Need breeding black currant it occurs when it is necessary to renew aging bushes, start a variety that you like, increase the number of berry bushes in the garden.
Black currant can be propagated almost the entire year. Most often its vegetatively propagated by rooting cuttings, green cuttings, lignified cuttings, as well as the division of the bush. Each method has its own advantages.
The most reliable and simple is reproduction by cutting. The percentage survival rate of cuttings black currant is very high - almost 90%.
Reproduction of black currant cuttings in the spring
Reproduction method of currant cuttings very productive and retains all varietal characteristics.
In this case, planting material can be prepared in large quantities and grow, depending on the needs, 10, 20 or 50 bushes. And although it is a simple and well-known method of breeding currants, it requires a certain skill and knowledge.
Procurement of cuttings
For grafting currants, choose a healthy, strong productive shrubs aged 3-5 years. It is advisable to choose a mother plant in the summer, in order to evaluate its yield, taste, berries, make sure there are no diseases and pests.
Planting material can be prepared in the fall or early spring. Spring harvesting can be combined with trimming bushes, autumn lasts from late September to mid-October.
For cutting woody cuttings, use annual, well-matured shoots more than 6 mm thick. Remove leaves to reduce moisture loss.
Shoots cut off almost at the very ground so that hemp does not remain on the bushes. Keep the planting stock harvested in the fall in hibernation all winter, and in the spring, with the onset of heat, cut the cuttings and plant them in open ground.
Keep cut shoots can be upright in the snow, tying each variety in separate bunches. Cover them with straw or sawdust on top. If the snow melted too early for disembarkation, wrap the planting stock with a wet sacking, wrap the film over the top and store in the refrigerator or basement at a temperature of about 0ºС. Periodically unwrap and moisten the burlap.
Cut the harvested shoots into cuttings 15–20 cm long. The middle part of the shoot is suitable for cutting, the upper and lower parts root badly. The longer the cutting, the more nutrients it contains, the better it will take root and grow faster. But the less you will be able to prepare planting material for the reproduction of currants, which means that a smaller number of seedlings to receive.
For cutting shoots use a sharp knife, as the secateurs crush the fibers, and this affects the endurance of seedlings. Make an upper cut of the cutting at a right angle 1 cm above the upper bud, and the lower cut obliquely under the lower bud from the opposite side. Slices process garden pitch, wax or paraffin.
Prepare a bed in the autumn for spring planting of cuttings, preferably located from north to south, - so the seedlings will be better lit.
Place choose open, sunny, without groundwater. Dig up trenches up to 40 cm deep, 60 cm wideDig the soil on the spade bayonet. Trench fill with a mixture of humus and compost.
Update the lower sections of cuttings before planting and put them in water for a day or two. You can hold the cuttings to disinfect and destroy the kidney mite half an hour in Tiodan solution.
Plant the cuttings in the spring early in the dirt when the soil thaws to a depth of at least 20 cm. For active root formation, powder the slices with any stimulator for root growth. Plant the cuttings in rows at an angle, leaving one or two buds above the ground. Observe the distance between shoots of 10–15 cm and the spacing between rows is 50 cm. Such planting makes planting as easy as possible. Pack and water the soil around the seedlings.
To preserve moisture, mulch the beds with peat or humus 4–5 cm thick. You can cover them with a film, preferably dark, by cutting holes in it for planting shoots.
Care of seedlings
Care for planted cuttings consists in regular loosening of the soil, watering, destruction of weeds, protection from diseases and wreckers.
Maintain a constant soil moisture, moistening it to a depth of 30 cm. Systematic watering has a positive effect on the development of seedlings, laying a rapid growth and abundant fruiting. In the absence of rain, the rate of water consumption per plant is 15 liters.
Loosening provides air access to the roots of plants, the preservation of moisture in the soil, prevents the appearance of weeds. Loosen should be shallow, as the roots are close to the soil surface.
For the season you need at least four times to feed young saplings complex mineral or organic fertilizers. Consider that excess fertilizing is as harmful as nutritional deficiencies. Once a month, seedlings can be fertilized with a weak ash solution or EM preparations.
If you are going to grow two-year-old saplings for planting in the garden, then in a year in early spring, prune them, leaving 2-4 buds on the annual shoots (cut the shoots used for rooting). The pruning done in this way stimulates the formation of a developed root system and the correct formation of a bush.
Do not let young seedlings bloom and bear fruit, so as not to weaken them. In the fall, plant them in a permanent place in the garden.
How to propagate currant cuttings with one kidney
With such a reproduction of currants can be harvested in 5 times more planting material than with conventional cuttings. But seedlings with one bud require more thorough care.
To plant the cuttings of the greenhouse box fill a 15-centimeter layer of chopped straw, powder it with quicklime. Top with a layer of 4 cm of soil and the same layer of river sand.
Landing begin in April. From the annual shoots harvested in the fall, cut the cuttings, making the upper cut over the bud and leaving the lower part long. Landing scheme 10 x 20. Bed necessarily cover film. Reheating straw heats the soil and the film retains moisture. In such conditions, the roots are formed in a week and a half.
Maintain soil moisture, conduct foliar dressing. During the season, the seedlings will grow by 30–50 cm. In the fall, they can be planted in a permanent place or left on a bed for growing to the age of two.
Vegetative reproduction of currants in spring
In order for the land in rows with planted cuttings of currant not to dry, it can be mulched peat or humus. The thicker the layer, the better. But 3-5 cm will be enough.
As lignified cuttings of currants use annual shoots. It is advisable to cut them from healthy bushes for which you observed during the summer and are confident in the good taste of the berries. Cuttings of currants can be cut in autumn or early spring. You can combine harvesting cuttings with spring pruning currants.
Plenty of water over the soil
Planting currant lignified cuttings:
Reproduction of black currant in the spring
When harvesting green cuttings, the rules change slightly:
Having figured out how to multiply currants and get new seedlings, you can think about their transplant. For the formation of a young plant, one season is usually enough, but if, in your opinion, the currant is not strong enough, it can be left in the same place for another summer. For less injury to seedlings, it is recommended to transplant them along with an earthy ball, which preserves the delicate root system of small seedlings. When breeding black currant cuttings, the finished plants are planted at a distance of more than a meter from each other. This allows a well to form a bush and start fruiting in two or three years.
The amount of planting material is not limited.
Reproduction of red currants in spring
During the first year, planted cuttings require abundant watering, loosening and weeding from weeds. If everything is done correctly, then the next year, the saplings obtained can already be transplanted to a permanent place.
Shrub berry plants such as currants, a lot does not happen. Especially if you grow different varieties: red, black, white. In order to preserve the specific features, for reproduction it is necessary to use the vegetative method, that is, cuttings.
As a soil, it is recommended to use a light mixture of peat or old compost with coarse sand in a ratio of one to one.
Using a clear or dark film is a good option to protect the soil from drying out.
It is very important that the shoots are fully matured and have a diameter of six millimeters or more. The length of the cutting should be about 15 centimeters. Planting plants is best at a distance of 8 cm from each other. The gap between the rows - 5 cm
At the very beginning, you need to prepare trenches - this will improve the survival rate of the cut shoots. Land in such trenches need to dig to the depth of a bayonet spade. Preparing trenches need to fall, if you want to have time to plant an escape into wet earth. Excess moisture will only speed up the rooting process,
The tip of the shoot is considered optimal, because it is she who is best rooted after planting,
The advantages of planting currants cuttings
- Tip: if you want to shorten this period and get a harvest of berries faster, then “thicken” your currant plantings, leave the distance between the bushes 60-70 centimeters. Of course, with this method of planting, the amount of harvest suffers, but you can enjoy fragrant berries in a year.
In spring, cuttings are made at the end of March - beginning of April, when the currant buds have already swelled, but have not yet opened. Until landing in the ground, cut branches are stored in the snow or on the bottom shelf of the refrigerator. When autumn works cuttings cut in September and used for planting immediately. As planting cuttings often use the material remaining in the formation and pruning 4-5 years of age. To do this, select strong, healthy branches, with a diameter of more than 5 mm and 5-6 buds. The optimal length of the cutting is 15 cm, but it should be remembered that the longer it is, the more nutrition will be made to form the future plant. Experience shows that the petioles from the middle, well-stiffened part of the twigs take root, and the black currant's reproduction often ends up last year. by failure. Upper and lower oblique cuts are made with a sharp knife, one centimeter away from the kidney. The use of a pruner for this purpose is undesirable because it deforms the wood and squeezes the bark.
- The high efficiency of this breeding method allows you to grow as many bushes as you need. It is possible to regularly update plantings, growing young, fruit-bearing bushes.
Redcurrant breeds a little harder than black, but with the right approach to this business, anything is possible.
- This article will tell you how to reproduce currant cuttings in the spring, which you should pay attention to when planting different species.
Caring for green cuttings is somewhat different from caring for cuttings that are already woody. For full survival, they must be sprayed four to five times daily. This mode is maintained for two to three weeks.
The holes in the film are cut with scissors over the cuttings of planted currants. The film protects the soil from drying out and accelerates the growth of young shoots on currants.
The longer the cutting, the more nutrients it contains. But the less currant bushes you can get.
Reproduction of currant cuttings - the stages of work
Planted shoots to plant straight, to a depth of 2-2.5 cm,
- At the bottom of the trench it is necessary to pour a prepared mixture of rotted manure with compost,The length of the workpiece can vary from 8 to 12 cm,
- The pit for planting is filled with fertile soil, mixed with organic fertilizers and plentifully watered. The plant is positioned in such a way that the root neck is 5-7cm deep in the soil; in the future, root buds will form here and new young shoots will form.Soil preparation.
- Confidence in the varietal characteristics of the future plantThe optimal period for harvesting cuttings of red currant is the first two weeks of August, when the kidneys enter a state of rest.
Planting care and transfer to a permanent place
The main work is the proper preparation of planting material (ie, cuttings) and the preparation of the landing site.
To maintain moisture in the area of green cuttings in sufficient quantities, the greenhouse where cuttings are grown protects from drying and from direct sunlight. If the place of the greenhouse is located in an open area, then the film is shaded with whitewash or gauze.If by the autumn the young currant bushes have time to fully form, then they can be transferred to a permanent place. If for some reason they do not reach the necessary condition, then it is better to leave them in place for another season.
When cutting currant cuttings, a cut in the upper part of the cutting is made with a sharp sheath on the kidney, stepping back upward by 1 cm. The cutting is made slanting below the cutting of the lower cutting bud. Young roots will be formed on the segment between the nodes and under the kidneys.
Water abundantly after disembarkation.
Planted shoots need to be at an angle of 45 degrees.
Currants are not only tasty, but also very useful berries. It is not necessary to purchase seedlings of such a useful plant, because it is quite possible to independently prepare and plant cuttings. This article will be devoted to the methods of planting currant cuttings.
Before planting currant cuttings, it is necessary to prepare the soil. For the landing, choose a place well lit and heated by the sun, without threats of flood flooding and stagnation of rainwater. For a start, dig a small trench into which organic and mineral fertilizers are applied, humus and a little wood ash. Such preparation will provide future plants with the necessary nutrition for a long period. A layer of fertile soil is poured on top and the bed is shed with water. Soil preparation is completed, you can start landing.
When buying a young bush, information about the yield, size and number of berries, as well as the timing of their ripening, is often not justified. Despite the money spent and the labor invested, the grown currant bush is not nearly as smart as the seller assured you. Reproduction of black currant cuttings ensures the preservation of varietal qualities and yield of the plant you like.
Cut cuttings from young woody branches, not less than 20 cm long. Before planting in the spring, they should be stored in a refrigerator by placing the bottom in wet sand or wrapping with cling film.
For the successful rooting of cuttings, they should be planted in a sunny place, where there is no underground groundwater. The soil should be fertile; to do this, in the selected area you should dig a trench, apply fertilizer, humus and a little ash. After that, be sure to water and you can start planting.
Green cuttings will take root in two to three weeks. After this period, you can reduce the number of irrigations and begin fertilizing with nitrogen fertilizers. A month later, the film over the cuttings can be removed for several hours a day, each day increasing this time. When you see that the leaves on the cuttings remain green and elastic, then the film can be completely removed.
If you are late with the reproduction of currant cuttings in the spring, then an acceptable option is the reproduction of black currants with green cuttings.
- In order for the cuttings to stick well, they are recommended to be planted in prepared trenches, the ground in which they previously dig up to the depth of a bayonet spade. Prepared compost with rotted manure is poured inside the trenches.
- Then, when the planting process is completed, the planted shoots are tightly closed and shaded with gauze, whitewash, twigs, etc.
- The scheme of preparation and planting lignified cuttings of currants
- A few lower leaves (one or two) need to shorten the leaf plate (allowed its complete removal). Leaf stalk save. If the leaves are large, then it is cut in half,
- If you already have a currant bush, which gives very tasty berries, and you want to harvest a much larger crop, then you can prepare cuttings for this plant from this bush. Remember that only properly harvested cuttings will give exactly the crop that you expected. So let's take a closer look at the material preparation process. There are several types of cuttings - lignified and green.
- Planting cuttings.
Fine currant with minimal cost
Начинать укоренять заготовленные черенки следует в марте или начале апреля. Делать это лучше в теплице или на подоконнике. Для этого подойдет емкость высотой не меньше 30 см, на дне которого обязательно уложить дренаж.
Правила посадки черенками
Для размножения смородины весной можно использовать зеленые или одревесневшие черенки. The first will need more than 3-4 times and rooting them in greenhouse conditions, but it allows you to save the seedling from such pests as the bud mite, gall midges and glass cases.
The next spring, the currant cuttings are transplanted to the growing area, and in the fall to a permanent place.
- For rooting choose young shoots of currants, which are not fully woody, but do not break when bent.
- Such trenches are prepared in the autumn in order to have time to plant currant cuttings in the wet ground in early spring. In this case, excess moisture will accelerate the formation of young roots.
- Observing all the above rules and features of planting currant cuttings, you will achieve excellent results.
If you plant the harvested material before winter, then the main thing is not to miss the moment when the buds on the shoot enter the dormant stage (late September or early October at the black currant and the end of August at the red currant). If you are late, then the risk that the shoots will not take root will increase dramatically.
A cut from the bottom is made at a distance of 0.5 cm from the lower kidney, while the upper one is slightly higher than the upper kidney,
Lignified blanks taken from the annual shoots. To ensure a higher survival rate after planting, it is recommended to cut material only from healthy and strong bushes, which give a good harvest, both in volume and taste.
Propagation by cuttings implies a dense planting of future plants. This not only facilitates the care of young saplings, but also creates a favorable microclimate for the successful formation of the root system and the aerial part of the bushes. Petioles are added dropwise under an inclination, keeping a distance of at least 10 cm between them. At the same time, no more than two buds are left above the soil surface, deepening most of the stem. For the early formation of the root system, it is recommended to apply root-stimulants (which is especially important in the fall, when the time of plant formation is limited by the onset of cold weather). After planting, the land is watered and carefully mulched. It should be borne in mind that reproduction of black currant with a green petiole is more successful in comparison with varieties of red or white currant. Somewhat improve the performance of autumn planting, which is carried out in late August or in the first half of September.
- Financial costs for the purchase of planting material for many gardeners play an important role. Planting currants cuttings without cash costs to provide seven berries in any quantity.
- First, the cuttings should be updated at the bottom and saturate with water,
- Depending on the type of shrub, the conditions for procurement of cuttings and planting technology change. Consider them in more detail.
- Another reliable method of reproduction of black and red currants is the addition of cuttings from the uterine bush. The advantage of this method is that in this case survival rate is 100%.
- For the cultivation of currant seedlings from these shoots they are planted under the film in greenhouses or in greenhouses with sufficient moisture. For single cases of cultivation during the reproduction of black currants with green cuttings, they can be covered with plastic bottles or glass jars. This method is also suitable for the reproduction of red currants.
- Cuttings can be planted before winter. The most important thing is not to miss the moment when the buds on the annual shoots have fallen asleep, i.e. entered the rest phase.
In this video you can view the whole process of this type of currant planting.
For simplicity, further care of the bushes is recommended to plant along the lace, keeping a distance of about 10-15 cm. A distance of about 40 cm should be left between the rows. After planting, mulch soils should be made with humus or peat. The thickness of the layer should be on average 3-5 cm. If in the fall young bushes have already managed to take shape, they can be transferred to another place.
REDUCING BLACK CURRANT CERVES IN WINTER AND EARLY SPRING
Preparation of material for future planting is carried out either in early spring or in autumn. Some gardeners advise that it is possible to combine two processes at once: material harvesting and spring pruning. If you do this in the spring, then it is necessary to wait for the moment of full aging of the shoots.
Preparation of woody cuttings of currants
Knowing how to plant currants cuttings, you need to remember about caring for young plants. Such work is not particularly difficult. Spring planting is supposed to regularly weed and timely water the plants, remember, drying out the soil during the reproduction of currants by cuttings is unacceptable. In this case, autumn disembarkation may seem more successful, because, as a rule, in the autumn there is no lack of moisture.
Berries are used to make jams, jams, juices, compotes or jelly, they are dried, ground and frozen. Leaves and young currant branches rich in essential oils are added to marinades and pickles. And the leaves are dried and used to make fragrant and healthy tea, which not only warms in the winter evenings, but also gives a breath of summer, energizes and health.
Putting in it for a maximum of 30 minutes. For seedlings need to leave only 4 upper buds, and the rest removed. After that, with a blade in the bottom of the cutting, we make several longitudinal grooves 2 mm deep and 3 cm long. This is necessary to accelerate the growth of the roots.
Lignified blackcurrant cuttings are harvested from September to mid-October. They should be cut from the shoots of the first order of branch or basal. It is better to cut the branches in the morning, and then in the shade to divide them into cuttings 18-20 cm long with 6-7 buds.
This method is suitable for all varieties of currants. In order to make the currants lay down, they are placed in the grooves extending from the uterine bush in the form of rays and sprinkled with earth.
To prepare high-quality cuttings from the green shoots of currants they are trying to cut them in the morning in cool weather. If the weather is cloudy or rainy, then currant cuttings can be harvested throughout the day.
Planting lignified cuttings of currants
For black currant, the resting phase begins in late September - early October. The red currant dormant period comes earlier - in the second half of August.
It is much better to multiply a currant yourself than to buy it in a nursery or at a market for several reasons. The main reason is that with cuttings you can grow 20 bushes and 100 in one year, depending on your needs. Let us consider this method in more detail.
Planting currant green cuttings:
Such cuttings should be stored only in a humid environment - for this, the cut-off shoots are placed in wet sacking, and then only wrapped in a plastic bag.
The most suitable shoots are considered branches with a diameter of more than six millimeters, and the length of the cutting should be about 15 centimeters.
How to properly plant currant cuttings?
In order to grow bushes in the required quantity, it is not necessary to buy ready-made seedlings. Even inexperienced gardeners can master reproduction by cuttings and after a while get good yields. The success of the work carried out often depends on several factors: weather conditions, the varietal characteristics of the plant chosen for reproduction, and even the phase of the moon. But in most cases, planting currant cuttings gives positive results and good survival of young plants.
In a moistened soil with a peg you should make a hole and insert a cutting into it, then fill it with soil. Above ground it is necessary to leave only 2 buds. After that, the cutting should be watered. Planted in open ground it will be possible after it grows a green shoot 5 cm long.
The lower cut should be made 1 cm below the kidney at 45 ° on the opposite side of it, and the top one 1 cm above the bud directly. After cutting, they should be stored in the lower compartment of the refrigerator.
For reliability, you can attach currant branches intended for growing young bushes, wire segments curved in the shape of the letter V. When young bushes take root and grow into growth, the wire can be removed and the currant bushes should be transplanted to the intended place next spring.
How to propagate currants with green cuttings
To grow normal currant seedlings, it is enough to prepare cuttings about 10 cm long, with three to four leaves. Leaf plates of the lower leaves should be cut half.
This period is the most favorable for planting cuttings. If late, the number of rooted cuttings will decrease. If you decide to plant cuttings in the spring, then try to land as soon as possible.
In order to be sure that the currant seedlings will give exactly the fruits you are counting on, look at the very popular method of propagation of different varieties of currant using cuttings.
The ground needs to be dug an average of 20 cm and leveled,
After the shoot has been cut, in order to improve the ability to rooting, the branches are tied into bundles and the lower ends are approximately 1.5 or 2 cm lowered into a solution of a special growth substance. This solution is prepared as follows: 10 mg of heteroauxin, 50 mg of indolylbutyric acid are diluted with 1 l of water (temperature is about 20-24 degrees). Top prepared solution is covered with a damp cloth. In this position, he should stand for 12 to 24 hours. Immediately after such processing, you can proceed directly to the planting. Go
Remember that the amount of nutrients in it depends on the length of the harvested shoot, but then at the output you will get several less currant bushes. The choice is yours, in the spring to get a small amount of material with a high degree of survival, or to procure a lot, but at the same time reduce the possible survival. When harvesting material, the cut on the shoot must be above the bud. For these purposes, it is better to use a well-sharpened and clean shears. Cut make, departing from the kidney 1 cm up. Thus, there is a “spike” above the cut. From the bottom of the escaped shoots, you need to make an oblique cut under the lower bud. In the future, the development of young roots will occur between the nodes, as well as under the kidneys.
! In the first year of the formation of plants should not miss the moment of flowering. Not sparing, tear off all the flower branches, which greatly deplete the young currant bushes and slow down their growth. As fertilizers usually use infusion of manure of a small concentration with the addition of ash. Feeding is carried out no more than 2-3 times a month during the irrigation of young bushes.
To obtain healthy and high-yielding bushes, it is necessary to stock up with cuttings from a well-developed plant, not damaged by fungal diseases and not infected by pests. Depending on the timing of planting harvesting and storage of cuttings is somewhat different.
Reproduction of white currant cuttings in the spring is carried out in the same way as red.
Immediately before planting in the spring, the cuttings should be pulled out, renewed the lower section and placed for 1-2 days in water. Planted in rows of 70 cm every 10-15 cm. They should be stuck into the ground obliquely so that 2 buds are left above the ground. After that, the ground around them should be tamped and watered.
As in the case of harvesting the cuttings of currants from woody shoots, the upper cut is made straight above the bud, departing from it about a centimeter, and the lower cut is made under the bud, also departing half a centimeter from it. The cuts should not be torn, for which purpose the cutting tool should be sharp.
Collection of planting material
Breeding of black currants in the spring begins with the collection of cuttings that are prepared in the process of planned trimming of bushes. You will need a pruner and a sharp garden knife. Harvest cuttings from annual shoots (they grow from the root, as well as on two-three-year-old branches).
- Choose annual shoots with a thickness of 7 mm, they should be lignified, without damage. On cuttings is the middle of escape.
- Cut off the strongest of them with shears. The length of the finished cutting should be up to 20 cm.
- Take a sharp garden knife and cut them to escape the cuttings 13-20 cm long.
- To do this, cut the lower edge of the shoot directly under the kidney (at an angle of 50-60 °), make the upper cut oblique 1 cm above the kidney (at an angle of 90 °).
For the preparation of cuttings can not use the upper and lower parts of the shoot, they are rooted poorly, so they need to be thrown away.
Currant cuttings in water
Spring cuttings of currants in water helps to accelerate fruiting for the whole year.
Put cut cuttings of 2 pieces in each container (for example, a plastic cup will do). Water should cover no more than 2 buds. After 7-10 days, the first signs of roots will appear in the internodes.
After the formation of the root lobe, place each cutting in 1 container with a volume of at least 200-250 ml. After some time, leaves will appear. It is impossible to allow flowering, therefore the appeared flowers need to be cut off.
Glasses with seedlings should be in a bright place, but not in direct sunlight. From time to time, change the water in the tanks. The whole process of spring grafting lasts an average of 5-8 weeks. Plant the prepared cuttings at the beginning and end of May, when spring frosts are past.
Choosing a landing site
Currant grows well and bears fruit on neutral heavy and medium loamy soils. The choice of landing site will depend on the type of shrub. Black currant loves open spaces and partial shade, can grow in lowlands, wet areas, but without swamping.
White, red currant is more drought-resistant, prefers light and sandy soil. A good harvest can be obtained by planting bushes in elevated, well-lit areas.
Soil preparation for breeding
Preparation of soil for planting cuttings of currants is better to do in the fall. It is recommended to choose sufficiently lit places. They must be protected from the wind and well moistened.
Usually currants are planted along the boundaries of the plot, the distance between the bush and the fence should not be less than 1.2–1.5 m. Prepare the plot before planting the seedlings. Dig the ground to a depth of 20-22 cm (on the spade bayonet) and clean weeds.
Currants prefer organic fertilizers, so put compost (or rotted manure) into planting trenches. Thanks to this method of preparation, the earth will be able to accumulate enough moisture for better root formation. Organic fertilizers are applied at the rate of 3-4 kg per 1 m 2.
In the spring before planting cuttings can be made:
- granulated superphosphate - 100-150 g / m 2,
- potassium sulphate or wood ash - 20-30 g / m 2.
It is advisable to check the acidity of the soil, at a pH of 4-5.5 it is necessary to add lime in the amount of 0.3-0.8 kg / m 2.
Immediately before planting, soak the currant cuttings in a growth stimulator (Heteroauxin, Cornevin, Epin, etc.). This will speed up the process of rooting.
Plant the finished cuttings at a distance of at least 1 meter from each other. On fertile lands, this distance is allowed to be reduced; on bad soils, plants are planted at a distance of up to 1.5 m.
Submerge the cuttings in the prepared moist soil on the 2 lower buds at an angle of 45⁰.
The upper bud with a leaf should be directed upwards. Experienced experts advise to plant blackcurrant cuttings 3 pieces in each well. Dig them in at an angle, but point them in different directions.
After planting the cuttings, close them with humus, a layer of which must be at least 5 cm. This method will allow you to retain moisture in the soil to form roots. Instead of humus is allowed to use black film. It will accelerate the development of roots, preserve the friability of the soil. Cover the cuttings with cut plastic bottles without a cap.
Care for cuttings after reproduction
To quickly graft the currant cuttings, it is very important to ensure the right care. Plants must be protected from direct sunlight. Temperature and humidity should be comfortable for plants.
In the first weeks, spray cuttings 3-4 times a day, opening up the mini-greenhouse from plastic bottles. For normal rooting, the daytime temperature should be + 25⁰, and at night it should not fall below + 16⁰. If it is too hot under the greenhouses, airing is necessary.
Watering currant cuttings should be regularly and abundantly. After 16-20 days, the cuttings will take root, then the number of waterings can be reduced. When shoots with a length of 4-5 cm appear on the cuttings, currants are fed with slurry (10 l per 1 m 2) after watering and loosening. It will be necessary to spend another 1-2 feeding with an interval of 2-3 weeks.
One month after rooting, gradually increase the residence time of young shoots in the open air. Reproduction of currant by cuttings allows you to get powerful bushes with a good root system in a year.
Care for young saplings of black currant for 2 years
На следующий год ранней весной выполните обрезку, оставив на каждой ветке до 4 почек. Удаляйте появившиеся завязи, цветки. Это обеспечит рост боковых побегов.
Регулярно рыхлите почву, но неглубоко, чтобы не повредить корни. Если лето засушливое, поливайте саженцы (до 15 л воды на 1 растение). Удобряйте кусты навозной жижей, раствором птичьего помёта.
При размножении чёрной смородины черенками первый урожай можно снимать на 3-ий год жизни куста. The maximum yield is achieved for 6 years of cultivation, then the plant is depleted. To prevent this, it is necessary to conduct rejuvenation through cuttings every 10 years.
- Pay attention to the correct choice of the mother plant. You need a healthy shrub that gives a good harvest of tasty berries.
- Harvest cuttings in the early morning, when the dew has not yet descended, or in cloudy weather.
- Sawdust can be added to the soil for planting cuttings.
- The first 3 weeks of watering should be abundant and regular.
- Rooting cuttings can be checked very simply, just pull a little over the top of the shoot. If you feel a little resistance, the plant took root. In this case, remove the mini-greenhouse.
- Fertilize seedlings 3-4 times per season. You can use complex supplements (at the rate of 1 tsp per 5 liters of water). Organic fertilizers are also suitable.
These useful tips will help to propagate and grow healthy currant bushes without much financial cost.
Reproduction of black currant cuttings: what are the advantages
There is an opinion that a currant can bear fruit for twenty and more years and it is completely senseless to engage in its rejuvenation. This is not entirely true. The maximum productivity of black currant is observed from the fourth to the eighth year of life. In subsequent years, the yield decreases, the berries become smaller, their number decreases. In addition, the old and weakened plants are more susceptible to the negative effects of diseases and parasites. It should also not be forgotten that the soil is depleted under a long-lived bush. Therefore, the need to update this culture really exists.
Independently reproduce black currant in several ways:
- cuttings (survival rate of 85–90%),
- layering (survival rate of 100%),
- dividing the bush (survival rate of 100%),
It is possible to grow a currant bush even from seeds. Only the likelihood that the seeds will inherit all the properties of the variety and the bush will be full, extremely low.
The most popular, despite the laboriousness of the process and less survival, is precisely the cutting. This is explained by the fact that it is possible to procure a large amount of planting material. But the most important advantage is that the saplings obtained from cuttings retain all the varietal qualities of the mother bush.
Cutting in summer
The best time for harvesting cuttings in the summer is no earlier than mid-June and no later than the first decade of July, that is, a period when currants are at the stage of active growth. Green grafting is made from a well-developed annual one-year shoot, with a stiff lower part and an elastic one that is not broken when the top is bent in the following order:
- the tool (pruner or knife) is treated with boiling water,
- selected shoots are cut from the bush,
- the tip and the stiff part of the shoot are not used as cuttings (the tip will take root quickly, but it is unlikely to winter, and the bottom will not take root at all),
- from the central part of the shoot, cuttings of 15–20 cm long are cut by an oblique cut, on each of which there must be at least three leaves,
- the two lower leaves are removed along with the cuttings, and one third of the upper leaves are left so that the moisture does not evaporate so quickly.
The length of the cuttings from the green shoot should be 15-20 cm
Cuttings ready. They should be planted immediately. If this is not possible, they are temporarily placed in water and covered with polyethylene.
Green cuttings are very important high humidity, so it is recommended to carry out their planting in the greenhouse, in extreme cases - in the greenhouse. Before planting the soil must be prepared - loosen and water. The cuttings are deepened into the soil on the 2 lower buds necessarily at an angle of 45 °. Then they need to be mulched with a peat of 3–5 cm and covered with a film.
The plantation of green cuttings must necessarily be shaded. Under direct sunlight, the processes simply “weld”.
Until the formation of the root system, green cuttings require careful maintenance:
- systematic watering at least every other day
- daily ventilation for several hours
- spraying to maintain moisture levels
- feeding in the form of nitrogen-containing fertilizers with a frequency of once every 2-3 weeks.
After three weeks we check whether the seedlings have taken root. This can be done by pulling the top of the bore. If rooting has happened, you will feel a slight resistance.
The film that simulates a mini-greenhouse can be replaced with cut plastic bottles.
A month after planting, the polyethylene is removed, and in the fall, seedlings are transplanted for permanent residence.
Cuttings with a developed root system, ready to be transplanted to a permanent place
Next year in spring, one long sprout will be pulled from the cutting, therefore, to get a full-fledged bush, experts recommend planting 3-4 cuttings per well.
How to cut black currants in spring and autumn
Many gardeners combine cuttings of black currant with its planned pruning in the spring. During this period, as well as in the fall, cuttings are harvested from one and two-year old shoots stiffened (the diameter should not be less than 5 mm). Twigs 15–20 cm long are cut from their middle. The principle of creating a cutting is the same as with green cutting: the upper cut is made 1 cm above the bud, and the lower cut is just below the kidney.
The scheme of preparation of cuttings from the stiff shoots
The cuttings prepared by autumn are not recommended to be planted in the ground - they are unlikely to survive the winter. In this case, they can be stored until spring or germinated in the substrate.
It is possible to keep stiffened cuttings in a cool place: in the basement, in the refrigerator, or even in a snowdrift. But they must first be prepared. So that the moisture does not evaporate so quickly, the cuttings are dipped into liquid paraffin or wax, and then placed in polyethylene and in a cool place until spring. During the winter period, it is better to unfold the bundle several times and check whether there is mold there and if the twigs have not shut up.
Storage of cuttings of currants in the winter requires their prior preparation
The best option to wait for cuttings spring planting is rooting them in the substrate. For this you need:
- Choose individual containers (pots or cups) with a volume of at least 0.5 liters.
- Place drainage on the bottom of the vessel, for example, vermiculite or perlite.
- Pour in a prepared soil mixture of soil, sand and peat in equal proportions.
- Deepen the cuttings on the two lower buds and compress the ground around the seedling to avoid the formation of voids.
For the formation of roots it is important to provide the necessary temperature for the plant and humidity levels. At room temperature, seedlings will be quite comfortable, but they will often have to be sprayed - at least twice a day.
When sprouting currant stalks at home, flowers and ovaries may appear on the branches. They are recommended to be cut off, because the flowering of a potted plant will weaken the root system, which will subsequently affect the productivity of a bush planted in the ground.
With the onset of spring rooted scapes can be planted in the ground in a prepared area. The main thing is to do it when the risk of frost is minimal.
How to chop: the main points
Black currant is amenable to vegetative reproduction. But despite the simplicity of the grafting process, following certain rules will increase the likelihood of success:
- Pay attention to the choice of the maternal bush. It should be a healthy-looking plant, with maximum yield and the most pleasant taste of berries.
- It is best to conduct cuttings in cloudy weather or in the early morning with dew.
- For better rooting of the petioles, experts recommend soaking them in a growth stimulator (for example, in “Heteroauxin”) before planting for 24 hours.
- In the ground petioles should be placed at an angle of 45 0. So it will be easier for them to overwinter.
- The composition of the soil also affects the survival rate of cuttings. It is best to use a mixture of earth, compost and river sand. You can also add sawdust.
- The first three weeks of watering should be abundant and regular.
- Spraying is a prerequisite for cutting black currant. The best is the observance of soil moisture at 80%, and air - 90%.
- When planting seedlings in a permanent place is important planting density. It depends on the currant variety - more space is required for branchy varieties than for straight and narrow crown varieties.
- Fertilize seedlings recommends 3-4 times per season. Organic fertilizers (manure, bird droppings) or complex additives (“Fertika Lux”, “Zdravlen Turbo” at the rate of 1 teaspoon per 5 liters of water) are best suited.
So, observing these simple rules, everyone can grow full-sized black currant bushes from small cuttings, moreover, without any special financial expenses. Most importantly, grafting makes it possible not only to rejuvenate the berry, but also to expand the varietal composition, borrowing several shoots of a bush from a neighbor.
Planting currant seedlings in the garden
Black currant grows well on neutral heavy and medium loamy soils. It is suitable for open spaces and partial shade, as well as moist lowlands, but not swampy and without water stagnation. The area for planting black currant seedlings is leveled (this is necessary for organizing irrigation), cleaned of perennial weeds, dug up to a depth of 20–25 cm, that is, with a bayonet, shovels.
The distance between seedlings depends on:
- soil fertility - on poor lands the interval between plants should be 1.5 m, on fertile land it can be reduced to 1 m,
- varieties of currants - bushes with a narrow crown planted denser than branchy varieties.
The interval between the rows is kept 1.7–2.0 m.
Consider that in thickened planting the berries become smaller, the yield of the bushes is worse.
Prepare pits 40 cm deep, 50 cm wide. Add to each pit:
- humus - 8 kg
- granulated superphosphate - 100 g,
- potassium salt - 60 g
If you plant currants in the spring, prepare the planting pits in the fall, if in the fall, then 15–20 days before planting.
Prepared for planting seedlings inspect, remove dried roots, broken and diseased shoots. Set in a prepared pit seedling at an angle. Sprinkle the roots with soil, periodically compacting it. It is necessary to plant a seedling so that the root neck is 6–8 cm below the soil level. This will help the seedling to take root and form a shrub. Water the bush and grind the peel near the forest. Re-water seedlings in 4–5 days.
After this, the seedling is pruned, leaving 2-4 buds on the shoots. Pruning must be done: with a small above-ground part, nutrients will be mainly used for the development of the root system. Because root growth begins at a soil temperature of + 16– + 18ºС, and crowns at a temperature of air + 6– + 8ºС, a weak root system cannot ensure the full formation of a shrub.
Three weeks after planting, young bushes are fed with nitrogen fertilizers at the rate of 15 g per plant. Further care is timely watering and weeding from weeds. The first crop is harvested next year.
The soil for rooting cuttings must be nutritious, waterproof and breathable. It is prepared from equal parts of humus and peat with the addition of river sand and sawdust.
You should not plant cuttings before winter, as they do not have time to settle down and freeze.
Most of the black currant varieties are self-fertile, but for consistently high yields, plant several specimens of self-pollinating varieties.
Harvesting with young seedlings is possible in the second or third year. The maximum black currant bushes fruit at the age of six. At 9, yields are declining, and bushes need to be replaced.
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Adding an article to a new collection
To increase the number of currant bushes on your site is very simple. Cuttings and layering take root easily, grow quickly and bear fruit well.
You can multiply currants in different ways: green cuttings, lignified cuttings and layering. Each of the procedures is a vegetative reproduction of currant and allows you to get a full-fledged seedlings without much effort. If you have not yet decided which one to choose, we will tell you. But first you should look at the mother currant bushes.
The plant to be used for breeding should be healthy, productive and varietal. Sick bush - not the best option. There are diseases that are very easily transmitted with planting material, for example, terry. It is possible to determine a diseased shrub by flowers and leaves of irregular shape, as well as bright white or dark purple color of buds. It is not recommended to cut cuttings from plants with strongly swollen buds: they can be damaged by kidney mites. So, how to propagate currants?
Reproduction of currants with green cuttings
The advantage of reproduction of currants with green cuttings is that their cutting does not affect the number of shoots per bush, because only the tops of the branches are used for this. In addition, the development of young plants is not too dependent on the weather. That is, it does not matter at all whether the autumn will be dry or wet, the winter will be cold or with thaws, and the spring will be dry or rainy.
Cutting cuttings. It is possible to begin reproduction of currant with green cuttings at the end of May - beginning of June. At this time, the shoots have just grown so much that they can be cut from the upper parts with a length of 10-12 cm. There must be at least 3 buds on one cutting (cuts must be made very close to them).
On the handle should remain a few top sheets, all the rest should be cut off.
Landing. Cuttings are planted in the soil in the soil under an inclination, deepening to the top with leaves. After this, the landing site needs to be mulched, watering and periodically removing growing weeds.
After 2 weeks, the cuttings of currants will start the first roots, and after 3 they will already root well. By autumn, the height of such plants, which will turn into small bushes, will be 20-30 cm. In September, they can already be transplanted to a permanent place.
Reproduction of currant lignified cuttings
Lignified cuttings for spring planting need to be harvested in March, when buds begin to swell on the plant.
Cutting cuttings. Cut off the shoots should be near the ground, so that there are no stumps left on the bush. Then from the most mature part of the shoot it is necessary to cut the cuttings 15–18 cm long each. The upper cut of the cutting should be 1 cm above the bud, the lower one - slightly lower than the last bud. Sections are recommended to make oblique - this will facilitate the planting of cuttings.
Storage. Before planting, the cuttings should be stored upright in the snow, tied together in bunches depending on the variety. Top storage should be covered with straw or sawdust. If the spring is warm and the snow melted early, you can put bundles of cuttings in the refrigerator, wrapping them in the film beforehand.
Cuttings that are stored in the refrigerator should be moistened periodically.
Planting cuttings of currants. When the soil thaws well (to a depth of 20 cm), currant cuttings can be planted in the garden. It is enough just to stick them into the ground a little tilted at a distance of about 15 cm from each other. You need to dig up the cuttings so that 1-2 buds remain above. From such lengths of shoots, seedlings will grow to autumn, which can be transplanted to a permanent place.
Growing biennial currant seedlings. If you want to get a biennial sapling from a planted cutting, then next spring you need to cut off annual shoots on the plant so that 2-4 buds remain on each of them. This procedure will help the seedlings to build a powerful root system. By the fall, they will turn into strong biennial seedlings. By the way, cut shoots can be useful for reproduction.
Reproduction of currants by layering
For reproduction of currants with layering, only annual shoots that do not branch are suitable. The reproduction of currants by layering is the addition of such branches to the soil.
Soil preparation. It is possible to start the procedure already in early spring, as soon as bud break-up begins. However, the land should first be well loosened and a little organic fertilizer (rotted manure, compost) should be added to it. Thanks to organic matter, the soil retains moisture well, which is very important for the formation of roots.
Rooting escape. The soil should be compacted with hands, make a groove in it and put in it the annual escape of currant bush. Чтобы ветка не вернулась на место, ее закрепляют деревянными или металлическими скобами. Побег должен плотно прилегать к почве. После этого его можно засыпать землей слоем не более 1-2 см. Верхушки веток должны оставаться на поверхности.
Принцип укоренения побега смородины при размножении отводками
Уход за будущими саженцами. When buds blossom, young shoots will start growing from them, which will reach upwards. Each of them should be spud wet ground: this will contribute to the formation of adventitious roots. During the summer, as they grow, these branches need to be tucked several times. Periodically, young plants can be watered, especially if the summer is too hot and dry.
Branch seedlings. In the autumn, the branches are broken up and new plants are separated from the main branch. Thus, from each bud of an escaped, bent to the ground, one complete sapling with its autonomous root system is obtained. Plants that are closest to the base of the mother bush, as a rule, grow the largest. They can immediately be planted in a permanent place. The rest is still worth growing up.
Reproduction of red currant by layering is carried out a little differently. The fact is that the shoots of red currants do not bend very well and can break. Therefore, it is propagated by vertical layers. To do this, cut the branches at a height of 5-10 cm, thereby stimulating the growth of shoots from the lower buds. As in the case of black currants, they spud moist soil. In the fall, new plants are separated and planted in a permanent place.
Any of the currant propagation methods presented in this article makes it possible to easily obtain new seedlings. Choose the option that you like more, and multiply the number of bushes of this useful berries in your area, without spending a lot of money to buy seedlings.
Benefits of grafting
There are several methods for red currant and black currant breeding:
- With the help of layering (vegetative method).
According to statistics, when breeding with layers, 100% of fruit bushes take root, while grafting, the percentage of survival is 90%, but the second method is most preferable.
Advantages of reproduction of currant cuttings:
- The ability to get a new variety. When planting bushes by layering currants completely inherits maternal qualities,
- You can collect planting material year-round. In spring and summer, green cuttings are stored; in autumn and winter, lignified shoots,
- Having studied how to grow a currant from cuttings in the spring, the gardener can make a good planting stock, save money on the purchase of seedlings for planting,
- It is not necessary to transplant a young bush, you can immediately put it in a permanent place,
- Cutting cuttings does not affect the number of shoots.
Red currant bush
Propagation by cuttings of black and red currants differs from each other. Varieties have different requirements for soil, moisture, growing cuttings.
How to collect cuttings
The procedure is carried out in several stages:
- Garden shears cut healthy, strong shoots with a diameter of more than 7 mm,
- Cut each shoot into cuttings of 15–20 cm in size. It is recommended to use a garden knife to divide the shoot into planting material (shears can damage the cuttings fibers),
- The upper part must be cut off, maintaining an angle of 90 degrees, and the lower part is cut at an angle of 60 degrees,
- The first cuttings are not used as planting material, cut from the top and bottom, the remaining cuttings are wrapped in a damp cloth and stored in a plastic bag.
Place the cut of each stalk covered with beeswax, you can use garden pitch. If the cuttings are not planned to be planted immediately, they can be put into the refrigerator or well buried in a snowdrift.
Depending on the variety of currants, the requirements for the site are different. Black currant varieties are required to be planted in open, lighted areas or partial shade. Soil moisture should be moderate, without stagnant water.
White and red currants grow well in elevated, well-warmed and illuminated areas. A bed with currant bushes protect from wind and drafts.
Favorable soil for currants:
- Heavy loamy
- Medium loamy
- Acidity should be neutral or low.
Spring and autumn cuttings
Preparation of cuttings can be combined with scraps of bushes. Collect cuttings from one or two year old shoots with a thickness of 5 mm. The principle of the cutting:
- The apical section is made 1 cm above the kidney, and the lower sections are cut immediately below the kidney,
- Cuttings collected in the autumn, it is not recommended to plant in the open ground - they can not survive the cold winter. Planting material is stored until spring or germinated in a prepared substrate,
- So that the stiff cuttings do not dry before planting in open ground, they must be properly stored. To do this, the cut must be dipped in wax or liquid paraffin, cuttings folded in a plastic bag and cleaned in a refrigerator or cellar.
The most preferred option for storing cuttings for spring planting is planting in the substrate. How to rooted cuttings until spring:
- Prepare pots, cups, minimum volume - 0.5 l,
- Lay a drainage layer on the bottom (perlite, vermiculite),
- Mix peat, sand and garden soil in a 1: 1 ratio. Soil mixture put in cups,
- Cutting the cuttings into 2 buds and tamping down the ground with your fingers.
To seedlings rooted, it is necessary to create an optimal temperature and maintain humidity. Room temperature will be comfortable for the plant, spraying of seedlings should be done twice a day.
On a note. If the germination of cuttings at home on the plant formed flowers and ovary, then they should be cut, because the seedlings will give all the energy to form the upper part, and the roots will weaken.
In the spring, it will be possible to plant rooted cuttings on the prepared area. The time for planting is chosen after there is no risk of spring frosts. Knowing how to propagate currants by cuttings in the spring and autumn, the gardener will independently rejuvenate and plant a berry crop in the summer cottage.
Care after rooting
One year after planting the cuttings in open ground, pruning is carried out. On the branch leave 2-4 buds. All ovaries, flowers are cut, it will give impetus to the growth of lateral shoots.
It is important to often loosen the soil. With good air permeability, the roots will develop more actively. The depth of loosening should be small, currant roots are located close to the surface of the earth. For loosening the hole you can use a garden tool. To dig up the earth can no longer, because you can touch the roots.
When dry weather requires abundant watering, the bush requires 3 buckets of water. Watering is better in the morning or evening. In time to fertilize the bushes can be organic (fertilizer must be diluted with water):
Note. Young seedlings should be examined for the presence of diseases and pests. If damaged areas are found, it is better to remove the seedlings, as they will not develop normally and may infect the rest of the bushes.
During reproduction by cutting, the first crop is harvested after 3 years. Peak yields are reached in the sixth year, after the plant begins to bear less. To continue to harvest a good harvest, the bushes need to be rejuvenated every 8-10 years.
Tips on how to propagate currants by cuttings:
- To make cuttings, you need to choose a healthy mother bush with a large crop of tasty berries, the twig that is cut must be strong,
- Cuttings are harvested in the morning when there is dew on the foliage, or in cloudy weather,
- In the soil mixture for planting stalks add sawdust. Growing at home is produced in individual pots or cups. The pots are put on the illuminated window sill,
- After planting, within 3 weeks, seedlings need regular and abundant watering. You can keep a journal in which the first 2 years are marked with watering, fertilizing, types of fertilizers,
- It is necessary to water in the morning or in the evening when the sun is not active. Water must be separated. Water the bushes under the root, about 5 liters per bush,
- To find out if the plant is rooted, it is enough to take the top and pull it up carefully, if there is resistance, the shelter can be removed,
- Seedlings are fed up to 4 times per season. You can add complex mineral fertilizers or organics. When making mineral and complex fertilizers, it is important to observe the dosing. An excess of minerals can negatively affect the growth and development of the shrub.
Reproduction of currant cuttings is a time-consuming process that requires compliance with certain requirements when preparing planting material, preparing the site, planting cuttings in the ground and caring for the plant. But, knowing all the subtleties of how to properly graft black and red currants in the spring, you can easily grow yourself new berry bushes.