Eggplant is a rather capricious culture, so when growing it is necessary not only to comply with the main principles of care, but also to take into account all the details. We have prepared for you a set of rules that every gardener who cultivates this plant should know.
Since in central Russia, eggplants are mainly grown in a greenhouse or under a film cover, in this article we will give tips on caring for plants that are in green ground.
1. Proper watering of eggplants
Competent watering is half the success. Eggplants need more moisture than peppers. So do not forget about it, especially if you grow two crops in the same greenhouse. Eggplant roots are weaker, as a result of which they poorly transport moisture to the shoots. And with its lack of ovaries and flowers fall.
Eggplants need to be watered regularly, but with the amount of water it is important not to overdo it.
But this does not mean that plants should be poured, in particular, immediately after planting the seedlings. After the "move" to the greenhouse, the plants are watered after 5 days: in the first days they have enough water, since the seedlings are planted in previously watered holes.
Regularity of watering eggplant depends on the weather. On cloudy days, when the ground remains slightly moist for a long time, watering is done every 7-10 days. And in hot and dry weather - once in 3-5 days.
It should be noted that the eggplants are watered only under the root (it is impossible that the leaves get wet) and in the morning. At the same time the water temperature should be 25-28 ° C: at a lower flowering is delayed.
After watering, it is recommended to air the greenhouse so that the air humidity does not increase.
2. Loosening and hilling
It is not enough just to moisten the soil, after each watering it needs to be loosened. Around young plants - to a depth of 4-5 cm, at the time of the appearance of buds and flowers - by 5-6 cm, and after fruit set - by 7-8 cm. You should not loosen it deeper than 8 cm, since eggplant has a superficial root system, which is easy to damage.
In addition, after each loosening of the plant, they roll up by 5-7 cm. Due to this, the roots breathe better, the moisture remains in the ground longer, and the weeds slow down their growth.
Do not forget to timely loosen the soil and spud eggplants
The most optimal air temperature for eggplants is 28-30 ° C. But do not worry if the greenhouse will be even above 35 ° C. But when the thermometer is lowered below 13 ° C, the plants stop growing.
To monitor the air temperature, install 2 thermometers in the greenhouse: one - under the roof, and the second - just above the ground. Their indicators should not differ by more than 3 ° C.
Keep the air temperature in the greenhouse at least 13 degrees
If the air temperature rises rapidly (and this is especially dangerous in the first 3 days after planting the seedlings), it should be lowered. To do this, ventilate the greenhouse, shade the vents and water the paths between the beds.
4. Forming eggplants
Most of the eggplant shoots are very fragile, they are easily broken under the weight of the fruit, so immediately after planting in the ground it should be tied to a previously dug in the peg.
You can also install a trellis or pull the wire over the rows of bushes
Stem compact varieties do not need to be tied up: they have stronger stems that do not reach high growth.
Eggplants do not have to be staked, but you need to timely remove yellow leaves and deformed fruits. You also need to consider that the lower shoots that do not bear fruit can be useful: in the heat they will protect the ground from drying out.
There is no consensus about whether to pinch the eggplants. In general, these delicate plants are better not to injure, otherwise they risk getting sick. But if at the end of the season there are many flowers on the bushes, you can pinch the tops and remove weak shoots, leaving 5-7 of the most developed on the bush. This will accelerate the ripening of fruits that will grow very large.
If you want to feast on numerous, but medium-sized eggplants, it is better to do without pinching.
5. Feeding eggplants
When growing eggplants for the season spend 3-4 dressing
First dressing Eggplant seedlings spend about 2 weeks after planting. It is important that the plants have time to settle down. At the same time use any complex fertilizer (for example, Kemira-Lux or Mortar).
During the appearance of the buds eggplants are fed with phosphate and potash fertilizers. For this, 1 tbsp. potassium sulfate and 1.5 tbsp ammonium nitrate is dissolved in 10 l of water, the resulting liquid is watered on the plants, then the ground is slightly loosened and superphosphate granules are poured in - 1 tsp. under each bush.
When will the first fruits, plants are fed with nitrogen-phosphate fertilizer. Use 1.5 tbsp. amofoski on 10 l of water. Also during flowering and fruiting, solutions of mullein, bird droppings, and wood ash can be applied.
3-4 weeks before harvest under each bush of eggplant it is recommended to pour out 1 glass of nutrient solution, which is prepared from 1 tbsp. superphosphate, 1 tbsp. potassium salt and 10 liters of water.
6. Protection against diseases
In order to prevent dangerous diseases observe the following rules:
- Do not allow the temperature difference in the greenhouse, as well as strong over-moisture of the air and soil,
- observe crop rotation: eggplants should not be planted every year in the same land,
- treat plants with fungicides.
What to do if you could not save the eggplant from disease? With illnesses usually cope in traditional ways. Such drugs as Consento, Antracol or Quadris, gray rot - Horus or the same Antracol will help against blight.
It looks like necrotic leaf spot of eggplant
However, viral diseases (for example, tobacco mosaic and fetal necrosis) cannot be cured with chemical preparations. In this case, only competent prevention will help.
Take care of the eggplants correctly - and no diseases will be scary to your plants!
Terms of cultivation for different regions
Eggplant is a demanding crop, its cultivation implies the complete absence of frosts. In connection with this factor in each region has its own planting date. Gardeners living in the middle lane of the country prefer to plant early-maturing varieties, in the southern regions they grow varieties, the fruits of which are harvested at the beginning or in the middle of autumn.
In the Urals, cultivation is problematic; therefore, varieties that ripen no longer than 95 days are cultivated, resorting to agricultural techniques that accelerate the development of eggplant.
Given the capricious "nature" of the culture, it is necessary to carefully select the variety.
The most popular and widespread are the following varieties:
- "Black handsome." The variety of average ripening period is characterized by elongated fruits with a glossy surface, which reach a weight of two hundred grams. Fully ripe eggplants are colored dark purple. Approximately 6.5 kilograms of crop are harvested per square meter of planting. The variety is resistant to diseases and has a high taste.
- "Clorinda F1". Oval fruits have a maximum mass of 350 grams. They are painted in a rich black and purple color and have a pleasant taste, with no bitterness. With a square meter receive up to six kilograms of fruit. The variety is distinguished by early ripening and resistance to adverse weather, so it can form ovaries even on cold days,
- Helios. Fruit weight reaches from 300 to 700 grams, the shiny surface is painted in a light purple color. They have an irregular shape and are distinguished by small seeds that are difficult to see. Ripens harvest early. It is highly resistant to viral diseases,
- "Albatross". Mid-season variety is characterized by pear-shaped fruits, ripening after 135 days from the moment of emergence. Dark purple fruit with greenish pulp is stored for a long time. From one square meter collect up to eight kilograms of fruit. Most often the variety is cultivated in the southern regions, or grown in greenhouses to protect from the cold,
- "Diamond". Variety refers to mid-season varieties that ripen 150 days after germination. Fruits of a dark shade weigh up to 180 grams and differ slightly green flesh. The bush is low - only up to 55 centimeters. From one square meter of planting receive up to eight kilograms of eggplants, which are stored for a long time and are well tolerated in transportation,
- "Alekseevsky". Cylindrical fruit reaches a mass of 190 grams. Eggplants of this variety have high taste, without acid, and are characterized by high yields - about seven kilograms are collected from one square meter,
- "Pink flamingo". Medium early variety bearing fruit 135 days after germination. Long narrow eggplants painted in delicate pink color and reach the weight of 450 grams
- "Epic F1". On a powerful bush, glossy eggplants in the shape of a cylinder appear, reaching a weight of 230 grams. Thick pulp does not have bitterness, and there are practically no seeds in it. The variety is hybrid, it is distinguished by high yield and resistance to tobacco mosaic virus, tolerates temperature extremes,
- "Purple F1 Miracle". The early ripe hybrid bears fruit in 100 days after emergence of shoots. With proper care from one square meter they collect about eight kilograms of fruit. The variety can be cultivated both in the open field and in the greenhouse.
Preparation of beds
An eggplant bed is prepared for planting in the autumn. To begin with, choose a site with good lighting and unobstructed access to the sun's rays, where no drafts walk. Sandy or loamy soils with well-equipped drainage are considered to be the most suitable.
If the garden consists of soil with other characteristics, it can be made suitable for eggplants with the help of some manipulations. Dense, compacted soil, mainly consisting of clay, is “diluted” with a bucket of rotten compost, rotted sawdust, large-sized sand and two buckets of peat.
A similar amount of the mixture is added to each square meter of soil. To the sandy soil add two buckets of compost, peat and clay earth, do not forget about the bucket of sawdust. Peat soil is fertilized with compost and ordinary sod land, contributing one bucket of each component per square meter.
During the preparation of the beds in loamy areas it is necessary to bring in a bucket of dung and sawdust, and also add two buckets of peat. For every square meter of soil required: a teaspoon of urea, a glass of wood ash and two glasses of superphosphate and potassium sulfate.
After fertilizer application, the soil is dug up to a depth of 30 cm and all weed roots are removed. With the onset of spring, the bed under the eggplants is dug up again, pulling out the weeds left after the previous autumn procedure. For this procedure, choose the time when the rain will be and the earth will be saturated with moisture. The width of the prepared bed should be no more than a meter.
When choosing a site, pay attention to the crops that have grown there before, and be sure to follow the principle of crop rotation. Eggplants should not be planted after potatoes, peppers, Physalis, tobacco and tomatoes.
Preferred precursors for eggplant are peas, beans, cucumbers, roots and greens. Tall plants are not planted next to the plant, since eggplant does not tolerate the blackout they can create.
How to grow seedlings?
Time for planting seeds is calculated by paying attention to the variety of eggplant. Usually, seedlings are planted in open ground at the beginning of summer, by which time planting material should be two months old. Based on this, it is necessary to start planting seeds at the end of winter or early spring. For cultivation, choose only high-quality seeds that are properly stored, as the planting material of eggplant quickly loses the ability to ascend.
The choice of capacity and soil
Virtually any container can be used for growing eggplant seedlings, for example, seedling cassettes and boxes, but the preferred pots for planting are separate pots or peat cups. Young shoots endure a pick, and therefore it is best to cultivate them separately initially. Soil is recommended to do it yourself, although it can be purchased at the store.
There are several recipes for ground mix for eggplant seedlings. According to the first recipe, you need to mix eight parts of the compost, one part of the manure and two parts of the sod land.
It is permissible to use three parts of peat, one part of sawdust with the addition of store mix suitable for growing seedlings. Another recipe involves the use of three parts of compost, five parts of sod land and parts of sand.
You can prepare an earthy mixture of compost and peat in a 2: 1 ratio. The mixture prepared according to any of the recipes is thoroughly mixed until a homogeneous mass is obtained, and left untouched for several days.
Seed material can be purchased at a specialized store or get it yourself. Some of the strongest and healthiest plants are selected, two or three large fruits are left on them, and the remaining small ovaries and flowers are removed so that the plant spends its strength on the formation of healthy fruits with seeds. When the eggplants are fully developed, they are cut and placed in a warm place for seven to 10 days.
After the time the eggplants are cut, they take out the pulp, which is then placed in a glass container and left for 4 or 5 days to ferment. Then the seeds are washed under running water and dried for two weeks at a temperature of 30 degrees. Keep planting material is necessary in paper bags, they remain viable for five years.
Before the process of growing seeds must be prepared, that is, germinate. For one day, planting material is placed in a glass of warm water, then removed and laid out on wet cotton pads. Gauze material is not recommended, because it can cause injury to thin roots. For six days, the seeds in cotton pads are germinated in a warm place.
The degree of moisture of cotton wool is constantly checked, because it can dry, and then the desired effect will not be achieved. After six days, select the seeds with the appeared roots. They are placed for 30 minutes in a solution of potassium permanganate or in a container with hot water, the temperature of which is constantly maintained (a thermos bottle is suitable for this). Thus, the seeds are completely disinfected.
The process of growing seedlings includes the following steps:
- Prepared earthen mixture is poured into the containers for planting, without tamping it tightly, so that air can flow freely to the seeds. If the seeds are sown in a box, the soil is poured with a layer of eight centimeters.
- The soil is shed with water and left for one hour.
- In the box they construct small grooves, where planting material is sown, keeping the distance between each seed of 5 centimeters. If sowing in a peat cup or a cassette is meant, one seed is planted in each tank.
- Planted seeds fall asleep centimeter layer of earth.
- Capacity covered with glass, film or plastic bag.
- Place the improvised beds in a warm place where the temperature is kept at 25 degrees.
After one, maximum three weeks, when the first shoots appear, the film is removed and moved to a cool place with a temperature of 18 degrees. A room with small eggplants should be well lit. After 5 or 6 days, the temperature is raised to twenty degrees and kept at that level until the seedlings are moved to open ground.
How to care for seedlings?
For seedlings must be carefully and competently care. Care includes regular watering, which is increasing as the seedlings mature. The more they grow, the more moisture they need. For irrigation using water at room temperature.
It is desirable that it was rainwater, but in the absence of the possibility to collect such water, resort to the use of tap water, which defended during the day.
While the sprouts are quite small, they use a pear or a spray gun for watering so as not to flood the young seedlings. As soon as two leaves grow, you need to fertilize the soil by adding three tablespoons of superphosphate, two teaspoons of potassium sulfate, a teaspoon of ammonium nitrate, diluted in ten liters of water.
Two weeks later, the next feed comes in, which consists of 80 grams of superphosphate and 30 grams of potassium salt, also diluted in ten liters of water. Вторую подкормку можно провести средством «Кристалон» (согласно инструкции, 20 граммов средства разводят в десяти литрах воды). Для успешного развития ростки баклажана должны быть обеспечены достаточным количеством солнечного света.
Если на улице стоит преимущественно пасмурная погода, организовывают досвечивание с использованием люминесцентных ламп. Их размещают на расстоянии в 50 сантиметров и включают на 12 часов ежедневно.
If the plants were planted in a common box, as soon as the first two leaves appear, they dive, taking them out of the ground along with a lump of earth. 10 days after transplantation, the sprouts are fed with fertilizer containing phosphorus.
Planting in open ground
In areas with a temperate climate, eggplants are cultivated, initially growing seedlings. To determine the time suitable for sowing, you need to refer to the information instructions on the back of the bag with seeds, if they were purchased in the store.
The generalized cultivation time is as follows:
- If eggplants are grown in the open field without a cover, the seeds should be sown at the end of March, and the seedlings should be moved to the street in mid-June.
- If the construction of a temporary shelter is planned (this method is most popular among gardeners), then seed can be sown at the end of winter, and seedlings planted in open ground at the end of spring.
It is impossible to leave seedlings at home for a long time and to drag out with a transfer to the garden, because during the developmental period of buds the culture does not take root well, it starts to hurt and as a result throws off the bound buds.
When the seedlings reach a height of 20 centimeters, it can be transplanted into open ground. A healthy strong seedling has at least five large sheets. The optimal time for planting is the end of May or the beginning of June, when the threat of recurrent frosts and severe temperature drops at night will disappear.
Within two weeks the shoots are hardened, bringing out for two hours on the street. When planting between the bushes leave a distance of 30 centimeters, and between the beds - 50, because eggplant love space.
Planting pits are dug in the ground, which are filled with three liters of water. A sapling together with a clod of earth falls into a hole and deepens to the first leaves.
Transplant eggplants need to be careful not to injure the delicate root system. At the final stage of planting, the wells are filled with dry soil, slightly tamped and mulched with peat.
In the process of development, eggplant seedlings require attention and enhanced care. The first 10 days the plants are watered regularly to help them adapt to new conditions. Further watering is reduced, but it is observed that the soil does not dry out completely.
Care for eggplants includes frequent loosening, which is carried out very carefully so as not to damage the root system, periodic feeding and weed control. Loosening of the soil is carried out after watering or the last rain.
During the summer heat, you should not water the planting with warm water, it should be a little cool. When the seedlings begin to bloom and tie the buds, you can resort to spraying the green mass with gibbersib, a drug that stimulates the rapid emergence of fruits and yield.
Eggplants do not need to be tied up, but it is worth following the development of the stepsons: if they grow inside the seedling, they must be removed. They get rid of the lower leaves, cut off the yellowed specimens. Seedlings are fed with manure or a special mineral fertilizer with a frequency of 15 days.
Conduct preventive measures to combat pests, especially with the Colorado potato beetle, which is able to eat eggplant completely, not disdaining any part of it.
Plants can be sprinkled with salt flour or dispersed wet ash over the entire bed area, the smell of which scares the beetle. The effect persists during the weekly procedure. Against bedbugs that can destroy the plant, use the drug "Prestige".
Eggplant - a popular culture among the inhabitants of our country. They are successfully used in cooking for cooking delicious dishes, so many gardeners want to grow fruit in their garden.
Planting eggplant seedlings
Eggplants are planted when the danger of frost has passed, and the soil and air warms up to + 16-18 ° C. The planting scheme of early ripening small-fruited varieties 40x40 cm, medium-early - 40x50 or 50x50 cm. Per 1 sq. M. m required from 4 to 6 pieces of seedlings. To make plants resistant, the pots are buried 3-4 cm in the soil.
Eggplant is very sensitive to cold snaps. A prolonged decrease in temperature to + 6-8 ° C leads to physiological changes in plants, drastically reducing the yield. To prevent this from happening, eggplant ridges are additionally warmed with foil. Cold rain also has a depressing effect on the growth and development of these heat-loving plants.
Immediately after planting, the seedlings are watered, and the soil is mulched with peat or humus. This contributes to better preservation of heat and moisture in it and creates a favorable air regime. Since eggplant seedlings take root for a long time, the soil is not immediately loosened, and the first top dressing is given not earlier than in 20 days, dissolving 10 g of nitrogen, phosphate and potash fertilizers in 10 liters of water. Subsequently, the ridges are fertilized by another 2–3 times, gradually increasing the rate by 1.5–2 times.
Particular attention is paid to watering. To get a high yield, you need 8-12 watering. The soil should be constantly wet. However, it is also impossible to re-moisten the soil. In protected ground, plants are watered 1-2 times a week, and on hot days - every other day. After watering, the soil is loosened, preventing the formation of a crust on it. During the growing season plants twice slightly spud. When weeding and loosening between rows, a protective strip of at least 10 cm is left, trying not to damage the roots, since the ability to restore the root system of these plants is weak.
Forming a bush
In order to get large fruits, no more than four stems should be left in the growing eggplant. The remaining stems are removed as early as possible, immediately after the most rapidly developing ones are identified. Thus, on each plant eggplant leave two strong shoots. This is especially important for medium-ripe and late varieties. After the formation of 3-4 fruits pinch the tops of the stem. In early ripening varieties, giving no more than 5-8 fruits, a bush is not formed. For better development of the ovaries, side shoots and leaves, shading flowers, are removed. Also remove the side "empty" shoots, on which there are no buds, and all shoots below the place of the first branching of the main shoot. To stimulate tying, you can shake the inflorescences with a brush or transfer the pollen from flower to flower during plant care.
Features of growing eggplant
Like any other vegetable crop, eggplants require certain conditions for growth and development.
The ambient temperature should not fall below +18 degrees.
- The ambient temperature should not fall below +18 degrees during the growing season of the crop. Otherwise, growth stops.
- Return frosts, significant cold spells can destroy the entire crop. In particular, they are dangerous for young seedlings, as they are the weakest and subject to any changes in the weather.
- Light day should fluctuate within 8-12 hours. Southern varieties of light need more, because they are bred in the middle and northern regions. It is very important to control this moment, and here it is worth noting that it is the greenhouse cultivation of eggplants that simplifies the process, since it is easy to install artificial lighting in greenhouses.
- A culture grows on any land, but the greatest harvests are always collected exclusively from plants grown on fertile and light soil.
Compliance with all these conditions, or at least most of them, can provide a gardener with maximum yield.
Where to plant eggplants?
The first thing you need to decide when growing eggplant - a place. Usually gardeners do the site planning even in winter, just scribbling on a piece of paper - this autumn simplifies the task. Eggplants need a bright and drafted place if they are planted in open ground. For planting in a greenhouse you just need good soil.
For planting in a greenhouse just good soil is needed.
As mentioned above, eggplants love light ground, so they will grow on loam and sandy loam soil without problems. In all other cases, you need to use clever tricks.
- If the ground is heavy, it should be diluted with humus, river sand, peat. These substances loosen the soil.
- Sod and humus are usually added to peat land in equal proportions.
- The sandy ground is light, but not nutritious, so eggplant is not suitable. Improving its quality indicators can add peat, sawdust and clay earth.
Fertilizer in the ground for planting eggplant must be made very carefully. Fresh manure is allowed only for autumn plowing. In the spring you can take humus or mineral tuki.
Since this crop is usually grown by the seedling method even in hot regions, it is necessary to fertilize the soil in the fall, so that during the winter it will be well frozen and mixed with fertilizers. Drip on 30 cm deep, in addition to the manure, you can add superphosphate or potassium sulphate in the granules.
Cultivation of eggplants can be carried out near a tomato, sweet and bitter pepper, but after all these crops, as well as potatoes, they are not planted. But after carrots, onions, early cabbage, peas, watermelons, they grow well.
When to plant eggplants?
The term of planting eggplant is largely dependent on the place, climate, variety.
- In non-heated greenhouses, the term may fall in early May.
- In heated greenhouses, planting is carried out already in mid-April.
- It is worth planting in open soil in early May only in hot regions or under film.
- Closer to the beginning of summer, without fear and without shelter construction, plant eggplants in any climatic region and in any area (greenhouse, open ground). The temperature at this time for them is more than acceptable.
- If a gardener sows seeds in the ground, then this should be done when the topsoil warms to 15 degrees above zero.
How to prepare eggplant seedlings?
Growing eggplants in the open field, and sometimes in the greenhouse, usually begins with the harvesting of seedlings. It is prepared from the beginning of spring. It is not difficult to do it, but you need to carefully treat the sprouts, monitor their condition, so that if something happens, you can correct the situation in time.
Growing eggplant in the open field begins with the harvesting of seedlings
- The first thing you need to prepare seedlings - the soil. This can be a store-bought seedling mixture or specially prepared ground - humus, sand and turf in a ratio of 3: 1: 5. You can also add mineral fertilizers (potassium, phosphorus and nitrogen).
- Before sowing, seeds are treated with a weak solution of potassium permanganate for 30 minutes, and then kept in hot water (+50 degrees) for twenty minutes. After such hardening, they are placed on cotton fabric, wrapped and watered with warm water. After that, put a rag on a saucer, cover with foil and put in a warm place. After 1-2 days, the seeds will hatch, and they can be sown.
- Planting material is sown in single file, but not very thick. Between the rows keep a distance of 5-10 cm.
- When the seeds are sown, the box is covered with a film and placed in a room with a temperature of +25 degrees.
- When seedlings emerge, they are rearranged to a warm window-sill and the temperature is reduced to +15 in the daytime and to +13 at night for 5-7 days and then raised again to +18. +25 degrees. It is at this temperature that eggplant seedlings should be grown before transplanting into open ground.
- Top dressing bring 2 times. The first time a solution of superphosphate, urea and potassium salt is added (but the solution must be very weak) after the appearance of 2 leaflets. The second time feeding sprouts 2 weeks after the first feeding with the same means.
- 14 days before planting seedlings in open soil or greenhouse, the planted land is hardened. They need to be taken out on the balcony, the street during the day, and the window leaf should be left at night.
Transplantation to a permanent place is made only when the shoots will have 5 true leaves, and when they reach 10 cm in height. However, if the threat of recurrent frosts has not passed, it is worth delaying the landing before the onset of warm days.
Preparing the beds for planting eggplant
The land for growing eggplants is usually fertilized in the fall, as mentioned above, but if for some reason it was not possible to do this, the procedure is postponed to spring. 2-3 weeks before planting seedlings, they dig up the earth, adding urea, superphosphate and humus to it. The quantity depends on the quality and type of soil. Usually all the necessary proportions are indicated on the fertilizer packages.
After digging, the ground needs to be loosened, leveled, and smashed all the big bumps. This is done about 1 week before planting the culture or 2-3 days (as far as time permits).
The beds are made 30 cm high and up to 1 meter wide. Between them there should be about 30-40 cm of free space.
The beds are made 30 cm high and up to 1 meter wide. Between them there should be about 30-40 cm of free space. Thanks to such a height, the roots of the seedlings will not freeze, and the culture can develop faster. The length of the beds is allowed any - it all depends on the preferences, the needs of the gardener and the size of the site itself.
After determining the boundaries, it is necessary to level the ground once again and pour abundant fertilizer “Effecton” on it. Instead, you can use a hot solution of mullein. However, if the soil was fertilized in spring, you should not use fertilizer, because the soil will be fertile without that.
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Planting eggplant in open ground
The day before the transplant procedure, the seedlings are watered as best as possible with water. Also, watering is done right before taking the sprouts out of the container (this simplifies the procedure).
The day before the transplant procedure, the seedlings are watered as best as possible.
Growing eggplant in open ground or greenhouses is carried out in the pits. In the garden pits are made with a gap of 40-50 cm. The smaller the bush is, the less distance can be made. Each hole is watered with water and in this dirt you need to plant one germ. After planting, the earth is compacted, you can immediately lay a layer of mulch (peat, chopped straw) around the seedlings.
If the gardener uses the seed method of growing eggplants, then this can be done by the lower case method and then thinned seedlings. The second option is to plant the planting material immediately at a distance of 10-20 cm and after the sprouts appear and grow, plant them 40-50 cm. Only this way you can ensure a good filling of the area set aside for culture, because many seeds will not germinate, and some germinated can wither.
How to care for eggplant?
Growing eggplants involves constant care for them. Otherwise, plants sensitive to changes in climate and conditions will wither away, and the farmers will not harvest.
- If eggplants grow in the open field, it is worthwhile for the first time to stretch a transparent film over them or white agrofibre on wire arcs. Such a shelter is harvested around mid-June, but throughout the summer one should watch the weather and, with a significant cold snap, construct a shelter for eggplants again, even if the fruits already ripen on them.
- To sprouts grow faster, they are often loosened. It is loosening that promotes rapid growth of eggplant in the first 14 days after planting in a permanent place. Loosening is carried out all summer, about once a week.
Growing eggplants means taking care of them.
When to harvest?
Harvesting ripe fruits can be done 30 days after flowering.
Proper cultivation of eggplants in the open field or greenhouse can provide a gardener a great harvest. Harvesting ripe fruit can be done 30 days after flowering. By this time they should reach impressive sizes, become glossy, acquire the color of the rind natural for one sort or another.
If eggplants overripe, they will get a different color and their taste will deteriorate significantly. It will become more bitter, and the skin will be very rough. Eggplants are harvested by simply cutting them with a knife or shears together with the stem, although they are often simply torn off - they usually break well, like sweet peppers.
Soil for planting start cooking in the fall, remove the remnants of dry plants, make fertilizer. Also carry out watering so that the fertilizers applied are well dissolved and absorbed into the soil. In order to make the soil loose and saturate it with oxygen, make humus or ash. You should not use these two types of fertilizers at the same time, since the combination of ash and humus helps to reduce the nitrogen content in the soil.
In order for eggplants not to undergo various diseases, it is necessary to disinfect the greenhouse soil. To do this, use different methods:
- thermal - The method involves the impact on the soil high temperatures. The soil is treated with boiling water or heated steam. If the ground is to be treated from seedling boxes, it is poured onto a metal sheet and heated in a furnace. Here it is necessary to take care not to overheat and not to overdry the soil, so it can kill good bacteria,
- biological - The method is considered highly effective, but it requires labor and time from the gardener. Нужно верхний слой почвы переслоить навозной жижей, обработать известью в случае кислой реакции грунта, и оставить на два года. Каждые шесть месяцев нужно перелопачивать почву, удаляя появившиеся сорняки,
- chemical – почву обрабатывают порошком хлорной извести или же раствором формалина (в десятилитровом ведре воды растворяют 250 мл 40% раствора формалина). After treatment with chemicals, the soil is covered with plastic wrap for 24 hours, then dug.
Choosing a place for eggplants, take into account what plants grew on the site before. After tomatoes and pepper eggplants are not recommended to be planted for three years. Well, if before eggplants were grown legumes, carrots, greens.
Care for eggplant seedlings
It is imperative to care for the seedlings after planting in the ground, as the volume and quality of the future crop depends on it. Water the seedlings begin five days after planting in the greenhouse. It is recommended to carry out watering in the morning, it is necessary to ventilate the greenhouse. When watering care must be taken that water does not fall on the leaves. In the evening, when moisture is well absorbed into the ground, they loosen the surface layer of the soil. It is important to ensure that the soil is not too moist - with an excess of moisture eggplant fruits will be small and unpleasant taste.
Correctly if watering is carried out with warm and separated water, daily ventilation should be carried out. Eggplant do not like stuffy, but do not tolerate draftstherefore, airing should be carried out carefully. If the weather outside is warm and sunny, the window leaves in the greenhouse can be kept open all day, closing them only for the night.
The air temperature in the greenhouse is maintained at 25-28 ° C, with a decrease in these indicators, the plants will stop growing. When the temperature rises above 35 ° C, the plants will die.
In the second week after planting the seedlings in the soil they are fertilized with mineral fertilizers, infusion of mullein. You can also spray leaves with the Ovary.
The following fertilizing of eggplants with fertilizers is carried out according to this scheme:
- with the appearance of buds - using phosphate and potash fertilizers,
- at the appearance of fruits - they make nitrogen-phosphorus fertilizers,
- three weeks before harvest - the bushes are watered with a solution of superphosphate and potassium salt.
With the appearance of pests or diseases, for example, late blight, treatment is applied by traditional means, acquired in specialized stores.
As the bushes grow, they are formed: the tops of the plants are pinched to give the opportunity to grow side shootson which the fruits will be formed. Side shoots also leave not all, but only those that are the most powerful and promising in terms of the ovary. Tall plants are tied to supports using fabric tapes. Periodically it is necessary to remove from the bushes the yellowed leaves, shoots without ovaries, deformed fruits.
Eggplants are harvested when they reach full ripeness, which can be determined by their appearance: the peel becomes glossy, becomes dark purple saturated color. Over-grown eggplants take on a brown color; they should not be brought to over-ripening, as their taste qualities deteriorate due to this. Usually the fruits ripen on the 30-40th day from the beginning of flowering. That's right, if the eggplants are removed from the bushes with a secateur, cutting off the stem at 2 cm from the fruit. The cut fruits are very well stored in paper or straw, folded in boxes in a cool dry place. Healthy fruits can be stored without changing their appearance for a month.
If the harvest is so great that it could not be eaten immediately, you can prepare eggplants for the winter. There are many recipes for canning: caviar, salads, adjika. Eggplants are dried, pickled, salted, stuffed with pepper and carrots.
If you take care of the eggplants in accordance with the rules, you can get a wonderful harvest of these tasty fruits, enjoy the dishes from them and treat your friends and relatives.
Eggplant is a type of herbaceous perennial plants of the genus Solanus. Its homeland is India, and the first mention of it dates back to the 1st century AD. Since then, it began to be cultivated in different parts of the world and eggplant reincarnated in an annual plant that has many varieties.
This plant reaches about 1 m in height and has a large number of large green leaves with a soft surface. In some varieties bred by breeders, there are leaves with a slight violet shade and a slight roughness of the surface. Their diameter can be up to 20 cm.
At the time of flowering, eggplant bushes are usually covered with small purple flowers, from which the ovary is quickly formed.
When fully ripe, the fruits acquire a rich dark purple, mauve or even golden color. Their shape varies depending on the variety. There are pear-shaped, cylindrical and spherical fruits that reach weights from 30 g to 1.5 kg. They have moderately dense flesh with small, flat-rounded seeds and an original taste.
Eggplant is a light-day short day plant. That is why reducing the length of daylight hours to 14 hours greatly accelerates the onset of fruiting this vegetable.
Differs eggplant and thermophilicity, well developing only at a temperature of 23 - 26 ºС. If the temperature on the street drops to 15 º C and below, then the bushes slow down the development process, and the resulting ovary will fall. But a sharp increase in air temperature is fraught with the loss of plantings. Especially dangerous temperature at which burns are formed on the leaves of eggplant, is considered 35ºС.
This vegetable is also very sensitive to moisture. Its excess in the soil can lead to a number of dangerous diseases of the bushes or even to rotting fruits. Lack of moisture in the open field also leads to a slower ripening of the fruit or even complete destruction of the eggplant.
Particularly demanding this plant to the fertility of the soil. It must be with a neutral or slightly acid reaction, because it is such an environment that is considered ideal for growing eggplant. In the event that the land is not distinguished by high fertility rates and quite acidic, it is important to carry out top dressing in order for the bushes to start well and quickly grow.
Eggplant seedling care in the greenhouse
Eggplant seedlings, growing in a greenhouse or in a residential area, in dire need of regular care. That he is the key to a well-developed root system of bushes and sturdiness of stems.
At that time, while the seedlings are just beginning to grow, it is important to provide it with abundant watering. This should be done several times a week, based on the calculation of 0.25 - 0.5 liters of warm water for each seedling. Evening is considered the best time for irrigation, but morning irrigation is also allowed.
Until the stem is fully grown, it is possible to pour water directly onto the plant itself, but when the seedling grows up and 4-6 sheets grow on it, only the soil around the young plant should be irrigated. Water on the leaves during this period is highly undesirable.
To ensure optimal temperature conditions, it is advisable to install in the greenhouse or living room, in which there are cups with growing seedlings, several thermometers. In this case, one of them is recommended to fix at the top of the room, and the second to put in the ground. In this case, you can find the most complete picture of the temperature regime of both air and soil.
If the temperature drastically increases or decreases, it is necessary to immediately take the necessary measures and correct the heating system.
Caring for seedlings after landing in the ground
After planting young eggplants in open ground, they must be no less carefully looked after than in the greenhouse. Even when the seedlings are placed in ideally suitable fertile land, they need additional feeding for better growth.
Experienced gardeners advise mineral fertilizers to be applied in the soil 1 to 2 times before the beginning of the flowering period of the bushes. The application rates for feeding are largely dependent on the soil and climatic conditions in which eggplants grow.
It is possible to apply for this purpose dung - grass feeding, which consists of finely crushed leaves and stalks of nettle, dandelion, mother - and - stepmother, plantain. In general, the total mass of greens should be at least 5 kg per 100 liters of water. It is necessary to place the herbal mixture in a wooden barrel, pour it up to the top with distilled water and leave to infuse for 7 days. After 1 week, the mixture will turn into a complete vitamin fertilizer.
Some gardeners prefer to feed young seedlings with chemical fertilizers, such as Effecton or Hume Sodium. In this case, you must take 1 - 2 tbsp. l any of the drugs and dilute it in 10 liters of water. After that you can water the bushes at the rate of 3 liters per 1 square. m
When it comes time for flowering eggplant, it is also important to feed the plantations. At the budding stage, it is best to apply Gibbersib, which is considered an excellent regulator of fruit formation. It must be diluted with enough water and carefully spray the plants.
Eggplants are very sensitive to the condition of the soil, so it is necessary to periodically loosen the soil. It is desirable to do this after watering or heavy rain. The minimum amount of loosening during the summer season should be at least 5 times.
This procedure, useful for bushes, is carried out very carefully, so that the depth of loosening does not exceed 7 cm. The earth must be fairly loose, because it is in this condition that the maximum amount of oxygen goes to the roots of the plant.
It is important to eliminate weeds near the bushes in time, since it is they who significantly suspend the process of normal planting. Given the fact that eggplant is quite whimsical to the presence of weeds, any of them can interfere with the normal growth of the root system of this vegetable culture.
The main mistakes in the care of eggplant
Experienced gardeners know how to properly care for eggplants, but novice gardeners often make serious mistakes when growing this vegetable crop. When caring for bushes, eggplant should not:
- Planting seedlings too early
- Add immature compost to soil,
- Water plants too often
- Mulch the soil around the plantations very deep.
All these actions can lead to improper development of the seedlings and even to its death. Therefore, it is important to be aware of the basic rules for the care of eggplants in advance in order to ensure a good survival rate of the plants, abundant formation of the ovary and excellent fruiting plantings in the future.
How to plant seedlings
The seeds are planted in the last week of February in boxes or in pots of 2 pieces (in case one of them does not rise). When the seedlings reach a height of 15 cm and form 7 leaves, you can transplant them into the greenhouse. Eggplants in the greenhouse and in the open field are “friendly” only with tomatoes; it is not recommended to plant them next to other crops.
Planting sprouts made at a distance of 0.5 m from each other. The wells must be made shallow, but the roots must be placed freely in them. When reaching 30 cm in height, the seedlings must be tied up. Stubby strong varieties do not need a garter. After a couple of weeks, when the eggplants are slightly stronger, they should be poured abundantly with warm water.
Eggplant garter and pasynkovanie
In a greenhouse, more comfortable conditions are created for plants than in open ground, so eggplants grow quickly, but with an abundance of ovaries, not all fruits ripen. Bushes, of course, need thinning, pinching and stalk formation. The main thing is that all nutrients come to the ovaries, flowers to increase the mass of fruits, their rapid maturation.
The stalks of eggplants are strong and stable, but, heavy with ovaries, they begin to bend down to the ground, therefore a garter is necessary.
If the bushes are stunted, then you do not need to tie them up. It is possible just above the tops of the plants between the rows to stretch the wire, attach the twine. Binding should not be tight, rubbing the stems is unacceptable. In the bushes fragile places are under each branching, so you need to tie up in these places.
After 2-3 weeks after planting, seedlings can be staked eggplant, removing unnecessary shoots, leaves that can cause harm to future fruits.
- in order to avoid damage to the stems, pinch the stepsons with their hands,
- remove all leaves, flowers and shoots below the branches on the stem,
- not to remove in the heat the lower stepsons, which serve as shading for the roots and retaining moisture in the soil,
- a month before the end of the growing season, you should pinch the tops of the main stems to stop the growth of leaves and shoots,
- you need to pasynkovanie 2 times a month,
- when the bushes reach a height of 30 cm, it is necessary to pinch the tops, remove excess processes, leaving only one ovary on each trunk,
- stepsons on each stem should be no more than 2, you can leave a couple more if you need branching bush,
- when branching weak sprouts need to pluck,
- On each shoot, one large process and one fruit should be left; the second shoot can be pinched and the rest removed.
All these measures apply only to tall bushes. The stunted do not have many stepsons, they may even not be at all. Therefore, pasynkovanie for them is not required.
As a rule, undersized bushes are formed independently, it is only necessary to correct them when the ovaries appear as follows:
- thin the bushes, removing the extra stepchildren and shoots,
- remove weak ovaries, leaving only large and strong,
- to pinch the tops of each shoot with the ovaries so that their growth stops,
- remove new regrown leaves and flowers, nutrients should receive only fruit.
If you leave only one fruit-bearing flower on one stem and form a bush with 2-3 stems, then up to 12 large fruits can be removed from one bush.
Plants can be affected by the whitefly, spider mite, aphids, slug, Colorado beetle. The main means for prevention is the introduction of wood ash into the ground, into each well. Plants grown in a greenhouse are not recommended to be treated with toxic chemicals. It is better to use a folk remedy: sprinkle black pepper or mustard powder between rows.
Often eggplants suffer from late blight, affected by mosaic, gray rot or black leg. To prevent disease, it is important to observe the level of humidity in the greenhouse, regularly water the seedlings and ventilate the room. When moistening the soil, phytosporin can be added to the water.
To get rid of aphids need to water the eggplant with water under pressure, with a strong infection - to treat them with insecticides.
Spider mite starts in rooms with high humidity. More than 70% of humidity is unacceptable, in the heat of the greenhouse must be well ventilated.