9.1. Beneficial features
- 9.2. Contraindications
Planting and care of henomeles (in short)
- Bloom: profuse, in May-June for three weeks.
- Landing: in the spring, before the start of sap flow, and in the fall, during the period of leaf fall.
- Lighting: bright sunlight.
- The soil: humus-rich, light - sandy, loamy or sod-podzolic, slightly acidic - pH 6.5.
- Watering: after planting - frequent and abundant, especially in a dry time. Further regular, but moderate.
- Top dressing: after planting, fertilizing will be needed only one year later: in the spring, a compost bucket, 100 g of potash fertilizer and 300 g of superphosphate are applied to the tree trunk. In summer, quince is fertilized with ammonium nitrate or mullein.
- Trimming: Sanitary cleaning and formative pruning is carried out in early spring, until sap flow begins. When the bush reaches the age of eight, carry out its rejuvenating pruning.
- Reproduction: seeds, root suckers, grafting and cuttings.
- Pests: shchitovki and spider mites.
- Diseases: cytosporosis and ramulariasis.
Japanese quince (henomeles) - description
Japanese quince henomeles is a densely leafy shrub up to 3 m high with a dense crown of the same diameter. Young shoots of plants are green, scaly-felt, then they become bare and black-brown. The leaves of the Japanese quince are spatulate or obovate, narrowed to the base, with obtuse serrated edges, 3 to 5 cm long and 2 to 3 cm wide. At a young age they are bronze, but the adult leaves are dark green. Pink, scarlet-red or orange flowers with a diameter up to 5 cm are collected on 2-6 pieces in corymbose inflorescences. Rounded forms of yellow-green edible fruits of Japanese quince with a diameter of up to 6 cm ripen by mid-autumn.
In the culture of the plant since 1874. Japanese quince bush grows very slowly. The plant is distinguished by its thermophilicity, but despite this it can withstand temperatures down to -30 ºC, although at this temperature it will freeze annual shoots and flower buds that turn out to be above the level of snow. Therefore, Japanese quince in Siberia may not bloom as luxuriously as the Japanese quince in the Moscow region or the Japanese quince in the Urals. However, this crop is grown even in places with a harsh climate.
When to plant a Japanese quince in the ground.
Planting Japanese quince and care for it follows the general rules of growing garden bushes. In open ground it is better to plant henomeles in spring, before sap flow begins. Autumn planting is also possible; however, it is less desirable, since the thermophilous henomeles may not have time to settle down in a new place before the start of frost. The best planting material is two-year-old seedlings of the Japanese quince with a closed root system, which are watered abundantly before planting. For seedlings with an open root system, you should carefully examine the roots, if necessary, soak them for several hours in water, and then remove the rotten, dry and damaged roots.
How to plant a Japanese quince in the garden.
Chaenomeles are planted in well-lit areas, because in the shade it develops worse and does not bloom so abundantly. The soil of the plant prefers rich in humus, but light - sod-podzolic, loamy or sandy loam with a slightly acidic reaction (pH 6.5). Japanese quince tolerates peat soils worse. It is advisable to allocate for it a place protected from winds and drafts from the south or south-west side of the house. Keep in mind that the Japanese quince tolerates the transplant very poorly, and it will grow 50-60 years at the place of your choice.
The soil for spring planting should be prepared in the fall: clean from weeds, dig with the addition of leaf earth and sand. Perekhovanny compost is also used for digging at the rate of 10 kg per m² and 40 g of phosphate and potash fertilizers per the same area unit. For a single planting, they dig a hole 50 cm in diameter and 50-80 cm deep, and also prepare a soil mixture by adding 1-2 buckets of humus, 500 g of ash, 300 g of superphosphate and 30 g of potassium nitrate to the fertile soil from the upper layer that was excavated. . In a group planting, plants are placed at a distance of 80-150 cm from each other, and when planting a hedge there is a sufficient interval of 50-60 cm. If you intend to get a harvest of fruits by autumn, then plant 2-3 different varieties nearby. One bush of the Japanese quince gives an average of about 2 kg of fruit, but there are also fruitful years when you can collect up to 5 kg from one plant.
On the day of planting, a mound of soil mixture is poured into the center of the pit and a seedling is placed on it in such a way that the root collar is flush with the surface. The remaining space of the pit filled with fertile soil mixture. After planting, the surface is compacted and watered abundantly. The shoots of the seedlings are shortened to 15-20 cm.
Cultivation conditions of Japanese quince.
Growing and caring for the Japanese quince is unlikely to seem like a daunting task. During the first time after planting, the quince needs regular watering, this is especially important in a dry season. After watering, the soil around the plant is carefully loosened to a depth of 8-10 cm. At the same time, weeds should be removed. To keep the moisture in the soil as long as possible, the stem of a Japanese quince the size of a crown projection is mulched with a layer of peat, pine nut shells, crushed bark or sawdust 3-5 cm thick.
Once you have planted fertilizer when planting in a hole, the plant will not need them for at least a year. From the second or third year of life, the Japanese quince in spring is fed with mineral and organic fertilizers: put a compost bucket, 300 g of superphosphate and 100 g of potash fertilizer in the trunk circle of each bush. During the summer, liquid fertilizing with a solution of ammonium nitrate (20 g of fertilizer per bush) or mullein (3 l of a 10% solution for each plant) will not become superfluous.
In late autumn you need to prepare a Japanese quince for winter. Pristvolny circle securely cover with a thick layer of dry foliage or fir spruce branches. Saplings or rooted cuttings are covered with spanbond or lutrasil, and low-growing compact bushes are covered with wooden boxes or cardboard boxes.
Diseases of the Japanese quince and pests.
The Japanese quince is ill in exceptional cases, when there is practically no care of it or under the influence of natural disasters, for example, in cool rainy weather, which provokes the activity of fungal infections, the development of necrosis and blotches. At this time, the plant can infect cytosporosis or Ramularia: the leaves of the plant turn brown, dry, the color of the henomeles bark changes. Copper-based antifungal chemicals should be used to combat these diseases, but before treatment, the diseased branches and shoots must be removed and burned.
Of pests for quinces of the Japanese danger are scale insects and spider mites, whose appearance is easier to prevent than to get rid of them for a long time. The first prophylactic spraying with an acaricidal drug (Aktar, Aktellik, Karbofos and the like) is carried out before bud break, and then re-treatment may not be necessary.
Pruning of Japanese Quince
Pruning shrub Japanese quince shrubs well, and this makes it a valuable plant for ornamental gardening. In order not to get hurt, cut in thick garden gloves.
In the spring, they carry out sanitary cleaning of the shrub: they remove frozen, dry, damaged and improperly growing shoots in winter. Places slices thicker than 7 mm are treated with garden pitch. Formative pruning is also carried out in spring, before sap flow begins, but they begin to form the plant crown at the age of 4-5 years old: so that the bush does not grow in breadth and thickens, a part of the root shoots are cut out annually, leaving only 2-3 young saplings. The most valuable shoots are considered to be located horizontally at a height of 20-40 cm from the ground. Vertically growing or creeping along the ground shoots to be removed.
When the bush reaches eight-ten years of age and the annual growth of shoots will decrease to 10 cm, it is necessary to carry out rejuvenating pruning. First, the bush is thinned, leaving only 10-15 strong shoots. Since the main fruiting occurs on three-four-year branches, you need to gradually cut the branches, which turned five or more years old, replacing them with young shoots from the root shoots.
What does quince look like
This ornamental shrub still, as well as two hundred years ago, is decorated with house adjoining sites. Characteristics of the Japanese quince:
- The height of the bush reaches two meters. The bush itself is sprawling, with branches that bend into arcs.
- On the quince branches there is a small amount of thorns. And although the breeders managed to achieve their reduction, the branches still, like the wild quince, have remained prickly.
- It blooms with pink, orange and white flowers with a diameter of about four centimeters. Flowers terry and large.
- Her leaves are small and glossy.
- The fruits of the Japanese quince are yellow, smaller than an apple.
Quince Japanese planting and care in the suburbs
Shrub tolerates frost well, reaching thirty degrees of frost. Thanks to what they love to use it in the landscapes of Moscow region and central Russia. For a more severe winter, the quince should be covered with fir branches with a film. The same applies to young plants.
As a decorative ornament planted low bushes of three or four pieces. Not bad Japanese quince looks alpine slide or just a flower bed.
Often they plant it in a composition with magnolia or spirea. You can plant with evergreen plantings, and around the shrubs to create a clearing of grassy plants and violets.
Flowering Chaenomeles begins in May and lasts for twenty days. Цветки распускаются неравномерно.
Also, this plant is used to strengthen the slopes, as the quince root system is able to grow in breadth, forming an extensive growth.
The average lifespan of a bush is about forty years.
It belongs to the family of Pink. The homeland of this plant, as you might guess, is China and Japan. It was from there that the quince spread around the world, so it is not surprising that the quince is thermophilic and prefers a temperate climate without winter frosts. But she has no preferences for soil for planting. It feels equally well on many soils and even in arid climates.
Planting Japanese quince in the ground
There are some rules that should be followed when planting a Japanese quince in open ground:
- The shrub should be planted in early spring, before sap flow begins in the body of the plant.
- Soak up the roots of planting material so that they wake up and strengthen. If there are slightly rotted processes on the root system, they are removed.
- In order to quince well settled, use for planting seedlings that are at least two years old.
- Planting quince in the fall is undesirable due to the fact that the plant may not have time to harden.
- Pick a landing site with good natural light. In the shade a quince will not give the desired abundance of flowers. It may be south or southwest on your site.
- And also make sure that the place was not exposed to winds and drafts, otherwise the plant can cause irreparable harm.
- The soil is best suited loamy or sandy, but the soil should be rich in humus with weak acidity.
If you care for quince properly, then its life can be increased to sixty years. Replanting quinces from place to place is not recommended, so try once and for all decide on a place for quinces.
How to land
Since the fall of preparing the ground for spring planting. The place where the quince will grow is cleared of weeds and dug up along with the sand and leaves. Be sure to make fertilizer: compost from peat and potassium. It will take about ten kilograms of potash fertilizer per pit with the following dimensions: fifty centimeters in diameter and sixty depth.
If the shrubs are planted in a group, then the distance between them should be at least eighty centimeters. If you want to have a hedge from a Japanese quince, then maintain a distance of at least fifty centimeters.
The yield of one bush is 2-3 kg, and with very large ones you can collect up to five.
Sapling is planted in such a way that the root neck is level with the surface. The plant is planted in the ground with a soil mixer and compacted. Be sure to shorten the shoots of seedlings. They should be no more than fifteen centimeters.
Care and cultivation
Growing henomeles will not be difficult. The plant can be considered unpretentious.
Quince tolerates frost well and is able to grow and bear fruit in climates with winter temperatures of thirty degrees. The plant, as a rule, takes root in all soils, although preference is given to soft with medium acidity.
And also one of the features of the Japanese quince is its excellent drought tolerance.
Water the quince moderately, it does not tolerate excess moisture. In order for the bush to look aesthetically attractive and well fruited, trim the shrub. Approximately twenty branches per plant are considered permissible. Dry branches are pruned in the spring as soon as the plant awakens.
The bush is covered in winter only if the frost exceeds the temperature of thirty degrees. Otherwise, shelter is not required. The exception may be only young seedlings. They are usually covered with spruce branches and thermo-cloth. In winter, sprinkle the bushes with snow.
The first fruits can be obtained two years after planting. The quince is harvested in the fall until the very frost, and if in your area they come early, then the unripe fruits ripen perfectly in the house. Keep the harvest until the New Year.
Watering and feeding
Japanese quince does not like excessive moisture, so watering it should be rare and moderate. It is believed that watering it is enough once every thirty days.
With dry summer, the amount can be increased, but not by much. The fact is that the root of the quince is in the form of a rod and it easily reaches the moist soil.
Plant nutrition begins with the second year of life.
They start to it, as a rule, in the spring with the use of nitrogen fertilizers. The next feeding will be during flowering in mid-May and also with the help of nitrogen fertilizers. Potassium fertilizers are applied in the fall.
Japanese Quince Varieties
Japanese quince have long been engaged in breeders and cultivated a lot of varieties. The most popular among gardeners are as follows:
- Gayardi has beautiful flowers the color of salmon.
- Product of Ukraine breeders - grade Nikolay. It flowers in a bright orange color, and the fruits are of medium size and slightly bumpy. The bush itself is wide with long branches.
- Beautiful yellow flowers with a red border has Papel variety.
- Umbilikat Japanese variety grows up to two meters tall. Blooms in pink. Its branches are extremely prickly.
- The variety comes from Holland - Fascination. A low shrub, barely one meter tall, blooms with red flowers.
- American variety Crimson and Gold also low. Blooms burgundy flowers. The fruits are small, but with a thin skin.
- Belgian variety Merlozi It is distinguished by its high growth and erect prickly branches. The flowers are white.
- Winterhardy grade Lichtar - Another result of the efforts of Ukrainian breeders, has large fruits, reaching one hundred grams each. Growth bush up to one meter, and the flowers are bright red.
- French varieties Simoni and Nivali have tall stature and sprawling branches. In Simoni, the flowers are small and red in color, while in Nivali they are white.
Japanese quince: the benefits and harm
Chhenomeles has all the vitamins and microelements necessary for human activity. In addition, it has a beneficial effect on the digestive system. Its nutrients will help to cope with any inflammatory processes.
That is why I recommend using quince jam along with raspberry jam during colds.
It was noted that with constant use of quince or the products of its alteration, a person's sleep is restored and the mental state noticeably improves. Increased performance and passes depression.
As well as the fruits are recommended to use for pregnant women during attacks of toxicosis. In short, the benefits of henomeles is undeniable.
Japanese quince: description
The Japanese quince is distinguished into a separate genus of henomeles in the family of pink plants. This genus is currently represented by six species. Among amateur gardeners in all regions of the CIS and Russia, the henomeles variety, Japanese or Japanese quince, has received the greatest distribution and recognition.
Japan is the birthplace of this amazing plant. It is in China and Japan that this fruit and decorative flowering shrub is widely grown. The Japanese quince got to Asia and European countries only in the ⅩⅤⅢ century and, thanks to its usefulness and originality, quickly spread to summer cottages and in private gardens.
This plant culture refers to the fast-growing crops. Fruiting begins already at 3-4 years, and with good care, you can get up to 4-6 kg of fruits from one bush, and the large-fruited varieties can have fruits weighing up to 50-70 grams. The flesh of the quince has an orange or yellow color, and the skin is sometimes white-pink, but most often a bright or pale yellow color. The fruits have a delicate exquisite aroma of lemon or many other citrus plants. Fruits remain on the branches until late autumn.
Chaenomeles grows beautifully in many countries of Central Asia and Europe. And no less widespread this plant has received in Moldova, Belarus, Ukraine, Crimea and the Caucasus. But here in the central and northern regions of Russia, frostbite of the upper branches is sometimes observed, therefore, in these areas, quinces of creeping or cluster forms are more often grown. At the same time, they save it from low temperatures by covering it with snow or by making temporary shelters. In the southern regions, this culture is formed by a multi-truncated tree with a height of up to 2.5–3 m.
Advantages of Japanese Quince
A good gardener on the site usually grows many varieties of different fruits, but quince has an undeniable number of advantages over them:
- This culture is not afraid of frost. Even in cold regions, it survives well if there is snow cover.
- Chaenomeles has a high recovery capacity. Even when the tops of the plants are frozen, the total yield of the bush does not suffer.
- The plant is drought-resistant, therefore, practically does not need additional watering.
- With proper care, the plant can bear fruit in one place for up to 50 years.
- High safety of fruit, without losing taste.
The fruits of the Japanese quince have sour, astringent tastetherefore, it is also called northern lemon. Vitamin C in quince fruits is contained several times more than in lemon. And also fruits contain many other beneficial vitamins, organic acids, beneficial trace elements and other healing substances that are vital to man.
The fruits of the plant are widely used in folk and official medicine. High potassium content contributes to the normalization of blood pressure, which, accordingly, prevents the risk of occurrence and improves the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. The ability to remove from the body of radionuclides and salts of heavy metals, due to the combination ascorbic acid with pectinsin the fruits of the Japanese quince, which is very relevant for regions with poor environmental conditions.
In inflammatory processes, the combination effect is great. tannins with pectins. And from the leaves and seeds, you can prepare a universal remedy to solve skin problems and the effects of burns. The juice of the plant is very useful for the prevention of lung diseases.
The fruits of chhenomeles are very dense, due to the huge content of stony cells in the pulp and the binder, therefore they are practically not consumed in their raw form. But after appropriate processing, they become useful and nutritious delicacies. In the menu of many housewives in a large amount there are various jams, compotes, candied fruits, jellies, cooked on the basis of the fruits of northern lemon. Various tinctures of quince occupy a special place with increasing vitality.
A huge variety of quince varieties allows you to choose the right plant for any purpose:
- Quince ordinary. This species of quince is divided into five varieties, which mainly differ from each other in the shape of their fruits and a number of some biological features. Two types of decorative quince are: marble, with a leaf surface mottled, covered with yellow and white spots, pyramidal, has a pyramidal crown. The remaining three varieties belong to the garden quince, which differ in the shape of the fruit and are grown mainly for the purpose of obtaining fruit.
- Decorative quince. All varieties of this variety do not have high requirements for the composition of the soil, are highly resistant to drought, and can comfortably grow in conditions of high gas pollution and dustiness. Decorative varieties perfectly tolerate pruning and shearing, which is necessary to give the crown a beautiful shape. These qualities of decorative quince are often used for landscaping urban parks and streets.
- Quince garden. On the territory of our country 39 varieties of 400 cultivated in this form are cultivated. Garden quince is distinguished by high yield, winter hardiness, resistance to diseases, size and taste of fruits. The main characteristics of the classification of this variety is considered to be the period of ripening of the fruit, the shape of the crown and the fruit itself.
- Quince pear-shaped. According to the shape of the fruit, this variety of quince is divided: pear-shaped and apple-shaped. Pear-shaped fruits are sweeter and more juicy, but apple-shaped ones are more early ripening.
Japanese quince: planting and care
Planting chaenomeles requires compliance with certain conditions:
- Soil selection. Lime soil is not suitable for growing northern lemon. Chhenomeles loves loamy soil, rich in humus and fairly moist, although it can also feel comfortable on dense clay areas.
- Lighting. The Japanese quince grows well and bears fruit in sunny areas. In the case when this plant is planted in a shaded place, the northern lemon blooms beautifully, but the fruiting can be broken.
- Temperature conditions. Quince loves a mild climate and warmth. However, winter conditions tolerate quite well, especially if the snow cover is rather high. At low temperatures and no snow, the plant must be sheltered from frost.
- Moisture. This plant is considered resistant to dry periods, so watering frequent quince is not required. Only young bushes immediately after planting need moderate, additional moisture. Only in no case can not allow stagnation of water due to the possibility of damage to the root system.
- Cold winds and drafts are undesirable for young plants.therefore, it is desirable to plant them on the south side of the plot.
It is better to carry out the process of planting chaenomeles in spring, but preparing the place where the plant will be grown should be dealt with in the fall. For what it is necessary to produce high-quality weeding and weed the ground well on the site. If necessary, it is necessary to improve the composition of the soil. To do this, add to the soil sand, mineral and organic fertilizers. Such operations will make the soil more friable, capable of better flowing water and air.
Planting quinces in open ground should be carried out after two years of growing the seedling in a special container. To do this, it is necessary to prepare in advance the planting pits with a depth of 80 cm and a diameter of up to 50 cm. Add 300 grams of superphosphate, 30 grams of potassium nitrate and two buckets of humus to the wells for planting.
Then carefully, without damaging the root system, together with the ground we transfer the seedling to the prepared hole. The root of the plant is completely submerged, however, not very deep. After that we water well sapling and produce mulching of the base with humus. At one place, the northern lemon can live up to 60 years, so a transplant should not be performed more than once.
Operations for the care of the northern lemon is in many ways similar to the main work in the garden for the care of other plants. They include:
- Weeding and loosening the soil. In the summer, such care should be carried out regularly, which enhances the effect of the qualitative development of the root system.
- Mulching. An action designed to preserve long-term moisture in the upper soil layer. Around the low bushes need to pour a layer (5 cm) of peat, sawdust or bark. Soil mulching is best done at the end of spring or in autumn, after the onset of frost.
- Top dressing. The feeding process should be carried out in the third year after planting the plant in open ground. This is done at the beginning of the spring period. For dressing use mineral and organic fertilizers. The near-stem space should be well filled with potassium, superphosphate and compost. In the summer periodically, it is desirable to fertilize the soil with liquid mixtures of bird droppings and ammonium nitrate.
- Watering. This operation can be carried out quite rarely, in the dry period. As well as moderate soil moisture should be carried out in the period of active growth of a young plant.
- Formation of the crown. Every year, trees and bushes need to be trimmed in a timely manner. Pruning is done at the beginning of the spring period. Until the emergence of buds need to remove the branches of plants that tend upward. Pruning shrubs in the autumn can cause the plant to freeze.
- Sanitary care. Such pruning must be done without fail, because the removal of dried, old, lying on the surface of the branches, has a positive effect on the comfortable condition of the whole plant. To carry out such pruning is better in spring.
- Plant protection in winter. Before the onset of cold weather, it is necessary to cover the shrub with fallen leaves or spruce legs. To save the snow cover you need to install special shields. But the young plants are best for the winter period to cover with a special insulating material.
Henomeles - Japanese Quince: Varieties and Varieties
Chaenomeles or Japanese quince is attributed to the genus of the same name. The habitat of quince in nature is found on the Japanese islands, in China and Korea, where the plant lives on moistened, humus-rich soils.
Decorative quince is represented by deciduous or evergreen shrubs that grow up to 1 meter, or trees reaching 3 m.
The branches of the plant are densely covered with beautiful shiny leaves of bright green color. The edge of the leaf blade is jagged, large stipules have a serrate form. The branches of the plant are flexible, arched, decoratively curved. Many species and varieties of chhenomeles have sharp spines up to 2 cm long on the shoots. Sometimes the leaves on the branches are absent, and the shoots are completely covered with some spiny thorns.
Корневая система растения стержневая, корни мощные и уходят глубоко в землю. Растению не страшна засуха: длинные корни способны достичь водоносных пластов на значительной глубине. Transplanting an adult plant is quite a serious problem - it is often impossible to transplant a tree without damaging the root system.
Particular decorative plant boasts during flowering. Take a look at the photo of a blossoming Japanese quince: flowers with a diameter of 3-5 cm, the very charm. The standard color of chhenomeles colors is in red-orange range, but there are varieties with pink and white colors. Individual flowers are collected in a brush with an even number of colors (usually 2-6 pieces). Especially decorative look varieties with double flowers, completely covering the curved graceful branches.
Amazingly beautiful plant also bears fruit. In early autumn, small fruits ripen, densely covering the branches. The color of the fruit, depending on the variety, may be green, yellow or orange. Fruits remain on the branches until the frost, which does not affect the quality of the fruit. Young plants begin to bear fruit from the 3rd year. The photo shows different types of chhenomeles fruits that resemble a quince or a small apple.
In the recent past, the plant was valued only for its decorative appearance. Modern breeding work is aimed at the breeding of fruit varieties without thorns and spines with improved qualities and taste of fruits. The fact is that fruits contain a record high percentage of vitamin C, which is preserved even when canned.
The variety of Japanese quince species includes:
- henomeles Mauleya (low quince),
- henomeles katayansky,
- Quince beautiful.
Proper landing of the Japanese quince
Planting a Japanese quince is best timed to coincide with the warm season, the mid-spring is perfect for this purpose. Young seedlings are allowed to be planted in separate pits and trenches (the depth of the planting pit is up to 40 cm, width - 50 x 50 cm).
The plant is undemanding to the soil, but can not grow without regular dosed irrigation. Overflowing the root system is also destructive for a young tree, just like arid content. Young chenomeles plants react negatively to fertilizing with organic fertilizers in the first three years of their life. Do not apply fertilizer during planting and with further growth of the tree.
Tip! When planting Japanese quince, it is important to take into account soil acidity indicators - the plant does not tolerate salinization and hard calcareous soils.
If at the site of planting the depth of groundwater is insignificant, it is necessary to provide reliable drainage and protect the roots of the young bush from soaking.
Quince reconciles with penumbra, but this arrangement leads to a decrease in flowering and a low percentage of fruit formation. When choosing a place for planting a Japanese quince, it is necessary to provide maximum illumination of the crown. Young tree must be protected from direct wind. It is best to have a quince landing under the protection of buildings.
Chaenomeles - culture care, basic rules
The care of the crop consists of the forming pruning of the crown, which is carried out annually, as well as ensuring timely watering and weeding.
Sanitary pruning provides for the annual removal of the lower branches that tend to the ground, as well as all the old branches (older than 5 years).
In dry years when watering quince, it is desirable to provide for laying a layer of mulch, so that the soil remains moist longer. The mulch layer can be laid in near-trunk circles in early spring, as soon as the snow melts.
In winter, the plant requires mandatory shelter from the cold. Therefore, before the onset of cold time, it is useful to fall asleep with foliage and cover the branches and stem of the Japanese quince with laparnik. Sometimes adult plants have to be fenced in winter with wooden shields to protect from the cold.
Tip! In winter, cover the tree with snow.
Fertilizer and dressing for Japanese quince
Fertilizing plants with liquid fertilizers is intensively carried out from the 3rd year of life, when a strong root system develops. In the spring, after the snow melts, the plant can be fertilized with nitrogen fertilizer, scattering them in pristvolnyh circles right on top of the ground cover. Spring rains and melting snow will gradually dissolve the fertilizer granules, which will slowly be absorbed by the soil.
A total of 3 plants are fed during the season, while mineral fertilizers are used during the second and third dressings.
Methods of breeding henomeles
When breeding Japanese quince, you can use the seed method and vegetative propagation. Each of the methods has its own specifics, positive and negative sides.
Seed method Chhenomeles breeding is used in breeding work on the breeding of new varieties and for growing strong adapted rootstocks for garden and ornamental crops.
Freshly harvested Japanese quince seeds can be sown directly into the ground (subwinter seeding). With this method, the average germination of seeds is noted, but the seedlings, hardened in winter, grow well. Spring sowing of plant seeds is also possible, but for sowing material, stratification is required for 3 months at a temperature of about 0 C. Per 1 sq. M. m when sowing will need about 5 grams of quince seeds.
During vegetative propagation of a plant it is allowed to use cuttings, cuttings, root shoots.
Root Scions it is enough to dig with a part of the roots, planting it in a permanent place in fertile soil. The size of the pit for the landing of the henomeles scion is adjusted depending on the size of the root system.
Another method of vegetative propagation of quince is to stimulate the emergence of seedlings from the lower branch of the tree. The selected strong branch of the tree is laid along the length of the furrow, it rolls over the ground and is left in this position until a young growth appears. Each kidney prikopannoy branches gives vertical layers, which quickly form a separate root system. Strong seedlings can be transplanted to a permanent place, weak ones grow in greenhouses or greenhouses throughout the year.
Excellent results are noted at grafting of henomeles. On cuttings allowed to use annual green shoots and mature woody branches. From the suitable branches of the Japanese quince cuttings are cut (length 15-20 cm). Rooting is carried out in greenhouses or hotbeds in special cuttings.
Japanese quince breeding well inoculation, the rootstock in this case can be plants of the Rosaceae family: pear, rowan, Japanese quince. Propagation by grafting is used to quickly produce a large number of plants.
Japanese quince in landscape design
The graceful Japanese quince tree is appropriate in group plantings with ornamental shrubs, and also beautifully adorns the parks for single-growth. The plant is decorative for a long period, almost the entire vegetation period of quince is decorated with flowers or ripening fruits. Landscape architects often use a culture for composite plantings, given the high decorativeness of the plant and resistance to adverse conditions.
Japanese quince in landscape design
Chaenomeles is rightfully considered to be one of the most beautiful ornamental shrubs: iridescent green leaves, iridescent in the rays of the sun, massive bright flowers of various colors, amazing yellow-orange or greenish-yellow fruits that simultaneously resemble apples and pears. The main advantage of the plant is that it remains attractive throughout the growing season, from spring to late autumn. And since the plant's life expectancy is several decades, decorative Japanese quince will decorate your garden for almost your entire life.
In landscape design they use not only tall varieties of henomeles: a low Japanese quince, reaching a height of not more than 1 m, with arcuate branches covered with a spring mass of flowers, is also incredibly attractive.
Chaenomeles Japanese is widely used for the formation of stony gardens and hedges. Grow it as a solo plant in rock gardens or on a spacious lawn, and in groups that form artistic or geometric compositions. A popular method of growing Japanese quince on a high trunk, performed by grafting its cuttings on a wild pear or mountain ash.
The plant is well combined with dwarf spruce, slate pine and varietal thuja. A flowering Japanese quince looks spectacular next to daffodils and Carpathian bells.
Useful properties of Japanese quince.
The fruits of the Japanese quince, as well as the products obtained as a result of their processing, contain a large amount of useful substances: vitamin C, vitamins B1, B2, and pectins, which help remove heavy metal salts, trace elements potassium, calcium and phosphorus from the human body.
Juice of mature fruits of Japanese quince has a diuretic, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulating effect, cleanses the walls of blood vessels from sclerotic plaques. Because of the sour taste, due to the high content of vitamin C in the fruit, the plant is called the northern lemon. Japanese quince fruits are several times larger than pears and apples, so their use is indicated for anemia and exhaustion.
Chhenomeles fruits are used as an effective fixing, hemostatic, antioxidant, choleretic, diuretic and antiemetic agent, and decoctions, alcoholic tinctures and water infusions of Japanese quince have a tonic, antibacterial, anti-ulcer, astringent and diuretic action. Water decoctions of seeds of Japanese quince are used in folk medicine as a laxative, enveloping and expectorant.
The fruit of the Japanese quince fruit is rich in fiber, constipation is cured with their regular use, the work of the digestive organs is improved, with heart and kidney failure, excess water is eliminated from the body, symptoms of toxicosis are eliminated during pregnancy.
Japanese quince - contraindications.
Along with a huge number of advantages, Japanese quince has some contraindications. Chinese doctors say that quince fruit is the strongest allergen, so only one fourth of this fruit can be eaten at a time. Quince fruits, tinctures, tinctures and decoctions of them are contraindicated in case of enterocolitis, pleurisy, gastric and duodenal ulcers, a tendency to allergic reactions and individual intolerance to the product. After eating the fruits of quince or its preparations because of the high content of ascorbic acid in them, corroding the tooth enamel, it is necessary to thoroughly rinse the oral cavity. Fluff from the peel of the fetus is harmful to the vocal cords and causes sore throat and cough, and toxic seeds must be removed together with the bolls before consuming the fruit.
What is quince?
Quince tree differs dwarf size, so you can often find a description: quince - a shrub (small tree), grown in order to obtain fruits for making sweets. They can also be eaten without processing. Quince fruit look like a pear-shaped apple. The original Japanese quince is a wild plant. Its second name is Chaenomeles Japanese (Chaenomeles), the photo shows what it looks like. The leaves of the tree are medium in size similar to the leaves of an apple tree. The fruit of the Japanese quince yellow, with lemon flavor.
Japanese quince - the benefits and harm
This is a fruit that, due to the concentration of beneficial components, can adversely affect the human body. The benefits and harms of Japanese quince due to the high content of biologically active substances. The product is an aid in:
- Obesity. Nutritionists recommend its use not only because of its low calorie content, but as a means to strengthen the cardiovascular and nervous system.
- Pregnancy. The tool removes toxicosis, has a diuretic effect. Application prevents the formation of edema and normalizes the balance of iron and copper, serving as prevention of anemia.
- Colds. High content of vitamin C, carotene, vitamin E increase immunity. Infusion of seeds is an excellent expectorant.
- The leaves and branches of the tree are also popular in traditional medicine and have healing properties. Infusions and decoctions help strengthen the hair roots, lighten pigmented and perfectly clean oily skin, normalize blood sugar levels.
Useful properties of Japanese quince and contraindications necessarily take into account. The structure of the skin worsens the state of the larynx, therefore people whose profession is connected with the activity of the vocal cords, to use raw fruit is not recommended. If we talk about contraindications, it is not recommended to eat fruits for people with constipation due to the high content of tannins. It is forbidden to use fresh quince and pleurisy.
Japanese quince - varieties
The magnificent view of the buds of different colors please the owners in the spring. Low trees are easy to maintain. In autumn, you can make delicious sweets from the fruit that are good for the body, especially for babies. A nice plus is the absence of allergens in the fruit. In total there are 3 varieties of Japanese quince, some are easy to distinguish in the photo, however, interspecific varieties - about 500.
The main representatives of the Chaenomeles family were able to take root in the conditions of central Russia. These include the following varieties:
- Garnet bracelet. Differs in frost resistance and fast ripening of fruits. Plant height does not exceed 100 cm, and a flower in diameter - 4 cm.
- Pink Queen, Falconet Scarlet. The height of the tree reaches 3 m, and the diameter of the flowers is up to 4.5 cm. It loves heat, therefore the plants should be covered for the winter.
- Cameo, Pink Trail. The height of the bush is only about 1 m, but depending on the variety, it will surely please with a different coloring of buds. There are also two-color buds.
Japanese quince - care
The origin, like the birthplace of this fruit, is China and Japan. However, it can grow in harsh conditions. Proper care of the Japanese quince guarantees a good harvest. What conditions of care does an ornamental shrub require?
- Watering should be moderate. The plant easily endures periods of drought, but does not like the abundant soil moisture.
- Formation. The number of branches allowed on the bushes is not more than 20. Every year, dead and dry branches lying on the ground should be cut. It is necessary to make these manipulations in the spring.
- Winter care. In winter, the plant should be covered with fir paws, small bushes - wooden boxes. During the winter period, there should be a lot of snow over the bush.
- Harvest should be in the fall. If the apples themselves do not have time to ripen on a branch, then they should be moved to a cool room. With good humidity, they can ripen and be stored until December.
Observing simple rules of care, in 2-3 years you can get the first fruits, the beneficial properties of which are known since ancient times. Dried quince pieces can be added to compotes and hot dishes. This fruit produces excellent dishes that are easy to find:
- Japanese quince jam,
- compotes and other preservation,
- marshmallow, marmalade,
Japanese quince - landing
It is a thermophilic plant, so the Japanese quince is planted in the spring. The soil should be loose, as in the photo, and without weeds. For the "lightness" of the soil, you can add a little sand. The choice of location for the future of the plant should be based on good light. It is recommended to choose the southern part of the cottage, the garden plot. The plant does not tolerate replanting, so it is advisable to find a permanent place. Tips:
- Preparation of a pit for a plant requires adherence to several rules: the width must be made no more than 0.6 meters, the depth - up to 0.8 meters. This pit must be filled with fresh earth and fertilizer.
- Preparation of fertilizer: 1-2 buckets of humus, 300 g of superphosphate, 30 g of potassium nitrate and wood ash.
- When the soil is ready, you can plant a plant. The main condition: the root neck should not be exposed.
Japanese quince - breeding
The Japanese quince is propagated by division, cuttings and seeds, the last method being the most popular. To do this, prepare a fertile soil and plant the seed (February-March). After 1.5 months, small sprouts will appear that are desirable for transplanting into peat cups to strengthen the root system. By the end of May, the shrub is ready for planting in open ground.
For reproduction quince cuttings on the planting material should be worried in the fall. Mature, cut shoots should be stored in a cool place until spring, and then plant rooted cuttings in open ground. The term of transplantation: from mid-March, almost until the end of May. Reproduction division is considered simple. Seedlings are planted at a distance of about 1 meter each. The period of work - the end of spring or late autumn, after which the plant can be grafted.
Japanese quince - growing
Gardeners grow it for landscape design. Growing Japanese quince in this case requires only timely feeding and cutting dry and dead branches. Care for the bush should be during the growth and fruiting. Care is the examination of the leaves for the disease. In general, Japanese quince does not require close attention and high maintenance costs. Observing the requirements, it is possible to grow fruit shrubs that will bloom in spring and please with beneficial fruits in autumn.
Growing Japanese quince with photo
В сочетании с, цветущими весной, кустарниками японская айва создает яркий акцент сада. Белые цветы хеномелеса сорта Nivalis будут хорошо сочетаться с желтой форзицией, кроваво-красной смородиной или декоративными разновидностями сливы.
Удачно сочетание кустиков айвы и вечнозеленых посадок.
Very decorative combination of varietal henomeles with early flowering herbaceous plants, such as, Siberian proleska, white daffodils, Caucasian Arabis. For a bright spot, violets are added to this composition.
Japanese henomeles or Japanese quince is a small, low deciduous, rarely semi-evergreen shrub or small tree belongs to the Rosaceae family. Japan and China are recognized as its homeland. Very demanding to light, quince reconciled with almost any mechanical composition of the soil. Another advantage of the shrub is its resistance to moisture deficiency.
As a true thermophilic shrub, henomeles prefers regions with a mild and even climate. Survive negative temperatures up to 30 degrees below zero shrubs can, but flower buds will freeze, and annual shoots that remain above the level of snow cover will freeze, freeze. The shoots that survived under the snow will bloom, but not so magnificently.
Another advantage of the Japanese quince are tasty and decorative fruits, although in the conditions of central Russia they do not always have time to ripen.
The shrub planted on the site will delight with its flowering up to 80 years. Each spring, its arcuately tilted shoots will be covered with medium-sized, shiny, bright green leaves with jagged edges and large stipules.
From April to May, the bush will be covered with numerous red or white flowers. They may be white or red, double or double, with a diameter of up to 5 cm.
It is noticed that the flowers bloom on the side branches. In the early years of flowering, such branches are few, but over the years they become more and more, the bush blooms more and more magnificently, if it is not cut off. In autumn, the main decoration of the bush will be ripened bright yellow fruits.
Video of flowering Japanese quince
Useful tips on planting, selection of seedlings.
Japanese quince sapling for planting can be purchased at an online store, nursery or garden center. Saplings with a closed root system can be planted both in spring and autumn. Get better compact bushes in containers with a dense lump of roots. In late spring - early summer, you should not purchase seedlings of adult plants with blossoming flowers and leaves.
When purchasing seedlings with an open root system, it is necessary to inspect the roots. They must have many small root hairs, live, elastic roots. Broken, dried and diseased roots are cut. It is very good if the root system is covered with a clay mash. Branches must be alive, without full buds, dried stems and broken branches.
Choosing a site for planting quinces, take into account her love for the light. Even a slight shading reduces the number of flowers and fruits on the bush. The growth and development of the shrub will also slow down.
What to consider when planting a bush:
- moderate watering is necessary for the planted plant,
- good drainage is a must
- soils should be slightly acid loam or sod-podzolic,
- quince does not tolerate peat or alkaline soil,
- best planted in a windproof and well-lit area
- Chaenomeles bushes planted near buildings can be grown by tying them to a trellis. In such conditions, the fruits ripen earlier.
How to prepare the soil
The soil for planting a bush should be prepared in advance. We plant in the fall - the pit is prepared in the spring, in the spring - in the fall. In the selected area, all weeds are removed and the soil is kept free of vegetation until the planting itself.
The dimensions of the landing pit is chosen taking into account the root system of the bush. The following dimensions are considered optimal: the diameter of the pit is about 50 cm, the depth is from 50 cm to 1 m.
The soil removed from the pit is improved. Leaf soil is added to the soil - 2 parts and sand 1 part. A mixture of peat with manure will be superfluous when planting. From fertilizers you can make potassium and phosphorus at 40g per 1 m2. The mixture should be loose, nourishing and well breathable and retaining moisture.
The best moment for planting chhenomeles is the beginning of spring, when the soil has already thawed, but the leaves have not yet dismissed.
In the fall, plant quince bushes in the midst of leaf fall, so that the plant takes root before the onset of frost.
In order for a sapling to settle down better in a new place:
- Sapling age - 2 years,
- Sapling with closed root system,
- The older the seedling, the larger the pit is prepared for it,
- The soil from the prepared pit is improved by adding humus (2 buckets), saltpeter (30g), ash (500g) and superphosphate (300g),
- The distance between the bushes is not less than 0.5 m,
- The root neck of the seedling should remain at ground level,
- Both deep and shallow planting of seedlings is unacceptable.
In the next 50 years, it will not be necessary to replant the shrub.
For lush flowering quince bush adjacent soil should be maintained in a loose and wet state, free from weeds.
Mulch is one of the ways to preserve moisture in the soil. In this quality, you can use sawdust, peat, chopped walnut shells. Mulch is distributed in layers up to 5 cm around the bush. The best time to create a mulch layer is May. The soil at this time has already warmed up, but has not yet dried out.
In the fall, the mulch is spilled after a long period of cold snap is established.
The first years after planting a quince can not feed up - when planting made all the necessary substances. Three years later, in the spring, immediately after the snow melts, organic or mineral fertilizers are distributed over the soil surface. Top dressing in the liquid form bring in the summer.
To protect against winter frosts, bushes are covered with fir branches or dry leaves. A good substitute for them is lutrasil or spunbond. Compact young bush can be protected from frost with a cardboard box or wooden shields.
Proper shrub trimming
Japanese quince shrub painlessly tolerates a haircut. If you wish, you can give it any shape, but lovers of country beauty are not in a hurry to approach the shrub with shears. The spines on the quince branches keep gardeners at a respectful distance.
For protection of hands against prickly branches use dense gloves.
The best term for trimming a quince bush is spring. At this time, carry out sanitary pruning. Remove the sick, broken off, frozen and dried branches. With the onset of warm days, a bush freed from unnecessary branches will quickly regain its shape.
Chaenomeles bushes older than five years can be formed. To give the bush a correct and accurate shape, you need to remember some principles.
- To maintain a beautiful shape, it is necessary to trim a bush every year. Each year it is necessary to remove thickening shoots and excess root shoots. Leave no more than three strong annual shoots.
- The most necessary shoots are those that grow horizontally in the central part.
- Strictly vertical shoots and branches lying on the ground are removed.
- After 8 years of age, the bush is rejuvenated. Remove all weak shoots and branches older than 5 years.
Plant pest and disease protection
Pests on the Japanese quince are rare. These can be shchitovki or spider mite. Conducting preventive treatment before bud break, you can almost completely defeat this attack.
Inspecting the acquired planting material, cutting off dry branches and removing the remnants of dry bark, burning it all, we carry out powerful preventive measures to protect plantings from pests. In the warm season, you can use insecticides.
At low temperatures against the background of high humidity on the leaves of henomeles, you can see signs of fungal diseases. Affected leaves fly around prematurely.
Fight against fungal diseases can be spraying the bushes with soapy water with the addition of copper sulfate or foundationol. As an environmentally friendly means to combat diseases, we can recommend the following composition: 150 g of onion peel a day to keep in 10 liters of water. Strain and process the plant three times every five days.
Harvesting and storage
With good care, one bush can grow up to three kilograms of useful, fragrant and attractive fruits. They mature in October. It is necessary to collect the fruits before frost.
Unripe fruits are collected and placed in storage boxes. In such conditions, the fruit ripens at room temperature. Further storage is carried out at +2 degrees.