There is a second name for this plant: citrofortunella. Many fans of ornamental trees are very fond of the plant citrofortunella Calamondin. This plant does not require any special care from the owners. From this culture comes a pleasant aroma, its appearance is beautiful and pleasant.
Calamondin citrus is a hybrid that is listed in the ruta family, it is obtained by crossing Fortunella and Mandarin. The plant has a second name: citrofortunella, the people call this plant a house mandarin, mandarin tree.
Citrofortunella has a nice view, it is a branched tree, whose height is about 90-95 cm, its leaves are dark green, shiny, the flowers are small, white, from them comes a very thin pleasant unique aroma. The diameter of calamondin fruits is from 3 to 4 cm, the color of fruits is rich yellow, orange. The fruits of calamondin have a thin skin, the pulp of the fruit is sour, has a lot of seeds.
Homeland Calamondin - Southeast Asia. It will be useful for a plant to be in abundance of heat, light. If you create the appropriate conditions, the plant will bear fruit throughout the year constantly.
Calamondin has a very exquisite pleasant smell, a beautiful view, so it is often presented as a gift in honor of a holiday.
What are the basic requirements for growing calamondin?
- The pot where the tree is planted should be placed in a room that is filled with bright light.
- The light that falls on a tree must be diffused.
- Direct rays of sunlight should not fall on the plant, it will worsen its cultivation.
- In winter, you need to constantly illuminate the culture of the lamp.
- The optimum location of the plant is the eastern or western side of the room during the warm season.
- In winter, it is recommended to keep the plant in the northern part of the room.
The first two weeks the plant does not need to replant. At this time, the plant must often be sprayed and give him a lot of light. The soil must be constantly wet, it must be monitored. Calamondin can be transplanted only two weeks after its purchase.
To keep the roots from overheating, you need to enclose the pot with paper, put it in a white cache-pot. After a few weeks, you need to transplant it into a container that is somewhat larger than the previous one. When transplanting it is important not to damage the roots of the culture, they are still weak and not strong.
In some cases, citrofortunella does not tolerate changing places. It is possible that citrofortunella sheds leaves two weeks after it was moved home from the store. In these cases it is recommended to cover it with a plastic bagAs a result, the humidity will increase to 95-99%, and the plant will also need to be ventilated daily.
In most cases, the store sells imported citrofortunella, they are grown according to certain technologies, there are some in which hormone capsules are implanted in the roots.
Water and temperature conditions
The temperature for the development of culture should be maintained within between fifteen and eighteen degrees centigrade. The plant is considered heat-loving, as well as moisture-loving. Caring for a plant, in the first place, implies the observance of the required lighting, the level of air humidity, and the soil in which the plant has taken root.
In the summer, Calamondin needs a temperature of 22 to 25 degrees, in winter from 15 to 18. In the winter, a slight decrease in temperature makes the flowering and fruiting of the plant more efficient. Calamondin requires frequent watering, a good regular spraying of its crown. Watering should be done as the topsoil dries to a depth of about half a centimeter. Watering should be done with warm water, which is settled and filtered. Alkaline soil is not suitable for plants. In the winter season, watering is less intensive and less frequent, but due to the fact that the air is drier, it is necessary to spray the plant more often with a sprayer.
To form a correct and beautiful form of culture, it must be turned by 1-2 mm every day. At 180 degrees the pot can not be turned, it is harmful for the plant.
How to replant calamondin?
Replant young calamondin plants every spring.. To transplant it, you need a large enough pot, as even small plants sometimes have a fairly large root system. It is not necessary to destroy the earth, which was formed at the roots in a lump, so the plant will take root more comfortably and painlessly in a new place. After the plant is transplanted, you can not think about fertilizer for about forty days, as the fresh soil contains enough nutrients.
Citrofrotunella loves soil, which consists of turf, dung, sand, the proportion is 2/1/1, respectively. Before planting a tree, the lower layer should be drained, the height of the drainage should be at least 2.5-3 cm. Young plants are replanted every spring, and if they are mature, then once every two or three years.
In the period when intensive flowering occurscalamondin need extra food. Fertilizer should be applied once in one or two weeks, and at usual times - about once a month. Formulations for fertilizing culture are purchased in special stores, they can also be ordered online. A very popular fertilizer is considered “Humus. Citrus, ”it contains 2.5 grams of humic elements, many trace elements, the pH is 7.5. Still suitable compositions that are designed for flowering indoor plants.
How to prune and breed Calamondin?
The plant must be constantly cut in time.. To form a flat crown, you need a stem whose height is 25 cm. Skeletal branches will be located at the top, then higher order branches will be formed. When branches of the fourth order are formed, the formation of the crown can be considered complete.
The tangerine tree (its branches) must be cut in February; in summer, it is necessary to remove those shoots that are long or excessively dense. To propagate Calamondin, you need to work hard, for the implementation of this there are several ways:
- Need to land bones in the ground.
- You can multiply it by cutting the cuttings, which already have two or three buds.
- There is another breeding method, this is grafting.
The first of the above methods more time consuming than other methods, but it seems to many lovers more simple than others. To grow a tree by planting seeds, you need to constantly make special substances in the soil, this will accelerate germination, maturation, it takes extra time.
To do vaccination, you can use orange seedlings, the fact is that they endure drought with firmness, they have rather strong rhizomes. To propagate Calamondin cuttings, you need to follow some rules. The cutting should be selected from the top, it should contain interstices, mature leaflets, such a cutting should be placed with an end for five seconds in a growth stimulator, this is a root, zircon. Insert the stalk into the ground to the bottom of the leaf stalk, then close it with a plastic bag, it is also possible with a glass jar, thus maintaining high humidity. This little greenhouse needs to be aired twenty minutes a day. Before the stalk is thoroughly rooted, it will take about three weeks.
Mandarin room susceptible to certain diseasessuch as:
Black fungus very spoils the aesthetic appearance, it is also called mobile. It looks like a dark film on the shoots, leaves. To eliminate this trouble you need to wipe or spray the affected areas with a substance called Fitosporin, you can also infusion of ash, sulfuric solution.
You can apply blue vitriol, he will save from traction. This disease looks like yellow dotted spots that appear on the leaves. It is necessary to begin treatment immediately, as calamondin will throw off the affected leaves to the ground. If the disease has caught the culture during the growing season, then you need to keep in mind that the use of vitriol in this case is prohibited. In this situation, only Bordeaux liquid is suitable. In order for the treatment to be successful, it is necessary to remove all sheets that are affected in some way. This is done in order to prevent infection again.
When the plant is yellowing a possible cause can be considered a disease hommosis, this disease is quite common in citrus. This disease begins at the bottom of the trunk, then the disease goes higher until it hits the whole plant. To get rid of it you need to remove the diseased areas, cutting them out on the bark, eliminating the diseased leaves, then wounds are cleaned. After this type of operation, it is necessary to process the tree with vitriol, anoint Bordeaux paste.
If there is not enough sunlight, too much moisture in the soil, often there are drafts, the air temperature is too high, then you can see that tree sheds foliage. It is necessary to analyze all the conditions of detention, check the ambient temperature, humidity in the room, and if the conditions do not fully comply, then make changes.
Are the fruits of calamondin edible?
Many ask this question. The fact is that this plant contains for the sake of beauty and aesthetic appearance in the room. But still the fruits of this tree are quite edible. Their taste is different from different citrus fruits, and these fruits can hardly be called tasty, based on the opinions of most people. In this plant, the main focus is primarily on improving the appearance in the room.
Features care and cultivation Calamondin
At room content, the plant forms a compact shrub or an elegant stem tree, although in the open air the culture sometimes reaches five meters in height. With simple care at home citrus Calamondin:
- grows well
- bears fruit
- it can be propagated by cuttings or seeds.
Today, indoor plant lovers are offered plants not only with monotonous foliage, but also variegated forms, in which even the fruits have an unusual striped color.
In the second half of spring, citrus blooms, and then the crown is covered with very fragrant, star-shaped flowers of white color. The plant requires manual pollination, after which numerous ovaries form on it.
Even a small copy with proper fertilizing and watering will not discard them and may bloom when immature fruits still remain on its branches. On discomfort or violations of growing conditions, calamondin signals loss of foliage.
If you do not take the right measures, the plant will die. How to care for calamondin? What are the requirements for maintenance and care of this culture?
Caring for citrus calamondin at home
For the first time, a grower may encounter a few weeks after acquiring a bright plant, with wilting and falling foliage. The fact is that the exotic perennial is not easy to adapt, and when moving from the store to the apartment changes:
In addition, the causes of illness and lack of success in the care of citrus calamondin can be found in the depletion of a fruiting tree from a long stay in the store or insufficient care. Therefore, it is better to transplant the plant, after examining and cleaning the root system of dead or rotten fragments. The crown can be covered with a package to artificially increase the humidity of the air and create a semblance of a greenhouse.
Since exotic cultures are not indifferent to the sun, then the place for them should be found on the light side. True, the shelter from direct scorching rays still need to take care.
A calamondin bought in winter is protected from possible drafts and immediately placed under fitolamps to extend the daylight. And in subsequent winters, backlight is required.
At home, the cultivation of calamondin does not require the grower to maintain a special temperature. Plants, if all the rules of care for citrus Calamondin are observed, easily tolerate the hot season, and the temperature is considered optimal for them:
- 18–24 ° C in the summer,
- 12–16 ° C in winter.
Plants are moisture-loving and respond well to spraying, which helps them survive the heat. In the cold season, such frequent soil moistening is not required.
Top dressing can be traditional, combined with irrigation, and foliar. Kalamandins need additional nutrition all year round, especially with frequent and abundant fruiting.
If, when caring for Calamondin, foliar dressings are practiced at home, irrigation is best done on the back of the leaves. So it will not be possible to spoil the appearance of glossy sheet plates. Conducting such procedures is prescribed for the evening, so that sun rays burn the places where the drops hit.
Seed propagation and cultivation of calamondin from cuttings
Growing calamondin from seeds is a painstaking and demanding patience. The gardener can pick the first fruits only after 6–7 years. Get new copies of citrus can and using cuttings.
But there are some pitfalls here too. To rooted roots, you will need:
- loose substrate for penetration of the apical parts of the shoots,
- greenhouse with bottom heating,
- maintaining a temperature of about 23–25 ° C,
- long light day.
Grafting and rooting is best done from May to June, when it is easiest to ensure these conditions. After the formation of the roots of the young calamondins are seated in their own pots.
When choosing pots for transplanting calamondin, you need to consider the size of the plant and the growing root system. Therefore, it is better to take bulk containers where the tree will be comfortable for at least one year.
During the transfer of earthen clod to a new container, it is important not to damage it. And for the outflow of excess moisture at the bottom of the pot create a powerful drainage layer. Calculate it so that when installing the measles system on the soil layer, the root collar when filling is above the surface of the substrate.
The soil mixture for growing calamondin is made from ready-made soil for ornamental crops with the addition of humus or from the same humus, twice the amount of turfy ground and sand to give looseness. After the front, Calamondin needs to be watered, and the first feeding is carried out only a month later.
Kalamondin - what is this plant
Kalamondin has many names: "citrofortunella", "room tangerine", "golden orange", however, it is often called "room citrus". Kalamondin - a hybrid plant, obtained by crossing mandarin and kumquat. Tsitrofortunella is a representative of the Ruta family, he came to our territory from Southeast Asia.
Let's try to explain what calamondin. The plant is represented by a tall tree, which in room conditions does not grow by more than 1 meter, although at home it can reach 5 meters in height. It has a strongly branched crown and elastic brown shoots. Dark green, smooth leaves of rather small size, oval in shape with a pointed tip. They clearly stand out the central vein, along which the sheet twists upward. If the leaf is crushed, or crushed, it will begin to exude an unobtrusive smell. Small white flowers bloom in spring. Fruits - small, weighing 12 grams, with yellow-orange, thin peel, in the form, reminiscent of a tangerine. Most often, citrofortunella is used to replace lemon, but fresh fruit is better to use with the peel, as it compensates for the sour taste of the pulp.
Location and lighting
In order for your citrofortunella to feel comfortable in the indoor environment, it must be properly placed. It is best to place the tree in a spacious room so that it can easily grow. For calamondin, a west or east window is suitable in summer, and the north side is in winter.
A well-lit room with diffused sunlight is best suited for Calamondin, but with particularly intense sunlight on the plant in the summer, it is best to shade it. In the summer, it is desirable to make the plant "breathe" on the street, however, and here it should be protected from direct sun. In order for cytrofotunella to grow evenly and the crown to be even, its every day, a few millimeters, you need to turn to the sun. It is also important to ensure that Calamondin is protected from drafts, as it can get sick from them.
Watering and humidity
In the question of how to water Calamondin, first of all, it is necessary to accurately calculate the temperature at which the plant will "live" in order not to pour out citroforunella and correctly draw up a watering schedule. An important signal that the plant needs to make a liquid is the degree of drying of the topsoil by 0.5 cm. Watering should be especially intensive in spring and summer, by autumn - the amount of moisture and frequency of moistening should be reduced.
If you do not comply with irrigation regimes - calamondin will dry up, and the leaves will turn yellow and curl. In order to prevent this, it is necessary to regularly sprinkle citrofortunella. Для этой цели нужно использовать исключительно пульверизатор с хорошим распылением. Воду лучше брать комнатной температуры, отстоянную. Нежелательно опрыскивать каламондин во время цветения, поскольку лепестки не терпят контакта с водой.
In order for the plant to feel comfortable in the indoor environment, and the forces expended during the growing season were fully compensated, it will need an additional source of energy. To fill them can be carried out both root and foliar dressing. Best of all, a complex citrus fertilizer will be suitable for golden orange, which must be applied 1 time per 10 days (in summer), and 1 time per month - in winter. If for some reason it is not possible to use a special fertilizer, it can be replaced with a solution of ammonium nitrate and calcium chloride in the following ratio:5 grams of saltpeter, mix with two grams of calcium, then dilute this mixture in 1 liter of water.
Cropping and crown formation
An important factor in the care of calandinom is pruning the tree. Such a procedure is carried out with two objectives: to form a beautiful uniform crown, or to update / treat a plant. Pruning begins in late February, gradually cutting the tree so that the shoots from the 4 rows remain. Pruning ends in summer or early fall. Then, in Calamondin, all sticking out, spoiling decorative ornamental shoots are cut off. Sometimes, it happens that cutting off shoots is necessary not only to give the tree a shape, but also to remove the diseased parts. In this case, all diseased shoots are cut off, and the sections of the slices are covered with garden pitch or coal.
Calamondin rest period
Kalamondin - one of those plants that needs a well-organized wintering. The period of rest (wintering) should begin in November and last until February. In order for this period to pass successfully, it is necessary to provide Calamondin with full light day and a cool temperature - no higher than + 12 ° C. At this time, the number and frequency of watering is also reduced, which in a month should be carried out 1-2 times in 4 weeks. The plant "wakes up" in March, after which its growth and vegetation are activated.
Over time, citrofortunella needs a transplant.. The first time the plant is transplanted 14-20 days after purchase. For calamondin, there is a definite schedule of transplants: young plants are transplanted annually, mature - every three years. Transplantation must be performed so as not to destroy the earthen room, from the previous pot.
This process takes place in the following order:
- in the spacious pot you need to pour a layer of drainage,
- add soil (a mixture of sod land, sand and manure will work well),
- plant the plant in a new container without deepening the neck of the flower,
- after transplanting, water and protect the plant from drafts,
After transplantation, fertilizer can be applied only after 1.5 months.
Diseases and pests: features of care and treatment during this period
Like most houseplants, calamondin can be damaged by disease. Of the diseases, most often, citrofortunella suffers from soot fungus, anthracnose and gommozom.
Signs of these diseases are:
- blackening of leaves (the method of struggle - the constant removal of plaque from the shoots and leaf plates),
- partial yellowing of the leaves (this can be dealt with using a solution of copper sulfate),
- full yellowing of the plant (the fight is carried out by treating calamondin with fungicides).
Most of the problems associated with the fact that calamondin does not bloom, sheds leaves or does not bear fruit are the result of mistakes made in caring for it: lack of moisture and nutrients, drafts as well as constant and sudden changes in temperature will weaken citroforunella and make it more “accessible” for various diseases. As you can see, with enough effort and effort, you can grow a beautiful plant that will delight you not only with its decorative appearance, but also with tasty fruits.
What is this plant?
Get acquainted a little closer! This compact tree or shrub differs from other flowering plants by its small bright green leaves and glossy surface. Even at the slightest touch to them, shoots reproduce a fresh citrus scent. Citrofortunella is the name for this prominent member of the ruta family in a different way. He came to us from the countries of Southeast Asia and firmly secured the honorary title of "golden orange".
Kalamondin - an evergreen plant obtained by the method of hybridization of mandarin and kumquat. The first buds in the form of small white flowers appear on it in 3-5 years after planting. After about 6 months, they are replaced by small tangerines, bringing warmth, light and indescribable delight to the house. With proper care, they will appear throughout the year, raising the mood and bringing memories of sunny summer.
It is interesting, but on the branches of calamondin can simultaneously accommodate, as bright orange, ripe fruits, and full-blown buds, together with the emerging green "oranges". Very often, many new growers are interested in whether they can be eaten. Yes, calamondin fruits are edible, but it is impossible to call them especially tasty. Its aromatic, sweet crust is combined with bitter-sour, slightly astringent pulp.
Features of growth and development
A few words about the "Asian mandarin"! This evergreen, shtambovy tree in terms of nature grows into a height of 5 m. In the home flower garden it falls short of a meter. Calamondin citrus is a fast-growing shrub with a lush crown. Due to his elegant appearance, abundant flowering and fruiting, he earned the title of guest of honor in many greenhouses, winter gardens, offices and home flower beds.
Interesting! The newly ripened fruits of calamondin contain a huge amount of nutrients. But here it is important to exercise caution. The glut of the body with vitamin C threatens with strong allergic reactions. Therefore, it is advisable to add pieces of this hybrid to tea, make jam or candied fruit from it.
In the wild, Calamondin lives for an incredibly long time and 50–100 years is not the limit for him. In a normal home environment, it also develops rapidly, however, it is important to observe the rules and regulations of qualified care. This citrus room feels great on the balcony, loggia and easily tolerates dry air.
For the first time, Calamondin blooms in May – June with small flowers similar to asterisks. At home, this process lasts continuously. This bloom does not weaken the plant. The appeared fruits are firmly attached to the branches, long pleasing with brightness and beauty. Over-grown tangerines acquire friability and lose their flavor, although their decorative properties remain.
Comfortable conditions for the growth of calamondin in the home flower garden
Caring for calamondin at home does not imply any special permutations and hassle. It is enough just to show a little attention (to provide sufficient humidity, air temperature, drainage, pruning), and the plant will respond with lush greens and year-round fruiting.
Calamondin is shade-loving, so an overabundance of sunlight is fatal for him. Installed on the southern windowsill leaves lose their brightness, elasticity and gradually die off. The best place for a hybrid is west or east in the warm season and north in the winter. In the summer, calamondin are darkened and taken to fresh air. However, it is important to respect the measure. Constantly and smoothly turning the crown towards the sun, you can achieve at home uniform growth of the tangerine tree.
Important! Calamondin is prone to disease, so any drafts and sudden changes in temperature eliminate completely. Do not even open the window near him. A sharp whiff of wind and the movement of cold masses will cause stress in a growing hybrid.
Kalamondin is a thermophilic perennial that easily adapts to heat, cold and any home conditions. Despite this, the place for the pot is chosen very carefully and take into account the following parameters. Suitable temperature at home is 18–25 ° C in summer and 13–18 ° C in winter. Note that even a slight decrease in these values by several divisions increases the flowering and fruiting rates. In this way, calamondin growth conditions are as close as possible to the natural microclimate.
Kalamondin - moisture-loving green handsome, requiring periodic spraying with soft, well-settled water. Excessively dry air affects the state of its foliage: shoots begin to wither and dry. You can fix the situation by installing water tanks, aquariums, and fountains next to the plant.
When caring for calamondin in normal home conditions, it is important to prevent the soil from drying out. For irrigation use exclusively boiled or filtered water. This method of cleaning reduces to zero the content of toxic impurities and alkalis. In the cold season, the number of waterings is reduced by 2 times and in direct proportion to increase the number of sprays. Thereby balancing the humidity in the home and bring them to stable values.
Young Calamondin requires a much larger amount of watering, which cannot be said about adult specimens. As a sprayer, it is advisable to use a spray gun with good pressure. During the flowering period, the buds should be protected in every possible way from contact with water, therefore it is highly not recommended to splash them.
In order for calamondin to feel at home no worse than in nature, and the growing season was easy and painless, it is important to compensate for the costs of its energy by regular fertilization. In the summer, fertilizing is carried out 3 times a month, in the winter months - 1 time. To do this, use complex fertilizers or independently diluted ammonium nitrate (5 g of powder mixed with 2 g of calcium and add 1 l of water).
Attention! Top dressing is desirable to make a wet soil, which will accelerate the process of assimilation of nutrients room citrus.
As the soil substrate choose sod land, manure and sand in the ratio of 2/1/1. The bottom of the pot is covered with a drainage layer 2-3 cm thick. Calamondin transplantation in the conditions of an apartment is carried out annually, with the onset of spring or at least 1 time in 3 years.
Description and features of the plant
Kalamondin belong to the family rutovyh. The habitat is Southeast Asia. Grows as a branched shrub or small evergreen tree. In nature, it grows up to 7 m, the maximum height of the calamondin room is 1.5 m. The root system is well developed. Thin, woody roots completely entwine a lump of earth in a pot. The roots and stems of the tree are covered with a light, rough bark of a pale brownish color. Branching begins almost from the base of the stem, the shoots are densely leafy. The leaves are small, glossy. A slight fold along the main vein is characteristic. Leaves sit on dense, short petioles.
Young branches closer to May are covered with inflorescences. Buds white, collected in two or three pieces. Flowers are fragrant, up to 2.5 cm in diameter. Each bud consists of five petals. The flowers are pollinated on their own, but you can increase the likelihood of fruit making artificial pollination with a brush. In a month or one and a half, the tree is covered with small orange fruits similar to tangerines.
Actions after purchase
Calamondins, often studded with bright orange fruits, are often on sale. After fruiting, these trees cease to grow, gradually die. To save the life of a calamondin, you need to help him adapt to the new conditions. What should care for calamondin after purchase?
- Pot change. Immediately after the purchase you need to replant Calamondin in a larger pot. Soil is used nutrient, transplanted by the method of transshipment. The roots dry easily, so you need to act quickly.
- Isolation The tree is placed on a ten-day quarantine. They are set apart from other plants, protected from the sun, watered moderately, do not feed.
- Search pests. Daily inspected for the presence of pests. When detected, they are sprayed with insecticidal agents.
- Additional processing. If the tree begins to shed its leaves, all the flowers and ovaries are torn off, sprayed with Epin.
Care of the calamondin: what to consider
Growing Calamondin citrus at home involves creating a favorable microclimate, timely feeding, watering and pruning. The tree is quite hardy, it is not difficult to care for it. Experienced growers recommend adhering to basic requirements.
- Lighting Light should be bright but diffused. Try to place calamondin in the east and southeast. On the north side it is too dark, on the south it is hot. In the summer pritenuyut from the sun. In winter, do without shading. On the north side, both in summer and in winter, they organize additional lighting with fluorescent lamps.
- Temperature . Calamondin loves soft warmth. Normally adapts to room temperature. Ideal conditions in the summer of 22-24 ° C. In winter, the temperature is lowered.
- Watering In warm seasons, Calamondin is plentifully watered up to twice a day. During fruiting make sure that the soil was moistened evenly. Sometimes it is better to water less often, but very plentifully. Moisture should flow to all roots. In the fall, watering is gradually reduced. The lower the air temperature in the room, the less watered. After drying the surface of the soil waiting for about three days. In winter, watering is minimized, but does not allow drying out. With a lack of moisture, calamondin leaves curled, dried, showered flowers and ovaries. Excess moisture leads to the appearance of rot.
- Humidity Calamondin is neutral to moisture. Spraying is recommended during hot summer days and in winter during the heating season. Next to the battery Calamondin do not put. If the humidity of the air in the apartment is below 40%, it is necessary to increase it artificially by arranging the water tanks and placing the tub in a wet sphagnum tray.
- Hygiene For hygienic purposes, the tree periodically arrange bathing under a warm, almost hot shower. The maximum water temperature is 55 ° C. Hot water under pressure well cleans the leaves of accumulated dust, serves as a prevention of the appearance of spider mites. Land in a pot while swimming is closed with polyethylene.
- The soil . Calamondin ground should be nutritious and breathable. The optimum acidity is not higher than pH 6.5. One part of biohumus and the same fine gravel are added to three parts of the universal soil mixture.
- Transplant Up to the age of three, annual transplantation is recommended for trees. Adult calamondins are transplanted less frequently - once every two or three years. The optimal time for a transplant is spring. If the pot has become very cramped, the roots have rotted, salinization is observed or souring of the soil can be transplanted at other times of the year. Calamondin root system is vulnerable, they try not to hurt her - the old earthy lump is not destroyed.
- Pot and drainage. Choose a pot equal in depth and width. Large drainage holes are made at the bottom. Large claydite is well suited as a drainage. It can be replaced with walnut shells.
- Top dressing. Feed from the beginning of spring to the end of summer. Make complex fertilizers. The dose of nitrogen in the composition of the drug should be minimal, potassium and phosphorus - increased. The intervals between feedings - two weeks. Drugs are added to water for irrigation. If Calamondin blooms in autumn or winter, the fertilizing schedule is revised. They continue to make monthly intervals. Strictly adhere to the recommendations on the dosage of the instructions for each specific drug.
- Crop. Cut calamondin (tsitrofortunella) necessary. He easily tolerates pruning, quickly lets side shoots. As a result, regular pruning form a spherical dense crown, stimulate flowering, fruit set.
Cultivation from a stone
Features Growing calamondin from the bone is a long and laborious process. Theoretically, Calamondin will begin to bear fruit in six years, but in practice it takes about ten years before the first flowering. The seeds of calamondin very quickly lose their germination, so they should be planted immediately after harvest. The fruit is left on the tree to the last - it must be fully ripe.
- Prepare a nutrient soil mixture. It consists of fertile soil, sand and peat.
- Pour the soil into the container, lay the seeds on the surface, sprinkle them with a layer of 1–2 cm of earth.
- The soil is well moistened with an atomizer, the container is covered with a film. Keep in a warm, well-lit place. The optimum temperature for seed germination is 25-28 ° C.
- After emergence of shoots the film is removed. Dive at the stage of two true leaves in separate pots.
Features You can propagate Calamondin cuttings. Cuttings are cut at the beginning of spring from strong, healthy branches. It is easiest to root apical cuttings with three or four internodes, fully matured leaves.
- Cut the cuttings, cut for an hour dried.
- The lower part of the cutting is treated with a solution of phytohormone, placed in a light soil. Dig into the soil to the bottom sheet.
- Capacity with a handle covered with a jar. Maintain a temperature of about 24-28 ° C.
- Daily shelter for half an hour removed, as needed moisten the soil.
How to instill
Features Если правильно привить каламондин, он будет более выносливым к засухе, разовьет хорошую корневую систему. Чаще всего его прививают на сеянцы апельсина. Прививать можно в любое время с марта до конца лета.During the period of active growth, grafts take root well and start growing.
- With the rootstock removed the lower leaves and branches, cut at a selected height.
- The stock is vertically incised to a depth of about 2 cm. The bark is separated from the wood.
- Choose a suitable branch for the scion. On the bottom side of the cutting make a cut.
- A stalk is placed in a vertical incision, clamped and wrapped with insulating tape.
- The junction is tightly wrapped with plastic wrap.
- A month later, you can remove the polyethylene, after two - an insulating tape.
Care of the calamondin at home
Due to its exoticism, flavor and the presence of fruit, homemade mandarin can be a very nice gift. If someone suddenly decided to please you with such an unusual gift, or you just never wound up like plants, then you should not worry about having to watch him 24 hours a day. It is quite unpretentious, and, perhaps, it will be difficult to call it capricious.
As soon as you get this plant in your hands, you should immediately pay attention to the soil in the pot. It must be constantly hydrated. Within 14 days after the purchase of citrofortunella, it is necessary to spray it daily from a spray bottle and provide the greatest coverage. Also at this time it is not necessary to replant it - it is not required. After two weeks, you can already transplant it, but in a large pot.
There are also a few nuances about the content of citrofortunella. First, when transplanting, try not to hurt the delicate roots of the young plant, otherwise it may die, and not giving fruit. Secondly, the roots can overheat. To avoid this, you can rearrange the pot in a white pots and cover with a sheet of paper on the sunny side. It is worth noting that changing the soil during transplantation is not necessary.
Moving from the store to your apartment, Calamondin may face new conditions and a new atmosphere. An addiction to a new setting — adaptation — can manifest itself in the form of falling leaves in the first days of being in a new place. If this has been noticed, it is necessary to create additional air humidity by putting an ordinary plastic bag on the tree. After that it will need to be aired daily.
In flower shops, imported plants are popular, and home tangerine is no exception. Such exoticism is grown in conditions specially created for them. It happens that plants are given capsules with hormones that are incompatible with the conditions in the apartment. For this reason, the plant may begin to wither in front of his eyes, and this means that it is worth taking measures quickly: transplant it into another soil and pot and pay special attention to the roots. In case they are rotten, you need to trim these areas.
When planting citrofortunella, you need to remember that she loves moderate heat and moisture, as described above. Therefore support of constant temperature and humidity is necessary. In summer, the mandarin can live in a room where the temperature does not exceed +25 degrees Celsius, and in winter - up to +18 degrees. A lower temperature in winter time corresponds to the actual temperature in natural conditions; moreover, this decrease provokes a greater number of flowers and, as a result, fruits.
Fertilizers and fertilizers
Calamondin, like any other flowering plant, needs additional minerals and nutrients during flowering, so from March to September you need to fertilize the soil once a week and a half. At any other time, this should not be done so often, once a month is enough.
Special gardening shops provide their customers with mixtures for feeding your tree. It is also available on the Internet for free access. The most effective and popular means for fertilizing Calamondin can be called "humus for citrus". It contains many beneficial trace elements, humic substances in high dosage. On the other hand, you can simply purchase formulations for flowering houseplants.
To transplant a tangerine tree, you need a large pot, because it can have a very developed large root system. In addition, citrofortunella from a small tree can grow into a tree large enough for its type. It is necessary to pay attention to the position of the root collar relative to the ground in the old pot and ensure exactly the same, only in the new one. During transplanting, do not touch the clod of the earth with roots, so as not to damage anything. Drainage must be of exceptional quality.
Within one and a half months the mandarin does not need to be fertilized, since for you it will make a new fresh soil enriched with useful substances and minerals.
Putting soil in the pot should start with drainage. Lay it on the bottom perimeter with a layer of up to three centimeters. Next - a mixture of different soil. For citrofortunella, turfy ground, manure and sand are well suited, their proportion being approximately 2: 1: 1.
If the plant is still young, then you need to replant it quite often: every spring. An adult tree does not require such frequent transplants; you need only once in 2-3 years.
All plants require timely pruning. To form a beautiful spherical foliage, you need a quarter-meter tall. Upstairs are the skeletal branches, followed by the formation of branches an order of magnitude higher. It is necessary to reach the branches of the 4th order, then the crown can be considered complete. It is time for pruning begins in February, until the summer level, and in the summer they cut off the extra sticking branches.
Reproduction of kalamodin
There are 3 types of breeding citrofortunella:
- Bones from the fruit are planted in the ground.
- Cut cuttings with multiple buds.
It should be immediately clarified that the reproduction of home mandarin is difficult and will have to give it a lot of energy.
As for vaccination, an orange seedling with strong roots is well suited for this case.
Planting seeds in a pot is considered by people to be the easiest method of all, however, it takes a lot of time. In order for your new tree to spawn into the light, you need to regularly fertilize the earth with special compounds for plant growth.
In the latter case, you need to take into account several small details when breeding mandarin cuttings:
- First you need to identify the stalk from the top of the crown with developed leaves and large internodes.
- Next, you need to prepare a growth stimulator, as which root can perfectly descend or zircon. In it for a couple of seconds you need to dip the handle.
- Prepare the ground and insert a cutting into it along the level of the petiole of the lowermost leaf.
- This design requires maximum moisture. It can provide a bank on top or plastic bag.
- The resulting greenhouse needs to be ventilated daily for half an hour, but not more.
Roots germinate in less than a month, with proper care.
Diseases and pests. Patient care Calamondin
Your indoor tree is subject to various diseases, such as black fungus, anthracnose and gommoz. The black fungus manifests itself as blackening of the main part of the leaves and shoots, which spoils the overall nice type of mandarin. To defeat this disease, you need to regularly wipe the leaves and shoots from the black plaque. It can also effectively cope with the misfortune of a solution of Fitosporin in a spray bottle.
Anthracnose also affects the leaves, but ultimately they are covered not with a film, but with yellow spots, causing the necrosis of some parts of Calamondin. Inadequate assistance may result in the discharge of part of the crown. A solution of copper sulfate or, in the people, copper sulfate can save tangerine from anthracnose.
Gommoz can cause complete yellowing of the entire tree. The disease comes from the bottom up: from the bottom of the stem to the branches, leaves and even fruits. First you need to cut out all the affected areas of mandarin, then begin to heal the wounds with copper sulfate.
Excessive wind, lack of natural light and high ambient temperatures can cause calamondin to shed its leaves. In this case, the owner should pay attention to what was wrong and fix it.
Summing up, you can answer the most common among the "residential" gardeners question about whether edible tangerines growing on Calamondin. They are more than edible, but they taste more like lemon than mandarin. Their main advantage is a bright appearance.
Calamondin citrus is an evergreen small tree about 1 m high with bright yellow-orange edible fruits. In the usual habitat, the height of the tree can reach 5 meters. Many amateur growers would like to see this beautiful plant in their greenhouse.
Caring for Calamondin does not take much time and cost. This plant is propagated with the help of seeds and cuttings. Since calamondin is considered a houseplant, it tolerates the winter in an ordinary apartment, a greenhouse. Being at home, he continuously bears fruit. In the summer, calamandin feels great on the balcony.
The beginning of the flowering period of citrofortunella usually occurs at the end of spring and continues during the summer, the flowers have the form of elegant white stars with a pleasant aroma. The flowering process can be observed even in the presence of fruits.
To ensure guaranteed fruiting of golden mandarin, flower pollination is best done using a soft brush by hand. Fruits can form even on small plants, the tree height is 25 cm.
The fruits have a bitter-sour taste and aromatic smell, they contain a lot of seeds, the peel tastes sweet.
Calamondin home care
Calamondins imported most often are commercially grown in special conditions using special technologies.
In the roots may be capsules with special hormones. If, after purchasing a citrus in a store, the leaves begin to fall off, it is necessary to immediately begin to transplant it. Inspect the roots, remove the decaying roots, transplant in a new pot.
Do not be upset if calamondin sheds leaves, it is still possible to save the plant. You just need to remove individual branches, cut off all the fruits, because they take power from the plant.
Daily spray nutrient solution, apply preventive means to protect indoor plants from diseases and pests. Soon the citrus calamondin will once again delight young shoots.
Any houseplant requires constant attention. Regular care for Calamondin provides not only certain types of feeding, watering, transplantation and reproduction, but also the maintenance of a certain temperature, humidity and light.
The plant is hard to adapt to new habitat conditions. The microclimate of the flower shop is usually different from the home. Therefore, sometimes after the purchase of calamondin and moving it into a house, apartment, there is a fall of leaves.
To eliminate this unfavorable factor and increase the humidity to 95-100%, it is necessary to put a plastic bag on the plant, securing it on the trunk. Daily package opens for airing.
The room in which the citrofortunella is located should be warm and bright enough; in the winter, you can additionally use a lamp. In the summer it is necessary to protect the plant from direct sunlight.
In order to avoid falling off of flowers during flowering and fruiting, Calamondin should not be actively moved, rotated, rearranged. To form a symmetrical crown, the tree should be turned very carefully and literally 1mm per day.
Despite the fact that citrofortunella is a heat-loving plant (optimal temperature is +18 + 20 ° C), wintering should be cold for the plant to bear fruit.
In winter, the air temperature in the room should be maintained from +12 to + 15 ° C, although it can withstand a significant decrease in temperature up to +4 degrees. In hot weather, watering should be abundant and moderate in a cool period.
Fertilizer for calamondin
For feeding Calamondin you can use any complex fertilizer with trace elements for citrus. Since the plant is constantly bearing fruit, therefore, additional fertilizing must be made throughout the year.
The most effective liquid is outside the root dressing. In order not to spoil the surface of the leaves, it is better to spray the nutrient solution under them.
Calamondin diseases and pests
Calamondin, like any vegetation, needs protection from pests. Its main pests are the scale and moth, spider mite, whitefly, aphid. When they are detected, the plant must be processed using a drug designed to destroy this type of pest.
The treatment is repeated several times (2-3 times) with the interval specified in the instructions for the drug. Then, covering the citrus Calamondin with a plastic film, a package, put it on the window sill away from direct sunlight.
It must be remembered that both in the treatment of a plant for diseases and pests, and in the spraying of a nutrient solution, it must be moved from one place to another.
Therefore, based on personal experience, flower growers recommend making a small reference point (mark) on a flowerpot to remember the permanent position of the pot on the window sill. After the necessary procedures, the plant returns to its usual place, and the pot is set to the light on the mark applied.
It is best to transplant citrofortunella in a large pot, because, in spite of a small tree, Calamondin has a large and extensive root system.
The following mixture is used as planting soil (2 parts of sod land + 1 part of rotted manure + 1 part of sand). During the month the plant is not fertilized, because this planting mixture contains a sufficient amount of nutrients.
When transplants should be preserved earthen room, not to destroy it. It is also necessary to provide drainage in a pot. The depth of planting, the root neck in the new tank should be at the same level.
Calamondin breeding cuttings
The breeding process is long and complex. It will take many years to grow Calamondin from seeds and produce the first fruits.
Planting material from cuttings rooted in loose substrate in greenhouse conditions with mandatory bottom heating. The optimum temperature for the appearance of the roots is +23 + 25 ᵒC, so it is preferable to carry out the grafting of the plant in early summer, when the air is heated to the required temperature and a sufficient day length. Even despite the observance of these conditions, not all cuttings take root. At this stage, the use of phytohormones is recommended.