Usually it is a huge, by our standards, tree up to 25 meters. to Greece has a very indirect relationship: the fruits were brought from the south, and "in Greece, everything is there." Surely there he grows too, wild forms of this tree are common in Europe.
The tree looks impressive. A single growing nut is not only different in height - its crown also reaches a diameter of 20 meters.
By European standards, it is long-lived (second after oak) - Often there are instances of 300-400-year-old trees.
The development of a tree begins with the formation of a strong taproot, which reaches 1.5 meters in depth in the 5th year and 3.5 meters by the age of 20.
The horizontal ones do not grow right away - they form after the core, being located in the surface layer of the soil at a depth of 20-50 centimeters.
The tree begins to bear fruit after 10 years of life, and from 30-40 years of age comes a time of full fruiting.
But such cases are rare, only a tree aged 150-170 years is capable of such a crop. Usually, an adult tree of 25–40 years old in Moldova produces 1,500–2,000 fruits, or 2,000–2,500 in the Crimea.
Moscow region, central Russia - where else can you plant and grow walnut
They are found in the European part of the foothills of the Caucasus to St. Petersburgwhere grow the most northern in Russia nuts. But these are isolated cases, exceptions, which only prove the rule.
These trees do not freeze out completely, but they do not grow in full force.
The main factor determining the possibility of growing this southern tree is not a minus winter temperature. The sum of average daily temperatures above 10 degrees is taken into account. It can not be less than 190 C.
Manchurian hybrids with walnuts showed the best winter hardiness.
When planting even the best seed brought from the south, adaptation to the cold climate does not occur - these trees regularly freeze and practically do not bear fruit.
It is not suitable for growing varieties from places with a humid warm climate. (west and south of Ukraine, the Black Sea coast of the Caucasus).
Only nuts from eastern Ukraine, the mountains of Central Asia or the Caucasus successfully adapt to the new conditions of central Russia.
And, it is better to grow a nut out of the stone - imported seedling (even from the specified regions) will be significantly inferior in terms of endurance and adaptability to new conditions.
Walnut is found in the European part of Russia from the foothills of the Caucasus to St. Petersburg
How and when to plant and grow a tree from a seedling: conditions
It must be immediately put on a permanent place.. Already a 5-year-old tree to transplant is unrealistic. Therefore, to determine the need to take into account all factors and calculate the consequences.
A strong-grown tree can form a dense shade over an area of approximately 100 sq.m. This area you have to strike out of circulation - there is little that can bear fruit under a walnut (A strong suppressive effect of the biofield of a huge tree affects).
Place for landing choose on the edge of the gardenso as not to shade other trees. The nut is very unpretentious to the ground, although it prefers loose sandy-stony soil.
Walnut prefers loose sandy-stony soil, it should not be too fertile
A landing pit is being dug with the expectation that there should be a layer of stones at least 25 centimeters below the roots.
The bottom of the landing pit must be half filled with construction debris (broken brick, pieces of cement, crushed stone) - this technique allows you to shift the flowering time of the tree for 1-2 weeks (the stones warm up slowly, the nut starts growing a little later, skipping the frost period).
Half a bucket of ash, compost or humus is brought into the pit.. The soil should not be too fertile, the nut will grow intensively and will not have time to prepare for winter.
A sapling for planting should be taken only from a trusted seller, otherwise you will not get anything except frostbitten branches of the southern tree, you probably will not get a harvest.
It is believed that a nut planted with its own hands from a bone will grow into a tree that is practically adapted to new conditions, which will develop successfully.
Seeds are planted in the fall directly into the ground at a depth of 7-10 cm. It is advisable to lay in the soil sideways on the seam. Spring planting requires 2-3 months of stratification in wet sand.
Special care for the seedlings is not required - in the middle lane even nut does not have pests.
How to plant a one-year nut seedling:
Care after planting: in spring, summer and autumn
How to care? Walnut may need watering only in spring and early summerwhen there is an intensive growth of green mass. Usually, the tree has enough soil reserves of winter moisture.
Water only young trees up to 5-7 years, if it is completely dry.
The core root system of the southern tree is adapted to find water in the lower horizons. After 10 years of age, watering nut should be forgotten.
For him, excess moisture threatens too active growth, to the detriment of ripening and preparation of wood for the winter. Frosting after a wet summer is guaranteed.
In addition to the cessation of watering, you need to take care of the preparation for the winter of the root system. Therefore, tree trunks need to be mulched with any organic matter or compost:
- in the summer - to preserve moisture,
- in the autumn - to protect the top layer of soil from freezing.
It is useful to cover shtambs up to a height of about 1 m with laparms or wrap them in several layers (after the first frost). This will help survive -40 degrees and lower.
Such shelter is necessary only in the early years. - The tree should be hardened naturally.
A walnut may need watering only in spring and early summer when there is an intensive growth of green mass.
How to take care in the process of growing: before ripening and after
Like all fruit crops, walnut needs periodic feeding.
In the spring, nitrogen fertilizers are applied, in the second half of summer - only potash and phosphorus fertilizers, which are responsible for preparing the tree for the winter and laying the fruit buds of the next crop.
In the cultivated soil, nitrogen can not be fed at all, and phosphate and potash fertilizers should be applied (in terms of the active substance) at 10 g / sq.
Practice shows that the rule applies to all cases where the nut does not grow on obvious stones and clay.
What particularly pleases - walnut has no natural enemies in the middle lane. It has already been said that flies and mosquitoes fly around him.
Not only that - a very effective remedy against aphids and various caterpillars can be prepared from the nut leaves, which is successfully used in Ukraine.
Absolutely harmless to people home remedy allows you to handle trees and bushes with fruit and berries.
Unfortunately, walnut cuttings are not rooted - reproduction occurs only by seed.
Vaccination is carried out in cases where:
- there is certainly a seedling of a winter-hardy Manchurian walnut, for which -40 is not a problem in winter,
- the planted variety did not meet expectations - the opportunity arose to re-vaccine it.
Annual seedlings are grafted and under the control they grow in a greenhouse to the presentation.
Young trees that have already given the first few nuts, can pereprivit type "budding eye" - only the bark is removed from the kidney in the form of a half tube (the method is called so) and is combined with the same cutout on the rootstock.
Before complete healing, the vaccination site is tied with a film.
The result of grafting an adult walnut tree:
Reproduction in the country
The main method of obtaining seedlings - growing from seed. To simplify the process, nuts without additional processing are planted in the fall to a depth of about 10 centimeters. It is believed that it is better to lay them sideways on the seam.
The walnut is restored by the pneumat overgrown in just a year or two. These trees are able to produce fruit literally in the second year, and in 10 - already a significant crop.
The main method of obtaining seedlings - growing from seed
It turns out that a walnut can successfully be planted and grown in a country house in the middle lane, in the Moscow region. Just follow the simple rules:
- right choice of place
- sapling - only zoned,
- compulsory mulching
- shelter cover from frost in the first years of life.
Most gardeners can do this.. Choose a sunny place protected from cold winds - the nut will thank you.
The root system of an adult plant, goes to a depth of more than half a meter, and the side processes extend around the tree up to two meters in diameter, and are located near the surface of the earth, about two dozen centimeters. The trunk is straight and does not give root to the overgrowth, but if the tree is cut down, then from the root collar appears a growth that after five years may start to bear fruit. It has female and male flower stalks. Men are like earrings with a lot of small flowers, which are located at the base of the leaves, female flower stalks, are single or assembled together in several pieces.
As it blooms, it is difficult to describe in words, this is a beautiful sight to see with your own eyes.
Of course, not many people know how it grows, the Caucasus and Central Asia are considered to be the birthplace of the growth of this mighty giant. But in its wild form, it is found in many countries of the world, in Iran, Transcaucasia, Afghanistan and other places. So far, the cultural planting of the walnut tree has been preserved in some places of our neighboring countries, where there are relic places of different nut trees. Grow a walnut and bear fruit, can under appropriate climatic conditions.
Soil for growing walnut
As a cultivated forest, it is cultivated since ancient timesespecially in the Caucasus. It is grown for the sake of tasty and healthy fruits, but it takes into account the climatic features of the region, since at temperatures close to 30 degrees, the plantings freeze out. Fertile soil with moderate humidity and well drained is necessary for cultivation so that air can flow freely to the root system. An adult tree can safely tolerate temporary droughts, thanks to a powerful root system that goes deep into the ground.
In many countries of the world where climatic conditions allow, walnut is grown. on a production scale, and the main condition for obtaining a rich harvest is the correctly selected variety and special agrotechnical methods that are acceptable in this region with a suitable climate.
Russian breeders bred more than two dozens of varieties walnut trees, which are used as cultivated forest plantations, to obtain high-quality fruits that are resistant to various diseases, tolerate low temperatures, and bring a rich harvest. Such plantations exist on the territory of Ukraine, Belarus, and Russia.
Useful properties of walnut
- The main product derived from this mighty giant, of course, are walnut kernels, which are used in food. They are used in the production of confectionery, cakes, halva. Many nations add as an additional flavor filler to many national dishes. Long since the kernels of the nut were considered as a good antidote, and if you look at the chemical composition of nuts, then you can find a huge number of useful elements for human health. They contain fats, vitamins, proteins, trace elements, so all parts of the walnut tree has long been used to prepare medicines for many diseases.
- The leaves are very rich in vitamin C, their preparation is carried out in early summer, they have found their application in cosmetology, dermatology. Various infusions prepared on their basis by folk healers are used to treat gastric and gynecological diseases, serves as an excellent general tonic, it is good to take it for spring avitaminosis.
- Green unripe fruit also contain a large amount of vitamin C, they also have many other useful substances, and therefore they are often used to prepare vitamin concentrates, tinctures, and jam. A liqueur prepared on the basis of tincture is often used in the treatment of the gastrointestinal tract.
Breeders bred large and early ripening varieties, which begin to bear fruit much earlier than ordinary varieties, some are able to produce a crop two years after planting. For such varieties under favorable conditions, secondary flowering is characteristic, which allows to receive twice as much valuable product. These trees and in height significantly below their fellows, and it is very convenient for gathering fruits, however, there is a small minus for these hybrids, instead of four centuries, they are able to produce a crop, only four decades. These varieties should include some types of hybrids:
- Abundant, there are still some varieties.
Given that the tree grows large and spreading, it is necessary to correctly determine the place for its planting. Practically any soil will be suitable for planting a nut, with the exception of areas with high acidity, then for this it is necessary to carry out measures for its deoxidation. The soil must have good drainage, and that the groundwater is not located close to the ground. The place should be well lit by sunlight, as in the shade the plant may die.
Before planting, the land intended for growing the walnut tree is well processed, the fertile layer is made as high as possible. Organic and mineral fertilizers are introduced into it, preferably superphosphate, ash, everything is carefully dug up and a hole is prepared for planting, which should be about half a meter in diameter. After that, a cellophane film is lined on its bottom, which will allow the seedling to form lateral roots faster.
After the operation, a slight elevation is made in the middle of the film from the fertile soil on which carefully straightening the rootsplaced seedling. The soil layer on the surface of the buried roots should not exceed a little more than five centimeters, while the root neck must remain on the surface. So that the sapling does not break with the wind, before planting it is necessary to drive a stake into the center of the fossa, to which the plant will be tied up after planting. But as they say, experienced gardeners, to prepare a hole for the future of the walnut tree, best from autumn.
After the tree has been planted and tied to a support, the surface of the soil is well compacted and thoroughly shed with water. To reduce the evaporation of moisture in the wheel circle, it is recommended to mulch the soil with sawdust or straw, and at a distance of half a meter around the plant, an elevation is made of the fertile soil for ease of irrigation and preserving rainwater.
Planting can be carried out both in spring and autumn, agricultural technology is practically no different, but planting in autumn is permissible in areas. where there is no frost winters.
In order for a nut to grow normally and produce a good harvest, it is necessary to start preparing for this in early spring. At the end of the first spring month, pruning is carried out for sanitary purposes and forming a crown, although it practically does not need one. Even before the start of sap flow, unnecessary branches are removed, but if they did not manage to do this, then it is best to transfer the pruning to the beginning of summer so as not to damage the trees.
In the spring, trees need watering if the moisture from the snow is insufficient and the spring is dry without rain. After that you need to clean shtambovuyu part of the trunk and the main skeletal branches from the dried bark, then it is recommended to treat them with a solution of copper sulphate and re-lime with pests and various diseases.
At the end of spring, it is necessary to make mineral fertilizers, if the tree is more than three years old, it is mainly ammonium nitrate that is used for this.
In the summer, especially if the weather is hot, you need to water the walnut at least twice a month, remove weeds, and inspect the tree for the presence of pests. When they appear, it is necessary to immediately treat with special preparations intended for this.
In the middle of summer, pinching of shoots is carried out, in order to accelerate their growth, also foliar fertilizing is carried out at this time by mineral fertilizers with the addition of trace elements, such as potash and phosphate fertilizers. To conduct such dressing should be before the harvest.
Autumn work in the garden
After harvesting and opal foliage is over, sanitary pruning of trees is carried out, and fallen foliage and tree trunks are removed. lime. This is almost the end of winter preparations. Young trees are well covered with suitable material, tree trunks are mulched with straw and manure.
What does a walnut tree look like?
This tree is known for its monumentality. Southern varieties grow to 30 meters tall. The crown is spreading, extensive, capable of occupying 0.3 weave. Considering that other cultures do not always grow under it (due to the dense foliage of the walnut tree or the volatile production of them), this plant is not suitable for a small summer cottage.
Общий вид дерева грецкого ореха.
Как цветет дерево грецкого ореха — на фото ниже:
Цветы: слева — мужские, справа — женские.
Readers ask us how does an adult flowering walnut tree look like? Is there a photo? It is much more convenient to see the flowering of a large tree in the video below:
Photos of walnut leaves.
Walnut is a long-lived tree, some specimens live longer than 300 years. He likes moisture, light, in nature, it grows best on soils with a constant, albeit low, level of groundwater. The root system is powerful, deeply penetrating the ground. There are modern varieties resistant to frost. Although, undoubtedly, cases of cultivation in the open field in the Moscow region or in the Urals are still the exception, not the rule.
This famous variety overturned the standard idea of walnut, as a purely southern plant. A relatively low tree (up to 5 m versus 30 meters of classic southern nuts) does not live for 400 years, but 50, but its productive qualities are unique. It blooms twice per season, the fruits are collected in a brush, rather cold-resistant (in the Urals will require shelter for young plants - and that's all), fruits unusually early - for 2-3 years of life. A short summer of the middle band is enough for the harvest to ripen qualitatively. As they say experienced nut growers, the variety “Ideal” showed itself perfectly in the Moscow region, near Petersburg, in Vyazma.
Unfortunately, no one has shared a photo of an adult tree, it is impossible to find a photo with at least an approximate look of this wonderful variety in an adult form. However, you can see the tree on the video blog "My Garden".
Not the "Ideal" one
Despite the fact that the “Ideal” is so good, growing it, for example, in the conditions of Siberia, still presents a number of difficulties - the plant will require shelter, attention, fertilizing, shaping. Other species of the genus Nut are likely to be attracted to walnut-growing citizens - they are distinguished by a more stable character, and although they also require growing efforts, they may be simpler for breeding in Siberia or the Urals. These are nuts:
Is it possible to grow walnuts from store nuts?
There is a small probability, however, the freshness and germination of these nuts is more than doubtful, it is hardly worth wasting time. Acquainted with the procedure of preparing seeds for planting, you will realize that nuts that go on sale could lose their germination at any of these stages (for example, the drying stage).
Trapped nuts are dipped in a bucket of water, drowned - these are quality nuts that are more likely to germinate, choose them for planting.
The next stage is drying. Peeled and calibrated nuts are laid out in the sun in one layer, dried for 1 day, then dried in the shade. It is not recommended to dry only in the open air, nuts intended for planting, to dry near heating appliances. This stage can be skipped if you plan to plant a nut before winter and get shoots in May.
What to plant?
Prepared nuts are planted in open ground, as described below, but at home in plastic containers of half a liter. The containers are filled with garden soil, the nuts are planted to a depth of 5 cm. They are watered, then put in a cool place: a balcony or a basement. At the beginning of February, they rearrange the house, to a bright place, after 2-3 weeks young plants appear, after a month they reach a height of 10 cm. Now they need more containers, they should be transplanted into pots or cut plastic bottles of 1.5-2. liters.
It is necessary to monitor the condition of the soil, it should always be moderately wet in April (or later, at a temperature of about 15 ° C, the plants begin to be gradually accustomed to fresh air, they are taken to the balcony. They are planted in open ground when the threat of frost is completely bypassed.
Landing in the open ground, the choice of location
Walnut tree is different spreading - this is taken into account when choosing a place. Powerful root system, so it is not planted next to buildings. Fruits in 6-9 years.
Fruits are planted before winter; it is advisable to plant immediately to a permanent place, near the tree there is a powerful central taproot, which means that it does not like transplants. Pit for planting - up to 1 meter in height, so in width, before planting, dig up soil from the pit with humus. The depth of embedding of nuts is 15-20 cm. At least 3-4 nuts are planted in one hole, in order to choose the strongest one.
Put the nut should be up the seam, if you put the tip, it also germinates, but will develop more slowly. Nuts planted in open ground germinate a little later than cups planted around May. Although there is a reverse experience: in the open ground nuts sprouted faster than after stratification in the refrigerator.
Yes, it is also possible to plant nuts in the open ground in the spring. For this, prepared nuts are stored in a cool, but not damp place. Somewhere in 3-4 months before planting in open ground (approximately in January-February), they need to be subjected to stratification: the nuts are instilled into moistened sand, put into the general compartment of the refrigerator (need a temperature of 5-7 degrees). Withstand the due date. Planted in May in open ground, shoots should be expected in ten days.
How does a walnut germinate:
Germination of walnut "Ideal".
Walnut in the Moscow region
Contrary to all the ideas of a walnut can really grow in the suburbs. Landing is possible both in autumn and spring after stratification. True, it is necessary to buy nuts for planting from proven nut growers engaged in growing nuts in the Middle Strip. As for seedlings, then, of course, you need to plant only zoned young plants grown from nuts obtained from a tree, feeling comfortable in the Moscow region, imported southern trees are too tender. We have already told about the variety “Ideal” above - yes, it is it that is great for growing in a cottage near Moscow.
Growing walnuts in the Urals
Such attempts really were, and almost successful. The variety “Ideal” grows well in the Urals in the open field in summer, giving powerful shoots, but all ground parts freeze in winter. What does not prevent the trees to resume attempts to give growth with the advent of heat. Typically, these plants die, gradually exhausting all their strength to fight inappropriate conditions. The network has information about the gardener Vera Viktorovna Telnova (Chelyabinsk), who successfully grows walnuts in the Urals and gets a harvest from them. It looks like this:
- Seedlings varieties "Ideal" planted on the site, well closed from the winds.
- The tree is formed low, up to 1.2 m. But sprawling, the crown of one plant can occupy 8 m. Square.
- The young sapling was specially planted a little obliquely, so that it was easier to bend down to the ground.
- For the first three years, the trunk of the seedling for the winter turned around with 2-3 layers of covering material; further on, the procedure is simplified; you can simply throw covering material on the tree, top it with something heavy (pipes, bricks, boards).
- In order not to gnaw the mouse under the shelter should lay out the bait for mice.
- Natural snow cover is sufficient.
- Remove the shelter should be quite late - in early May.
- The yield of such a tree depends on the quality of the soil, the more fertile the land - the higher the yield. In summer, you will also need high-quality watering. Such a nut can bear fruit in the 3rd year of life (the Ideal variety, as is well known, is early ripening).
The idea to create a walnut bonsai seems to be a failure, at least that is how experienced bonsai lovers speak about it. However, miracles happen.
In the video below, this miracle tree is shown in detail.
Walnut is a deciduous tree with a long lifespan (several hundred years). Its height is 25–35 m. The large, wide crown is covered with complex leaves. The trunk is thick, with gray bark covered with cracks. Plant monoecious, dioecious, on which are male and female flowers. Wind-pollinated. The fruit is covered with a thick, fleshy peel, false drupe. Beneath it is the healthy kernel (80% of the weight of the nut), which is eaten.
It is interesting! As a rule, near the tree there is little vegetation. This is due to the fact that the roots secrete a particular substance, because of which the growth of other plants is inhibited.
Popular frost resistant varieties
There are 4 forms of walnut: English or Persian, White, The black, Japanese. All of them are representatives of this. Walnut
As for the varieties, the culture of the walnut is southern, imported from Central Asia. And for a long time it was believed that its habitat is warm areas of our country. Today, the market already has winter-hardy varieties, high-yielding, practically not affected by pests and diseases that can be grown in central Russia and the Moscow region.
- Dessert. Differs in early ripening and nuts with a sweetish taste. Tree height is average. The crown is wide. The culture is drought tolerant. Winter hardiness is average: in cold, the kidneys may freeze over. Fruiting begins on season 4.
- Elegant. An undersized tree (4–5 m) with an oval-shaped crown. It is characterized by moderate frost resistance. Nuts ripen for 5 year. Collect them in early autumn.
- Aurora. Early, tall walnut. Fruits appear at 4 years old, with the new season, the yield increases. Resistant to frost, not subject to disease.
- Ideal. Skoroplodny grade. Well known to Russian gardeners. He is loved for high yield and winter hardiness (withstands up to - 35⁰С). The flowers form inflorescences and grow real grape clusters of nuts (up to 15 pieces).
It is important that the walnut stepped out of its habitat. Low growth, good yield, resistance to frost makes the culture accessible to central Russia.
The best method of reproduction is to obtain a culture from seeds. In this case, you can be sure what fruits you get in the end. Pick up a tree and collect several copies of the fruit from it. The sapling grown from such fruits will be well acclimatized to local conditions.
Attention!To grow a crop, it is worth planting more than one tree. The distance between seedlings - 5 m. Keep in mind that over time the crown will grow. On the slopes, a thicker landing is allowed - after 3.5 m.
Walnut should be planted in sunny, lighted places. In relation to the soil, the plant is unpretentious. He is "satisfied" with different types of soils and diverse terrain. But it is not necessary to land in swampy, sandy and poorly aerated areas. Undesirable location of groundwater.
Landing technology next:
- We plant in the spring, because the autumn planting can lead to the death of the poorly grown seedlings from frost.
- Landing time - April (more specifically, the time is determined based on the region).
- The landing pit (50 × 50 cm) is prepared in advance, and a rich earthy mixture is poured into it. The composition of the mixture: compost + ash + superphosphate. You can add humus.
- Spread roots, gradually sprinkling them with earthen mixture. We water. Around the seedling soil compacted.
- The root neck is covered with 5 cm of earth.
The first fruits should appear in 4 years.
Walnut - planting and care
The plant is not demanding to care. While it is small, it is possible to grow vegetables between the trees.
Tree disease walnut
Basically walnut is a fairly stable tree for various types of diseases, but sometimes in case of violation of agricultural cultivation, some of them can affect the tree. These include:
- Brown spotting.
- Root cancer
- Bacterial burn.
For the treatment of each of these diseases, there are certain treatment methods.
It is propagated in several ways: by seed, overgrowth and grafting. Prepared seeds are planted in April in prepared fertile soil, but it is a rather long process, therefore greenhouses are used for growing seedlings from seeds.
The graft is applied on two-year-old saplings to preserve the best qualities of the mother tree; it is carried out in the last month of winter.
It is possible to propagate a walnut and overgrowth, which is formed around the basal trunks, these seedlings suitable for landing An independent tree, besides, they grow quickly, and after two years, can begin to bear fruit.
Therefore, if you want to have this useful in every sense useful tree, you can grow it in a garden plot, if climatic conditions allow.
Planting and care for walnuts (in short)
- Landing: in areas with a cool climate - in spring (before the start of sap flow), in the southern areas autumn planting is preferable.
- Lighting: bright sunshine.
- The soil: any with a pH of 5.5-5.8.
- Watering: regular, in the summer - 2 times a month at a consumption of 3-4 buckets of water per square meter of circle, from August watering is stopped. In the dry fall, water recharge underwinter is conducted.
- Top dressing: Nitrogen fertilizers are applied twice: in spring and early summer, at the root, and potash and phosphate fertilizers - in the fall. For a season, an adult nut needs on average about 10 kg of superphosphate, 6 kg of ammonium nitrate, 3 kg of potassium salt and 10 kg of ammonium sulfate.
- Pruning: sanitary and formative pruning – spring, before the start of sap flow, in the fall - sanitary.
- Breeding: seeds and vaccinations.
- Pests: American white butterfly, Codling moth, nut wart mite, nut moth and aphid.
- Diseases: bacteriosis, marsoniosis (brown spot), root cancer, bacterial burn.
A walnut is a large tree that grows up to 25 meters in height, the trunk of a walnut reaches in its girth sometimes three, and sometimes seven meters. Gray walnut bark, branches with leaves form an extensive crown. Walnut leaves, complex, asymmetrically pinnate, consisting of elongated leaves 4 to 7 cm long, bloom at the same time as small, greenish tint flowers, pollinated by the wind - in May. On one tree, both male and female flowers are revealed. The fruit of a walnut is a single-seeded drupe with a thick leathery pericarp and a spherical stone with incomplete partitions, which can be from two to five. Inside the shell is an edible walnut kernel. The weight of one fruit is from 5 to 17 g.
Greece nut does not have a high frost resistance - it freezes out already at a temperature of -25-28 ºC. The walnut tree lives 300-400 years, its wood belonging to valuable species is often used for the manufacture of designer furniture. And from leaves of a walnut make dye for textiles. The main producing countries of valuable walnut are today China, USA, Turkey, Iran and Ukraine.
We will tell you how to plant and care for a walnut, how to shape its crown, how to fertilize a walnut, to keep its yields stable and consistently high, than to treat a walnut from pests and diseases, what varieties of walnut are best to grow in the garden and give you a lot of other interesting and useful information.
When to plant a walnut.
Usually, walnut seedlings are planted in the spring, but autumn planting is also possible in the southern regions. In the presence of a good drainage layer, the soil for a walnut will suit any. Clay soil can be improved by adding peat and compost. The place for planting the nut should be sunny, since this tree is light-requiring, and in the shade the seedling will simply die. The highest productivity of different trees that grow alone in the sun. Walnut does not like areas with high groundwater, and the optimum soil pH for walnut pH 5.5-5.8.
Since male and female flowers of walnut do not bloom at the same time, it’s good if there are a couple of nut trees of other varieties nearby, and they can even grow in neighboring gardens - the pollen is carried by wind at a distance of 200-300 m.
Walnut seedlings are inspected before planting: they are rotted, diseased or dried roots and shoots are removed, after which the roots are dipped in a clay mash with a density of sour cream. The composition of the talker, except for water, includes 1 part of decomposed manure and 3 parts of clay. You can add a growth stimulator to the talker - Humat or Epin.
How to plant a walnut in the spring.
A walnut pit is prepared in autumn. Since the sapling at first does not have a strong root system, the main source of nutrition for it will be the soil one meter in diameter from the nut, therefore it is so important to create optimal conditions for its growth and development.
The size of the walnut pit is determined by the composition of the soil. On fertile soils, a pit with a depth and a diameter of 60 cm will be sufficient; on less fertile soils, the depth and diameter of the pit should be greater — within 1 m. Lay out the fertile soil from the upper layer to one side, and the infertile soil from the lower layer to another one - you will not need it for planting a walnut. Mix topsoil with peat and humus (or compost) in equal proportions, but in no case use fresh organic matter to enrich the soil. Add to the soil mixture 2.5 kg of superphosphate, 800 g of potassium chloride, 750 g of dolomite flour and one and a half kilograms of wood ash, mix all the ingredients thoroughly with the soil. This amount of fertilizer mixed with a fertile layer of soil will be enough for a tree for the first 3-5 years of life, during which the walnut will develop a powerful root system capable of extracting nutrients on its own.
Заполните яму приготовленной почвенной смесью доверху и вылейте в нее полтора-два ведра воды. На этом осенняя подготовка ямы для грецкого ореха завершена.
During the winter, the soil in the pit will settle and become compacted, and in the spring, when it is time to plant a nut, remove the soil mixture from the pit, hammer into the center of the bottom a support stake 3 m high, pour around it a hill from all the same soil mixture such that the root neck set on The seedling's mound was 3-5 cm above the surface of the plot. Fill the pit with the remaining soil mixture, tamp the surface and pour 20-30 liters of water under the seedling. When the water is absorbed, the soil will settle, and the root neck of the seedling will be level with the surface of the plot, tie the tree to the support and grind its tree with a layer of peat, sawdust or straw 2-3 cm thick. At a distance of 30-50 cm from the trunk, form from humus and land in a ratio of 1: 3 roller height of 15 cm to collect rainwater.
Walnut care in the spring.
How to grow walnuts in the garden and how to properly care for walnuts? Garden work begins in early spring. In the third decade of March, if the air temperature does not fall below -4-5 ºC, you can carry out sanitary and formative walnut pruning. If the weather conditions do not allow pruning at this time, transfer it to a later time, but you need to have time to trim the nut before the start of sap flow.
Walnut needs moisture in spring. In April, if there was little snow in the winter, and spring without rain, spend water irrigation of the tree. Clean its shtamb and skeletal branches from dead bark, wash them with a 3% solution of copper sulphate and refresh the whitewash of walnut that has descended during the winter with lime. At the same time, preventive treatment of trees from diseases and pests is carried out and seedlings are planted.
In May, it is time to fertilize. How to feed a walnut? An adult tree needs about 6 kg of ammonium nitrate per year, which is best done in spring and early summer. This applies to trees older than 3 years - the plant laid in the pit when planting fertilizer should be enough for not less than three years.
Walnut care in the summer.
In hot, especially dry summer, walnut need for watering increases. From May to July, inclusive, the tree trunk is moistened with a nut twice a month without subsequent loosening of the soil, since the nut does not like it. But weed control is necessary. Walnut can suffer from fungal diseases and harmful insects in the summer, so it is very important to inspect the tree every day so as not to miss the onset of the disease or the occurrence of pests, and in case of danger the walnut should be treated with an appropriate drug - insecticide or fungicide.
At the end of July, pinch the tops of those shoots, the growth of which you want to accelerate - the shoots must have time to mature before the onset of cold weather, otherwise in winter they will die from frostbite. Spend foliar nutrition nut phosphate and potash fertilizers with the addition of trace elements. Some varieties of walnut ripen by the end of August, in which case you should be ready to harvest.
Walnut care in the fall.
Autumn is the time to harvest walnuts. Depending on the variety, the nuts ripen from late August to late October. When harvesting is over, it is necessary to restore order in the garden: to carry out sanitary pruning of walnuts after falling leaves, to scrape the fallen leaves and pruning of the shoots, to treat the trees from the pests and the microorganisms arranged for winter in the bark of the walnut and in the soil under the tree; branches with lime. Saplings and young trees must be prepared for the winter.
In order for a walnut not to be attacked by pests or infected with diseases, it is necessary to carry out its prophylactic treatment twice a year. When and how to process a walnut? Spring processing is carried out early, while still dormant buds - a walnut and the soil of the tree circle are sprayed with a 1% solution of Bordeaux liquid or copper sulfate. Autumn processing of walnuts with the same preparations is carried out after leaf fall, when the trees pass into a dormant period. Many gardeners use a seven percent urea solution, which is also a fungicide, insecticide, and nitrogen fertilizer instead of Bordeaux liquid or copper sulfate. Urea is best to treat trees in the spring when the nut needs nitrogen.
Growing a walnut requires regular watering. It is a moisture-loving plant, but if it rains from time to time in spring and summer, the nut can not be watered. During the hot and arid time, it is necessary to water the nut twice a month from May to the end of July, spending 3-4 buckets of water for each square of the tree trunk. From early August, watering should stop. If the autumn will be without rain, spend a subwinter moisture irrigation of walnut, so that it was easier for him to survive the winter.
Top dressing of a walnut.
The root system of the nut does not like loosening, therefore mineral complexes of fertilizers must be applied with great care. Nitrogen fertilizers are applied only in spring and early summer, because during the fruiting period they contribute to the infection of the nut with fungal diseases. Phosphates and potash fertilizers are perceived by the culture well, it is better to apply them to the soil of the tree trunk in the autumn. During the growing season, the fruiting walnut needs 10 kg of superphosphate, 3 kg of potassium salt, 10 kg of ammonium sulfate and 6 kg of ammonium nitrate. As fertilizers, you can also use siderats - lupine, peas, oats or order, which are sown in the rows of hazel at the end of summer, and plowed into the soil in autumn.
Since the nut culture is thermophilic, some of its varieties can grow only in areas where there is no cold winters. However, there are varieties that can withstand short frosts down to -30 ºC. Adult plants overwinter without shelter, but saplings and single-year trees need to be wrapped with sacking, and their tree trunks, retreating 10 cm from the trunk of the tree, need to be mululked for the winter.
When to trim a walnut.
In the spring, in March or April, when the air in the garden has already warmed up to zero temperature, but the sap flow has not yet begun, sanitary and formative walnut trimming is carried out. Some gardeners prefer to cut the walnut in the second half of the summer, because in early spring it is difficult to determine which of the shoots is too weak or frostbite. The walnut is cut in the fall for sanitary purposes so that the plant does not feed sick, drying and broken branches and shoots in winter.
How to trim a walnut.
If the nut crown is not formed, large defects may appear over time - breaking forks with sharp corners, too long branches that have few side branches, die-off shoots due to thickening of the crown and many other troubles. The formation of walnut improves the quality and quantity of fruits and regulates the growth of the tree, which facilitates the care of them.
For trimming - sanitary or formative - use a sterile and sharp knife or pruner, which makes the sections even, without burrs. The first time a nut is cut, when the tree reaches a height of 1.5 m. The tree billet should be 80-90 cm, and the crown should be 50-60 cm. When forming the crown, no more than 10 skeletal branches are left on the tree, the shoots are shortened by 20 cm. shtamb regularly cleaned of shoots. In order to lay the skeleton of the crown, you need three or four years, but as soon as it is formed, you will only have to remove the shoots that are fattening, competing and thickening the crown.
Walnut pruning in spring.
In the spring, as soon as the weather permits, make a sanitary pruning of the nut, removing all frostbitten, diseased, dry and abnormally growing branches and shoots. Slices thicker than 7 mm process garden pitch. Simultaneously with the sanitary conduct formative pruning walnut.
If a tree has not had a proper care for a long time, with time fruit will shift to the periphery - fruits are formed only in the upper parts of the crown. To fix this, it is necessary to conduct a rejuvenating pruning walnut. In early spring, skeleton branches located too high are cut, after which the crown of the tree is heavily thinned out to ensure the penetration of air and light into it. Cut the branches in the places of the side branch in order to direct their development not upwards, but to the sides. The influx of tree sap with time will cause the awakening of the buds, which will give new shoots, of which the crown will form.
Walnut pruning in the fall.
During the harvest, a walnut branch sometimes breaks or the shoots accidentally break off. Some shoots may be affected by a disease or pests, therefore, after a leaf fall, it is advisable to conduct sanitary pruning of diseased, broken, improperly growing and drying shoots so that the tree does not consume food in the winter. Thick sections after pruning are treated with a garden pitch.
Reproduction of walnut seeds.
Walnut cultivation from seeds is a long-term perspective. Seeds should be harvested from healthy, productive trees growing in your area. Choose large fruits with an easily removable core. The maturity of the nucleus is determined by the state of the pericarp, the pericarp. If the pericarp is cracked or it can be easily separated by making an incision, then the core has matured. Nuts are freed from the pericarp, and dried for a week in the sun, and then transferred to a room where it is dried at a temperature of 18-20 ºC. You can plant nuts this fall, and you can next spring, but then they need to be stratified. Thick-walled nuts stratify for 90-100 days at a temperature of from 0 to 7 ºC, and varieties with an average shell thickness and thin-skinned - for a month and a half at a temperature of 15-18 ºC. So that stratified nuts sprout faster, they are kept in wet sand at a temperature of 15-18 ºC until they are nested, and then they are sown: those that nest, sow less often, those that do not have time - thicker. Walnut is sown when the soil warms to 10 ºC. The distance between the seeds in the range of 10-15 cm, between the rows - 50 cm. Nuts of average size are buried in the ground to a depth of 8-9 cm, and those that are larger - by 10-11 cm. Shoots begin to appear by the end of April. Germinates, as a rule, 70% of stratified nuts. When the seedlings form two true leaves, they are planted in shkalku, pinching the tip of the central root. On a school bed, seedlings grow slowly - in order to grow a stock, you will need 2-3 years, and in order to grow a full-fledged seedling that can be transplanted into the garden, you have to wait 5-7 years. The process can be accelerated if the seedlings are grown not in open ground, but in a greenhouse - under a film coating, the stock grows in a year, and the seedling in two years.
Breeding walnut graft.
A walnut is grafted using a budding method, but since the buds of this tree are quite large, it should be cut off from the graft cutting and put a shield under the bark of the rootstock so that it can provide the eye with water and nutrients. The problem is that even in normal winters, almost all the buds that survive on the fall die in the cold due to the lack of winter hardiness of the culture, therefore, the seedlings planted need to be dug up after the leaves and stored until spring in the basement at about 0 ºC. In the spring, when the soil warms to 10 ºC, seedlings are planted in the nursery. By the end of the growing season they can reach 100-150 cm in height, and they can be planted in a permanent place.
Walnut is quite resistant to both diseases and pests, but errors in the care and non-compliance with agricultural practices can lead to the tree getting sick. Most often, walnuts strike:
Bacteriosis which manifests itself as black spots on the leaves of the plant, due to which they are deformed and fall off. Damaged fruits lose quality and, as a rule, do not ripen, fall. Suffer less from bacteriosis of the thick-shelled variety. Rainy weather and nitrogen fertilizers provoke the development of the disease. To cope with the disease, treat the tree before flowering with copper sulfate, bordeaux liquid or other fungicide in two stages. In the autumn, do not forget to scrape and remove fallen nut leaves from the site,
Brown spot, or marsonioz, It looks like brownish spots, which with the development of the disease spread all over the leaf. As a result, the diseased foliage dries and falls prematurely. Fall and affected by spotting fruits that did not have time to ripen. Disease progresses in wet weather. Affected leaves and shoots must be removed from the tree until the disease has spread all over the nut. Redefine the humidification mode — you probably water the nut too often. Walnut spotting treatment is carried out with Vectra preparations (2-3 ml per 10 liters of water) and Strobe (4 g per 10 liters of water). The first treatment is carried out as soon as the buds start to bloom on the tree, the second time the nut is sprayed in the summer,
Root cancer affects the root system of the walnut. The causative agent of the disease penetrates into the roots through cracks in the bark and wounds, forming bulging growths. If the disease goes into full force, the tree can stop growing and fruiting, and in the most serious cases, the walnut dries and dies. The wood overgrowths must be opened, cleaned and treated with a one-percent solution of caustic soda, after which it is necessary to wash the wounds with running water from a hose,
Bacterial burn affects the leaves, flowers, buds, earrings and walnut shoots. First, reddish-brown plants appear on the young leaves, and on the shoots, depressed black girdling spots, leading to their death. The leaves and buds of male walnut inflorescences darken and die. The pericarp is also covered with black spots. The strongest outbreaks of the disease cause prolonged rains. The infected parts of the plant must be cut and burned, and the wounds treated with a one-percent solution of copper sulfate. The plant is sprayed with copper preparations.
Walnut pests can infect the American white butterfly, Codling moth, walnut wart mite, walnut moth and aphid.
American white butterfly - one of the most dangerous insects, damaging almost all fruit crops. During the growing season, it develops in two or three generations: the first generation conducts its destructive activity in July-August, the second - in August and September, and the third - in September and October. The caterpillars of the butterfly settle on the leaves and sprouts of the walnut and swiftly eat all its foliage. To destroy the pest, it is necessary to burn the accumulation of pupae and caterpillars, and then treat the tree with one of the microbiological preparations - Lepidocide (25 g per 10 l of water), Bitoxibacillin (50 g per 10 l of water) or Dendrobatsillin (30 g per 10 l of water) . Solution consumption is about 2-4 liters per tree. But in no case can not be processed during the flowering period.
Nut wart mite damages mostly young leaves, without touching the fruit, and most often it appears on a walnut in a period of high humidity. It is possible to determine that a nut is occupied by a tick, by dark brown tubercles appearing on the leaves of a plant. Since the tick is an arachnid insect, it is possible to get rid of it by acaricide - Aktar, Akarin or Kleschevit, for example.
Apple, she is nut moth it eats not the leaves, like other pests, but the fruits of the nut, penetrating inside and eating the core, causing the fruits to fall prematurely. During the growing season, it gives two generations: the first hurts a nut in May and June, the second - in August and September. To prevent moths from breeding, pheromone traps are attached to the trees, attracting the moth males. In addition, be sure to collect fallen nuts and destroy nestons found on the tree.
Nut moth lays in the leaves of the walnut "mines" - its caterpillars feed on the juicy flesh of leaves from the inside, without damaging the skin. It is possible to determine that a tree is struck by moths, by the presence of dark hillocks on the leaves. They destroy the nut moth by treating the tree with Lepidocide, and in case of total lesion, pyrethroids are used - Decis, Decamethrin.
Aphid omnipresent, it can harm any plant, but the main danger is that it suffers viral diseases from which there is no cure. It makes no sense to use folk remedies on an occupied nut louse, immediately resort to radical measures - wood processing by Aktellik, Antitlin or Biotlin.
Today there are many varieties of walnut, which have developed resistance to diseases, pests, frost and drought. Many of them are fruitful, and their fruits are of high quality. In terms of ripening, varieties of nuts are divided into early, ripening in late August or early September, middle-ripening, whose fruits ripen from mid to late September, and late, which are removed in late September or early October. Селекцией грецкого ореха занимаются ученые разных стран – известны сорта украинской, российской, молдавской, американской и белорусской селекции. Предлагаем вашему вниманию описание лучших сортов, среди которых вы наверняка сможете выбрать грецкий орех, который многие десятилетия будет плодоносить в саду для вас, ваших детей, внуков и правнуков.
– зимостойкий и урожайный ранний сорт молдавской селекции, в годы с повышенной влажностью воздуха поражающийся бурой пятнистостью. Its fruits are large, up to 12 g in weight, ovoid, with a shell of medium thickness and a large core, easily separated from the shell.
- productive and winter-hardy late Moldavian variety, resistant to pests and marsonium, with large nuts in a thin, almost smooth shell that easily breaks and frees the kernel in whole or in halves.
- a variety of Moldavian selection frost-resistant and resistant to brown spot with large nuts of oblong-oval shape with a smooth, thin, easily splitting shell and a core that is completely extracted from the shell.
In addition to those described, the famous varieties of walnut Moldovan breeding include Kalarashsky, Korzheutsky, Kostyuzhinsky, Chisinau, Peschansky, Rechensky, Kogylnicani, Kazaku, Briceni, Faleshtsky, Yargarinsky and others.
- stable high-yielding mid-seasoned Ukrainian variety, distinguished by frost resistance and a high degree of resistance to marsoniosis, with rounded, medium-sized fruits weighing from 11 to 13 g with a thin, but strong shell, thin internal partitions that do not interfere with the separation of the core.
Of the varieties bred in Ukraine, high quality of fruits and resistance to adverse conditions also marked Klyshkivsky, Bukovinsky bomb, Toporivsky, Chernovitsky 1, Yarivsky and others.
Of the California varieties, allocated in a special group, the most famous:
Santa Rosa Soft Shell
- a high-yielding early ripe California variety, known in two varieties: the first blooms simultaneously with all nut trees, and the second two weeks later, when spring frosts are left behind. The fruits of this variety are of medium size, are enclosed in a thin white skin, the core is also white, of excellent taste.
- a high-yielding hybrid between a California black walnut and a black walnut from the East of the USA, with large fruits in a thick and durable shell containing cores of high palatability.
- also a highly productive variety with large fruits in a very thick and strong shell with very tasty kernels.
Selection work with these varieties has not been stopped - scientists continue to try to get hybrids with a thinner shell.
Of the Soviet and Russian varieties the most popular are:
- – Dessert - early productive and drought-resistant variety, recommended for cultivation only in the southern regions, with sweetish, very tasty kernels,
- – Elegant - drought-resistant, almost not affected by diseases and pests variety with medium frost resistance and nuts of a sweetish taste, medium size, weighing up to 12 g,
- – Aurora - winter-hardy, disease-resistant mid-season and early maturing variety, the yield of which increases with age. The average fruit weight is 12 g.
In the culture, the Prosperous and Abundant varieties have also proven themselves well.
Early ripening varieties of walnut are distinguished into a special category, for which the characteristic features are small tree height, early fruit ripening in the second half of August or early September, entry into fruiting from the age of three, and moderate frost resistance. The most famous of the varietal varieties are:
- – The dawn of the east - low-growing fruit tree, successfully grown in the middle zone,
- – Breeder - fruitful and resistant to diseases and pests variety with low frost resistance. Fruits are medium in size, weighing about 7 g.
The five-year-old, Petrosyan, Baikonur, Pinsky, Pelan, Sovkhozny and Memory of Minov also belong to the fast-growing varieties of walnut.
The best and most cultivated varieties are:
- – Ideal - highly frost-resistant, the most fruitful of all varieties of walnut, since it produces twice during one growing season. Its fruits reach a mass of 10 to 15 g. The kernels have a pleasant sweetish taste. This variety propagates only generatively, but its seeds pass on all parental traits,
- – Giant - a highly productive variety with regular fruitage. Fruits in their mass reach no more than 10 g, but the dignity of the variety is that it can be grown practically throughout the entire territory of Russia.
Useful properties of walnut.
All parts of the plant contain biologically active substances. For example, bark contains triterpenoids, alkaloids, steroids, tannins, quinones and vitamin C. Walnut leaves contain aldehydes, alkaloids, carotene, tannins, coumarins, flavonoids, anthocyanins, quinones, high aromatic hydrocarbons, phenolcarboxylic acids, vitamin C , PP and essential oil. And the pericarp tissues include vitamin C, carotene, tannins, coumarins, quinones, phenol carbonic acids and organic acids.
Vitamins C, B1, B2, PP, carotene and quinones are found in green fruits, and mature ones contain the same set of vitamins, sitosterols, quinones, tannins and fatty oil, including linoleic, linolenic, oleic, palmitic acids, fiber, cobalt salts and iron.
The shell of walnuts contains phenolcarboxylic acids, coumarins, tannins, and the thin brown skin that covers the fruit - pellicula - steroids, coumarins, tannins and phenolcarboxylic acids.
The amount of vitamin C in the leaves of the plant increases throughout the season and reaches its maximum in July. But the main value of walnut leaves is a large amount of carotene and vitamin B1, as well as the dye juglon, which also has a bactericidal effect, and tannins.
Ripe fruits of a walnut are not only a high-calorie food product, but also highly active means. Their calorie content is twice the rate of wheat bread of the highest grade. They are recommended for use for the prevention of atherosclerosis and with a lack of vitamins and salts of iron and cobalt in the body. Oil and fiber, which are part of the fruit, makes them an excellent remedy for constipation.
The wound healing effect of walnut leaf decoction is used to treat scrofula and rickets in children. And the infusion of leaves is used for rinsing the mouth for bleeding gums and inflammatory diseases of the oral cavity.
Preparations of walnut have a tonic, astringent, anti-sclerotic, antihelminthic, hypoglycemic, hemostatic, anti-inflammatory, laxative and epithelial effects.
The most valuable of all drugs is walnut oil, which has a high nutritional value and valuable taste. It is prescribed to patients during the recovery period after severe diseases and surgeries. It consists of unsaturated fatty acids, vitamins, macro-and micronutrients, biologically active substances. The record amount of vitamin E contained in the oil has a beneficial effect on the elderly, especially those who suffer from hypertension, coronary heart disease, atherosclerosis, diabetes, chronic hepatitis, increased acidity of the gastric juice, hyperfunction of the thyroid gland. In addition, walnut oil protects the human body from carcinogens, increases the body's resistance to radiation and removes radionuclides.
With the help of walnut oil, tuberculosis, inflammatory diseases of the skin and mucous membranes, fissures, long-term non-healing ulcers, eczema, psoriasis, varicose veins and furunculosis were treated for a long time.
Scientists at the University of California, empirically proved that after the sick month ate walnut oil, the cholesterol content in their blood stopped growing and remained at the same level for several months. They prescribe walnut oil for chronic arthritis, burns, ulcers, chronic colitis with constipation, diseases of the stomach and intestines. It is recommended for pregnant and lactating mothers.
Walnut - contraindications.
The use of walnut and preparations from it is contraindicated for people with individual intolerance to the product. Patients with psoriasis, neurodermatitis and eczema should use walnuts or drugs from it under the supervision of a physician, since the product may exacerbate the disease. People with diseases of the pancreas and intestines, as well as those with increased blood clotting, eating walnuts is contraindicated. Overeating can cause throat swelling, severe headaches and inflammation of the tonsils. The daily rate of walnuts for a healthy person is 100 g per day.
We put a nut on the plot
Walnut, planting, growing and caring for which is not very difficult, refers to trees that tolerate fairly low temperatures. With constant sunshine, it forms a luxurious spreading crown. Walnut does not like the closeness of the site and close to the groundwater. In addition, it is not recommended to plant a walnut in compacted or highly marshy soil. The best soil for it will be carbonate loam (wet).
A walnut is a tree, the cultivation of which and obtaining a good harvest of fruits largely depend on the correct choice of a place to plant. Gardeners are often interested in: "How many walnut trees to plant on the site?" In many respects it depends on the available area. Everyone who wants to grow this plant, you need to know that it gives a good harvest only in the most lighted area. A walnut at the age of 25-30 years has a crown with a diameter of 8-12 meters.
If you decide to plant not one, but several saplings at once, you should leave at least five meters between them. The only exception is the landing on the slopes, where they can be planted a little closer to each other (3.5 m).
In that case, if the fertile layer of soil is rather small, it should be replaced or additionally fertilized. To do this, make a large amount of manure, which is mixed with ash, and add superphosphate. This composition is brought to a depth of 80 centimeters in the landing pit. In the future, with a favorable growth of the tree, every year it is necessary to change the soil across the width of the crown.
In a prepared and fertilized land, we make a hole of 40 x 40 cm in size. In order to further stimulate the growth of young lateral roots, a sheet of PVC film can be put at the bottom of the hole. When planting, carefully lay the lateral roots horizontally and sprinkle them with fertile soil. Upper roots leave at a depth of about seven centimeters from the surface.
Walnut (tree): cultivation in the Moscow region
Increasingly, certain types of crops that have long been considered exclusively southern have been planted in the central regions of Russia. These plants include persimmon, apricot, peach, sweet cherry and walnut.
Growing this tree in the suburbs has its own characteristics. Here, the fastest and winter-hardy varieties are commonly used. This durable and unpretentious culture bears fruit well on various soils and on a different relief. It is not recommended to plant a nut on deep sandy and poorly ventilated land.
For many gardeners of the Moscow region, walnut cultivation is still a novelty. Ways of reproduction of a plant - seeds and inoculation. Consider them in more detail.
First, select the seeds for planting, with preference given to local varieties. They should be large, without any visible damage, the kernel should be removed easily. Seed harvesting can be done when the green shell of the nut begins to crack. Nuts should be well dried indoors at room temperature.
To make them grow faster, perform additional stratification. Varieties with thick shells stratify for about a hundred days at a temperature not higher than +7 ° C, seeds with medium and thin shells - at a temperature of +18 ° C for about 45 days.
Seeds are planted at the very beginning of April. By this time, the earth should warm up to +10 ° C. In a fertile, previously prepared soil, large nuts are placed at a depth of ten centimeters, medium and small - at a depth of seven centimeters. In order for the seedlings to have direct shoots, the nut must be put on the rib sideways in the prepared hole.
Immediately, we want to warn impatient gardeners that a nut planted in open ground grows slowly, the first seedlings suitable for planting will appear after seven years, and those that can be used for rootstock after three years. It is more expedient to grow them in film greenhouses. Thus, seedlings for rootstocks will appear by the end of the first year, and suitable for planting in open ground - in two years.
This method is especially effective when it is necessary to preserve the positive properties of the parent tree. For the stock they use biennial seedlings, previously planted in ordinary pots with a diameter of about 12 centimeters. They are best kept indoors in the winter so that at the time of vaccination they can produce good shoots. February is the right time for vaccination.
After this procedure, the room should maintain a constant temperature of +26 ° C, and this should be both in the air and in the soil. It is optimal for continuous growth. In the ground plants are planted in mid-May.
Today, many gardeners dream of having a walnut (tree) on their land. How to grow it healthy and well fructifying? For this you need to know some of the subtleties of caring for him.
A walnut is a tree that does not have to be pruned to form a crown - it will cope with this issue on its own. If the removal of unnecessary branches is required, then do not do it in the spring - the nut loses a lot of valuable juice, and this will adversely affect the further development of the tree. You can remove branches in early June, and it is better to do it in two stages. Part of the branches is cut off in the first year, leaving a knot about 7 centimeters long, which is removed the following year in spring. The cut should definitely be treated with a garden bar.
Young trees need watering in spring and summer. In addition, the plant needs it during a long drought. Each tree will need about 30 liters of water per 1 square. m. Watering is carried out twice a month. Mature trees that have grown to four meters in height can be watered less intensively.
Walnut is a tree that needs to be fed 2 times a year - in spring and autumn. Phosphate and potash fertilizers are applied in the fall, and nitrogen fertilizers in the spring. Using nitrogenous fertilizers, it is necessary to consider some nuances. They must be introduced carefully, as they are capable of promoting the development of certain types of bacteria harmful to the plant.
When to harvest?
To answer this question, look at the green pericarp. As soon as they begin to crack, nuts can be collected. After that, they should be held for about a week in the basement - it will be easier to clean them from the blackened upper layer. After cleaning, the nuts should be washed with water and dried in the sun. If you have a portion of the fruit on which the pericarp is not removed, then you can pour all of them in a pile and hold some time in the sun - so they ripen faster.
Many people love walnuts. Diseases of the tree sometimes negate all the efforts of the gardener to grow high-quality fruit. To prevent problems, it is necessary to study the possible risks in order to help the plant in time and preserve the crop. About the most dangerous diseases, we will discuss in this article.
White butterfly (American)
This is a serious quarantine pest. Damages all fruit breeds in the southern regions, develops in two generations. In the summer (July) and autumn (early September).
The pest develops in two generations. Caterpillars of the first generation appear at the very beginning of June and practically destroy young fruits. They eat away their core.
In August, the most harmful appears - the 2nd generation of caterpillars. They penetrate into the fetus through the base and eat away the cotyledons. Such fruits fall prematurely. One caterpillar can destroy several fruits.
This is a pest, the size of an adult individual is not more than 0.1 mm. It overwinters in the buds on the plant and causes great harm to the leaves even before their full development. More often young plants suffer. This tick rarely damages the fruit. As a result of mite activity, dark brown spots resembling warts are formed on the leaves throughout the plate.
This pest develops in three generations, but the second and third are considered the most harmful. Caterpillars bite into the young leaves and feed on their pulp, while not touching the skin. Damage of this type is called "mines." An adult individual does not “mine” the leaves; it prefers to live in a folded leaf, gradually destroying it.
The fight against moths should be given serious attention, since with uncontrolled reproduction, the miner moth can cause tremendous damage to trees.
The causative agent of this disease is the fungus Marssonina juglandis Magn. The disease affects green shoots, fruits and leaves. In early May, young leaves appear round spots of small size brown, and then grayish color, with a wide edging of brown. Нередко пятна сливаются. Пораженные листья осыпаются. На завязях появляются красно-бурые, немного вдавленные пятна. На участках, пораженных вредителем, ткань замедляет рост, плоды начинают сохнуть, трескаться и осыпаться. Нередко они загнивают, портится ядро, и оно становится несъедобным.
Особенно благоприятные условия для этого заболевания создаются в первой половине лета при обильных осадках. Brown spotting leads to huge crop losses - up to 50% or more.
Dark spots appear on the branches, leaves, inflorescences and fruits. Especially often the disease develops rapidly in warm and damp spring weather.
Carriers of bacteria are insects. Getting on pistillate flowers, pollen significantly accelerates the penetration of bacteria into them. During the flowering period, the disease destroys up to 90% of young ovaries and flowers.
Walnut tree: the benefits and harm
The fruits of this tree are rich in huge amounts of nutrients. That is why doctors recommend including it in the daily diet. This is especially true in the spring and autumn periods, when many of us are overcome by vitamin deficiency.
Due to the high content of iron, cobalt and zinc in the fruit, they help to increase hemoglobin levels in anemia.
Vitamins contained in the fetus have a prophylactic effect on the work of the heart, improve its activity, strengthen the blood vessels, promote the resorption of cholesterol plaques, thereby purifying the blood.
Walnut increases potency. This has been known since the time of the ancient Greeks. And its oil is the most powerful aphrodisiac.
Fruits significantly improve intestinal function. The protein contained in the fruit normalizes the microflora, which, in turn, eliminates the problem of dysbiosis and constipation.
Walnuts lower blood sugar levels. In order to achieve this goal, you should use only the infusion of the walls of the shell of a nut, but not the fruit itself. Endocrinologists do not recommend this remedy for people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes.
As can be seen from the above, this is a very useful plant - walnut tree. Harm, or rather, contraindications of these fruits are also available.
The use of these tasty nuts must be abandoned by people who are prone or are allergic to protein. In severe cases, the use of fruits can cause anaphylactic shock.
The same can be advised and people prone to obesity, as these fruits are very high in calories. In patients suffering from psoriasis, eczema, neurodermatitis, the disease can worsen even after eating two or three nuts.
Doctors do not advise to exceed the rate of consumption per day of this product. Otherwise, the beneficial properties can give an undesirable opposite effect, as well as cause inflammation of the tonsils or irritation of the oral mucosa.
Walnut - a tree, no doubt, useful. However, care must be taken when consuming its fruits. If they have darkened or become covered with mold, it means that they began to produce a poisonous enzyme that can seriously harm your health.
Selection and preparation of planting material
If a gardener has a desire to grow a walnut tree on his plot, then he needs to remember that not all fruits are suitable for planting. So, last year's harvest is better not to use. This is due to the fact that during storage the germination of nuts greatly decreases. That is why it is not recommended to buy material for planting in a store or on the market. No one knows what it was processed and how it was stored.
In addition, no one will give guarantees that the nuts went on sale from the tree of zoned varieties. The fruits of southern trees, even if they germinate, it is still unknown whether they can bear fruit in our climate.
The best option - the fruits of this year, collected by hand. Better yet, try planting nuts before planting and choose those whose taste you like more. Choosing a grade, you must carefully inspect the planting material:
- The shell of the fetus must be intact, without damage, and without mold.
- The nutlet should not be light. If the fetus is weightless, then this indicates an underdevelopment or damage to the nucleus.
To make sure that the material for planting is right, you need to pour warm water into a deep bowl and dissolve the potassium permanganate crystals in it. In the resulting solution to put the largest nuts. All surfaced specimens are unsuitable for landing.
In order to disinfect the nuts, before planting, they must be kept in a solution of potassium permanganate for 2-3 hours. At the same time, the shell will swell and slightly open up. it accelerate the germination of material, and potassium permanganate, having an antiseptic effect, disinfect it.
Landing methods and site determination
It is necessary to think about growing a tree from a nut in advance. The fact is that the landing can be carried out both in spring (mid-April) and in autumn (September-October). The choice of the method depends on when the nut is planted. There are several methods for How to grow a walnut tree from a walnut:
- Planting plants in the fall. In this method, the fruit is not soaked, but only treated with a solution of potassium permanganate. At the site make the hole so that they are located at a distance of 2-3 m from each other. 3-4 fruits are planted in each well to a depth of 5-7 cm, the distance between them should be about 6 cm. The soil is poured on from above and watered with water, which is preferably pre-settled. The wells are mulched with fallen leaves or straw. In the spring they inspect sprouts, leave the strongest, and all the others clean.
- The spring planting is different from the autumn one in that it is necessary to temper the nuts in front of it. To do this, take a container with wet sand, bury nuts in it and put in a refrigerator or cellar, where they store 3-4 months at a temperature of from 0 to +5 degrees. Once every 3-4 weeks the fruits reach and air, and the sand is moistened. After that, the nuts are planted in the soil.
- With another spring planting method, the nuts are kept for one month at a temperature below +10 degrees. Then they are soaked at room temperature for 2-5 days, placing in a container with water. At the same time, the quality of the fruits is also checked, removing all the pop-up nuts and leaving the sunken ones. From the water immediately get those fruits in which the flaps parted and a root appeared. They are placed in containers with wet sand or sawdust, and the containers themselves are placed in a room with a temperature of + 25-28 degrees for 5-10 days. During this time, the roots should grow to 0.5-1 cm. Then the containers are placed in a cool place before planting the nuts into the soil.
If planting will be carried out in the spring, then in April, the nuts are taken out and dried, laying them out in one layer on a flat horizontal surface in the sun. Here the fruits dry for two days. Then they need to be dried in a shaded place for another 2-3 days. It is strictly forbidden to dry the planting material with the help of any devices, only in a natural way - in the sun and in the shade.
Before planting, fertilizer must be applied to the soil and watered. This will help the plant to take root.
Having decided on how to grow a walnut nut, you need to decide where to plant it. The fact is that a walnut is a very tall tree that easily grows up to 25 m and has a very developed root system that goes to the depth. Therefore, the groundwater should not be located too close to the soil surface on the tree planting site.
It is best to choose a well-lit place, away from other plants, because the nut can be easily shaded, as well as from the buildings, as the root can destroy the foundation. If several nut trees are planted on the plot, then there should be a distance of five meters between them, in which case they will not interfere with each other.
Care of a young tree
Choosing a way to plant a walnut walnut tree, finding a suitable place and even planting, you should not think that the work is finished. For a young tree you need to carefully care:
- Water the plant for the first time in May, and then twice a month. One tree requires about four liters of water at a time. In August, watering is stopped until spring. But when the tree trunk grows to four meters, then the plant needs to be watered less often.
- The soil around the trunk of trees under the age of two years must be mulched for the winter.
- In the first days of March, trees that have reached two years of age are subjected to formative pruning. Then, once or twice a year, sanitary pruning is carried out. At the same time, dry, weak branches that are too close to each other or at a right angle are removed.
- You can feed the plant twice a year, but mineral fertilizers cannot be used until the moment when fruits appear on the tree.
These are general guidelines. But their observance will help to grow a strong tree that does not die from frost and will produce a crop in time.
Growing in a flower pot
How to grow a walnut at home depends on whether the summer resident waits for the harvest or not. To be sure that the seeds germinate, you can plant the fruit in a pot and the next year to plant on the site already grown seedling.
For this purpose, you need to buy two pots. The depth and volume of one should be no less than 25-30 cm. In the second capacity, these figures are twice as much, since small sprouts will be transplanted into it.
The soil can be bought in a store, and you can make it yourself by mixing turfy soil, peat and humus in equal proportions.
Plant a nut in late April. At the bottom of the pot lay drainage, filling capacity by a third, and then the soil. The fruit is laid on its side to a depth of 7-8 cm, covered with soil and watered, and the pot is placed in a bright room with an air temperature of + 25-28 degrees for 5-10 days. The first shoots will seem in 1-2 weeks.
Saplings need to provide good coverage and regular watering. With the onset of heat, the pot with the plant must be carried out for several hours outside, gradually increasing the time. We must remember that the young plant does not like drafts. In particularly hot weather, cover the roots with a damp cloth or put the plant pot in a container with cool water.
In April-May next year, the tree should grow to 20 cm. At this time, it is transplanted to the site. It is necessary to dig a hole one meter deep, pour manure, superphosphate and wood ash into it. The plant is carefully removed from the pot and cut off the third part from the taproot, which will help to develop lateral roots better.
The seedling is placed in the planting hole so that the root neck is 3-4 cm above the soil, covered with soil and watered. The tree is recommended to bind to a peg hammered alongside.
If you properly plant a walnut and provide the plant with appropriate care, then after seven years it will delight its owner with tasty fruits. Do not be upset if this time stretches for up to 10-15 years.
In any case, surrounding the plant with care, the gardener will be rewarded with an abundant annual harvest.