Grapes are a very thermophilic plant and we are accustomed to growing it on huge plantations, mainly in southern countries. But over the past few decades, through the efforts of breeders, many hybrid varieties have been developed that can bear fruit in central Russia and even closer to the north in closed greenhouses. At an average temperature of ripening of +18 o C, you can get a harvest of juicy, aromatic berries in just 100-110 days. We will discuss further the cultivation and cultivation of such grapes.
How to grow grapes at home
Grapes - just the culture that does not reproduce by seed, since in this case it does not retain its original genetic characteristics. Buy ready seedling favorite varieties are not always possible. That's why the most affordable and common method of propagation of the vine - cuttings.
Its accessibility lies in the fact that at home it is very easy to preserve, plant and root the grapes, prepare them for planting in open ground or a greenhouse. It is best to do this at home, since the process of rooting should begin no later than the end of February - the beginning of March.
Now many hybrid varieties have this ability, since grafting is one of the main directions of the work of breeders. Most often, gardeners love to plant table varieties with excellent taste, sugar content, large berries (preferably seedless), with early or mid-ripening periods. Practically all these requirements are met by the following varieties: Delight, Kesha, Pleven, various varieties of Kishmish, Laura, Kodryanka, Anyuta, Aleshenkin, Veles and many others.
Before planting grapes in the ground, it is necessary to germinate cuttings and wait for the first leaves to appear.
Features of growing
Growing grapes in a greenhouse or in the open field depends on the natural climatic conditions of the region. It is clear that in the southern areas in the open ground will have time to ripen grapes not only of early varieties, but later. But in the Middle Belt, the Moscow region and further north in open soils only the harvest of the earliest varieties will ripen.
In those regions where summer is short, winters are cold, it is best to grow vines in greenhouses in order to enjoy the taste of berries with different ripening periods for a longer time. But indoors it is necessary to monitor the health of the bushes more carefully., microclimate, soil condition, as the cases of fungal and other lesions spread much faster. In a closed space, it is easier to prevent the occurrence of typical diseases than to eradicate them.
Step-by-step technology for growing grape bushes from cuttings
The whole process of obtaining rooted seedlings takes several months, but in terms of complexity it is not very complicated. Even novice gardeners who decide to engage in viticulture are able to achieve the best results — this crop is so unpretentious, although it requires some attention. The main thing is to take care of and carry out certain activities on time.
Cutting and storage of chubukov
The very first stage is the preparation of planting material. During the pruning of the grapes in the fall, when all the fruit-bearing branches this year are removed, cuttings are procured. It is the fruit branches that serve as the best material for future seedlings. What is necessarytake into account:
- pruning is carried out after leaf fall, before the onset of the first frost,
- the vine should be as straight, healthy, light brown or sandy as possible,
- the longer the cutting, the better the reproduction will be.
Cut cuttings need to be prepared for storage:
- soak in cold water for 1-2 days, changing the water 2 times a day,
- process the solution of vitriol or potassium permanganate (it is best to soak for half an hour),
- spread out on paper napkins (towels) and dry well from excessive moisture,
- Collect cuttings in a bundle, wrap tightly in plastic wrap, tie, fasten a tag with the name of the variety (if there are several grapes, you need to store in different bags, because different varieties have a bad effect on each other during storage), plastic bottles can be used instead of film - lower the vine through the neck and close the lid.
Store cuttings at t 0 + 5 о С (a refrigerator, glazed balcony, basement will do).
At the end of February - the beginning of March, they begin to root the planting material. First you need to check how the material is preserved. To do this, update the sections, each at a distance from the upper and lower kidney 0.5-2 cm, respectively, in an oblique and direct way - they must be green and wet. Then the cuttings are immersed in water for 1-2 days (depending on the degree of dryness of the twigs), to stimulate growth, you need to add honey, aloe juice or humate (1 table. Spoon / 10 liters of water).
Sprouting cuttings in water
Put a layer of cotton about 2 cm in the usual glass liter jar on the bottom, pour as much water (preferably thawed), lower the cuttings. The heel - bottom edge - should be in water at a depth of 4-5 cm. To avoid liquid rotting, you can put 2-3 tablets of activated carbon, top up with water periodically. You can put a plastic bag on top of the jar to create a greenhouse effect, put it on the windowsill.
Grapes, like any plant, for intensive growth need an abundance of light and heat. First there will be twigs, and then the roots. For the root system to develop, the shoots should be broken off; for the bush, one, the most recent shoot will be enough.
Planting pots in a greenhouse or greenhouse
The soil for seedlings needs to be prepared in the fall, mixing in equal amounts of turf soil, peat, sand, rotted manure or compost, and ready-made mixture from the store will do. As a container, you can use plastic bottles, disposable cups and larger, etc., make drainage holes. At the bottom of the container pour a little drainage, then the prepared soil, gently lower the cutting on it, fill it with soil, slightly (!) Moisten it.
The heel of the seedling should be at a depth of 1/3 of the container, and the young shoots above the ground. Approximately until the end of May - the beginning of June, young seedlings will have time to root well, to develop full-fledged leaves and branches, - to prepare for planting into the ground.
Planted Chubuk in pots
Rooting in sawdust or soil
In the southern regions, where in March the soil warms to a temperature of 10-12 degrees at a depth of 10 cm, cuttings after processing and soaking can be planted directly into the ground - shkolka. Planting is done in prepared, well-fertilized soil to a depth of 40 cm. The cuttings are laid in the pits (or furrow), covered with earth to half, well compacted, watered abundantly, pitted to the top. On the surface of the earth should remain 2 buds. Focusing on the climate of the region, you can grind the surface or temporarily cover the film.
Sawdust should be only hardwood trees, without the admixture of harmful sawdust plywood or chipboard. They need to be steamed before use - pour boiling water, then cool and in a deep bowl (bucket), first pour a small layer on the bottom. Then lay the sawdust in an inclined state, layering cuttings vertically between them. After planting, it is necessary to cover the dishes with foil, put them in a warm place and from time to time moisten the medium until sprouts and roots appear.
Rooting grapes in sawdust
Proper planting of seedlings in open ground
The technology of how to plant in open ground is simple. Ready rooted seedling first prepared for planting in open ground. To do this, for 5-7 days, the seedlings in the pots are taken out on the street, avoiding direct sunlight. After quenching, in the prepared holes, the cuttings are lowered together with the earthy clod, the wells are filled with earth mixed with humus, and poured over with warm water. The main thing - do not bury the plant and moderately watered. In order not to damage the roots when planting, plastic cups or other containers should be carefully cut, then remove the seedling with an earthy ball.
Rooted grapes, ready for planting
To germinate a grape stalk, root it and grow a seedling of your favorite variety of crispy sweet berries is not a lot of work. This can be done either in a polycarbonate greenhouse or in a greenhouse, or in the open field. Proper care of your pet - and he will thank you for the active growth and rich harvest, literally, in two or three years.
How to plant grapes cuttings at home
Only by using a vegetative propagation method can a healthy, fruiting plant be obtained. In this case, you need to understand all the responsibility, and therefore comply with the necessary equipment. Methods for grafting grapes are different. Each gardener can share their tips and experiences. Having received a process from a healthy plant, you can count on a good and bulk crop in the future.
First you need to cut the cuttings. To do this, choose a healthy grape with a stiff maternal vine. The vine must be well matured and have live buds. Take a long shoot or cut. The more he is, the better. They start harvesting even before the first frost. The stalk should be about 1 cm in diameter and have 4 to 8 buds. Basic rules of preparation:
- Sort and label. It is advisable not to use paper labels.
- If it is not possible to immediately start preparing, the cuttings are added with earth and left to spend the winter on the site.
- First of all cuttings are sent to a container with water for 24 hours.
- The settled cuttings need to be disinfected so as not to rot. Usually use a weak solution of potassium permanganate within half an hour.
- After all the procedures, the blanks are blotted with paper towels and left to dry.
- In the final, the cuttings should be wrapped in cellophane, tightly tied and put on to save. Suitable for this: basement, balcony, refrigerator, and more. The temperature should be no more than 6 degrees and not less than 2.
Many gardeners It is recommended to check the billets every month at the time of rotting, mold and drying. If problems arise, they do everything they need again: washed, processed, dried and sent back to storage.
Planting grapes cuttings at home: rooting
Plant grapes cuttings - troublesome businessrequired full follow-up technique. Before you plant a ready sapling, you need to carry out proper rooting. Do it in the following way:
- In the spring they take out blanks, inspect, trim and cull them. Cuttings need to be cut for further rooting. From the bottom there should be an even cut, about 2 cm to the kidney, and from above a slanting cut 1-2 cm after the eye. In this case, the top should be treated with garden pitch or paraffin. Choosing healthy and fit cuttings is easy. When pruned, they must be green inside and have live buds that are ready to bloom. If the kidneys look painful and the stem is brown inside, then this material is not suitable for planting.
- To form the roots, make grooves thin and sharp object. Good nails or needles. Make a furrow from the middle to the very end.
- After that, you need to fully immerse the cuttings in water for 24 hours. It is better if they are free to be in the tank and not interfere with each other.
- To help the spines awaken, use a special stimulant. For example, Kornevin.
- After the stimulator, the cuttings are again sent to insist on the water for 3-4 cm, until they become ready for planting. After 2 weeks or less, the upper bud begins to bloom. The seedling will begin to absorb water, and therefore it is necessary to add it.
As soon as the first bud is dissolved, after 10 days should appear and the first roots. When the root system begins to develop, the seedling is planted in a special substrate. At the bottom of the tank, drainage is first laid, and then the grape substrate. The stalk is placed in a bowl and covered with the mixture to the top so that the tallest bud alone remains on the surface. After rooting, the seedling is watered and placed on the southern, sunny side for good growth. For a good survival rate, some experts advise to feed the young grapes. Growing grapes from cuttings does not occur without rooting. This is an important stage and condition for reproduction.
This is a very interesting way to help the plant quickly develop roots and settle down after planting. This implies planting in open ground and forcing. The method helps the cuttings to form calluses. They are achieved by different temperatures. One half is cold and the other is warm. To achieve this, the stalk is buried in the ground, and the rest of 10-15 cm is covered with humus. Due to this method, the roots develop and grow earlier than the kidneys.
For a good effect, you can additionally create conditions, like in a greenhouse. It is enough to cover with foil or glass. The time of sprouting cuttings will directly depend on weather conditions. The higher the temperature, the faster the wicking method will be.
Growing grapes from cuttings at home: school
The groove in which the cuttings should be planted is called the shkolka. In the spring, somewhere in April, when the snow melts, they begin to prepare a piece of land. To do this, dig up the soil on a bayonet spade, for each square meter spend 2 buckets of sand, 1 humus and a shovel with wood ash. All ingredients are well mixed again. Landing is carried out in the prepared mounds..
The shkolka must always be loose and without weeds. To do this, after each watering or rain, flush the earth around each cutting. In order for seedlings to develop well and take root, they need additional fertilizing with organic fertilizers, which are applied with water. Before the fall, carry out the minting. This will allow the vine to mature before winter. Saplings are dug out from the school on a permanent place, if the sapling has formed at least one stiffened shoot.
Growing grapes at home from cuttings in spring
In the spring to grow grapes From cuttings easier, but due to climatic conditions, not everyone can do it. You need to breed, following a certain technique:
- Cut off healthy and stiff shoots. It is desirable that they are smooth and have swollen buds. Finished cut put insist in the water.
- Shoots need to be distributed and cut into cuttings of 2-3 buds, making the lower slice oblique.
- For each cutting will require planting in a glass. Growing takes place in a dark and warm place. They need to grow up until they begin to take root and develop their root system.
- In this form, the cuttings are grown all summer, and only in the fall they are sent for storage.
- Next, a new spring is set in a temporary place, and only in the fall they will go for a permanent one.
Planting grapes green cuttings
Maybe, many will be interested in this particular methodwhich was developed by Lykov Yu.D. His method is used by many gardeners. Growing grapes occurs in one summer period. According to the author, the best period is July. Cuttings taken from shoots or stepsons with 3-4 buds. Bottom cut 3-4 cm below the node, and the top just above the kidney. Cutting put insist in a container with rain water.
For rooting in this case, you will need a 5-liter bottle. The top is cut and filled with earth, and the bottom is made a hole for drainage. Recommended soil: 50% compost and 50% ordinary land. Lykov for his method uses the land, dug up by moles. After the earth is laid, it is compacted, shaking and patting the bottle. For a better touch, pour rainwater as well. In the cuttings with 3 buds, the lower leaf is removed, and the upper 2 are pruned to reduce surface evaporation. At a two-eyed shank leave only the top leaf. The bottle can be set to 4 cuts on 5-6 cm.
In the bottle put wooden slats to make the frame. From above dress a cellophane package and tightly fasten. Ready greenhouse is placed on the sunny side. The first 12 days you do not need to touch the cuttings, because inside there is a high level of natural moisture. Further, the saplings are aired every week and irrigated. On rooting takes an average of one month and a half. In early August, cuttings sent to open ground. This method promises full maturation of the seedling by October.
Grapes - this is a very tasty berry, which is quite possible to grow and propagate in a vegetative way using cuttings. If you follow all the recommendations and instructions, you can get the desired result. Such planting and reproduction promises as a result a healthy plant with a high yield. It's no secret that buying seedlings, you can get a variety that is unsuitable for the required area. Growing by this method will avoid trouble and dilute exactly the sort that is needed.
Storage and storage
Harvesting cuttings is a crucial process during their cultivation. Черенковать лозу лучше всего осенью. Однако некоторые садоводы заготавливают чубуки в феврале или в мае, пока не началось в лозе движение соков и набухание почек. При этом способе не нужно беспокоиться о хранении, однако укоренение происходит чуть хуже. Выращивать виноградный куст можно и зелеными черенками.
Produce cuttings using this method:
- pick up sprig with dark green bark 0.8-0.9 cm thick
- they cut it 2.2-2.6 cm below the lower kidney, in a straight line,
- the size of the cutting must be 15-50 cm,
- the top is cut along an oblique line at a distance of 4-5 cm from the peephole in the opposite direction from the direction of the kidney,
- inspect the vine carefully, it must be healthy, no signs of mold, damage, stains.
Chubuki must be properly prepared so that they remain alive throughout the winter and can retain all the properties in the spring. Storage of cuttings is as follows:
- Immediately after trimming the branches for a day soaked in water,
- perform disinfection in potassium permanganate or blue vitriol for about half an hour,
- dried on ordinary newspaper or filter paper,
- cover the ends with paraffin or wax
- bundled up the cuttings, labeled, so that later it was possible to determine the grade,
- sent to a cool place for storage (basement, refrigerator, balcony).
Germination in water
This is the most popular method that does not require much effort. Chubuki prepared as described above. Perform a cut of the tips, soaking, not forgetting to process the antiseptic. Subsequent actions are as follows:
- to the bottom of the can put gauze or fleece,
- add water, a layer of 2-3 cm,
- add to the jar several crystals of potassium permanganate, this will not allow the roots to rot,
- Chubukov set so that the water was up to the level of the first peephole,
- water is added as needed.
On the jar for better rooting put on a packageby creating so mini greenhouse. If the chubuki gave leaves and 2 pagons, then everything cannot be left, they take away the stronger one, since it takes a lot of energy from the roots, worsening their development.
How long does rooting of grapes last in water? In general, the process may take about 15-20 days.
Planting in pots with soil
If the roots have grown roots about 2 cm in length, then they are transplanted into a pot of 0.5-1 l. The soil is prepared from such components:
- 2 pieces of coarse sand
- 1 part of compost or humus,
- 1 part turf or garden soil.
You can buy a universal ready-made soil in the store and mix it in the same proportions with the sand. It is necessary to put a small drainage layer on the bottom of the pot, it will retain moisture. Chubuki immersed in the pot at 1/3 to the bottom there was enough space for the development of roots. Transplantation into the ground is also necessary for the vine, which is grown by other methods.
Sprouting in soil and sawdust
The substrate is prepared from wood chips, also take sawdust. It is desirable for this to use fruit trees (pear, apple, cherry, plum). First, the substrate is poured boiling water, after cooling, squeeze out excess water. Then you can use the keel machine either growing in bottles and sawdust. Do this like this:
- in the bottle cut off the neck,
- make holes at the bottom,
- drainage is poured on the bottom (crushed brick, small pebbles, sand),
- pour about 8 tbsp. prepared sawdust
- inserted at a slight angle several or one branch each, so that at the level of the cut of the bottle there is an upper eye,
- from the top they fall asleep with a second layer of substrate,
- Cover with plastic or plastic cup,
- put on a closed balcony or on a windowsill.
After 14 days, seedlings reach and see if they are rooted. If there are no roots on the handle, it is sent back to the substrate. Rooted chubukov transplanted into a pot with a primer. Chubuki can be grown in bottles with the ground. Soil prepared according to the recipe, which is described above. Germinated Chubukov can immediately be planted in open ground.
Sprouting on the closet
If there is a lot of planting material, and there is very little room in the room, cuttings can be germinated on the cabinet. Chubuki prepare, and their ends wrapped at the bottom with a damp cloth and plastic. Sow seedlings in piles on the closetso the cuttings will not interfere. The top is deployed to the source of illumination, best of all - to the window. It is good if the roots are warm and the tips are cold. Check every 2-3 days whether the fabric is dry. If necessary, moisten it. After 15-20 days pagons and leaves appear on the branches. They must be cut off, leaving one.
Sprouting in open ground
For this method of germination can be applied cuttings of grapes of any variety. But it is not advised to use this method in regions with very cold climatic conditions (in Siberia, in the Urals, etc.). In Moldova, germination of cuttings from a long vine (about 70 cm) is used. It is twisted and tied up in several turns. They dig a hole, lower the vine into it, so that 2 buds remain on top, water well, after spuding the cutting, sprinkle the ground on top of it.
Cuttings can be planted directly into the ground, if you managed to get them very late and there is no time to root at home. This should be done if the temperature outside is above 16 ° C and the saplings are not threatened by frost. The best time is the end of May. They are planted like rooted chubuki. But the distance between the cuttings should be less, about 25 cm. You can cover the branches with glass jars for a couple of weeks. Cuttings without rooting can also be planted in the ground in the fall. This method is best suited for early varieties.
In the summer, you can plant grapes with green cuttings. Planting material is collected when the stepson bush. Healthy branches set aside from the rest of the mass separately. Then cuttings with 2-3 eyes are made. Leaves are removed from the bottom. This cultivation can be outdoor or indoor. Open root rooting better if the seedlings are covered with polyethylene. During the cultivation of green cuttings soak them do not need. After landing in the ground or substrate watering is carried out once a week.
Transplantation in open ground
In order to grow good grapes from cuttings, it must be properly transplanted. They do this at the beginning of summer, when it is warm outside even at night and there is no risk of late frosts. By this time Chubuk already give strong roots. A successful transplant procedure is provided by:
- well prepared ground
- the right place for planting the vine,
- the correct transfer of chubukov to a permanent place,
- properly dug pits under the transplant.
Preparing for planting everything you need is very simple, you just need to follow certain rules.
Where does the vine grow best? Grown from cuttings grapes must be transplanted into the open ground. Near this place there should be no bushes and fruit trees that shade the vine and infect it with diseases. It is not desirable that near the grapes were concreted walkways, a flower garden was located, garden crops were growing. Grapes need freedom and space, then it develops better and bears fruit. Plot pick litbest from the south. Well, if from the north wind the plant will protect the wall of a building or a small hill.
Grapes love the land a little acidified, the pH should be about 6.7-8.1. For planting is perfect soil with the inclusion of peat, garden or sod land, humus, sand. The soil must be well aerated, the water should not stagnate in it. The best time to determine a site for planting is autumn, in the spring you only need to remove weeds and loosen the ground.
Trenches and pits for landing
Saplings can be planted in trenches or pits. The pit is made approximately 50 × 50 × 50 cm. The depth of the trench is 35-45 cm. Bottom lined with drainage layer about 2-3 cm, it is possible coarse sand, crushed brick or small pebbles. After add 2 cups of ash and potash phosphate bait. Top poured a mixture of soil from the same parts of sod land and humus, mixed with 2 parts of sand. In order to protect young seedlings from diseases, you can pour a solution of blue vitriol or potassium permanganate into the pit.
Between seedlings the distance should be 35-45 cm. It is better to plant 2 branches in one hole. When bushes take root, the weaker one is removed. Planted cuttings in the ground must be at an angle of 45 degrees. The seedling is instilled so that two buds remain on top, after it is covered with a mound of earth. Then thoroughly watered (2 buckets of water per bush). Some gardeners are advised to install a trellis already at this stage so that the leaves and the wagons can be attached for something.
Care of seedlings
Cultivation of young grapes, especially in the first year, will require careful care, which includes:
- regular loosening of the earth,
- weeding and watering,
- treating seedlings from various diseases
- garter of the vine,
- making feedings.
It is necessary to water young bushes once in two weeks in order that saplings did not dry up. For one plant will be needed around a bucket of water. Watering can be done directly under the vine bush or use drainage pipes. The latter method is more convenient.
Weed the grapes in view of the growth of weeds. The earth is loosened once a week, in order to get enough air to the roots. Bait add only organic (diluted chicken manure, compost, humus, etc.). In them most nitrogen, and during its shortage the leaves turn yellow. It is necessary to lure a plant 3-4 times a year.
When planting for grapes, you can already build a homemade frame. If this is not possible, the branches of the vine tie up to high pegs. Tapestries are erected the very next year, when saplings allow numerous and powerful pagans. Grape cuttings are usually affected by fungal diseases. For their prevention, the plant is treated with special purchased preparations or copper sulphate. Competent care allows you to save almost all the seedlings and later get a good harvest of grapes.
Adding an article to a new collection
Grafting is a common and affordable way to grow grapes at home. In this article we will talk about the most popular technique of growing grapes saplings from cuttings.
Grapes are well propagated by cuttings, as they are capable of forming roots on green and lignified shoots, from which planting cuttings (chubuk) are harvested. In the spring of them can grow a young seedling of grapes.
Harvesting cuttings of grapes
Cuttings of grapes harvested in the fall, while pruning bushes. In this case, well-developed and mature shoots with a diameter of 6 to 10 mm are selected. Thicker should not be taken - it is fattening shoots, which are unlikely to take root.
Thicker branches of the grapes should not be taken - it is fattening shoots that are unlikely to take root
Signs of quality cuttings:
- thickness not less than 6 mm,
- hard, crackling when bent,
- bark light or dark brown (it should not be any gray-brown or dark brown spots),
- the vine is cut green (brown indicates freezing of the shoot),
- no mechanical damage.
Cuttings cut into a length of 30-40 cm (they should be from 2 to 4 eyes).
When harvesting cuttings of different varieties do not forget to sign them.
Storage of grapes
Cut grapes cuttings cleaned from stepsons, leaves, whiskers, folded in bunches and tied with soft wire or rope. Harvested chubukov stored in the basement (in wet sand) or in a specially dug in the garden trench 50 cm deep and the length equal to the length of the cuttings.
A trench is dug on an elevated place away from the groundwater. Grainy sand is poured at the bottom with a layer of 10 cm. Then the cuttings are laid horizontally and a layer of soil about 40 cm thick is poured up. When frosts come, the trench is covered with dry leaves, sawdust, straw or peat and covered with plastic wrap on top.
In both cases, the temperature of the air in the storage area of the cuttings should not exceed 4 ° C.
Cuttings can be stored at home on the refrigerator door. Only they need to pre-soak for 1-2 days in water and put in a small plastic bag.
Water should be at room temperature.
Preparation of grapes for planting
In late January - early February, grape cuttings are taken out of storage, washed in a weak solution of potassium permanganate and placed in room temperature water for 1-2 days. After that, the cuttings of the cuttings are refreshed with a disinfected sharp knife, until the wood becomes light green. On each handle leave 2 upper eyes, the rest are removed. And in the lower part of the pipe a double-sided furrow is made with a knife. After that, sections and grooves are smeared with Kornevin.
Furrow cuttings of grapes - agropriem, which aims to stimulate the processes of rooting. Carry it out like this: small longitudinal cuts of the bark in the lower part of the cuttings are made with an iron comb, a nail file or the sharp end of a knife. In these places, wound tissue appears, which accelerates the process of formation and development of adventitious roots.
After which the cuttings are subjected kilchevania (This is a technique in which the lower parts of the cuttings are kept warm and the upper parts are cold). To do this, the cuttings are placed in plastic bags, glass or plastic jars filled with wet sawdust, and placed on a heating radiator.
During kilching, periodically moisten sawdust and often open the vent window so that the upper buds on the cuttings do not wake up ahead of time
After 17–20 days, callus is formed at the lower ends of the cuttings (an influx of gray-white color) with dotted tubercles (root buds) or already with roots 2–7 cm long. And green shoots 2–5 cm long grow from the two upper eyes.
This is how grape chubuk looks like, ready to be planted in the ground.
Planting grapes cuttings
After the roots are formed, the grapes are carefully planted in cardboard or plastic cups 20-25 cm high and 8-10 cm in diameter. To do this, pour the soil mixture into the container with a layer of 4-5 cm, lightly compact it, put the cutting in there, cover it with nutrient soil and pour it over. .
Water for irrigation cuttings of grapes should be warm, but not hot
Soil mixture for grape cubs is best prepared from 1 part of sod or forest fertile soil, 1 part of peat and 1 part of coarse sand (with particles from millet to pea in size). A mixture of 1 part of fertile structural soil, 1 part of coarse sand and 1 part of sifted sawdust is also quite effective.
Nutrients are not enough in a handle with one eyelet, therefore it is placed in a small container with fertile and moist soil, covered with polyethylene and placed in a warm, well-lit place.
Cups with cuttings are left in a room with a temperature of 22-25 ° C near the southern windows. As the soil dries out (about once a week), the plants are watered with warm water, and when 3-4 leaves appear, they are fed with complex fertilizer with microelements: it is dissolved in water (according to the instructions) and watered at the rate of 1 tbsp. on each container.
You can use the biostimulator Humisol to feed grape cuttings
On a single plant grown from cuttings, 1-2 shoots are left. And the rest - are removed as they appear. Grown seedlings are planted in a permanent place in late May - early June. 5-7 days before disembarking, they are hardened.
Grape saplings obtained from cuttings begin to produce crops in the third year, and with very skillful care even in the second.
Grapes from cuttings: planting, variety selection
For each climate zone there is a range of grapes. The south of the place, the greater the variety of varieties grown there. When choosing, they follow the CAT (sum of active temperatures exceeding 10 ° C). In the description of the variety usually indicate this characteristic. If in a given area the amount of temperature required for the maturation of a variety is not collected, it should not be planted there. Late varieties in the northern regions do not ripen. They lack the sun. Therefore, early grapes are cultivated there. Selection does not stand still. We have created many varieties that are resistant to frost and disease.
Reproduction of grapes cuttings
Dilute grapes is easy. It is easily propagated by cuttings. This is usually done in the spring. Vine harvested in the fall and stored in the basement (in the sand) or in prikopa.
• Plant grapes by cuttings, prepared in different ways:
• Cuttings, clipped and soaked,
For the first three options, the landing technique and technique are the same. Change only the timing. The size of standard cuttings - 40-50 cm with three - four eyes.
Reproduction ripened (lignified) cuttings
Early spring, the vine is cut into pieces and prepared for planting.
There are several options for grafting this culture. In all the ways, the roots are first formed, and then the leaves sprout.
The fact is that usually buds first bloom and leaves start to grow, and then roots form. This leads to the desiccation and death of non-rooted plants.
To avoid this, resort to the following methods:
• Before planting, cuttings must be pruned, since the roots are formed better in the fresh cut. The lower cut is done through the node or immediately below it. Upper - in the middle of internode.
• soak. The cuttings should collect so much moisture that water droplets protrude in the fresh cut when pressed.
• Plow. Apply wounds - scratches on the heel part. This technique stimulates rooting.
• Kilchut. Кильчевание – нагревание нижней пяточной части черенка. Для этого процесса делают специальные кильчеваторы. Кильчуют также в парниках или теплицах. Переворачивают чубуки «вниз головой». Внизу, у пола температура всегда ниже, чем вверху.Due to this temperature difference, callus begins to form in the lower sections, and then root buds begin to form.
• Treated with root stimulants: heteroauxin, root, or other.
To delay the bud break, planted spuds are planted.
The timing of planting nekilchevannyh cuttings do not depend on the temperature of the soil in the root zone. They are planted earlier. Unkilchevye cuttings planted in the spring, as soon as the condition of the soil.
Kilch cuttings are planted when the soil warms to 10˚C.
Planted in furrows or ditches, filled with water in one - two lines. It is possible to plant under the scrap, making holes in the soil for cuttings with scrap.
After planting, cuttings of any length spud so that they do not dry out. There is also a method of protecting them from drying out - waxing. To prevent drying, the cuttings are dipped in melted paraffin.
Grapes from cuttings on the window
Matured cuttings (normal or shortened) can be rooted at home in the room. In March. Lower sections are treated with rooting regulators. Then put the cuttings in cans of water. The water layer should be 2-3 cm.
Days after ten - two weeks eyes begin to bloom. Later, the rudiments of roots appear. When several roots appear, the cuttings are transplanted into containers. It can be cut plastic bottles, milk or kefir packages, or polyethylene cylinders. Cuttings are lowered into containers on a layer of substrate, then carefully fall asleep, watering and trying not to damage the roots.
Tanks put in pallets and placed on the bright windows. Moderately watered, not filling, with warm water.
Rooted cuttings with green shoots are planted in mid-May, when the threat of spring frosts passes.
Plants are placed according to the scheme:
75–80 cm from row to row.
Long shoots pinch, leaving 10-15 cm.
Such rooted cuttings take root well, as they are planted with a closed root system. By the fall, shoots on saplings grown from short cuttings reach a meter or more.
Reproduction green cuttings
The cuttings are carried out in May - June in the breaking of green shoots. For rooting using parnichki. On a mixture of earth and sand poured a layer of sand 3-5 cm. Water. Broken shoots cut into two-point cuttings. The bottom sheet is removed, half of the top is cut off. The tops of the shoots for cuttings do not use. The cuttings are kept in a rooting stimulator solution for 6–8 hours. Instead, it is possible to plant a root powder before planting.
Planted after 10 cm to a depth of 2-3 cm, sprayed with water and covered with film or glass. Pritenyat. Lime glass can be used for this. Several times a day, spray it with warm water (20–25вC) from a spray bottle. Two weeks later, callus appears. From now on, spraying is reduced to three per day. Rooting occurs in about a month. During this period, the plants begin to harden, opening for ten - fifteen minutes in the evening. Time is gradually increased, bringing to the whole day.
In the future, rooted cuttings are left in place in the greenhouse or transplanted into shkolku. Do it in the middle of June in the furrow depth of 18-20 cm.
75 cm between the rows.
By the autumn, rooted plants give shoots up to 40–50 cm.
Care is similar to agricultural technology in conventional nurseries. The only difference is more frequent watering.
Grapes from cuttings: care (photo)
The site where the cuttings are rooted and grown is called a shkolka or nursery.
Care work in the nursery:
10–12 days after planting, the cuttings will break out. Do it in two - three times.
The soil in the shkolke should be loose and free from weeds. On the surface should not form a crust, that is, after watering and rain, loosening is required, which is carried out every 10-12 days. In clean areas, the depth of tillage is 7–8 cm, and on overgrown weeds, up to 15 cm.
Watering is required when growing cuttings. Usually spend it on the furrows. The first watering spend two to three weeks after planting. Total watering should be at least four per season.
Grapes from cuttings: top dressing
After rooting, fertilizer is added to the water during irrigation. During the growth spend at least three feedings. During the first two, all types of fertilizers are applied: per square meter:
• 10 g of superphosphate
• 10 g of potassium salt,
• 20 g of ammonium nitrate or urea
Bring in trace elements - boron and manganese.
As organics used slurry or chicken manure in liquid form. First, they ferment for about a week.
Take one manure bucket for 2-3 buckets of water. Before making a breed: manure - 1:10, litter 1:15. For one meter of row you need one bucket of diluted fertilizer.
Beneficial effect on growing seedlings foliar feeding, which are combined with treatments from diseases and pests.
Removal of surface roots
To ensure the development of the roots on the heel of the cutting, it is necessary to remove the superficial roots. To do this, dig up the ground near the seedlings and cut out the roots located on the upper two nodes with a sharp knife. At the same time, shoots are removed.
Coining is usually carried out in early September, when the growth of young shoots began to fade, removing the crown with 3-4 underdeveloped leaves. Only strong shoots are minted, giving a gain of at least 60–70 cm.
Grapes from cuttings: pests and diseases (photo)
Diseases of grapes:
Mildew and Oidium are the two main diseases of the vine.
The first treatment from them is carried out when 2-3 leaves will develop on the seedlings. Sprayed with a one-percent Bordeaux mixture. Further processing is carried out according to the scheme or if necessary. After watering and rain processing is required. Fungal diseases develop under conditions of high humidity.
For mildew, the following systemic drugs have proven themselves well:
Oidium damage occurs in hot weather and does not depend on air humidity.
For the prevention of grape seedlings dusted with sulfur. The first treatment is carried out in the phase of 2-3 sheets.
Treatments are carried out twice a month. It is better to alternate drugs.
Spraying and dusting stop at the end of July. After July 20–25, seedlings with oidium are practically unaffected.
For pests use drugs: