10/03/2016 Comments 18,510 Viewed
A plant like tobacco is not difficult to grow, but after harvesting it, fermentation is not a very fast process. But this is possible at home, and smoking tobacco grows almost everywhere, even in the Siberian garden. Growing tobacco at home on the windowsill is also not too troublesome for a newbie. The main thing is to provide him with proper care and conditions in the apartment.
Conditions for growing tobacco
Before sowing tobacco on the balcony should remember that the plant is very fastidious to the choice of land, likes warm temperatures, but, despite this unpretentious.
For fragrant tobacco is very important content of minerals and salts in the soil, the presence of fresh air and heat. Different conditions for the plant can affect the shades of the leaves and their length. And the humidity will depend on the aroma of smoking tobacco.
The plant prefers bright areas in the apartment with lots of light and heat, so growing on the balcony in the warm season will be an ideal condition.
Soil and fertilizer tobacco
The plant is planted in sandy soil with an abundance of potassium and nitrogen. It quickly pumps out all the nutrients from the soil. Therefore, fragrant tobacco must often be fertilized with a mullein or bird droppings. If necessary, the soil is lime.
The best substrate for growing tobacco is soil with humus, garden soil and sand. They are mixed in a ratio of 2 to 1 to 1. Additionally, before planting seeds, the soil must be thoroughly watered.
Feed the plant start after planting seedlings using manure and superphosphate manure. Its processing can occur with the help of sulfur powder.
When the first inflorescence appears, the plant is treated with a solution of onion peel or garlic tincture.
A week after the first treatment, the bushes are once again processed with a tincture based on the bow. The third feeding occurs after 7 days.
Before growing plants on the balcony, you need to properly prepare the seeds for planting. First of all, they are soaked in wet cloth soaked in an antiseptic and left on the cloth for 24 hours. In this way, seed germination will increase.
After that, the seeds are washed, laid out on a saucer, cleaned in a warm bright place. The fabric is moistened and waiting for sprouts. Sprouts should not be larger than the size of the grains themselves, otherwise they will quickly break and the plants will not take root and grow well.
Transplantation of plants occurs after smoking tobacco releases at least 4 leaves. Before transplanting, seedlings are watered and planted together with an earthy clod in a separate pot, so as not to damage the root system.
It is recommended to plant seedlings in prepared holes, which are heavily spilled with water, a recess is made in the middle. Top well sprinkled with wet soil, put the seedling in the hole and gently sprinkle the root system with dry ground. This procedure will allow the roots to settle down better and not lose moisture.
When the tobacco blossoms, it is necessary for him to break off the inflorescences and remove the extra side shoots from time to time.
Instructions for planting and care
Tobacco seeds remain viable for a long time, and therefore old seeds can be used for planting. They will ascend as fast as fresh.
If the seeds are planted under the seedlings to plant later in the garden, then the age of the plants should be 40-45 days.
The principle of planting, regardless of the future location of the plants and the landing site is identical: the seeds are scattered over the ground, previously the soil is watered. The maximum depth of the seed should not be more than 8mm.
They are slightly pressed into the soil, and slightly watered so that the soil is not washed away, and the seeds are not buried in the soil.
Tobacco is better to sprout beforehand on a damp cloth so that the seeds already have sprouted shoots. So, if you plan to get seedlings, you can get it quickly for 7-8 days. For planting and good germination, temperatures above 25 degrees are needed. When the tobacco grows, the grower needs to loosen it often, weed, water and fertilize as needed.
In order to calculate the amount of fertilizer, you can focus on the amount of fertilizer for a single tomato bush.
Water is watered infrequently, even on hot days it is enough to water it 3 times over the summer, but at the same time watering should be abundant. It is better to let the plant tolerate a lack of water than overflow. The root system is powerful and the plant can choose moisture from the soil for a long time. But before it is torn and fermented, tobacco is well watered with settled warm water.
Varieties of tobacco
There are several types of tobacco that can be successfully grown on a balcony or window.
- Variety "Kubanets". The average number of leaves suitable for processing about 27 pieces. The time from planting seeds to breaking varies from 103 to 134 days.
- Trapezond 92. He practically does not get sick, quickly matures (from planting to breaking it takes about 98 days).
- Samsun 85. These bushes ripen quickly, and have a large number of leaves suitable for further processing (there are about 50 of them per bush).
- Jubilee new 142. It quickly matures (the time from planting seeds to breaking is about 78 days). Nicotine in the leaves of this variety from 2% to 2.1%. Unpretentious and practically does not suffer from diseases inherent in tobacco.
- Ostrolist 316. The variety has a long growing season. It has a low nicotine content.
A bit of history and legend
South and North America are considered to be the birthplace of tobacco, and in European territories it appeared only in the 16th century, and its navigators and travelers brought it. Some sources claim that Christopher Columbus “introduced” Europe to the shag, while others are confident that the first to bring this plant to France was monk Andre Teve.
Received widespread at the court of kings, in Russia before Peter I tobacco was considered a "hell potion" and was under strict ban. If the French and the British with might and main smoked, sniffed or chewed dried tobacco leaves, then among the Slavs even the legends about the origin of the plant are filled with fear and say that this plant is “unrighteous”.
For example, there was a tradition that tobacco grew from the corpse of a demon that fell from heaven to earth. His body struck a mighty age-old oak tree, and when it rotted, tobacco grew out of it. Another legend says that this plant was first grown and bloomed on the grave of a vicious woman.
Tobacco in the modern world
Whatever our ancestors may say about tobacco, nowadays he is quite a popular guest in the fields and gardens of various countries. Scientists have found that The plant belongs to the family Solanaceae and can be both perennial and annual. Today, experts know more than 60 species of tobacco.
With the daily rise in prices for products of the tobacco industry, more and more people who have a similar dependence, think about how grow tobacco at home. Experts note that if you understand the technology of planting, care and harvest, then there is nothing difficult in this. Especially easy it will be for those who already have experience in the care of any agricultural crops.
As a blooming culture, tobacco can appeal to lovers of bright colors in their garden plots, since its inflorescences are quite beautiful and are red, pink, yellow and white. Those who view the plant from a consumer point of view, it is worth knowing that the most Popular varieties of smoking tobacco that can be grown at home are:
- "92 Trapezond",
- "Kubanets Trapezond",
- "85 Samsun",
- "316 Ostrolist",
- "New Jubilee."
The advantage of the variety "92 Trapezond" is that it is resistant to all sorts of diseases and pests. The vegetation period has a little less than 3.5 months, after which you can collect and harvest leaves.
“Kubanets Trapezond” is also considered to be tobacco, the cultivation of which from seeds at home is not difficult. Advantages of this variety will be appreciated by lovers of strong shag, since the nicotine content in it is 2.6%. It takes 3.5 months for the plant of this variety to ripen fully.
Plants cultivar "85 Samsun" are characterized by high yield and speed of ripening after collecting the first row of greenery. With one bush under favorable conditions, you can collect up to fifty leaves.
The tobacco culture of the variety “316 Ostrolist” ripens for quite a long time, its full growing season is almost 5 months.
Despite the long maturation, this plant is distinguished from others by a low percentage of nicotine content.
"New Jubilee" attracts gardeners because it matures very quickly. From planting to collecting leaves usually takes no more than 3 months. In terms of nicotine content, it is no different from other standard varieties, where this figure does not exceed 2%.
Having defined the type of plant, you can go directly to the germination of grains. To do this, tobacco seeds, which look very similar to poppy seeds, are poured onto natural fabric, pre-moistened with warm water and sprinkled with an antiseptic, and wrapped.
Saucer with a mini-incubator put in a bright warm place. Periodically, the fabric is moistened with water and ensure that the seeds proklyulyulsya.
When the young borings have reached the length of the body of the grain, then it is possible to set about planting them in the ground. Sprouted material is mixed with special soil or sand and planted in a container for further development of plants. Typically, such work is carried out in late winter and early spring. Containers with tobacco sprouts are placed on window sills or carried out on the balcony if the room is glazed and devoid of drafts.
To grow tobacco at home can be in areas where it is moderately humid and the temperature during the day does not fall below 23 degrees. During the development of seedlings it is necessary to monitor the soil moisture and water plants very carefully, as excessive moisture can affect the further taste of tobacco. Also seedlings need to be fed as special additives, and ordinary chicken manure.
When the greens in the pots reach a height of 14−15 centimeters and will have 6 young leaves, it is time to plant the plants in open ground. To do this, a week before the event is recommended to gradually accustom the seedlings to lower temperatures.
While tobacco is growing in the apartment, it is recommended to prepare the soil at the future place of its growth. For this, the land must be free of weeds, well fertilized and dug up. Experts recommend for planting tobacco to choose the right areas where the normal humidity and no drafts. Good tobacco varieties love the sun and space.
Landing in open ground
Directly to the place of growth, the plant is transplanted when the ground frosts end, and this is usually the end of April - the beginning of May. After planting, it is recommended to pour about a liter of water into each well, and leave a distance of 20-25 centimeters between seedlings so that the tobacco can develop normally. Between the beds, the distance should be not less than 70 centimeters, which also contributes to a good growth of the planted culture.
The first top dressing is made immediately after planting; for this purpose, either manure dissolved in water with superphosphates or sulfur powder is used. It is also recommended to break off lateral sprouts, if any. Further stimulate tobacco growth with fertilizers in a week.
During the cultivation of tobacco is necessary to monitor the soil moisture. A sure sign that the plant is “thirsty” is the early yellowing or twisting of the tips of the leaves. In total, for the entire period of growth in open field, tobacco is watered 3 times, pouring at least 6 liters of water under each of the bushes each time.
If tobacco is grown for its further use in smoking, it is recommended to monitor the flowering of the plant. As soon as the inflorescences appear on the bush, it is necessary to get rid of them, so that all the forces of the culture go off into the leaves and not spent on flowers.
The main unpleasant feature of growing tobacco is that it is susceptible to various diseases. If you do not carry out prevention and do not monitor the condition of the plants, then it can be attacked:
- powdery mildew,
- hazelnut bacterial,
- black rot
The first disease can be recognized by the characteristic mosaic color of the leaves of the affected plant, they turn yellow with green patches, then light areas lose their juices and die. When such symptoms are detected, the plant urgently needs to be uprooted and destroyed, and the place of growth should be sanitized.
Mealy dew usually attacks plants as a white bloom on greens. In the fight against her gardeners will help a solution of colloidal sulfur. This disease is most often an indicator of excessive moisture in the area.
When attacking bacilli ryabuh, oily spots appear on young leaves of the plant. This disease is also a consequence of waterlogging. The reason usually lies in prolonged rains and fairly low temperatures, when the thermometer does not rise above 24 degrees.
Quite often, tobacco is attacked by thrips, small dark green insects that gladly feed on the greens of the plant. In order to avoid such a problem, for the entire time of leaf ripening it is necessary to process each shrub of the plant 3 times with Metation solution. Also experienced “tobacco breeders” know that before planting seedlings in open ground, the ground must be treated with Hexachloran.
Black fungus is another fungus that likes to hit tobacco. This parasite usually attacks seedlings and attacks the roots of young plants. The disease manifests itself in the form of white and black spots directly on the roots of the green culture.
Collection and fermentation
After all the barriers are behind and the green culture is ready, the collection of tobacco leaves begins. The first to cut off the bottom row of leaves of the plant, then laid out collected under the roof, so that the leaves grafted. Leave them like that for a night or half a day.
Next, the leaves are strung with legs on a thread or wire and are hung in a place where there are no drafts and a lot of light, preferably solar. In this state, the first harvest is 14 days, after which the dried garland is folded four times and hung on hooks, which are no longer in the open air, but indoors. Most often, tobacco is dried in the attics of houses.
The second stage is collecting the upper leaves and doing the same with them, after which they continue to harvest from the top down, because after removing the next ripe row of leaves, those that were under them begin to get more sun and ripen faster.
After the crop is dried, you can proceed to its preparation for use. To do this, tobacco must undergo a fermentation process, or a reduction in the percentage of nicotine content and saturation with aroma. There are many ways to achieve the desired result, and all of them are effective in their own way. This is a very long process during which dry leaves are exposed to varying levels of humidity and temperature.
The easiest way to ferment leaves at home is to place them in the oven for a while, the temperature of which should not exceed 60 degrees. Before the procedure, tobacco is recommended to pre-cut in any convenient way. Store ready-to-use shag is recommended in bags of natural fabric in a dry place.
It is noteworthy that the plant is used not only for smoking, but also for medical purposes. For example, tincture of tobacco leaves can cure a sore throat, and inhaling the vapors of its oil stabilizes pressure and cures a cold. On the farm leaves can be an excellent means of protection from moths. If a few dry leaves are put in a bag with a fur or knitted product, then things will remain safe and sound.
Varieties of tobacco for home cultivation
Consider the most famous varieties of tobacco for smoking, the cultivation of which is easy to implement at home:
- Trapezond - resistant to diseases. The growing season is short - after 100 days after planting, leaves can be collected.
- "Virginia" - is an early ripe grade which well gathers strength and a smell. It is considered disease resistant and tolerates bad weather conditions. The leaves contain a large amount of carbohydrates.
- "Holly" - there is less nicotine than other varieties. Ripening time - up to 120 days.
- "Anniversary" - the crop ripens in 80 days after disembarkation. Resistant to many diseases.
- "Samsun" - the variety matures in about 110 days. Is high-yielding - one plant can give up to 50 sheets.
- "Dubeck" - This variety is from Turkey. Suitable for cultivation in very warm climates.
- "Country tobacco" - frost-resistant. It can be grown in open ground or on a loggia or window.
Seeds are best used sprouted. Therefore, approximately 4 days before sowing, they should be soaked in warm water in a fabric. Рекомендуется добавить винную кислоту или калийную селитру и оставить на сутки. Благодаря этому семена прорастают быстрее, а также повышается урожайность. После этого семена моют, удалив излишек воды, и ставят в тёплое место, чтобы прорастали. Используют эмалированную посуду, которую не рекомендуется накрывать. The cloth must be moistened periodically. Approximately on the 4th day, the seeds begin to peck. Make sure that the sprout is not longer than the seed - they can break. After the majority of the seeds have been applied, they are dried to a friable state, mixed with very fine sand or humus.
Seeds that have already germinated, it is recommended to use for growing seedlings of tobacco. They can be planted in pots and put on the windows in the apartment. Or sow them in a greenhouse.
This procedure is as follows:
- Before sowing, it is necessary to moisten the top layer using 1 liter of water per square meter.
- Seeds must be sown superficially. It is important to scatter them evenly - 4 g per 1 square meter.
- Next, you need to gently push the seeds into the nutrient layer by about 3 mm.
- Then it is necessary to make watering. This should be done carefully so that the seeds are not too deep in the soil.
- The temperature in the greenhouse should not exceed 20 ° C.
Growing seedlings, you should look after her:
- regularly seedlings should be fertilized with a solution of superphosphate (50 g), potassium salt (20 g) and ammonium nitrate (30 g) diluted in 10 liters of water - 2 liters of liquid should be used per 1 square meter,
- You can also feed bushes with chicken droppings that need to be diluted with water 1: 7,
- water the seedlings should be regularly, as the soil dries, using 4 liters of water per 1 square meter,
- about 7 days before transplanting, reduce the frequency of watering. And for 3 days, moisturizing is stopped,
- weeds should be removed around the bushes,
- Before transplanting it is recommended to water the seedlings plentifully - thanks to this it will be easier to get it out of the ground.
Quality seedlings should have a resilient stem that does not break during folding. After 45 days, when the bushes reach 15 cm in height and there will be several true leaves on them, they can be transplanted into the ground.
The temperature of the upper layer of the earth (10 cm) for transplanting tobacco into open soil should not be below +10 ° C.
- It is necessary to make small holes, adhering to the distance between them of about 30 cm, and between the rows - not less than 70 cm.
- In each hole should be poured about 1 liter of water.
- Each plant before planting is recommended to dip into a mixture of clay and cow manure.
- Then the plants are carefully placed in the hole, keeping the earthy clod in which they grew.
- Further we fall asleep them with earth, slightly condensing.
Tobacco does not require specific care. But still it is necessary to take care of him.
During the entire growing season, tobacco is moistened about 3 times, using approximately 6 liters of water per bush. Orientation is necessary for the appearance of plants: yellow and slightly wilted leaves indicate that they need to be moistened.
After 7-10 days after landing in the ground, it is necessary to feed the tobacco so that it can actively increase the green mass. For this it is recommended to use urea - 1 tbsp. l diluted in 10 liters of water and watered the plants at the root. And you can fertilize chicken droppings.
During the ripening of tobacco, it is necessary to produce three supplements using fertilizers with a high content of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium. The first time they fertilize the plants at the beginning of the ripening period, the next feeding is carried out 15 days later, and the third - 7 days after the second.
Tobacco trimming includes clipping and pinching.
Upscale - This is the removal of inflorescences. Due to this nutrients will not be spent on flowering, and will go on the development of leaves.
After removing the flowers, additional lateral processes begin to actively grow. They must also be removed (pinching).
Diseases and pests
This plant can hurt or be affected by insects:
- thrips - these insects eat leaves, which is very dangerous for tobacco. To prevent the occurrence of thrips, it is necessary 30 days before planting tobacco to treat the soil with Hexachlorane dust. Also, 3 times per season should be processed bushes "Rogor" or "Metiation",
- aphid - sticky discharges appear on bushes. It is necessary to fight this pest "Rogor" or "Aktellik",
- root rot - seedlings are mostly sick, but adult bushes can also be affected. The leaves wither and dry, and the roots die off if the disease is neglected. It is necessary to water the land with “Benlat” at the first symptoms of the disease. And for the prevention of soil is treated with this drug immediately after the planting of tobacco,
- black leg - the main stem is thin and dies. The disease manifests itself at high humidity and with an excess of nitrogen in the ground. In order to prevent seedlings are sprayed with 80% solution of "Cineba",
- powdery mildew - white scurf appears on the leaves, the leaves turn brown and their aroma is lost. With this disease helps colloidal sulfur,
- mosaic - the color of the leaves changes, greenish specks appear on them. Then the affected places die off. The cause of infection is the remains of plants that were not removed before planting tobacco. This is a viral disease that does not have a cure, therefore, infected plants should be destroyed and the soil should be disinfected.
It is necessary to harvest from the bottom leaves. They must be whole, dry and yellow. They need to spread out under the roof layer of 30 cm and wait 12 hours. This is done so that the leaves wilted. Then they need to be strung on the ropes and hung out for drying in a place where the wind does not blow and it does not rain, but there will be a lot of light. The sun's rays help evaporate moisture from the leaves.
This can last up to two weeks. Next, a garland of dry leaves should be folded fourfold and hang on the hook-port. Then these structures should be placed on the crossbars in the room so that the leaves dry further. In the fall, dry tobacco leaves must be stacked to smooth all folds.
Preparation of tobacco for use
Consider how to ferment tobacco at home. This procedure is carried out in order to give a special smell to tobacco. To do this, dry leaves should be placed in a special container and raise the temperature to 50 ° C, and humidity - up to 65%. So the leaves should be 3 days.
Further throughout the week, the humidity should be raised to 75%, and the temperature should remain the same. Then, for 2 days, the temperature should be reduced, and the humidity should be raised to 80%. Completion - cooling the leaves to ambient temperature, and the humidity should be about 15%.
After the procedures, the leaves need to lie down for 30 days. Then they are cut into strips of 0.5 mm. To fill a cigarette with a length of 8 cm and a diameter of 8 mm, 1 g of tobacco is required.
As you understand, growing tobacco is not difficult. The main thing is to have the desire and abide by the rules for the care of this plant.
- 1. Listen to the article (soon)
- 2. Description
- 3. Growing
- 3.1. Sowing on seedlings
- 3.2. Seedling care
- 3.3. Landing
- 4. Care
- 4.1. How to grow
- 5. Pests and Diseases
- 5.1. Diseases
- 5.2. Pests
- 6. Collection and storage
- 7. Grades
Planting and care of smoking tobacco (in short)
- Bloom: within 25-40 days from mid summer.
- Landing: Tobacco sowing for seedlings - at the end of February or at the beginning of March, planting seedlings in the ground - from the end of April to the end of May.
- Lighting: bright sunlight.
- The soil: light, breathable and well drained.
- Watering: regular as the top coat dries.
- Top dressing: a few days after planting the seedlings, then another two times with an interval of 2-3 weeks. As fertilizers, a solution of complex mineral fertilizer or chicken manure is used (1:10).
- Punching and beating: half of the peduncles should be broken out: this measure improves the quality of tobacco. Intensively formed after sanding (breaking out peduncles) stepchildren should also be removed.
- Reproduction: seed.
- Pests: peach aphid, tobacco thrips and wireworms.
- Diseases: black root rot, dry root rot, black leg (seed rot), powdery mildew, downy mildew (peronosporoz), white dry spot (alternaria), ryabuh and viral diseases - tobacco, or ordinary mosaic, borage mosaic, bronze (apex chlorosis) ) and white piedra.
Smoking tobacco - description
Tobacco is an annual herbaceous plant that reaches a height of 3 m. The stem of tobacco almost does not branch. The next whole leaves of different varieties of virgin tobacco can be in the form of both narrow lanceolate and broadly ovoid, and their number on one plant can vary from 16 to 60. Lower leaves nizbegayuschie, the base of the leaf is half-leaved, the surface is resinous. Reddish or pink funnel-shaped flowers of tobacco are collected in narrow apical paniculate inflorescences. The main economic characteristics of tobacco are the size of the surface and the thickness of the leaf plate. Tobacco is cultivated in 84 countries.
Growing tobacco at home
It should immediately be clarified that the taban does not belong to the cultures of mass cultivation, although in some regions and among individual summer residents it is possible to find rather large plantings of this culture. Like other plants, tobacco has certain peculiarities of cultivation, although in general this crop cannot be called capricious in terms of care.
However, if your goal is to grow high-quality tobacco for further sale or personal consumption, certain nuances will still have to be taken into account. In the following sections you will find detailed instructions for growing tobacco at home by various methods.
The soil should be loose and fertile, if necessary, it is applied organic fertilizer (manure or compost). Before planting, the plot is cleared of weeds.
Seeds are sown at the end of April or at the beginning of May, but this period may vary depending on the region, since sowing begins after the completion of frosts and in case of persistently warm weather.
Seeds can be sown directly in open ground, but for getting early harvest using the seedling method. Seedlings are placed 20 cm apart, and the distance between the rows should be at least 70 cm. In order to further increase the yield, additional fertilizers are introduced: a mixture of slurry with superphosphate or a solution of water with sulfur powder.
Seeds are sown in open ground in May, when warm weather stabilizes. Grooves for sowing should not be deep, but sowing directly to the surface is not recommended, as the seeds can destroy the birds.
It is best to make shallow rows, sow the seeds in them and sprinkle on top of a mixture of ordinary earth with sand.
Figure 4. Cultivation in open field
It is important that the seeds are very small and it is difficult to calculate the required amount. That is why preference is given to the seedling method of growing.
Tobacco - quite unpretentious culture. And although initially it could only be grown in a warm climate, modern varieties are also suitable for regions of the temperate climate zone.
In general, the care of bushes is the same as for other plants: the soil is regularly loosened, freeing from weeds, fed with mineral or organic fertilizers, and watered.
Note: The bed is watered only 2-3 during the whole growing season, as the plant may die from the high humidity. The main guideline about the need for watering is the appearance: if the leaves turn yellow and set on, it means that you need to make water (up to 8 liters per bush).
It is believed that due to the developed root system, adult bushes can not be watered. But experienced gardeners are still advised to add extra liquid a few days before harvesting (Figure 5).
Figure 5. Cultivation and care of tobacco
A characteristic feature of the care is staking and scraping. This is the removal of the upper inflorescences and lateral shoots, which helps to activate growth.
Pests and tobacco diseases
Despite the simplicity, the culture is prone to certain diseases (Figure 6):
- Black leg - affects mainly seedlings, which first weakens and then dies. The affected stems become thin and rot. It is important that the causative agent of the disease remains in the soil, so when a disease is detected, the soil must be treated with chemicals.
- Mealy dew - develops on seedlings in the open field. The lower tiers are covered with white cobweb spots, gradually covering the entire plant. As a result, the yield of affected bushes decreases.
- Black root rot - mainly affects seedlings, but can also be found on adult plants. On the affected bushes the leaves begin to dry, and the roots turn black and gradually die off.
- Mosaic - in diseased plants, leaves are covered with light yellow spots. These areas gradually die off, which can lead to the death of the whole plant.
- Bacterial hazelnuts occurs when humidity is high. First, wet spots appear that gradually rot and spread.
Most of the pathogens of these diseases are stored in the soil, plant debris and on the inventory, even after harvesting or destruction of diseased plants. In order to prevent re-infection, all equipment must be disinfected, and the soil treated with special preparations.
The main pests are peach aphid and common broomrape (Figure 7). Peach aphid is a very common pest that settles on leaves and stems, drinks the sap of a plant and leads to a decrease in yield or complete loss of the crop.
Figure 7. Plant pests: aphid (left) and broomrape (right)
Contagious plague - a pest of plant origin. It multiplies by seeds that develop near the roots of a culture, forming its own stem. It feeds at the expense of the bush, and mass infection can lead to the loss of the entire crop.
Collection and recycling
Collect raw materials begin with the lower tiers at the first yellowing. It is important that the raw material must be dry and intact. After harvesting, the leaves are transferred to the shade, laid out in a thick layer (about 30 cm) and left for 12 hours to wilt. After that, the leaves are put on cords and dried (Figure 8).
Note: Leaves and stems can be dried in the sun, hanging them in a place protected from wind and rain. This process takes about two weeks.
After that, the cords are transferred to a closed room and dried. The finished raw material is piled up and sent for fermentation.
Figure 8. Collection, drying and fermentation of tobacco
Fermentation is a special process, after which the raw material becomes more fragrant. The leaves are folded into a container and heated for 3 days at a temperature of 50 degrees and a humidity of 65%. During the week, the humidity gradually increases, keeping the temperature regime, and then lowering the temperature, increasing the humidity. Next, the leaves are stored at room temperature with a minimum humidity (no more than 15%).
Next, the leaves should rest for a month, after which it is cut into strips and crushed for further use. The video shows how to ferment tobacco at home.
Growing tobacco in Russia as a business
When planning to grow tobacco for sale, some calculations should be made. For example, for sowing a crop on 10 acres 400 grams of seeds are required. The retail price of a gram of seeds is 1900 rubles, respectively, the cost of the required amount will be 76 thousand rubles.
From a plot of 10 acres on average, you can collect 200-300 kg of raw materials. After that, it is important to establish retail sales of products. You can sell it in stores or via the Internet, but to start trading you should get permission from government agencies.
Growing this culture is quite a profitable venture. At the initial stage, it is necessary to spend money only on the purchase of seeds, since high yields make it possible to grow the first crop without the use of special fertilizers. For drying finished products and growing seedlings, you can use any non-residential heated space, and after receiving the first profit, you can equip greenhouses, greenhouses, and drying rooms.
Tobacco is a heat-loving plant. Despite its ability to germinate in the northern latitudes, the taste qualities in this case will be completely different from those to which any smoker is accustomed. The humidity of the air, the specificity of the soil, the content of salts and minerals in the soil, the amount of heat and the sun — everything affects the final cultivation product. Before you organize seedlings, consider where you plan to plant it. Depending on the climate in your area, a greenhouse may be a better solution for tobacco than open ground.
Alternative - or even a parallel option for growing at home can be a shag. In the end, it is cheaper, but less whimsical to heat and matures one and a half times faster.
Preferred for growing varieties of tobacco
Selection of seeds for the cultivation of tobacco at home is an important step in the whole business process. It depends on what qualities the final product will possess, respectively, the potential market for future sales is determined. It is better to focus on zoned or adapted varieties, especially since new breeding varieties appear almost every year. You can experiment with them for personal use, but when planning cultivation for sale, it is better to turn to the varieties familiar to consumers.
Наиболее популярными считаются следующие сорта табака:
Trapezond 92 is characterized by increased resistance and yield, the yield of raw materials is 85–90%, the average yield is more than 3.5–3.7 kg./m2, recommended for pipes and cigarettes, the average price per 100 seeds is 223.4 rub.,
Burley Kentucky - the most popular type in the production of cigarettes with low sugar content, which allows you to skip the fermentation procedure, the average price per 100 seeds - 100 rubles. This tobacco is very strong, so it is used as an additive to other tobacco blends,
Ternopil 14 is a product of successful breeding, fragrant and enduring, adapted even to poor soils, the average price per 100 seeds is 95 rubles. In height the plant reaches 2 meters, it is recommended for farmer and individual farms,
Yubileyny 142 is once one of the most beloved varieties among smokers in the USSR, yield 3.6-3.8 kg./m2., The average price per 100 seeds is 95 rubles,
Yellow 106, Yellow 109, Bakun black and others. - Varieties used in the cultivation of the shag.
Immediately it should be noted that buying a variety of tobacco should be adequate to your climatic conditions.
To bring the harvest closer, it is preferable to grow tobacco at home using seedlings. The approximate sowing date is the third decade of February. Previously purchased seeds before this time should be stored in a box or box wrapped with polyethylene, which, in turn, should be placed in a cool dark place with low humidity.
By their nature, the process of caring for the seedlings of smoking plants is no different. Before sowing, it is recommended to “bite” the seeds in order to save about a week of ripening and increase the yield. To do this, make a soak - wrapping tobacco seeds in gauze or a thin rag, dip them in a warm aqueous solution containing a few drops of tartaric acid, and leave in this form for a day. After 24 hours, rinse and remove excess water, after which the set moves to a warm place for three to four days, followed by monitoring the humidity of the cloth. During this time, the tobacco seeds must acquire tiny sprouts - as soon as most of them have acquired this form, the procedure is terminated. Then - drying and sowing in boxes with wet soil, which is optimal to take from the place where in the future transplantation is planned.
When growing seedlings at home, the depth of laying shag seeds should not exceed five millimeters, tobacco - eight millimeters. Top is made of a mixture of humus and sand in the ratio of three to one.
Boxes are installed in a well-lit place, with an average temperature of 24-26 degrees. Watering planted seedlings should be made at least once every two days. The state of soil moisture is a key factor in growing tobacco crops. After the seedlings germinate to a “cross” state (a stalk and two transverse leaves), the temperature drops to 20 degrees, and the volume of water for irrigation doubles - an average of about one liter per box.
From the moment of appearance on the stems of three or four full-fledged leaves, a “pick” is made - the transplantation of sprouts into separate containers.
During the period of maturation, the seedlings are periodically refreshed with mineral fertilizers (potassium chloride and ammonium nitrate in the proportion of 15 / 10g for every five liters).
Healthy and strong sprouts of tobacco 15–17 cm long, with strong roots, 6–7 leaves and a stem volume of at least three millimeters are considered ready for planting into the ground. Such seedlings are preliminarily "hardened" by reducing the volume of water and moving to fresh air. In the three-day period preceding the final transplantation, the seedlings finally stop watering - the next irrigation should be done a couple of hours before moving to the ground. The total period of maturation of seedlings from the time of soaking is about 7-8 weeks.
Growing tobacco in the open field
Open ground for growing tobacco should be heated to at least ten degrees at a depth of 0.1 meters. As a rule, in southern and temperate latitudes, this corresponds to mid-April. It is recommended to plant on a slightly steep site, closed from cold wind currents - this allows you to simultaneously avoid stagnation of water and leaching of topsoil.
Tobacco sprouts are planted in loose soil strictly in line, at a distance of 25-30 cm from each other, and the width between the rows of the beds should be at least 70 cm. Wells should be watered before planting. When transplanting, manure is used to strengthen the roots of tobacco bushes, and adding clay is also recommended. Feed and maintenance of the soil should be made constantly throughout the growth period. At the same time, watering of bushes is rarely carried out - two or three times - but in large volumes, up to ten liters each.
Tobacco Disease Prevention
The most common problems that growing tobacco can face include:
1. Downy mildew (peronosporosis) - appears on the leaves in the form of spots with an oily color, on the underside of the leaf may form a lilac color. Sources are oospores, remaining in the soil after wintering. For treatment, soil disinfection with 7.5% formalin solution and spraying twice a week with suspension (0.3%) zineb (80%) are used,
2. Aphid, Medvedka, winter scoop. Insect pest control is carried out by tilling the soil with approved chemicals (zolon, sumition).
Assembling and drying tobacco at home
Tobacco harvesting begins with intact lower leaves, from the moment they turn yellow, without losing the moisture. It is best to remove them at the end of the day - during this period the water content is minimal. The collected tobacco leaves are spread in a shady area at each other in layers (about 0.3 m) for a period of twelve hours, so that they fade slightly. After this, the drying phase begins: in a fenced, windless, open area fenced off from the leaves, the leaves are suspended on tight ropes. In good weather, with sufficient sun, drying takes about 14 days, after which the ropes with leaves are collected in bundles of five pieces each and hung on hooks - “hafts”. The resulting sets further reach the condition already in enclosed spaces, by hanging on the beams. In late August, the finished tobacco leaves are subject to the final removal and the formation in piles. After drying, the sheet should be elastic, have a uniform color and the middle vein on the sheet should break when transversely folded.
Fermentation of tobacco
The final stage of the creation of tobacco - giving it aroma. For this, the dried leaves are fermented. The mechanics of the process are as follows:
tobacco leaves are placed in a closed container and at a moisture content of 65% heat up to 50 degrees, being kept in this state for 72 hours,
after 7 days, while maintaining the temperature, the humidity increases up to 75%,
from this moment and for 24 hours the temperature is reduced with a simultaneous increase in humidity up to 80%,
in the final 72 hours of exposure, the temperature of the tank is reduced to 20 degrees, and the humidity is reduced to 15%.
After the end of all procedures, the tobacco leaves are “laid out” for another four weeks. After that, the fermented tobacco is ready for cutting. As a rule, it is produced by fibers whose thickness does not exceed 0.5 mm. Quality tobacco, as a rule, is a blend of different varieties.
Implementation of tobacco
Take the area of the land to calculate - 1 weaving or 100m2. Approximately 250-260 tobacco bushes can be planted on this site. Dry tobacco is obtained from 250 bushes of 10-14 kilograms, provided that nothing rotted or dried. The cost of seeds, at a price of 100 seeds cost 100 rubles, will cost 300 rubles.
Among their tobacco can be sold from 700 to 1000 rubles per kilogram. We believe 10 * 1000-300 = 9300 rubles - your income from weave from the sale of tobacco.
When selling tobacco own production should know some things. Put the sale of tobacco on the stream can only pre-register their activities. You should also be aware that the production and sale of tobacco requires a license and certification of products. The leadership of our country has embarked on the eradication of smoking habits from the population, so if you still want to make money on their weave on the sale of tobacco, then sell it among your friends.
By the way, you can make money by selling seedlings. Sprouted in cups seedlings, costs 20-30 rubles apiece.
Growing seed tobacco at home
Contrary to the fears of newcomers to grow tobacco at home, it's easy. It is important to make the right choice of varieties of culture.
Practically all plant varieties are suitable for warmer areas where tobacco is traditionally cultivated, in the temperate climate zone, breeding Trapezond 15, Sigarny 17 and Bryansk 91 are recommended.
For the backyard, the Trapezond 15 and Trapezond Kubanets tobacco varieties are perfect, they ripen in 3-3.5 months, which is almost a month earlier than other varieties ripen.
How to plant tobacco for seedlings?
As for any culture that requires a long period for growing with a warm temperature, it is more expedient for tobacco to use a seedling method of growing.
Tobacco planting on seedlings is carried out in late March - early April. It is possible to sow dry seed material, but agricultural technicians assure that the seeds that germinate grow better.
To do this, 4-5 days before planting, seeds wrapped in a rag are soaked in warm water diluted with a few drops of tartaric acid. Soaking time - day.
The procedure shortens the distillation period by almost a week, a positive effect on the further growing season and increase in yield.
Then the seeds are washed and placed on an enameled (earthenware) dish in a warm place on a damp cloth. Care must be taken to keep the cloth wet all the time.
When on the 3rd - 4th day the seeds hatch, they are dried and mixed with clean sand or humus. Sow the seeds in pots or wooden boxes with nutrient soil, with the depth of embedding - 0, 5 - 0.8 cm.
After planting, the soil is watered from a spray bottle.
When growing tobacco seedlings, it is important to observe the irrigation regime: it is necessary to water a little, but daily.
It is advisable to pick the seedlings in the “ears” stage, when 3–4 true leaves appear. 2 times carry out fertilizing seedlings with mineral fertilizers or infusion of chicken manure.
A week before planting in the ground, they harden the seedlings with air and reduce the amount of watering.
Planting tobacco seedlings
When the height of the seedlings reaches about 15 cm, and the number of leaves to increase to 5-6 (this number does not include cotyledon leaves), the seedlings can be planted in open ground. At the same time it is necessary that the weather is already established warm.
A furrow is prepared in advance, holes are made in it. Half a liter of water is poured into each hole, the hole deepens in a peg, and a small bush is inserted vertically into it. Wet earth is pressed against the roots, and dry soil is poured on top of it so that less moisture is lost.
During the growing season should be regularly loosening the land, watering and weeding. Tobacco feeding is also carried out as a fertilizer of tomatoes. When the flowers appear, the inflorescences break off. It is also necessary to systematically conduct pinching - removal of lateral shoots.
The best varieties of tobacco for growing in central Russia
The first thing you need is to choose tobacco varieties. Please note that not all of them are suitable for smoking. Do not use those that have not passed the test and are not approved for the preparation of smoking mixtures.
The best varieties of tobacco for growing in central Russia:
- Trapezond 15,
- Trapezond 219,
- Ternopil 14,
- Holly 215,
- Kentucky Burley.
The latter refers to tobacco varieties that do not require fermentation - Kentucky Burley leaves are steamed and divided into pieces immediately after drying. (about the fermentation of tobacco at home will be discussed later).
And grades of shag:
You can buy the seeds of smoking tobacco and tobacco at a specialized outlet or online store. The latter is especially true for residents of small settlements. The goods will be delivered by the transport company or “Mail of Russia” in a few days.
Most of all, tobacco is valued, which is made not of one, albeit the most expensive, variety, but of several. And the shag is complemented by a hunter or clover.
Tobacco growing conditions
The main plus of tobacco is that it is unpretentious, i.e. able to not only survive, but also give a great harvest in almost any part of our country. But he, like all other plants, will be better in the south.
Do not despair if you change your place of residence and start a business, for example, in Krasnodar does not work. The problem is solved, and very simple.
It is enough to build or rent a room with heating or a greenhouse.
In other words, the conditions for growing tobacco in the garden - in the open air, without additional systems, can only be created in the south.
As for the soil, it should be saturated with moisture. Prefer chernozem, loamy or sandy soil, in which there is a lot of moisture and nutrients - calcium, potassium and nitrogen.
Let us consider in more detail the technology of growing tobacco from seeds.
Tobacco growing technology
The technology of growing tobacco is no different from the technology of growing shag. Therefore, it is not possible, and even need to plant both cultures together.
Planting tobacco seeds begins with soaking them - not in water, but in tartaric acid solution at a temperature of 27 degrees Celsius for 24 hours.
It is very important to maintain the temperature, as it provides a higher quality and faster growth, by about a week. Ratio: for 1 gram of seed, 3 milliliters of tartaric acid solution.
This is done due to the fact that the seeds of tobacco and tobacco are characterized by low germination and susceptibility to disease.
In a day, the seeds need to be slightly dried and put in dishes - if there is, then in ceramic, but it can be enameled with a layer of 2 - 3 centimeters. Leave them for a couple of days, slightly wetting and stirring several times a day. The temperature remains the same, 27 degrees Celsius.
Next, prepare the ground. We take three parts of humus and one part of sand and mix to the maximum homogeneous state.
And we plant tobacco and shag seeds: for every 10 square meters of soil, 4 grams of tobacco to a depth of 0.3 centimeters and 20 grams of shag to a depth of 0.7 centimeters.
And the last question: when to sow tobacco seeds for seedlings? The optimal time is the end of February and the beginning of March.
Planting smoking tobacco seedlings in open ground
To plant seedlings of smoking tobacco in open ground should be on the site, which is located on the slope. Extra water will flow from it. But it should not be very high, otherwise the soil will leave with the excess water.
In no case can the soil be treated with a tractor or other equipment, only by hand, by plowing, which will result in a maximally loose consistency - the one you need.
Work in the open field is allowed if its temperature is 10 or more degrees Celsius at a depth of 10 centimeters. As a rule, it is April-May, in the south - earlier.
Tobacco planting is planted with a distance of 20-25 centimeters between the bushes and with an interval of 70 centimeters between the rows.
Before you put the seedlings of tobacco in the hole, it is necessary to pour half a liter of water into it, and dip the culture itself into a mixture of cow dung and clay. At the end the whole plantation is watered.
In the process of growth, the plant is required to weed, wean and feed. Also, tobacco care involves staining and scraping. Let us dwell on these procedures.
Vershkovka, as well as pasynkovanie, allows to increase the number of sheets. It represents the cutting of flowers that have not yet blossomed.
The peculiarity of clipping is that it leads to an increase in the nicotine content. Do not forget about it, making a decision about the procedure.
Diseases of tobacco and tobacco
The most common diseases of tobacco and tobacco are:
- Rotting stems and leaves.
- Mosaic disease.
- Mealy dew.
The rotting of the stems and leaves can be identified by a colorless spot with a white patina, in which blackening nodules are formed after a few days.
The cause of this disease is an increased amount of moisture. Therefore, maintain dryness and do not overdo it with watering.
A sign of mosaic disease are slightly white and green spots, they can be seen with the naked eye. Over time, they turn yellow, the rest of the plant becomes brown, the leaves - wavy.
Since this disease is contagious, firstly, do not allow the growth of diseased and healthy plants near each other and, secondly, do not increase the volume of manure.
Mealy dew infects the leaves, they get stains and white bloom and wither. Treatment consists of spraying sulfur, antifungal compounds based on sulfur or soda.
О рябухе говорят крупные с четкими краями пятна белого или, наоборот, коричневого цвета. На их месте могут образовываться дырки.
К этому заболеванию приводит недостаток полезных веществ в почве и резкие колебания температуры воздуха. Поэтому регулярно орошайте и удобряйте почву и сажайте табак в помещении с отоплением или теплице, если живете в местности с частой сменой погоды.
Таким образом, правильный уход за табаком – это 100% гарантия отсутствия заболеваний.
Уборка и сушка табака
You can start cleaning tobacco after the first leaves turn yellow. This is done bottom-up. Maturation of tobacco occurs after 4 months, and shag - after a little more than 2 months.
Drying tobacco can be divided into three parts:
- First of all, the leaves of the plant are laid in a layer of 20 - 30 centimeters and left in the open air in the shade for half a day.
- Then they are tied up with a rope and cleaned in a dry and well-ventilated room. It can be a terrace and a carport. Hold there for 2 weeks.
- At the end of the tobacco is transferred to a closed room. Remains in it until the fall.
We now turn to the conditions of fermentation of tobacco.
In order to understand whether the described business is profitable or not, we will make calculations. Take a land plot of 10 acres. It will need 400 grams of tobacco seeds, from which 200 to 400 kilograms of finished product will come out.
The cost of tobacco is about 2,000 rubles per kilogram, and shag - about 500 rubles per kilogram on the wholesale market.
Proceeds from the sale of tobacco will be up to 800 thousand rubles, and shag - 4 times less, up to 200 thousand rubles. A profit affects the price of seeds.
It is very difficult to estimate the payback period of the business we are considering, since someone will buy or rent a room with heating or a greenhouse, purchase equipment, and someone will manage "improvised means" - a greenhouse made with their own hands, an attic instead of a special dryer, etc. . The approximate payback period, in other words, the return of the invested money of the business of growing tobacco at home - from 2 to 3 years.
Organization of product sales
You can organize the sale of products in several ways, including opening a small outlet such as a tent near your home or making an online store.
Both in the first and in the second case, you will need to contact a lawyer for help. The fact is that tobacco is one of the goods that must have certificates and excise taxes. Without them, the sale is illegal.
Now you are familiar with the basics of growing tobacco business, including knowing where to buy tobacco seeds.
Tobacco seedling develops normally
I thinned it and left as much as I needed, plus a small margin. Under the phyto-lamp, the grownups develop faster (they are on the right) than under the energy-saving one.
Although for the purity of the experiment it is necessary to conduct an experiment on a single sort of tobacco.
Today I fed the seedlings with infusion of onion peel and picking is just around the corner.
Tabachyok noticeably grew up and it is already necessary to dive into separate cups. I will deal with this in May. now a little fails. I will go to the village and pick it up there so that I can not be bored with the cups then.
All plants are thinned again and left 12-15 roots, I have enough for my consumption of tobacco.
Tobacco opened his hands, though with a slight delay.
Put it in a greenhouse on the street, the weather allows overboard + 22 degrees.
Numbers in May 15-20 I will be planted in the garden.
Afraid of frost tobacco
May 2017 turned out to be quite capricious in terms of tobacco planting, frosts were not uncommon. Many tobacco growers were afraid to plant their tobacco and did the right thing. Now, by my example, I will show you how frost affects tobacco seedlings.
Tobacco was planted in the ground on May 20, and on May 24 a frost passed around the ground minus about 2-4 degrees. Here's what the seedlings look like today:
It turns out such a sad picture. I had planted only 20 tobacco bushes, and there are people who plant 300-500 roots.
Here is a huge disappointment if everything freezes. So do not rush to disembark, watch the weather.
Let it be better not to have a big shortage of tobacco in terms of not fully aging than to bite your elbows later.
But there is a small spoon of honey in this tar roll. Some bushes begin to come alive by blowing new leaves.
I will continue to observe the revival of tobacco after negative temperatures and then I will derive the percentage of how many survived.
Recovering tobacco after a night freeze
Two weeks have passed since the night frosts and we can estimate the loss of tobacco seedlings. Of the 20 bushes planted, 13 survived, 5 fragrant and 8 Kentucky Barley. In the photo below the largest bushes at the moment and the smallest.
Aromatic tobacco variety
And the smallest Kentucky:
By the time they certainly lose, especially Barley but nothing, we will observe further.
Tobacco begins to grow, plus promise warm weather and then it will shoot. In the meantime, this is how it looks: Aromatny. And Kentucky Barley:
Tabachku still need a lot of make up and he has time for it.
How does cold weather affect tobacco growth?
The weather is not at all happy; it is raining and cold. Last year, I already broke off more than half of the tobacco flavors. Now he is still quite small.
Aromatic tobacco variety
Barley also slows down, and given the fact that this is a late variety, I don’t even know how he will mature.
Let us hope that the warmth will come to us, and then just like that is sad.
Three weeks have passed since the last report and this is how our tobacco looks now.
Aromatic tobacco variety
The bottom sheets began to ripen, the peduncle appeared.
Ripe leaf fragrant
With Kentucky Barley, things are worse. Half a cold summer has done its job. Bushes are not high and light yellow, you might think that the whole bush is ripe.
Growing tobacco at home this year, let's say it does not quite add up. In 2-3 days I will start breaking the fragrant leaf.
Tobacco leaf breaking
With such a bad summer, the leaf still began to ripen. Today made the first break.
And hung on languor, under a canopy.
The tobacco variety is fragrant, definitely the leader, and after freezing, he climbed out and survived a bad summer. Plus, I have not seen any diseases on it.
Next time, in a village where tobacco grows, I will get in three weeks. Then, before breaking a leaf of tobacco, I will wait for the seeds to ripen.
Is tobacco afraid of autumn frosts
Yes, tobacco is afraid of autumn frosts. The temperature dropped by 1-2 degrees below zero and this is what came out of it:
The leaves have become like wet rags.
I threw out all such leaves, more precisely, I let it go to the humus. Here on the garden everything was crushed and smelled. To be honest, such sheets I have never tried to smoke. If you have a desire and curiosity, you can try.
With tobacco seeds, too, not everything is smooth. All the boxes have darkened, but not from the fact that they have ripened, but from the frost. I will not take such seeds, since I am not sure of their quality. The blessing the stock of this grade I have.
P.S In general, the cultivation of tobacco at home was not very smooth this season. Weather conditions gave quite a few surprises.
I also noticed that if the tobacco leaf is dried in the attic, at the end of summer (the last breaks), and not under a canopy, the leaf dries out with a clean yellow-brown color.
Without green spots of chlorophyll, as in the photo on September 3. At the same time, I hung the sheet at once as for drying.
Well, almost everything seems to be waiting for the new season. All delicious tobacco!
Tobacco growing: planting, care, pest control. Which variety is suitable for growing tobacco at home?
Experienced gardeners claim that growing tobacco is no more difficult than tomatoes.
The plant is thermophilic and well amenable to cultivation in the south country. But it is successfully cultivated even in cold regions.
Germination and final taste characteristics of tobacco will depend not only on the selected variety, but also on the soil condition on the site and the abundance of the sun.
Think tobacco is grown only by heavy smokers? No, this culture blooms beautifully than it decorates any plot, and can become a means to combat some of the diseases and pests common in the garden.
What kind of tobacco to choose for growing?
There are many varieties of tobacco. But not all of them are suitable for home cultivation.
If you are new to this business, choose those plant species that are adapted to our climatic conditions - leave “exotic” varieties for professionals, plant them with entire plantations for the further sale of tobacco leaves.
In the world tobacco growing plant is divided into 2 types - cigar and cigarette. In our country it is easier to cultivate varieties of cigarette-like. We list the most popular varieties of tobacco that experienced gardeners choose to cultivate in summer cottages or at home:
• Trapezond 92. Resistant to viral diseases grade. It is famous for its short growing season - you can harvest in 100 days after planting.
• Ducat Crimean. This is a large plant with fragrant leaves up to 1 m in length. Ripens quickly.
• Trapezond Kubanets. Grows in 105-135 days. The variety is characterized by an average yield of about 25 technically suitable for the processing of tobacco leaves.
• Virginia 202. Rennedy grade, perfectly gaining strength and aroma. Resistant to diseases and withstand negative environmental conditions. As part of the leaves a lot of carbohydrates.
• Samsun 85. Mid-season variety, reaching maturity for 105-110 days after planting on the site. Up to 50 leaves can be collected from one bush - a high-yielding type of plant.
• Ostrolist 316. In a plant, in comparison with its other varieties, a small amount of nicotine is contained. Ripens late - up to 120 days.
• Dubek. The variety comes from Turkey. Named the best aromatic tobacco in the world. In the middle zone, it will not show large yields - suitable only for cultivation in hot climates.
• Country tobacco. Frost-resistant and unpretentious. Suitable for growing not only in the open area, but also on the windowsill or balcony.
• Jubilee new 142. Quick ripening variety - the crop can be harvested 80 days after planting. Resistant to many diseases.
Buy tobacco seeds from reliable vendors. It is unlikely that it will be possible to find them on free sale on the store shelves - look in online stores or from private traders who cultivate plants.
The cost of seeds, depending on the selected variety, ranges from 30-100 rubles. for 50 pcs.
And in the future to buy seeds and do not need - 2-3 bush plants will give so many seeds that they can sow hectares of land.
Choosing a place for planting tobacco
Tobacco, if it is provided with optimal conditions for development, can take root in any conditions. The best soil for the plant is a light, loose, pebble-rubble structure, with a high content of humus.
In marshy, too wet areas, tobacco will not grow. Culture loves the sun, and therefore, pick up under planting unbroken areas of the garden.
Here cold winds should not blow - for seedlings they will be disastrous.
When choosing a place for growing tobacco, consider the crop rotation. It has been established that the best plant predecessors are legumes, cereals, winter breads, beets, perennial grasses.
But after the nightshade and sunflower tobacco, it is not recommended to plant tobacco at the same place, since these plants have similar diseases - there is a risk of infecting young plants.
Sowing and planting tobacco
Just starting to grow tobacco? Then start with the cultivation of several bushes, and not the whole beds - test your strength and check how well the selected plant variety lives in these climatic conditions.
Tobacco loves heat, so you can never wait for the crop when sowing seeds immediately in open ground, because they will not hatch in the cold ground. The best way - plant a seedling plant.
Seed material is very small, which makes it difficult to work with it. And in spite of the fact that it is simpler to plant dry seeds, it is better to prepare them in advance to achieve quick shoots.
To do this, 3-5 days before the intended landing on the seedlings soak the seeds, wrapped in a soft rag, in warm clean water. You can add a couple of drops of tartaric acid or a few crystals of potassium nitrate.
In this form, leave the seed for a day. Then rinse the seeds, drain the excess water and leave in a warm place for germination in a pottery or enamelled container (also - in a rag). Moisten the cloth periodically.
After 2-4 days, the seeds hatch. We can not allow the formation of a sprout longer than a seed! When most of the seeds turn out, they must be thoroughly dried, mixed with sand or humus.
In this state, if it is not possible to start planting “right now”, the material can be stored until planting for several more days.
Start cooking seedlings for growing tobacco in February-March. By the beginning of the season, young saplings are already quite strong for transferring to a “permanent place of residence”. The scheme of sowing tobacco on seedlings is as follows:
• Fill the pot or seedling box with nutrient soil.
• Water the soil before sowing.
• Depth of seeding is no more than 0.8 cm.
• Sprinkle seeds with a mixture of humus and sand (3: 1).
• Water the soil (waterlogging is not allowed).
The optimum temperature required for seed germination is + 25 ... + 28 C. Keep a container of seedlings can be on the windowsill or balcony.
When the first shoots appear above the ground, it is better to reduce the temperature to +20 ° C. Planting should be watered regularly. Do this carefully so that the seeds do not go deep into the ground.
2-3 times feed the plant mineral fertilizers (for example, nitrate, diluted in water).
Pick up in the stage of 3-4 full leaflets on the stalk. The seedling will be ready for planting on an open ground after 40-45 days.
A week before the deadline, begin to harden the young seedlings so that they gain strength and prepare for life under the open sky.
For a couple of days, stop watering the plants.
Seedlings transfer to the open area in May - when the threat of late spring frost is completely bypassed. Do it like this:
• Make holes up to 30 cm deep in the prepared grooves. Distance between plants - 20 cm, and between rows - 70 cm.
• Pour 0.5-1 liters of water into each well.
• Place the seedling with a lump of “native” land in the hole.
• Sprinkle roots with damp earth, tamp down a little.
• Place dry soil on top.
Now, in order to get high yields of fragrant leaves at the end of the season, tobacco needs to be provided with proper care.
Care of tobacco in the seedling period.
Keep the tank with crops at a temperature of 23-28 ºC. Care consists of almost daily meager irrigation and mandatory airing twice. When the sprouted seedlings develop the first pair of true leaves, the temperature is lowered to 20 ºC, and water consumption during irrigation is increased. In the developmental stage of 3-4 leaves, if you planted in a box or container, the seedlings dive into a large container. In the future, under the seedlings 2-3 times sprinkle fertile soil. Seedlings of tobacco are fed with a solution of 30 g of ammonium nitrate and 20 g of sulphate or potassium chloride in 10 liters of water. From organic fertilizers it is better to use chicken manure solution: 1 kg of fertilizer is poured with a bucket of water, allowed to wander for 10-12 days, stirring from time to time, then filter the infusion and add 4-5 volumes of water to it.
By planting in open ground, seedlings will be ready at the age of 40-45 days, when the seedlings reach a height of 14-16 cm, acquire 5-6 true leaves, their stem will be 3-5 mm thick, and the root system will develop enough. However, 7-10 days before planting, the seedlings should be hardened, for which they need to be carried out daily for some time outdoors, gradually increasing the duration of the sessions. 2-3 days before planting, watering of the seedlings is stopped, and 2-3 hours before planting, they abundantly moisten the seedlings.
Planting tobacco seedlings in open ground.
When returning frosts are bypassed, and the soil at a depth of 10 cm warms to 10 ºC, seedlings can be planted on the bed. Usually the necessary conditions are in the period from April 20 to May 25. The tobacco plot should be sunny, and the ground on it should be light and breathable. You must first make in the soil for digging the ashes or mullein.
In the hole, located at a distance of 50 cm from one another, before planting you need to pour a half-liter of water. When the water is absorbed, make a well in the hole with a peg, put a seedling into it and sprinkle its roots first with moist soil and above with dry earth so that moisture from the soil does not evaporate so quickly.
How to grow smoking tobacco.
Growing tobacco smoking process is simple, but there are some subtleties in it. Tobacco care consists of regular watering, loosening the soil around the bushes, removing weeds and timely feeding, which ideally should be at least three. The first time tobacco is fed a few days after planting the seedlings in the ground, then after 2-3 weeks should follow the second feeding, and 2-3 weeks after the second - the third. As a fertilizer, use a solution of chicken manure (1:10) or a solution of a complex mineral fertilizer prepared according to the instructions.
In order to get better-quality smoking tobacco, the bushes should be cut off, that is, they should break out about half of the flower arrows. After this procedure, tobacco will begin to actively form stepchildren, who also need to be removed.
Diseases of smoking tobacco.
Tobacco can become ill with fungal diseases such as black root rot, dry root rot, black leg (seed rot), powdery mildew, downy mildew (peronosporoz), white dry spot (alternaria). Поражают табак также бактериальная рябуха и вирусные заболевания – табачная, или обыкновенная мозаика, огуречная мозаика, бронзовость (верхушечный хлороз) и белая пестрица.
Меры борьбы с болезнями. Что касается вирусных инфекций, то сражаться с ними бесполезно: нужно просто удалить и сжечь больные растения. Против корневых гнилей применяют пятидесятипроцентный смачивающийся порошок Бенлата. And against bacterial ryabuha, perinospora, powdery mildew and other fungal diseases, prophylactic spraying of seedlings with a suspension of Tsineb or Polycarbacin is effective. In general, the most reliable protection is the preventive treatment of soil and seeds before sowing. For fungal and bacterial diseases, tobacco seeds are treated for 15 minutes with a formalin solution: 20 cm³ of forty percent formalin is dissolved in 1 liter of water. Two liters of this solution is spent on 1 kg of seeds. The soil is also shed with formalin solution.
Pests of smoking tobacco.
Of the pests for tobacco are the danger of peach aphid, tobacco thrips and wireworm.
Peach aphid which gives up to 18 generations for a season, sucks the juice from tobacco leaves and leaves in them its excreta, skins after molting, and corpses. In addition, it is a peddler of such dangerous incurable diseases, such as white piedra and cucumber mosaic. Aphids deplete the plant, slows its development, reduces yields and impairs the taste of tobacco. Aphids are controlled with Rogor and Metathion, and for preventive purposes, regular and thorough weeding of beds and daily inspection of tobacco leaves are very important.
Tobacco thrips - as small as aphid, a pest that gives up to 7 generations over the summer. Tryps bites the leaves of tobacco and sucks the juice out of them, from which the quality of the raw materials and the yield of tobacco decrease dramatically: the diseased leaves are poorly fermented, unevenly dried and become brittle after drying. In addition, thrips, like aphid, carry viral diseases. Infected with thrips tobacco should be treated with insecticides.
Wireworms, or drupes - These are hard-to-touch yellow-brown larvae of the click beetle. They live in the ground, damage the roots, make passages in the stems of young plants and eat them into the core. It is very difficult to fight with them, so you should try not to let them appear in the soil. If you find wireworms at the site, then two weeks before planting tobacco, process the soil for digging with twelve percent Hexachloran dust, and the next day by evening pollinate the soil with Metaphos dust and block the area to a depth of 3-4 cm.
Collection of smoking tobacco and storage
Smoking tobacco in the country is grown on average from 15 to 17 weeks. When the leaves of tobacco stop growing, they begin to clean. At this time, the leaves reach the highest density. Ripe tobacco leaves have a lighter color. Cleaning is done in the evenings, starting with the lower and largest leaves. Then, when the middle leaves ripen, remove them.
The collected leaves are dried, keeping in a dark, well-ventilated room at a temperature of 25-30 ºC. In the process of drying, tobacco is fermented. Many people ferment already dried tobacco in an electric oven at 50 ºC. Do not be afraid of electricity consumption: it is minimal.
What is tobacco fermentation and what is it for? Fermentation is the process of changing physical properties due to biological or chemical effects. Natural fermentation of tobacco leaves is achieved by their long-term storage. Dominican tobacco, for example, is fermented for 5 years when stored in bales or in oak barrels. With the artificial method, fermentation is significantly accelerated. In order to ferment grown tobacco at home, you must do the following:
- - dry tobacco leaves with no traces of green (if there are green spots on the leaves, they need to be cut out, because the chlorophyll areas are not fermented) moisten from both sides with a sprinkler, stack one on top of the other and cover with polyethylene,
- - after one day, the middle gut is removed from each leaf, checking the degree of leaf moisture on which the quality of fermentation depends: the leaf that is ready for further processing should not be raw and at the same time should not break at the bend. It should be dry and elastic, like a thin rag. Too wet leaves will have to be dried, and dry leaves should be moistened and kept for some time in stacks under polyethylene,
- - leaves ready for fermentation are cut into strips. Good and fast coping with this noodle cutter. The shredded tobacco is put in glass jars, filling them with no more than 2/3, then to shuffle the tobacco by shaking. Banks are closed with twist caps, placed in an oven and set to a temperature of 50 ºC. The fermentation process lasts from 5 to 7 days. Do not forget to shake the tobacco in banks from time to time so that it fades evenly. There should be no condensation on the walls of the cans, and if it appeared, tobacco should be emptied and dried, after which the fermentation process is resumed. On the second or third day of the process, tobacco begins to emit the aroma of honey or fruit, and this is a sure sign that the fermentation is successful,
- - the finished tobacco is poured on a flat surface, dried slightly, and then placed in storage in any hermetically sealed container.
Smoking Tobacco Varieties
There are a great many varieties of tobacco, and the work of breeders on the breeding of all new varieties continues. The most popular in the household are the following varieties:
- – Gold virginia - tobacco with a fruity aroma and delicate sweet taste. This variety is the basis for many smoking mixtures,
- – Kentucky Barley - a variety with a pleasant nut flavor, sugar free, therefore not in need of fermentation. That is, its dried leaves are steamed and immediately cut into smoking,
- – Maryland - light, light tobacco of air drying with a wonderful aroma and taste, known since 1828. This is a high-yield variety of early ripening,
- – Walkers Broadleaf - one of the earliest varieties that can be grown even in the northern regions,
- – Emerican - early ripe semi-aromatic, disease-resistant tobacco, used both for cigarettes and cigars, and as pipe tobacco,
- – Ducat Crimean - easily fermented aromatic tobacco with leaves up to half a meter long,
- – Turkish Trapezond - an aromatic variety for cigarettes and pipes, easily fermented and resistant to adverse conditions. The name of the variety was named after the city of Trabzon,
- – Herzegovina Flor - tobacco with a unique taste and aroma comes from the former Yugoslavia. In the people, this variety is called Stalin's tobacco,
- – Virginia 202 - the early ripe strong and fragrant tobacco, steady against many diseases and practically not demanding watering when growing. The variety is distinguished by reliability and unpretentiousness,
- – Barley Original - strong tobacco, which is the basis for most of the smoking mixtures,
- – Oriental Samsun - aromatic tobacco with a low nicotine content. Most fragrant when grown on dry soils. With watering, it loses its taste and aroma, but its productivity increases,
- – Soviet leaf - this disease-resistant variety is distinguished by its productivity and high smoking qualities of Oriental tobaccos,
- – Silk Leaf - universal large-flavored variety, used for cigarette and pipe mixes, and for the production of cigars,
- – Dubeck - Turkish variety, which is considered the best aromatic tobacco in the world. This is tobacco for true connoisseurs,
- – Peric - aromatic oriental tobacco, known to smokers all over the world. After drying, the leaves of this variety are boiled in barrels, like cabbage, so that they acquire their unforgettable sharpness and aroma.
A separate story deserves a village tobacco, or shag. This tobacco was imported from North America to Europe at the same time as smoking tobacco and differs from it by a small growth (100-120 cm), a branched stem with a ribbed surface, greenish-yellow flowers and even smaller seeds. But the main difference between smoking tobacco and tobacco is that it contains twice the amount of nicotine, and the smell of the tobacco is stronger and harsher. But the shag is far less whimsical and not as thermophilic as smoking tobacco. Varieties of tobacco are divided into two groups by color - green and yellow. Yellow tobacco has a higher smoking merit, which is why they are valued higher. Makhorku can be grown not only in the middle lane, but also in the Urals, and even in Siberia, and sow it directly into the ground. Grown shag and at home.
Cultivation and care of tobacco
The best temperature for the growth and development of tobacco is 18-24 ° C. Some varieties of plants tolerate calm and cold conditions - up to +2 ° C. Favorable soil moisture - 60-70%.
With low light, seedlings will develop poorly. Similar conditions can be provided in many regions of our country, which is why gardeners take up the cultivation of tobacco.
Your expectations for growing tobacco may not be justified.
But the reason for poor germination and yield is not always covered in the selected variety and quality of seeds.
The condition of the soil, the length of the day, the humidity and the temperature of the air - everything is important when growing tobacco! How does a plant gain its final characteristics?
• The color, size and texture of the leaves depends on the composition of the soil.
• The fragrance of the leaves depends on the humidity of the air and the soil.
• The leaves are saturated with a special taste due to free air circulation.
We list the basic rules of care for planting in the cultivation of tobacco:
• Watering. Adhere to the rule "it is better to underfill than to pour." Experienced gardeners cost 2-3 irrigations per season, while spending at the same time 5-8 liters of water per 1 bush. When the plant grows enough, you can stop it at all.
• Loosening. During the period of active growth, tobacco needs regular loosening and removal of weeds, otherwise planting will overgrow.
• Top dressing. Proper fertilization shows excellent results. For good yields, it is important to observe the optimal ratio of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in the feeds used.
Immediately after planting, the seedlings can be fertilized with slurry with superformat. A solution of sulfur in water is also effective. After the appearance of inflorescences, many gardeners process tobacco with infusion of garlic and onion peel.
• Rushing Removing inflorescences and upper leaves helps to increase the yield of tobacco, since nutrients will not be spent on flowering, but will go to the development of valuable leaves.
Pest and Disease Control
The smell of growing tobacco scares off some pests. But there are still "instances" that the plant attracts. Care for the bushes, mainly, will be to combat diseases and pests.
We list the diseases that are dangerous to tobacco and harm:
• Peach aphid. A common type of insect that feeds on both wild and cultural types of tobacco.
Aphid sucks the juice from the leaves and stems of the plant, thereby deteriorating the final properties of the raw materials and reducing the yield. You can recognize aphids by the sticky secretions that it leaves after its “meals”.
Having seen the first signs of the pest, it is possible to treat the plantings with a solution of methation or rogor.
• Tobacco thrips. This pest eats not only tobacco, but also other cultivated plants. Insects eat leaves, reducing yields and suffering dangerous diseases.
To avoid pest infestation, no later than a month before planting, treat the soil with 12% hexachlorane dust.
Three times per season, sprinkle with a diluted suspension of methation or rogor.
• Black root rot. A disease that often affects seedlings, but adult plants can also become infected.
Tobacco leaves wither and dry, and the roots die in the advanced stages of the lesion. From the rot will help watering the soil with benat.
The drug is used for prophylaxis when tilling the soil immediately after planting, and when the first signs of infection appear.
• Blackleg. The disease can completely destroy the seedlings - the affected base of the stem becomes thin and gradually dies off.
The bad thing is that the causative agent of the disease remains in the soil - the next “batch” of plantings is also infected. The black leg is more pronounced in high humidity and in the ground with excess nitrogen.
For the prevention of black legs, you can try to spray the seedlings with a 0.3% suspension of 80% zineb.
• Mealy dew. Bacterial disease, manifested by the appearance on the leaves of a whitish powdery plaque. Tobacco leaves turn brown and with further drying lose their flavor. Powdery mildew can be disposed of with a 1% suspension of colloidal sulfur.
• Mosaic. A pathogenic virus that changes the color of tobacco leaves - light green blotches appear.
Later, the infected areas of the leaves die off. The source of infection is plant residues that have not been harvested from the site before planting.
Effective remedy against all types of mosaic - 80% polycarbacin.
• Bacterial Fritillary. The disease is accompanied by the appearance of oily or oozing spots on the leaves, which leads to rotting of the plants.
It is very difficult to get rid of the causative agent of the virus, since it can persist for some time even on the garden inventory. The summer residents are helped by spraying the plants with 0.5% Bordeaux liquid.
But it is better to prevent the disease, observing crop rotation.
Since pathogens can remain in the soil and on the inventory, when detecting "contagion" it is recommended to process all working tools and, if possible, nearby areas of soil. Inventory is well cleaned with 40% formalin. It should then be kept for 3-4 days under a tarp at a temperature not lower than 10 ° C.
How to grow tobacco seedlings at home
It is possible to grow up seedlings of tobacco and tobacco at home, this is usually done in flower pots or wooden boxes.
Before sowing, seeds should be soaked in water. The soaking process takes only a day, and the temperature in the room should not fall below twenty-five degrees. Heat in the room catalyzes the process of seed ripening, which will shorten the forcing period of seedlings and increase the tobacco / shag population.
As a rule, about 3 milliliters of a solution should be taken per gram of seed.
After one day, the seeds are washed, dried and laid out in several layers in a special container.
When germinating, the seeds should be covered with wet gauze or cloth and left either in a thermostat or in a constantly ventilated and consecrated room.
A bit of the process of planting seedlings.
Germinated seeds evenly spread over the surface of the soil, gently pressing them into it. Then you should moisten the soil with a spray bottle.
One square meter of greenhouse area contains thirteen hundredths of a cubic meter of nutrient mixture, which includes two hundredths of a meter of cubic powder: humus - 50%, earth and sand - 25% each.
The average nutrient layer can reach ten centimeters in length. The optimum sowing periods are the third decade of February and the first decade of March.
Raw materials for planting are used in such proportions:
- one bucket has up to four grams of tobacco (shag - up to twenty grams).
Tobacco seeds are planted at a depth of five-tenths of a centimeter, shag - up to eight-tenths. Before planting the seeds and after it, it is customary to irrigate, where there is one liter of water per square meter of land.
After sowing has been carried out, it is very important to ensure that the moisture level in the soil does not fall. The process of seed growth is divided into certain phases:
- Cross Phase
This phase requires a liter of water per square meter per day,
Per square meter accounts for three to five liters of water.
Also, each phase requires maintaining its own special temperature regime. For example, to the “cross” phase from sowing in a greenhouse, the temperature should be 23-25 degrees, in the following - 20 degrees Celsius.
Top dressing of seeds of tobacco
In the process of growing tobacco at home, like other plants, tobacco and tobacco require mandatory feeding. So during the cultivation of seedlings should be sprinkled up to four times and fertilized.
As a top-dressing mineral fertilizer solution is usually used, which is prepared according to the following proportions: ten liters of water, thirty grams of ammonium nitrate, up to sixty grams of superphosphate and either twenty grams of potassium sulfate or twenty grams of forty percent potassium salt.
- For dressing experienced gardeners use a watering can with a special nozzle, the holes of which are a quarter of a centimeter in diameter. Four ten square meters of water per four square meters of the breeding ground.
- Infused chicken manure is well suited as organic fertilizer. To make it, put a kilogram of litter in a ten-liter container with water and leave to stand for ten days. Do not forget to stir occasionally. At the expiration of the mixture ferment and the resulting "result" can be filtered. Add water to the filtered litter solution: one part of the solution is five parts of water.
A week before planting, the seedlings need to be hardened with a decrease in the number of water supplies, a couple of days before the transplanting, the water supply should be completely stopped. This procedure will help you to increase the resistance of plants to adverse external factors, will give immunity to growing in the soil under the open sky.
Well-hardened seedlings do not break even when twisting its stem on a finger.
За несколько часов до выборки вам следует щедро полить рассаду. Выбирают ее обычно поштучно, тем самым снижая риск выборки больных или еще не полностью развитых растений.
В основном для посадки подходят растения, достигающие в высоту от четырнадцати до шестнадцати сантиметров, с толщиной стебля до трех-пяти сотых сантиметра и с количеством листочков не менее пяти.
Посадка табака в грунт
Planting in the ground at the most favorable temperature and planted plants at least ten centimeters in depth.
Planting tobacco begins on the twentieth of April and ends on the twenty-fifth of May.. with strong thaws, when the risk of frost has passed completely.
The ideal density of tobacco plantings is 70 by 30 centimeters, shag - 70 by 20. When planting seedlings along the furrow, usually the holes are placed at a distance of not less than thirty centimeters from each other for tobacco, and twenty - for shag. On landing in the hole poured half a liter of water.
Remember: the seedlings need to be laid out along the furrow, the leaves are turning to the left side of the planter.
The planter arranges the hull so that he can deepen the hole with his left hand, and seated the plant with the right hand and cover his roots with earth, if you plant more weave, it will be much faster, I have already learned a friend.
To help plants adapt to the new environment and increase their growth, the roots of seedlings can be dipped in a solution of mullein. Prepare it from cow dung and the corresponding amount of clay. The excess solution is shaken off the roots, and the roots themselves are covered with humus mixed with superphosphate. (1: 4)
In order that the growing season of the plant was successful, do not forget to regularly loosen the ground, remove weeds, water the plant and treat it against parasites and diseases.
As soon as the tobacco (or shag) blooms, break off the upper inflorescences and side shoots.
Watering plants produced depending on humidity. Usually, six to eight liters of water per plant.
Diseases and difficulties in the process of tobacco growth
There are several major diseases that should be actively fought:
Perinosporosis. A solution of 0.3 percent polycarbacin or 0.4% cineb suspension is usually used against it. Five liters of such funds are sprayed on one hundredth hectare of land,
Aphid. When struggling with aphids, experienced gardeners usually use Actelic or Rogor. The first of them add 20-10 grams per ten-liter vessel, the second 10-20 grams for the same amount of water. When aphids appear, plants are sprayed with actelic (20-30 g per 10 l of water) or rotor (10-20 g per 10 l of water).
Harvesting and drying tobacco crop
The collection of tobacco leaves begins with the lower tiers of the plant, focusing on their degree, leaves, yellowing, distributing the collection to five or six receptions.
Tobacco leaves should not be removed in an immature or overripe condition, just do not pick them wet. The collected leaves are distributed in layers with a thickness of thirty centimeters and folded in the shade. After about twelve hours, dried leaves are fastened to cords and suspended from the drying structure. Naturally, you should not forget that the leaves will not dry either in the rain or in strong wind.
Drying under the sun should not last more than seventeen hours. By the way, it is after her that we get the final raw material for the product.
In case of cloudy weather, the raw material dries out slowly, acquires a darkish color.
Dried tobacco must be removed carefully, so that it does not crumble. Low with tobacco leaves folded in four and attached to the cord in bunches of six laces. (such a set of low with tobacco will be called the harbor). Havanki, as usual. Hang on poles in a special storage room and leave until autumn. Then, in the fall, tobacco leaves are removed, smoothed and packaged.
For the manufacture of cigarettes suitable fermented tobacco. In addition, this same fermentation can be done at home.
Approximate fermentation algorithm:
- Fold tobacco into a container and heat it up for a few days at a temperature of up to fifty degrees Celsius, while the humidity of the air must be between sixty and sixty percent,
- At the end of the term, the air humidity should be increased to seventy-five percent (the temperature remains unchanged) and the raw material should be left for five days,
- Gradually lower the air temperature for forty-eight hours and in parallel increase the air humidity to eight to ten percent.
- Cooling tobacco to twenty to twenty-five degrees and reducing moisture to eleven percent. The process of cooling tobacco lasts up to three days, after which the raw materials are allowed to rest for a little less than a month.
Cutting of tobacco is carried out with fibers whose width reaches five to seven tenths of a millimeter. The length of cigarettes is usually eighty-five millimeters, and the diameter is eight millimeters. One cigarette accounts for eight tenths of a gram to one gram.
High-quality cigarettes are usually produced by mixing different tobacco varieties.
The implementation of tobacco problems is not a priori, because of the widespread use of cigarettes, tobacco business is a profitable business.
How much tobacco is enough for a smoker per year
I plant seedlings with a stock at the rate of 200-220 bushes, usually do not sprout and die about 10% (much depends on what, but mainly on seeds and climatic whims), usually planting Burley and Virginia 30% to 70%. I agree with the author of the video, weave enough.
About seed, I will definitely write a couple of subtleties.
For the season about 150-200 tobacco bushes (less than 1 hundred), even a heavy smoker is enough.
Who grows the most
The cultivation of tobacco is produced in the most unexpected corners of the world because of its high adaptability to various conditions of existence.
The appearance of tobacco depends on the environmental conditions in which it resides. Nicotiana tobacum began its commodity production in Virginia at the beginning of the 17th century.
Subsequently, it turns out that it is the climatic conditions of the southeastern United States that are ideal for growing tobacco.
Today, the United States is one of the largest producers and exporters of tobacco around the world.
The first place among tobacco manufacturers is China, which itself consumes a significant part of its own crop. Also, tobacco is actively grown in India and Brazil.
Growing tobacco or tobacco is not at all difficult. We are often asked about this process, and, combining personal experience with the advice of experienced people, including our readers, we decided to publish this material. I must say that the process of growing tobacco is not much different from growing, for example, tomatoes. But still, growing tobacco, you need to know certain features of this plant. This is our publication.
Tobacco blooms. © Dinesh Valke
- General information about the tobacco plant
- Is it worth growing tobacco?
- Peculiarities of tobacco growing
- Pests and tobacco diseases
- Tobacco drying and fermentation
General information about the tobacco plant
Tobacco (Nicotiana) is a genus of perennial and annual plants of the family Solanaceae (Solanaceae). It is cultivated to produce raw materials used in tobacco products. The most common types of culture are the following:
- Tobacco ordinaryOr virgin Tobacco or Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). The plant is up to 3 m tall with pink flowers, a tubular corolla with sharp lobes, the leaves are oblong-lanceolate, sessile. This tobacco is quite thermophilic, so it is especially productively grown in hot regions. We have ordinary tobacco grown south of 55 ° north latitude (this is approximately the latitude of Ryazan, Smolensk, Ulyanovsk, Ufa, Chelyabinsk, Kurgan, Omsk, Novosibirsk and Kemerovo). Tobacco is cultivated in many countries of the world and has many varieties.
- Shagor Rustic Tobacco (Nicotiana rustica) is a plant much lower than ordinary tobacco (up to 120 cm high), flowers are yellowish, a rim with a short tube and rounded lobes, leaves ovate, narrow, blunt at the end. The leaves of this more unpretentious plant contain two times less nicotine.
In the nineteenth century in Russia, the shag was cultivated on an industrial scale everywhere (even in the Urals and in Siberia). Even now, some villagers traditionally grow this plant from their own seeds.
Bolivia and Peru are considered to be the birthplace of tobacco; Christopher Columbus’s expeditions brought him to Europe. Traditional areas of cultural cultivation are North America, China, India, Asia Minor. On the territory of the former USSR, ordinary tobacco is bred in the South Caucasus, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Moldova, Ukraine, the Crimea and the Krasnodar Territory. Tobacco is a heat-loving plant, the optimum summer temperature for it is about 30 ° C. Moisturized, light, flowing sandy soils are suitable for it. Tobacco is propagated by seeds, growing seedlings from them, which are then planted in the ground.
All parts of the plant contain nicotine (nicotine leaves the most - 0.75-2.88%). Nicotine is a potent neurotoxin and cardiotoxin that causes short-term euphoria. Tobacco use in various forms and in various ways (smoking, chewing, sniffing) causes physical and psychological dependence. Nicotine is extremely toxic. Some of the substances contained in tobacco are carcinogenic. therefore tobacco smoking is dangerous for health.
Is it worth growing tobacco?
Suppose you are a smoker, and you have the good fortune to live somewhere in the south of Russia or in Ukraine. At your disposal you have a few hectares of land. Why not try on the role of Philip Morris, or at least Jack Vosmerkin, an American?
First, some entertaining arithmetic. In one cigarette about a gram of tobacco. And the cheaper cigarettes, so it is less there. That is, in a pack is about 20 grams. If a person smokes a pack a day, he will need about 6-8 kilograms of tobacco per year.
Tobacco. © Andreas Rockstein
Under favorable conditions, about 30 g of smoking tobacco can be obtained from a single plant, and six to seven plants can be placed on 1 square meter. Planting density of large-leaved varieties is 70 × 30 cm, and tobacco with medium-sized leaves and shag - 70 × 20 cm. It turns out that you need to grow 270-300 plants, occupying approximately 40 square meters. m. plot. And if the tobacco turned out too "evil", it can be diluted with stems.
Therefore, from the point of view of economy and finances, it is definitely beneficial for a smoking person to grow tobacco.
Peculiarities of tobacco growing
Further in the article we will talk about the cultivation of ordinary tobacco. If you decide to grow a shag (Nicotiana rustica), then many of these tips you do not need, shag is much easier to grow and less heat-loving. For the middle band, it is sown in May in the soil under a film or covering material, and it has time to grow and give the crop.
So, the first thing to attend to is the seeds and their planting. Seeds are now sold on the Internet on many sites, you should only choose a convenient store for you and a grade of tobacco.
We recommend the first year to grow only a few bushes. So you check your strength and learn all the nuances of the process. So first you need very few seeds. Tobacco seeds are small as dust. In one gram about 12 thousand seeds of tobacco, and shag about 4 thousand pieces. To get the annual "rate" of a smoker, you need to sow only a quarter of a gram of tobacco seeds or three quarters of a gram of shag seeds. You do not have to buy more seeds. Two or three bushes will give them more than necessary for planting hectares.
Tobacco seeds remain viable for a long time, therefore, sowing is possible with old seeds, although it must be borne in mind that over time their germination decreases.
Tobacco can be planted on seedlings on window sills, with a pick or without it. The required age of seedlings 40-45 days. But this technique is good only for small (up to a quarter of a hundred) volumes. However, for the first experience more and we do not need. When growing tobacco in large quantities, it is either immediately planted in the ground (in a warm climate), or use greenhouses and nursery beds.
Tobacco seeds sown superficially, scattering them on wet ground.
An important point. The depth of seeding of tobacco seeds is not more than 0.7-0.8 cm (0.3-0.5 cm for shag). After sowing, they are only slightly pressed into the ground and very carefully watered so that the seeds do not go deep.
It is possible to sow, not dry seeds, but peeped. In this case, 4 days before sowing, the seeds are soaked in warm clean water and placed on a damp cloth. This will speed up seed germination and shorten the time for sprouting seedlings for a week.
The optimum temperature for germination of tobacco seeds is + 25ºC… + 28ºC. If the temperature is lower, then it can delay the emergence of plants, or even completely destroy them.
Rehumidify, as it is impossible to overdry the seedlings. It is better to water a little every day.